0 views

Uploaded by Anonymous TW2wqBz

hj

- Marian Ivan - Theoretical Geomechanics
- Batdorf (1947) - Critical Combinations of Shear and Direct Stress for Simply Supported Rectangular Flat Plates
- Nalysis of Orthotropic Ply
- Finite Element Analysis in Pipeline Design using ANSYS at INTECSEA
- IS 8147.pdf
- Notes on AISC 13th(1)
- 136_Vanlaere
- Tubing Design
- Lecture12 Airy Functions
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 152
- AES_121_2006_SAN FRANCISCO Stress Analysis on Moving Assemblies and Suspensions of Loudspeakers
- CMAA 70 2000 Structure Design
- Torsional Rigidities of Open Stiffeners to compression flanges.pdf
- Gulin Matko Gradst 2017 Diplo Sveuc
- PDF OCW Topic 11 Buckling of Frames 1
- SI-10-2016
- NASA Astronautic Structural Manual Volume 3
- SACS Executive
- 4140 Alloy Steel
- Columns and Stability

You are on page 1of 25

Volume 29, Issue 7, July 2005, Pages 633-652

plates

M. Azhari , A.R. Shahidi, M.M. Saadatpour

Show more

Under an Elsevier user license open archive

Abstract

The nonlinear mathematical theory for initial and post local buckling analysis of plates

of abruptly varying stiffness based on the principle of virtual work is established. The

method is programmed, and several numerical examples are presented to

demonstrate the scope and efficacy of the procedure. Local buckling coefficients of

perforated and stepped plates are obtained and the results are compared with known

solutions. Post-buckling behaviour of perforated and stepped plates is studied for

different geometries. The non-dimensional applied loads (P/Pcr), dimensionless lateral

displacements and stress distribution of plates with varying stiffness in the post

buckling region are given in several tables and graphs.

Keywords

Initial buckling; Post local buckling; Stepped plates; Perforated plates; Virtual work

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 2 of 25

Nomenclature

kc

local buckling coefficient

Ncr

critical load

ti

thickness of region Ωi

uH, vH

Hookean displacements

generalized coordinates

wo

maximum lateral displacement

x, y

cartesian coordinates

Γi

boundary of region Ωi

λ

buckling load factor

λs

stepped size parameter

ξ, η

natural coordinates

Ωi

region with thickness ti

FI

in-plane

Typesetting math: 73% forces

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 3 of 25

KG

geometric matrix

KI

in-plane stiffness matrix

Ko

out-of-plane stiffness matrix

vectors of interpolation functions

U^

in-plane generalized displacement vector

Δ

generalized flexural displacement vector

1. Inroduction

Thin steel plates are widely used as the main structural components of box girders in

bridges, plate girders, platforms of offshore structures, shipbuilding and aircraft

industries. Plates of variable thickness are used in many engineering structures in

order to lighten the systems and come up with an economy design. A substantial

increase in critical local buckling loads of plates may be obtained by appropriate

thickness distribution. Aircraft wings and turbine disks are particular examples of

varying thickness plate structures.

Perforated plates are often used in thin-walled structures to provide access for

services, inspection and maintenance, for example in webs of plates and box girders

and ship grillages. Although provisions of opening in the plates greatly enhances the

applicability of thin-walled sections, the presence of holes in structural members will

result in changes in the stress distribution within the member and consequently a

reduction in the local buckling capacity of the plate.

The stepped and perforated plates are often subjected to axial compressive forces,

which makes them prone to local instability. Much research has been directed

towards the study of the initial local buckling of such plates subjected to compressive

loads. However, a few researchers have concerned themselves with the post local

buckling behaviour of plates with variation in thickness and with holes. From the

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 4 of 25

structural design point of view the knowledge of critical loads and post buckling

behaviour of these plates is of great importance.

Whittrick and Ellen [1] studied the problem of buckling of a variable thickness

rectangular plate. Linear and exponential variation in thickness in one direction was

considered in their study. A perturbation technique was employed by Chehil and Dua

[2] to determine the critical buckling stress of a simply supported rectangular plate

with general variation in thickness. Mizusawa et al. [3] used B-spline functions and

the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure to analyze vibration and buckling of plates of abruptly

varying stiffnesses with arbitrary boundary. Harik and Andrade [4] presented a finite

strip procedure to study the stability analysis of uni-directionally stepped plates. In

their analysis, the differential equations of stability for each region are solved and the

continuity conditions at the common boundaries as well as boundary conditions are

then imposed. Singh and Dey [5] applied the finite difference method to the buckling

analysis of bi-directionally stepped plates and presented some useful results.

interpolation functions in the finite strip method to study buckling analysis of plates

with abrupt changes in thickness and complex support conditions. The versatile

general spline finite strip method was employed by Dawe and Tan [7] to study

vibration and buckling of plates having step thickness changes. They showed the

suitability of the longitudinal spline representation in accommodating intermediate

supports and step thickness changes by description of the solution of a number of

problems involving both single plates and plate assemblies. The exact buckling and

vibration solution for stepped rectangular plates was presented by Xiang and Wang

[8]. In their proposed method, the plate is assumed to have two opposite edges

simply supported while the other two edges can take any combination of free, simply

supported and clamped conditions.

A conjugate load displacement method for instability analysis of plates was developed

by Brown et al. [9] to study stability of plates with various boundary conditions and

perforations in different positions. Shanmugam et al. [10] and Shanmugam and

Dhanalakshmi [11] employed the finite element method to investigate the ultimate

load capacity of perforated plates with different boundary conditions and subjected to

uniaxial or biaxial compression. They presented a useful design formula to determine

the ultimate load carrying capacity for perforated plates with different plate

slenderness, opening size, boundary conditions and the nature of loading based on

the post-buckling behaviour.

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 5 of 25

The finite element method was employed by El-Saway and Nazmy [12] to determine

the elastic load of uniaxially loaded plates with eccentric holes. Their study showed

that the buckling load of a rectangular perforated plate that could be divided into

equal square panels is not the same as that of the square panel that contains the

perforation when treated as a separate square plate. They also concluded that from

the plate stability point of view, the use of a rectangular hole, with curved corners,

with its short dimension positioned along the longitudinal direction of the plate is a

better option that using a circular hole. The nonlinear mathematical theory of

perforated viscoelastic thin plates using the von Kármán’s hypotheses of plates with

large deflection was established by Cheng and Fan [13].

formulation for the initial and post local buckling of rectangular plates having abrupt

changes in thickness or rectangular holes is presented. The non-linear equation of

post buckling path is formulated as a function of compressive strains using

appropriate Hookean shortening. Initial local buckling results obtained for stepped

plates and perforated plates are compared with known solution in the literature. Post-

buckling of stepped and perforated plates is studied for different geometries. Post-

buckling equilibrium path and the stress distribution are illustrated in several graphs

for different geometries of rectangular plates with holes. A major advantage of the

method used here over the finite element method is that it does not require any mesh

descritization and, consequently, it needs only a very minimal input data to carry out

the numerical computations.

2.1. General

Fig. 1 shows an isotropic, elastic rectangular plate of length ‘a’ and width ‘b’. The

plate is formed by two subregions named Ω1 with thickness t1 and Ω2 with thickness

t2. The zero thickness t2 means a plate with a hole having dimensions c × d and

centred at xo and yo.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 6 of 25

The basic steps in the post-buckling analysis of a plate with stepped thickness, as

developed in this section, involve the following:

(i) Membrane analysis, to obtain in-plane forces Nx, Ny and Nxy for each sub-

region Ωi.

(iii) Invoking the principle of virtual work to determine the non-linear governing

equation of the post-buckling equilibrium paths.

procedure.

A rectangular plate with abrupt changes in its thickness and stiffness as shown in Fig.

2 assumed to be compressed in its plane by friction or frictionless platen located at

the ends, such as those of a heavy testing machine. The resulting compressive

displacement field in the plate is defined by u and v in the x and y directions,

respectively. These components are resulted from superposition of the uniform

displacements and the displacements resulted from non-uniformity of the thickness

including presence of hole. The uniform Hookean shortening uH and vH are expressed

in terms of end shortenings uo and vo by

uH=-xau0vH=-ybv0, (1)

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 7 of 25

where x and y in terms of natural coordinates ξ and η are x=a2(1+ξ) and y=a2(1+η) .

The advantage of using Hookean shortening uH and vH, in formulating the problem is

that in the post-buckling process, the principle of virtual work is written as a function

of the uniform edge displacements uo and vo, rather than, applied boundary forces

which become non-uniform during the process of post-buckling.

Fig. 2. Hookean displacements of plate with abrupt changes in thickness and stiffness.

deformations in terms of the unknown generalized coordinates uˆi and vˆi are given by

uI=∑k=1NuNk(u)(ξ,η)uˆk+uHvI=∑k=1NvNk(v)(ξ,η)vˆk+vH, (2)

where Nk(u) and Nk(v) are the kth interpolation functions in terms of the natural

coordinates ξ and η satisfying kinematic boundary conditions and Nu and Nv are the

number of unknown generalized displacements in each direction. The polynomial

form of the interpolation functions are simply given by

Nk(u)orNk(v)=pi(ξ)pj(η),i,j,k=1,2,3,…, (3)

where

p1(ξ)=(1-ξ)p2(ξ)=(1+ξ)pi(ξ)=(1-ξ2)ξi-3,i=3,4,5,…. (4)

p1 and p2 are the basic functions to satisfy the boundary conditions, and present

linear interpolation while pi, i > 3 are the interpolation functions of higher order. Now

we consider an isotropic plate consisting of “J” sub-regions with different thicknesses.

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 8 of 25

Letting Ωi represented sub-region ‘i’ with the boundary Γi. The principle of virtual work

for the plate can be expressed by

∑i=1J∫Ωi(Nxiδεx+2Nxyiδεxy+Nyiδεy)dΩi=∑i=1J∫Γi(txiδu+tyiδv)dΓi, (5)

where txi and tyi are traction vectors on Γi and ϵx = ∂uI/∂x, ϵy = ∂vI/∂y and

2ϵxy = ∂uI/∂y + ∂vI/∂x are membrane strains corresponding to the in-plane forces Nxi,

Nyi and Nxyi. The in-plane forces and membrane strains are related by

Nxi=Eti1-ν2(εx+νεy)Nyi=Eti1-ν2(εy+νεx)Nxyi=Eti1+νεxy (6)

of the sub-region ‘i’. Substituting the displacement fields of Eqs. (1) and (2) and

stress-strain relationships of Eq. (6) into the Eq. (5) the in-plane equilibrium equation

in the matrix form may be expressed by

KIU^=FI, (7)

vector and FI is the in-plane forces developed in the plate and are presented in

Appendix A.

Once the membrane analysis of the plate with sub-regions of different thicknesses is

completed and the in-plane forces Nxi, Nyi and Nxyi as a function of u0 and v0 are

determined, the principle of virtual work for the initial buckling analysis may be written

as

∑i=1J∫Ωi(Mxiδw,xx+2Mxyiδw,xy+Myiδw,yy+NxiδϵxN+2NxyiδϵxyN+NyiδϵyN)dΩi=0, (8)

where εxN , εxyN and εyN are nonlinear terms of strains according to the von-Karman

formulation and can be expressed by

εxN=12w,x2εxyN=12w,xw,yεyN=12w,y2. (9)

In Eq. (8), Mxi and Myi are the bending moment per unit length in x and y directions

respectively, while Mxyi is the twisting moment per unit length. The bending and

twisting moments in terms of the transverse displacement w is given by

Mxi=-Eti312(1-ν2)(w,xx+νw,yy)Myi=-Eti312(1-ν2)(w,yy+νw,xx)Mxyi=-Eti312(1+ν) (10)

w,xy. math: 73%

Typesetting

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 9 of 25

w=∑i=1NwNi(w)wˆi=N(w)wˆN(w)=〈N1(w),N2(w),…,NNw(w)〉, (11)

where Ni(w) is the ith base function of interpolation and wˆi is the generalized

displacement in transverse direction. Substituting the displacement fields of Eq. (11),

moment-displacement relationships of Eqs. (10) and (9) into Eq. (8) the initial buckling

equations may be obtained by

(Ko-λKG)Δ=0, (12)

where Ko and KG are the stiffness and the geometric matrices respectively, and may

be found in Appendix B, λ is the bucking load factor and Δ is the generalized flexural

displacement vector. Eq. (12) is a standard generalized eigenvalue problem, which

can be easily solved to obtain the bucking load factor λ.

Once the initial local buckling analysis of the plate with different thickness is

completed and the bucking load factor λ is obtained, the critical in-plane shortening

ucro and vcro may be computed. The coupling in-plane and out-of-plane displacement

fields (u, v and w) in nonlinear range can be expressed by

u=∑i=1NuNi(u)uˆi+nuIcrv=∑i=1NvNi(v)vˆi+nvIcrw=∑i=1NwNi(w)wˆi, (13)

where uIcr and vIcr are the critical in-plane displacements obtained by Eq. (2). n is the

aspect ratio of the buckling displacement and is equal to uo/uocr or vo/vocr. The

postbuckling equilibrium path is controlled by the aspect ratio of the buckling

membrane displacements. The principle of virtual work in nonlinear region can be

written as

∑i=1J∫Ωi(δϵmTσmi+δϵfTσfi)dΩi=0, (14)

where σfi and σmi are the flexural and membrane stress vectors for sub-region ‘i’

respectively, and may be expressed by

σfi=〈Mxi;Myi;Mxyi〉Tσmi=〈Nxi;Nyi;Nxyi〉T. (15)

The elastic isotropic plate property matrix defines the membrane and flexural buckling

constitutive relationship by

σfi=Dfiϵfσmi=Dmiϵm. (16)

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 10 of 25

ϵf=〈-w,xx;-w,yy;-2w,xy〉T (17)

while from the nonlinear plate theory, the membrane strain vector including only those

nonlinear terms associated with plate flexure is represented by

ϵm=u,x+12w,x2;v,y+12wxy2;u,y+v,x+w,xw,yT. (18)

The elastic matrices Dmi and Dfi for each block are given by

Dmi=Eti1-ν21ν0ν10001-ν2andDfi=ti212Dmi. (19)

Substituting last equations into the Eq. (14), this equation may be written in terms of

generalized coordinates as

∑i=1J∫Ωi(δuˆTBuT+δvˆTBvT+δwˆTBwT)Dmi(Buuˆ+Bvvˆ+12Bwwˆ+ϵH) (20)

dΩi+∑i=1J∫ΩiδwˆTBfTDfiBfwˆdΩi=0,

where Bu, Bv, Bw, Bf and ϵH are given in Appendix C. After some mathematical

manipulation, the nonlinear equilibrium equation may be written as

KuuiKuviKuwiKvuiKvviKvwiKwuiKwviKwwiuˆvˆwˆ+FuiFviFwi=0 (21)

where Kuui to Kwwi and Fui , Fvi and Fwi are given in Appendix C.

3. Numerical results

3.1. General

The numerical procedure based on the developed formulation in the last section was

programmed on a desktop workstation and numerical results are presented for

buckling and post-buckling of plates with different thickness and in-plane loading

conditions.

Many researchers have attempted to analyze the initial local buckling of square plates

with abruptly varying thickness by applying different approximate and numerical

methods. To demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of the method developed

herein, several buckling problems of a plate with variation in thickness are analyzed

and compared with existing results. The results are non-dimensionalised, and

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 11 of 25

plate, Ncr is the critical load and D is the flexural plate rigidity.

Fig. 3 shows a bi-directionally stepped plate with all edges simply supported and

subjected to uniform compressions Nx,, Ny and Nxy. Local buckling coefficients kc for

different stepped size parameters λs are presented in Table 1. The results are also

compared with those obtained by Paramasivam and Rao [14] using the discrete

model method and Mizusawa et al. [3] using the B-spline and the Rayleigh-Ritz

procedure. A good agreement is observed.

Fig. 3. Square plate with bi-directionally stepped and all edges simply supported.

Table 1. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate

subjected to biaxial compression and t2 = 1.5874t1(D2 = 4D1 = 4D)

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 12 of 25

The same bi-directional stepped square plate shown in Fig. 3 with stepped size

parameters λs = 0.5 is considered. Three load cases were analyzed, namely (a)

uniaxial compression, (b) biaxial compression, and (c) pure shear. In case (a), the

plate with different thickness ratio t2/t1 was analyzed by Cheung et al. [6] using finite

strip and finite element methods. In case (b), the bi-directionally stepped square plate

subjected to biaxial compression was studied by Singh and Dey [5] using the

variational finite difference approach and Cheung et al. [6] using finite strip and finite

element methods. The case of pure shear was analyzed by Cheung et al. [6]. They

employed finite strip method using an 8-strip mesh with 6 terms in the longitudinal

direction and finite element method with total of 1600 square 4-node elements. The

present results obtained in this study are shown in Tables 2–4 and compared with

results presented by these researchers.

Table 2. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate

subjected to uniaxial compression and λs = 0.5

Methods t2/t1

FSM [6] 8 strips 2.1103 2.4171 2.7266 3.0383 3.3475 3.6267 4.0008

FEM [6] 1600 elements 2.0641 2.3708 2.6829 3.0003 3.3242 3.6568 4.0005

Table 3. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate

subjected to biaxial compression and λs = 0.5

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 13 of 25

Table 4. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate

subjected to pure shear and λs = 0.5

EI-Sway and Nazmy [12] used the general-purpose finite element program, ANSYS to

study the effect of aspect ratio on the elastic buckling of uniaxially loaded plates with

eccentric holes. Brown et al. [9] used the Conjugate Load/Displacement Method

(CLDM) to investigate the elastic buckling load of perforated square plates. The

present method is employed to predict local buckling coefficient of perforated square

plate with centrally located rectangular holes as shown in Fig. 4a. The variation of the

local buckling coefficient of the perforated plate subjected to uniform compressions in

one direction (see Fig. 4a) versus normalized rectangular hole dimension y/a is

shown in Fig. 4b. For comparison, the same figure shows results obtained by Brown

et al. [9]. As it is seen, good agreement exists between two methods.

Fig. 4. Local buckling coefficient of the perforated plate subjected to uniform compressions in one

direction versus normalized rectangular hole dimension y/a.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 14 of 25

Plates with varying thickness are influenced by local buckling. However, in the post-

locally domain, the buckled form of the stepped and perforated plates is still stable

owing to its membrane action. Because of this, such plates have a significant reserve

of strength prior to collapse and the evaluation of the post-local buckling response of

such plates is of great interest. Although many investigators have attempted to

analyse the post buckling of plates with general shapes [16,17], a few researchers

have concerned themselves with the post-local buckling behaviour of stepped and

perforated plates. Fig. 5 provides some information on the accuracy and convergence

of the present solution on the number of shape functions. The figure includes four

cases of simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression. The

convergence trend of the proposed method in the cases of c/a = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 is

obvious.

Fig. 5. Convergence study for simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression

(u/ucro = 2).

The developed method has been used to study post-buckling behaviour of square

plates with abruptly varying stiffness and geometry. In this section four examples of

its application are presented. In order to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 15 of 25

method, the applied load, and the deflection of square plate whose perpendicular

edges are subjected to uniform and equal compression are presented. Tables 5 and 6

show the non-dimensional load P/Pcr carried by the plate and dimensionless lateral

displacement w0/t at the center of simply supported square plate subjected to uniaxil

loads in terms of applied shortening uo/ucr. The results are compared with those

reported by Yamaki [18], Dawe and Lam [19] and Azhari et al. [17] and good

agreement is observed.

Table 5. The non-dimensional applied load P/Pcr of a simply supported square plate

Researchers uo/ucr

Dawe and Lam [19] 1.0563 1.2181 1.4635 1.7715 2.1272 2.5156

Table 6. The dimensionless lateral displacement wo/t at center of a simply supported square plate

Researchers uo/ucr

Dawe and Lam [19] 0.4960 0.9819 1.4450 1.8840 2.3070 2.7140

longitudinal edges are held straight in plane (although free to expand laterally) is

investigated. The perforated plate has uniform thickness t and is subjected to uniaxial

compression. Fig. 6 shows the calculated non-dimensional lateral displacement wo/t

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 16 of 25

versus dimensionless applied load N/Ncro for different hole size parameters c/a. For

the case of perfect plate (c/a = 0) the results obtained by the present method are in

very good agreement with those of the bubble finite strip method [16] and Galerkin

Method [19].

Fig. 6. Post buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to uniaxial compression;

Ncr0 = 4π2D/a2.

Lateral deflections calculated for the simply supported perforated plate whose

longitudinal edges are held and subjected to biaxial compressive loads is shown in

Fig. 7. Figs. 6 and 7 show that with increasing hole size parameters c/a, strength of

the perforated plate in the post local buckling phase decreases.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 17 of 25

Fig. 7. Post-buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression;

Ncr0 = 2π2D/a2.

The dimensionless load N/Ncr0 versus non-dimensional shortening u/ucro for the

perforated plates whose longitudinal edges are held straight in plane are calculated.

The results for the perforated plate under uniaxial and biaxial loads are shown in Figs.

8 and 9, respectively.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 18 of 25

Fig. 8. Post-buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to uniaxial compression;

Ncr0 = 4π2D/a2.

Fig. 9. Post buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression;

Ncr0 = 2π2D/a2.

In another example the post buckling behaviour of stepped plate is studied. Figs. 10

and 11 show the calculated non-dimensional lateral displacement wo/t versus

dimensionless applied load N/Ncro for stepped plates subjected to uniaxial and biaxial

compression respectively. In both Figs. 10 and 11 the stepped size parameters are

kept to be constant and equal to λs = 0.4 (see Fig. 3). Again the results for the case of

t1/t2 = 1 exactly match those of Yamaki solution [18].

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 19 of 25

Fig. 10. Post-buckling path of simply supported stepped plate subjected touniaxial compression;

Ncr0 = 4π2D/a2, λs = 0.4 (see Fig. 3).

Fig. 11. Post-buckling path of simply supported stepped plate subjected to biaxial compression;

Ncr0 = 2π2D/a2, λs = 0.4 (see Fig. 3).

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 20 of 25

The non-dimensional post-buckled load distribution for different hole size parameter

c/a and end shortening equal to two times the critical in-plane end shortening ucr is

evaluated. The results are illustrated for the perforated square simply supported with

held longitudinal edges subjected to uniaxial and biaxial shortenings in Figs. 12 and

13 respectively. It is evident that with increasing the hole size parameter, the stress

distributions became more non uniform comparing with the case c/a = 0.

Fig. 12. Stress diagram for simply supported perforated plate under uniaxial shortening,

u0/ucr = 2.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 21 of 25

Fig. 13. Stress diagram for simply supported perforated plate under biaxial shortening, u0/ucr = 2

and v0/vcr = 2.

4. Conclusions

The non-linear method based on the virtual work has been presented as a numerical

procedure for the initial and post-buckling analysis of plates of abruptly varying

stiffness. The method is very efficient computationally. The post-buckling behavior of

stepped and perforated plates with different geometrical parameters has been

investigated. The results have been presented as the non-dimensional load carried

and dimensionless lateral displacements for plates subjected to uniaxial and biaxial

compressions. The stress distribution in the perforated plate in the post-locally

buckled domain was determined for different hole size parameter. It was shown that

this parameter has a significant bearing on the postbuckled stress distribution.

KI=∑i=1JKuuiKuviKvuiKvvi,U^=uˆvˆ,FI=∑i=1JFuiFvi,

Kuui=Eti1-ν2∫ΩiN,x(u)TN,x(u)+1-ν2N,y(u)TN,y(u)dΩi,

Kuvi=Eti1-ν2∫Ωi1-ν2N,y(u)TN,x(v)dΩi=KvuiT,

Kvui=Eti1-ν2∫Ωi1-ν2N,x(v)TN,y(u)dΩi=KuviT,

Kvvi=Eti1-ν2∫ΩiN,y(v)TN,y(v)+1-ν2N,x(v)TN,x(v)dΩi,

Fui=u0aEti1-ν2∫ΩiN,x(u)TdΩi+∫ΓiN(u)TtxidΓi,

Fvi=v0bEti1-ν2∫ΩiN,y(v)TdΩi+∫ΓiN(v)TtyidΓi.

Ko=∑i=1JEti312(1-ν2)∫Ωi(N,xx(w)T(N,xx(w)+νN,yy(w))+2(1-ν)N,xy(w)TN,xy(w)+N,yy

(w)T(N,yy(w)+νN,xx(w)))dΩi,

KG=∑i=1J∫ΩiNxiλN,x(w)TN,x(w)+NxyiλN,x(w)TN,y(w)+NxyiλN,y(w)TN,x(w)+NyiλN,y

(w)TN,y(w)dΩi.

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 22 of 25

matrices and forces

Bu=N,x(u)0N,y(u)3×Nu,Bv=0N,y(v)N,x(v)

3×Nv,ϵH=n∂uIcr/∂x∂vIcr/∂x∂uIcr/∂y+∂vIcr/∂x3×1,

Bw=N,x(w)wˆN,x(w)N,y(w)wˆN,y(w)N,x(w)wˆN,y(w)+N,y(w)wˆN,x(w)3×Nw,Bf=-N,xx(w)

N,yy(w)2N,xy(w)3×Nw,

Kuui=∫ΩiBuTDmiBudΩi,Kuvi=∫ΩiBuTDmiBvdΩi,

Kvui=∫ΩiBvTDmiBudΩi,Kvvi=∫ΩiBvTDmiBvdΩi,

Kuwi=12∫ΩiBuTDmiBwdΩi,Kvwi=12∫ΩiBvTDmiBwdΩi,

Kwui=2KuwiT,Kwvi=2KvwiT,

Kwwi=12∫ΩiBwTDmiBwdΩi+∫ΩiBfTDfiBfdΩi,

Fui=∫ΩiBuTDmiϵHdΩi,Fvi=∫ΩiBvTDmiϵHdΩi,Fwi=∫ΩiBwTDmiϵHdΩi.

forces

KNL,j=∂∂wˆjKNL=0Nu×Nu0Nu×Nv∑i=1JKuw,ji0Nv×Nu0Nv×Nv∑i=1JKvw,ji∑i=1JKwu,ji∑i

Kuw,ji=12∫ΩiBuTDmiBw,jdΩi=12Kwu,ji,Kvw,ji=12∫ΩiBvTDmiBw,jdΩi=12Kwv,ji,

Kwu,ji=∫ΩiBw,jTDmiBudΩi,Kwv,ji=∫ΩiBw,jTDmiBvdΩi,

Kww,ji=12∫Ωi(Bw,jTDmiBw+BwTDmiBw,j)dΩi,

Fw,ji=∫ΩiBw,jTDmiϵHdΩi,

B,j=∂∂wˆjBw=Nj,x(w)N,x(w)Nj,y(w)N,y(w)Nj,x(w)N,y(w)+Nj,y(w)N,x(w)3×Nw.

References

[1] W.H. Whittrick, C.H. Ellen

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 23 of 25

Aeronaut. Quart., 13 (1962), pp. 308-326

Buckling of rectangular plates with general variation in thickness

J. Appl. Mech., 40 (1973), pp. 745-751

CrossRef View Record in Scopus

Vibration and buckling analysis of plates of abruptly varying stiffness

Comput. Struct., 12 (1980), pp. 689-693

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Stability of plates with step variation in thickness

Comput. Struct., 33 (1989), pp. 257-263

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Variational finite difference approach to buckling of plates of variable stiffness

Comput. Struct., 36 (1990), pp. 39-45

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Finite strip method for the free vibration and buckling analysis of plates with abrupt

changes in thickness and complex support conditions

Thin-Walled Struct., 36 (2000), pp. 89-110

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Vibration and buckling of prismatic plate structure having intermediate supports and step

thickness changes

Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Engrg., 191 (2002), pp. 2759-2784

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Exact buckling and vibration solution for stepped rectangular plates

J. Sound Vib., 250 (2002), pp. 503-517

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Stability of plates with rectangular holes

J. Struct.

Typesetting math: 73%Eng., 113 (1987), pp. 1111-1116

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 24 of 25

Finite element modeling of plate girders with web openings

Thin-Walled Struct., 40 (2002), pp. 443-464

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Design for opening in cold-formed steel channel stb columns

Thin-Walled Struct., 39 (2001), pp. 961-981

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Effect of aspect ratio on the elastic buckling of uniaxially loaded plates with eccentric

holes

Thin-Walled Struct., 39 (2001), pp. 983-998

Nonlinear mathematical theory of perforated viscoelastic thin plates with its applications

Int. J. Solids Struct., 38 (2001), pp. 6627-6641

Article Download PDF View Record in Scopus

Buckling of plates of abruptly varying stiffness

J. Struct. Div. ASCE, 95 (1969), pp. 1313-1337

View Record in Scopus

Background to Buckling

McGraw-Hill, London (1980)

The use of bubble functions for the post-local buckling of plate assemblies by the finite

strip method

Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 38 (1995), pp. 955-968

CrossRef View Record in Scopus

Post local buckling of skew and trapezoidal plates

Adv. Struct. Eng., 7 (2004), pp. 61-70

CrossRef View Record in Scopus

[18] N. Yamaki

Typesetting math: 73%

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin plates - ScienceDirect Page 25 of 25

Post-buckling behavior of rectangular plates with small initial curvature loaded in end

compression

J. Appl. Mech. ASME, 26 (1959), pp. 407-414

View Record in Scopus

Nonlinear finite strip analysis of rectangular laminates under end shortening using

classical plate theory

Int. J. Numer. Methods Eng., 35 (1992), pp. 1087-1110

CrossRef View Record in Scopus

Terms and conditions Privacy policy

Cookies are used by this site. For more information, visit the cookies page.

Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark

of Elsevier B.V.

×

based on your recent signed-in activity

Register now

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X04001453 2/26/2018

- Marian Ivan - Theoretical GeomechanicsUploaded bydrakic
- Batdorf (1947) - Critical Combinations of Shear and Direct Stress for Simply Supported Rectangular Flat PlatesUploaded byMike
- Nalysis of Orthotropic PlyUploaded bySabir Nasim
- Finite Element Analysis in Pipeline Design using ANSYS at INTECSEAUploaded byAslan Alp
- IS 8147.pdfUploaded byMangesh Gajbhiye
- Notes on AISC 13th(1)Uploaded byKai Lee
- 136_VanlaereUploaded byZaoui
- Tubing DesignUploaded byakshitppe11
- Lecture12 Airy FunctionsUploaded byGuilherme Almeida Prado
- 125760133 Buckling of Thin Metal Shells 152Uploaded bypawkom
- AES_121_2006_SAN FRANCISCO Stress Analysis on Moving Assemblies and Suspensions of LoudspeakersUploaded byWilliam Cardenas
- CMAA 70 2000 Structure DesignUploaded bymishikhan
- Torsional Rigidities of Open Stiffeners to compression flanges.pdfUploaded byhsbramhe9
- Gulin Matko Gradst 2017 Diplo SveucUploaded byMaria Tns
- PDF OCW Topic 11 Buckling of Frames 1Uploaded byAzwanAli
- SI-10-2016Uploaded byAndres Casado
- NASA Astronautic Structural Manual Volume 3Uploaded byDavid Russo
- SACS ExecutiveUploaded byJeEJyZa
- 4140 Alloy SteelUploaded bysmg26thmay
- Columns and StabilityUploaded byAzizul Ismaon
- Xirouchakis1980Uploaded byalifaramarz
- 6 Chapter 3Uploaded bysju65
- Perry Robertson FormulaeUploaded byMehdi Kashani
- ContentsUploaded byAfia S Hameed
- Earthquake DesignUploaded byAnand Adkar
- Garment MakingupUploaded byYetana Wubneh
- STEEL AND TIMBER REPORT COMPILED (AAA).pdfUploaded byLee Chen Choon
- LenettUploaded byShaileshRastogi
- Lesson Plan ECS 228 November 2013 - April 2014_IzziyantieUploaded bysaifulsabdin
- External Pressure Limitations for Storage TanksUploaded bylinustec

- Grammatica Pratica Della Lingua Italiana Susanna Nocchi PDFUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- OK3-2EUploaded byDaltonWong
- hyllyvaunut_130213Uploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- UntitledUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Pressure Measurement ProductsUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Footwear Size GuideUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- wee.pdfUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Nocchi SwimRmey LUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- 42327-Uploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- TI - Lista Duplamente Encadeada - Capitulo12Uploaded byAnderson Marques Neto
- Nocchi RJetinox LUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- SWIMMEY Data Sheet EnUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- 2. Design Features of a Low Turbulence Return Circuit Subsonic Wind Tunnel Having Interchangeable Test SectionsUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Grammatica Pratica Della Lingua Italiana Susanna Nocchi PDFUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- 757_apd_7_metalroofUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Grammatica Pratica Della Lingua Italiana Susanna Nocchi PDFUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Khairunesa_Isa_FSSW_(PKSS_2011)Uploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- MEFISU14_Mejores_veinte_Fisica_U2014.pdfUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- MEFISU14_Mejores_veinte_Fisica_U2014.pdfUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- MEFISU14_Mejores_veinte_Fisica_U2014.pdfUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Modeling as a Tool - BeliaUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Dasar Pembangunan Belia NegaraUploaded byMuhammad Iqbal
- Kardia Guest MFDUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- k 160064Uploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- kardiaUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- icde99_rjUploaded byjilf
- cumming-and-finch.pdfUploaded byaldo2016
- perakakis_kardia_2010.pdfUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz
- Kardia Recliner BrochureUploaded byAnonymous TW2wqBz

- Foundation 2Uploaded byakem mig
- Some Technical and Practical Recommendations About Pulsation Dampeners in Circuits With Dosing or Volumetric PumpsUploaded byRoberto Leon Mendez
- Continuum Topology OptimizationUploaded byJoao Campos
- entranceexamination_sept2004Uploaded byKerbspannungslehre
- Poster ECP 2011_v2Uploaded byKanwar Bajaj
- Suhaib Salawdeh ThesisUploaded bySarif Nazar
- Fluid Power Formlua 10p349Uploaded byYon Duke
- AUC R2017_20181008_AET Question Paper, Model ExamUploaded byGurunath Aero
- Lift and Drag Report - PRINTUploaded byJoel Forbes
- dotschUploaded byMarco Morris
- Sedimentation Studies ApparatusUploaded bykang1995
- GeoTech 1Uploaded byPranjal Dixit
- Rule of MixturesUploaded byChunchao Zhang
- Acoustic Calculation of Ventilation SystemsUploaded byHari Babu Dharmavarapu
- Boundary Layer TheoryUploaded bySharat Chandra
- Aphron Invasion Control System (ICS)Uploaded byLoganBohannon
- Continuity EquationUploaded byEucharia
- US Army: crd c39Uploaded byArmy
- Chem 444 WebUploaded byA Srikrishnan
- Building Materials and StructuresUploaded bybudinzenjer
- bangmsUploaded bykexadex2
- Oblique Shock WavesUploaded byDhinasuga Dhinakaran
- 17528-Winter2014Uploaded byRaaj Patil
- positive displacement vs centrifugal pumpUploaded byArslan Bhatti
- Air Coolers Versus Shell-And-Tube Water CoolersUploaded byBramJanssen76
- ChE 122 Lecture Notes 01 I. Intro to ThermoUploaded byMarkVergelBorja
- NS15-2beamdesign.pdfUploaded byKevin Ongjunco
- Stress - ProblemsUploaded byMilaj Yu
- Crash AnalysesUploaded byAmir Iskandar
- Appendix 4Uploaded byWai-Yen Chan