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Applied Mathematical Modelling


Volume 29, Issue 7, July 2005, Pages 633-652

Local and post local buckling of stepped and perforated thin


plates
M. Azhari , A.R. Shahidi, M.M. Saadatpour

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https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2004.10.004 Get rights and content


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Abstract
The nonlinear mathematical theory for initial and post local buckling analysis of plates
of abruptly varying stiffness based on the principle of virtual work is established. The
method is programmed, and several numerical examples are presented to
demonstrate the scope and efficacy of the procedure. Local buckling coefficients of
perforated and stepped plates are obtained and the results are compared with known
solutions. Post-buckling behaviour of perforated and stepped plates is studied for
different geometries. The non-dimensional applied loads (P/Pcr), dimensionless lateral
displacements and stress distribution of plates with varying stiffness in the post
buckling region are given in several tables and graphs.

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Keywords
Initial buckling; Post local buckling; Stepped plates; Perforated plates; Virtual work
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Nomenclature
kc
local buckling coefficient

Ncr
critical load

ti
thickness of region Ωi

uH, vH
Hookean displacements

uˆi , vˆi , wˆi


generalized coordinates

wo
maximum lateral displacement

x, y
cartesian coordinates

Γi
boundary of region Ωi

λ
buckling load factor

λs
stepped size parameter

ξ, η
natural coordinates

Ωi
region with thickness ti

FI
in-plane
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KG
geometric matrix

KI
in-plane stiffness matrix

Ko
out-of-plane stiffness matrix

N(u), N(v), N(w)


vectors of interpolation functions

U^
in-plane generalized displacement vector

Δ
generalized flexural displacement vector

1. Inroduction
Thin steel plates are widely used as the main structural components of box girders in
bridges, plate girders, platforms of offshore structures, shipbuilding and aircraft
industries. Plates of variable thickness are used in many engineering structures in
order to lighten the systems and come up with an economy design. A substantial
increase in critical local buckling loads of plates may be obtained by appropriate
thickness distribution. Aircraft wings and turbine disks are particular examples of
varying thickness plate structures.

Perforated plates are often used in thin-walled structures to provide access for
services, inspection and maintenance, for example in webs of plates and box girders
and ship grillages. Although provisions of opening in the plates greatly enhances the
applicability of thin-walled sections, the presence of holes in structural members will
result in changes in the stress distribution within the member and consequently a
reduction in the local buckling capacity of the plate.

The stepped and perforated plates are often subjected to axial compressive forces,
which makes them prone to local instability. Much research has been directed
towards the study of the initial local buckling of such plates subjected to compressive
loads. However, a few researchers have concerned themselves with the post local
buckling behaviour of plates with variation in thickness and with holes. From the
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structural design point of view the knowledge of critical loads and post buckling
behaviour of these plates is of great importance.

Whittrick and Ellen [1] studied the problem of buckling of a variable thickness
rectangular plate. Linear and exponential variation in thickness in one direction was
considered in their study. A perturbation technique was employed by Chehil and Dua
[2] to determine the critical buckling stress of a simply supported rectangular plate
with general variation in thickness. Mizusawa et al. [3] used B-spline functions and
the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure to analyze vibration and buckling of plates of abruptly
varying stiffnesses with arbitrary boundary. Harik and Andrade [4] presented a finite
strip procedure to study the stability analysis of uni-directionally stepped plates. In
their analysis, the differential equations of stability for each region are solved and the
continuity conditions at the common boundaries as well as boundary conditions are
then imposed. Singh and Dey [5] applied the finite difference method to the buckling
analysis of bi-directionally stepped plates and presented some useful results.

Cheung et al. [6] used a set of C1 continuous functions as the longitudinal


interpolation functions in the finite strip method to study buckling analysis of plates
with abrupt changes in thickness and complex support conditions. The versatile
general spline finite strip method was employed by Dawe and Tan [7] to study
vibration and buckling of plates having step thickness changes. They showed the
suitability of the longitudinal spline representation in accommodating intermediate
supports and step thickness changes by description of the solution of a number of
problems involving both single plates and plate assemblies. The exact buckling and
vibration solution for stepped rectangular plates was presented by Xiang and Wang
[8]. In their proposed method, the plate is assumed to have two opposite edges
simply supported while the other two edges can take any combination of free, simply
supported and clamped conditions.

A conjugate load displacement method for instability analysis of plates was developed
by Brown et al. [9] to study stability of plates with various boundary conditions and
perforations in different positions. Shanmugam et al. [10] and Shanmugam and
Dhanalakshmi [11] employed the finite element method to investigate the ultimate
load capacity of perforated plates with different boundary conditions and subjected to
uniaxial or biaxial compression. They presented a useful design formula to determine
the ultimate load carrying capacity for perforated plates with different plate
slenderness, opening size, boundary conditions and the nature of loading based on
the post-buckling behaviour.
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The finite element method was employed by El-Saway and Nazmy [12] to determine
the elastic load of uniaxially loaded plates with eccentric holes. Their study showed
that the buckling load of a rectangular perforated plate that could be divided into
equal square panels is not the same as that of the square panel that contains the
perforation when treated as a separate square plate. They also concluded that from
the plate stability point of view, the use of a rectangular hole, with curved corners,
with its short dimension positioned along the longitudinal direction of the plate is a
better option that using a circular hole. The nonlinear mathematical theory of
perforated viscoelastic thin plates using the von Kármán’s hypotheses of plates with
large deflection was established by Cheng and Fan [13].

In the present paper, by making use of principle of virtual work, a theoretical


formulation for the initial and post local buckling of rectangular plates having abrupt
changes in thickness or rectangular holes is presented. The non-linear equation of
post buckling path is formulated as a function of compressive strains using
appropriate Hookean shortening. Initial local buckling results obtained for stepped
plates and perforated plates are compared with known solution in the literature. Post-
buckling of stepped and perforated plates is studied for different geometries. Post-
buckling equilibrium path and the stress distribution are illustrated in several graphs
for different geometries of rectangular plates with holes. A major advantage of the
method used here over the finite element method is that it does not require any mesh
descritization and, consequently, it needs only a very minimal input data to carry out
the numerical computations.

2. Theory and formulation

2.1. General
Fig. 1 shows an isotropic, elastic rectangular plate of length ‘a’ and width ‘b’. The
plate is formed by two subregions named Ω1 with thickness t1 and Ω2 with thickness
t2. The zero thickness t2 means a plate with a hole having dimensions c × d and
centred at xo and yo.

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Download full-size image

Fig. 1. Rectangular plate with abruptly varying thickness.

The basic steps in the post-buckling analysis of a plate with stepped thickness, as
developed in this section, involve the following:

(i) Membrane analysis, to obtain in-plane forces Nx, Ny and Nxy for each sub-
region Ωi.

(ii) Initial buckling analysis using the deduced in-plane forces.

(iii) Invoking the principle of virtual work to determine the non-linear governing
equation of the post-buckling equilibrium paths.

(vi) Solution of the non-linear equations by deploying the Newton–Raphson


procedure.

2.2. Membrane analysis


A rectangular plate with abrupt changes in its thickness and stiffness as shown in Fig.
2 assumed to be compressed in its plane by friction or frictionless platen located at
the ends, such as those of a heavy testing machine. The resulting compressive
displacement field in the plate is defined by u and v in the x and y directions,
respectively. These components are resulted from superposition of the uniform
displacements and the displacements resulted from non-uniformity of the thickness
including presence of hole. The uniform Hookean shortening uH and vH are expressed
in terms of end shortenings uo and vo by

uH=-xau0vH=-ybv0, (1)
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where x and y in terms of natural coordinates ξ and η are x=a2(1+ξ) and y=a2(1+η) .
The advantage of using Hookean shortening uH and vH, in formulating the problem is
that in the post-buckling process, the principle of virtual work is written as a function
of the uniform edge displacements uo and vo, rather than, applied boundary forces
which become non-uniform during the process of post-buckling.

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Fig. 2. Hookean displacements of plate with abrupt changes in thickness and stiffness.

The superposed in-plane displacements uI and vI corresponding to the Hookean


deformations in terms of the unknown generalized coordinates uˆi and vˆi are given by

uI=∑k=1NuNk(u)(ξ,η)uˆk+uHvI=∑k=1NvNk(v)(ξ,η)vˆk+vH, (2)

where Nk(u) and Nk(v) are the kth interpolation functions in terms of the natural
coordinates ξ and η satisfying kinematic boundary conditions and Nu and Nv are the
number of unknown generalized displacements in each direction. The polynomial
form of the interpolation functions are simply given by

Nk(u)orNk(v)=pi(ξ)pj(η),i,j,k=1,2,3,…, (3)

where

p1(ξ)=(1-ξ)p2(ξ)=(1+ξ)pi(ξ)=(1-ξ2)ξi-3,i=3,4,5,…. (4)

p1 and p2 are the basic functions to satisfy the boundary conditions, and present
linear interpolation while pi, i > 3 are the interpolation functions of higher order. Now
we consider an isotropic plate consisting of “J” sub-regions with different thicknesses.
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Letting Ωi represented sub-region ‘i’ with the boundary Γi. The principle of virtual work
for the plate can be expressed by

∑i=1J∫Ωi(Nxiδεx+2Nxyiδεxy+Nyiδεy)dΩi=∑i=1J∫Γi(txiδu+tyiδv)dΓi, (5)

where txi and tyi are traction vectors on Γi and ϵx = ∂uI/∂x, ϵy = ∂vI/∂y and
2ϵxy = ∂uI/∂y + ∂vI/∂x are membrane strains corresponding to the in-plane forces Nxi,
Nyi and Nxyi. The in-plane forces and membrane strains are related by

Nxi=Eti1-ν2(εx+νεy)Nyi=Eti1-ν2(εy+νεx)Nxyi=Eti1+νεxy (6)

in which E is Young’s modulus of elasticity, ν is Poisson’s ratio and ti is the thickness


of the sub-region ‘i’. Substituting the displacement fields of Eqs. (1) and (2) and
stress-strain relationships of Eq. (6) into the Eq. (5) the in-plane equilibrium equation
in the matrix form may be expressed by

KIU^=FI, (7)

where KI is the in-plane stiffness matrix, U^ is the in-plane generalized displacement


vector and FI is the in-plane forces developed in the plate and are presented in
Appendix A.

2.3. Initial buckling analysis


Once the membrane analysis of the plate with sub-regions of different thicknesses is
completed and the in-plane forces Nxi, Nyi and Nxyi as a function of u0 and v0 are
determined, the principle of virtual work for the initial buckling analysis may be written
as

∑i=1J∫Ωi(Mxiδw,xx+2Mxyiδw,xy+Myiδw,yy+NxiδϵxN+2NxyiδϵxyN+NyiδϵyN)dΩi=0, (8)

where εxN , εxyN and εyN are nonlinear terms of strains according to the von-Karman
formulation and can be expressed by

εxN=12w,x2εxyN=12w,xw,yεyN=12w,y2. (9)

In Eq. (8), Mxi and Myi are the bending moment per unit length in x and y directions
respectively, while Mxyi is the twisting moment per unit length. The bending and
twisting moments in terms of the transverse displacement w is given by

Mxi=-Eti312(1-ν2)(w,xx+νw,yy)Myi=-Eti312(1-ν2)(w,yy+νw,xx)Mxyi=-Eti312(1+ν) (10)
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In a similar way to in-plane displacement, the transverse displacement interpolated by

w=∑i=1NwNi(w)wˆi=N(w)wˆN(w)=〈N1(w),N2(w),…,NNw(w)〉, (11)

where Ni(w) is the ith base function of interpolation and wˆi is the generalized
displacement in transverse direction. Substituting the displacement fields of Eq. (11),
moment-displacement relationships of Eqs. (10) and (9) into Eq. (8) the initial buckling
equations may be obtained by

(Ko-λKG)Δ=0, (12)

where Ko and KG are the stiffness and the geometric matrices respectively, and may
be found in Appendix B, λ is the bucking load factor and Δ is the generalized flexural
displacement vector. Eq. (12) is a standard generalized eigenvalue problem, which
can be easily solved to obtain the bucking load factor λ.

2.4. Post-buckling analysis


Once the initial local buckling analysis of the plate with different thickness is
completed and the bucking load factor λ is obtained, the critical in-plane shortening
ucro and vcro may be computed. The coupling in-plane and out-of-plane displacement
fields (u, v and w) in nonlinear range can be expressed by

u=∑i=1NuNi(u)uˆi+nuIcrv=∑i=1NvNi(v)vˆi+nvIcrw=∑i=1NwNi(w)wˆi, (13)

where uIcr and vIcr are the critical in-plane displacements obtained by Eq. (2). n is the
aspect ratio of the buckling displacement and is equal to uo/uocr or vo/vocr. The
postbuckling equilibrium path is controlled by the aspect ratio of the buckling
membrane displacements. The principle of virtual work in nonlinear region can be
written as

∑i=1J∫Ωi(δϵmTσmi+δϵfTσfi)dΩi=0, (14)

where σfi and σmi are the flexural and membrane stress vectors for sub-region ‘i’
respectively, and may be expressed by

σfi=〈Mxi;Myi;Mxyi〉Tσmi=〈Nxi;Nyi;Nxyi〉T. (15)

The elastic isotropic plate property matrix defines the membrane and flexural buckling
constitutive relationship by

σfi=Dfiϵfσmi=Dmiϵm. (16)
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The flexural strain vector ϵf is given by

ϵf=〈-w,xx;-w,yy;-2w,xy〉T (17)

while from the nonlinear plate theory, the membrane strain vector including only those
nonlinear terms associated with plate flexure is represented by

ϵm=u,x+12w,x2;v,y+12wxy2;u,y+v,x+w,xw,yT. (18)

The elastic matrices Dmi and Dfi for each block are given by

Dmi=Eti1-ν21ν0ν10001-ν2andDfi=ti212Dmi. (19)

Substituting last equations into the Eq. (14), this equation may be written in terms of
generalized coordinates as

∑i=1J∫Ωi(δuˆTBuT+δvˆTBvT+δwˆTBwT)Dmi(Buuˆ+Bvvˆ+12Bwwˆ+ϵH) (20)
dΩi+∑i=1J∫ΩiδwˆTBfTDfiBfwˆdΩi=0,

where Bu, Bv, Bw, Bf and ϵH are given in Appendix C. After some mathematical
manipulation, the nonlinear equilibrium equation may be written as

KuuiKuviKuwiKvuiKvviKvwiKwuiKwviKwwiuˆvˆwˆ+FuiFviFwi=0 (21)

where Kuui to Kwwi and Fui , Fvi and Fwi are given in Appendix C.

3. Numerical results

3.1. General
The numerical procedure based on the developed formulation in the last section was
programmed on a desktop workstation and numerical results are presented for
buckling and post-buckling of plates with different thickness and in-plane loading
conditions.

3.2. Initial buckling of simply supported stepped square plate


Many researchers have attempted to analyze the initial local buckling of square plates
with abruptly varying thickness by applying different approximate and numerical
methods. To demonstrate the versatility and accuracy of the method developed
herein, several buckling problems of a plate with variation in thickness are analyzed
and compared with existing results. The results are non-dimensionalised, and

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presented as a local buckling coefficient kc = Ncra2/π2D, where a is the width of the


plate, Ncr is the critical load and D is the flexural plate rigidity.

Fig. 3 shows a bi-directionally stepped plate with all edges simply supported and
subjected to uniform compressions Nx,, Ny and Nxy. Local buckling coefficients kc for
different stepped size parameters λs are presented in Table 1. The results are also
compared with those obtained by Paramasivam and Rao [14] using the discrete
model method and Mizusawa et al. [3] using the B-spline and the Rayleigh-Ritz
procedure. A good agreement is observed.

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Fig. 3. Square plate with bi-directionally stepped and all edges simply supported.

Table 1. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate
subjected to biaxial compression and t2 = 1.5874t1(D2 = 4D1 = 4D)

Methods Stepped size parameters λs

0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1

Mizusawa et al. [3] 8.000 6.970 5.351 3.843 2.000

Paramasivan and Rao [14] 7.899 6.897 5.294 3.804 1.980

Present 8.000 6.961 5.315 3.830 2.000

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The same bi-directional stepped square plate shown in Fig. 3 with stepped size
parameters λs = 0.5 is considered. Three load cases were analyzed, namely (a)
uniaxial compression, (b) biaxial compression, and (c) pure shear. In case (a), the
plate with different thickness ratio t2/t1 was analyzed by Cheung et al. [6] using finite
strip and finite element methods. In case (b), the bi-directionally stepped square plate
subjected to biaxial compression was studied by Singh and Dey [5] using the
variational finite difference approach and Cheung et al. [6] using finite strip and finite
element methods. The case of pure shear was analyzed by Cheung et al. [6]. They
employed finite strip method using an 8-strip mesh with 6 terms in the longitudinal
direction and finite element method with total of 1600 square 4-node elements. The
present results obtained in this study are shown in Tables 2–4 and compared with
results presented by these researchers.

Table 2. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate
subjected to uniaxial compression and λs = 0.5

Methods t2/t1

0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

FSM [6] 8 strips 2.1103 2.4171 2.7266 3.0383 3.3475 3.6267 4.0008

FEM [6] 1600 elements 2.0641 2.3708 2.6829 3.0003 3.3242 3.6568 4.0005

Present 1.9383 2.2436 2.5681 2.9089 3.2629 3.6274 4.0000

Table 3. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate
subjected to biaxial compression and λs = 0.5

t2/t1 Methods of analysis

FSM [6] FDM [5] FEM [6] Present Exact [15]

0.8736 2.3908 2.2611 2.3658 2.4308 –

1.000 2.000 1.9988 2.0003 2.0000 2.0000

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Table 4. Buckling load coefficient kc of simply supported bi-directionally stepped square plate
subjected to pure shear and λs = 0.5

t2/t1 Methods of analysis

FSM [6] FEM [6] Present Exact [15]

0.8736 11.2039 11.3383 11.4846 –

1.000 9.3350 9.3786 9.3343 9.3418

EI-Sway and Nazmy [12] used the general-purpose finite element program, ANSYS to
study the effect of aspect ratio on the elastic buckling of uniaxially loaded plates with
eccentric holes. Brown et al. [9] used the Conjugate Load/Displacement Method
(CLDM) to investigate the elastic buckling load of perforated square plates. The
present method is employed to predict local buckling coefficient of perforated square
plate with centrally located rectangular holes as shown in Fig. 4a. The variation of the
local buckling coefficient of the perforated plate subjected to uniform compressions in
one direction (see Fig. 4a) versus normalized rectangular hole dimension y/a is
shown in Fig. 4b. For comparison, the same figure shows results obtained by Brown
et al. [9]. As it is seen, good agreement exists between two methods.

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Fig. 4. Local buckling coefficient of the perforated plate subjected to uniform compressions in one
direction versus normalized rectangular hole dimension y/a.

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3.3. Post-buckling of simply supported stepped square plate


Plates with varying thickness are influenced by local buckling. However, in the post-
locally domain, the buckled form of the stepped and perforated plates is still stable
owing to its membrane action. Because of this, such plates have a significant reserve
of strength prior to collapse and the evaluation of the post-local buckling response of
such plates is of great interest. Although many investigators have attempted to
analyse the post buckling of plates with general shapes [16,17], a few researchers
have concerned themselves with the post-local buckling behaviour of stepped and
perforated plates. Fig. 5 provides some information on the accuracy and convergence
of the present solution on the number of shape functions. The figure includes four
cases of simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression. The
convergence trend of the proposed method in the cases of c/a = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 is
obvious.

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Fig. 5. Convergence study for simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression
(u/ucro = 2).

The developed method has been used to study post-buckling behaviour of square
plates with abruptly varying stiffness and geometry. In this section four examples of
its application are presented. In order to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the
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method, the applied load, and the deflection of square plate whose perpendicular
edges are subjected to uniform and equal compression are presented. Tables 5 and 6
show the non-dimensional load P/Pcr carried by the plate and dimensionless lateral
displacement w0/t at the center of simply supported square plate subjected to uniaxil
loads in terms of applied shortening uo/ucr. The results are compared with those
reported by Yamaki [18], Dawe and Lam [19] and Azhari et al. [17] and good
agreement is observed.

Table 5. The non-dimensional applied load P/Pcr of a simply supported square plate

Researchers uo/ucr

1.1392 1.5520 2.2166 3.1169 4.2510 5.6151

Yamaki [18] 1.0560 1.2187 1.4640 1.7707 2.1280 2.5200

Dawe and Lam [19] 1.0563 1.2181 1.4635 1.7715 2.1272 2.5156

Azhari et al. [17] 1.0560 1.2160 1.4591 1.7610 – –

Present method 1.0559 1.2161 1.4584 1.7602 2.1036 2.4689

Table 6. The dimensionless lateral displacement wo/t at center of a simply supported square plate

Researchers uo/ucr

1.1392 1.5520 2.2166 3.1169 4.2510 5.6151

Yamaki [18] 0.4975 0.9813 1.4440 1.8840 2.3040 2.7110

Dawe and Lam [19] 0.4960 0.9819 1.4450 1.8840 2.3070 2.7140

Azhari et al. [17] 0.4963 0.9816 1.4443 1.8840 – –

Present method 0.4955 0.9810 1.4435 1.8836 2.3064 2.7143

Now the post-buckling behavior of simply supported perforated plate whose


longitudinal edges are held straight in plane (although free to expand laterally) is
investigated. The perforated plate has uniform thickness t and is subjected to uniaxial
compression. Fig. 6 shows the calculated non-dimensional lateral displacement wo/t
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versus dimensionless applied load N/Ncro for different hole size parameters c/a. For
the case of perfect plate (c/a = 0) the results obtained by the present method are in
very good agreement with those of the bubble finite strip method [16] and Galerkin
Method [19].

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Fig. 6. Post buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to uniaxial compression;
Ncr0 = 4π2D/a2.

Lateral deflections calculated for the simply supported perforated plate whose
longitudinal edges are held and subjected to biaxial compressive loads is shown in
Fig. 7. Figs. 6 and 7 show that with increasing hole size parameters c/a, strength of
the perforated plate in the post local buckling phase decreases.

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Fig. 7. Post-buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression;
Ncr0 = 2π2D/a2.

The dimensionless load N/Ncr0 versus non-dimensional shortening u/ucro for the
perforated plates whose longitudinal edges are held straight in plane are calculated.
The results for the perforated plate under uniaxial and biaxial loads are shown in Figs.
8 and 9, respectively.

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Fig. 8. Post-buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to uniaxial compression;
Ncr0 = 4π2D/a2.

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Fig. 9. Post buckling path of simply supported perforated plate subjected to biaxial compression;
Ncr0 = 2π2D/a2.

In another example the post buckling behaviour of stepped plate is studied. Figs. 10
and 11 show the calculated non-dimensional lateral displacement wo/t versus
dimensionless applied load N/Ncro for stepped plates subjected to uniaxial and biaxial
compression respectively. In both Figs. 10 and 11 the stepped size parameters are
kept to be constant and equal to λs = 0.4 (see Fig. 3). Again the results for the case of
t1/t2 = 1 exactly match those of Yamaki solution [18].

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Fig. 10. Post-buckling path of simply supported stepped plate subjected touniaxial compression;
Ncr0 = 4π2D/a2, λs = 0.4 (see Fig. 3).

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Fig. 11. Post-buckling path of simply supported stepped plate subjected to biaxial compression;
Ncr0 = 2π2D/a2, λs = 0.4 (see Fig. 3).

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The non-dimensional post-buckled load distribution for different hole size parameter
c/a and end shortening equal to two times the critical in-plane end shortening ucr is
evaluated. The results are illustrated for the perforated square simply supported with
held longitudinal edges subjected to uniaxial and biaxial shortenings in Figs. 12 and
13 respectively. It is evident that with increasing the hole size parameter, the stress
distributions became more non uniform comparing with the case c/a = 0.

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Fig. 12. Stress diagram for simply supported perforated plate under uniaxial shortening,
u0/ucr = 2.

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Fig. 13. Stress diagram for simply supported perforated plate under biaxial shortening, u0/ucr = 2
and v0/vcr = 2.

4. Conclusions
The non-linear method based on the virtual work has been presented as a numerical
procedure for the initial and post-buckling analysis of plates of abruptly varying
stiffness. The method is very efficient computationally. The post-buckling behavior of
stepped and perforated plates with different geometrical parameters has been
investigated. The results have been presented as the non-dimensional load carried
and dimensionless lateral displacements for plates subjected to uniaxial and biaxial
compressions. The stress distribution in the perforated plate in the post-locally
buckled domain was determined for different hole size parameter. It was shown that
this parameter has a significant bearing on the postbuckled stress distribution.

Appendix A. Components of linear in-plane stiffness matrices and forces

KI=∑i=1JKuuiKuviKvuiKvvi,U^=uˆvˆ,FI=∑i=1JFuiFvi,

Kuui=Eti1-ν2∫ΩiN,x(u)TN,x(u)+1-ν2N,y(u)TN,y(u)dΩi,

Kuvi=Eti1-ν2∫Ωi1-ν2N,y(u)TN,x(v)dΩi=KvuiT,

Kvui=Eti1-ν2∫Ωi1-ν2N,x(v)TN,y(u)dΩi=KuviT,

Kvvi=Eti1-ν2∫ΩiN,y(v)TN,y(v)+1-ν2N,x(v)TN,x(v)dΩi,

Fui=u0aEti1-ν2∫ΩiN,x(u)TdΩi+∫ΓiN(u)TtxidΓi,

Fvi=v0bEti1-ν2∫ΩiN,y(v)TdΩi+∫ΓiN(v)TtyidΓi.

Appendix B. Out-of-plane stiffness and geometric matrices

Ko=∑i=1JEti312(1-ν2)∫Ωi(N,xx(w)T(N,xx(w)+νN,yy(w))+2(1-ν)N,xy(w)TN,xy(w)+N,yy
(w)T(N,yy(w)+νN,xx(w)))dΩi,

KG=∑i=1J∫ΩiNxiλN,x(w)TN,x(w)+NxyiλN,x(w)TN,y(w)+NxyiλN,y(w)TN,x(w)+NyiλN,y
(w)TN,y(w)dΩi.
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Appendix C. Strain matrices and components of non-linear stiffness 


matrices and forces

Bu=N,x(u)0N,y(u)3×Nu,Bv=0N,y(v)N,x(v)
3×Nv,ϵH=n∂uIcr/∂x∂vIcr/∂x∂uIcr/∂y+∂vIcr/∂x3×1,

Bw=N,x(w)wˆN,x(w)N,y(w)wˆN,y(w)N,x(w)wˆN,y(w)+N,y(w)wˆN,x(w)3×Nw,Bf=-N,xx(w)
N,yy(w)2N,xy(w)3×Nw,

Kuui=∫ΩiBuTDmiBudΩi,Kuvi=∫ΩiBuTDmiBvdΩi,

Kvui=∫ΩiBvTDmiBudΩi,Kvvi=∫ΩiBvTDmiBvdΩi,

Kuwi=12∫ΩiBuTDmiBwdΩi,Kvwi=12∫ΩiBvTDmiBwdΩi,

Kwui=2KuwiT,Kwvi=2KvwiT,

Kwwi=12∫ΩiBwTDmiBwdΩi+∫ΩiBfTDfiBfdΩi,

Fui=∫ΩiBuTDmiϵHdΩi,Fvi=∫ΩiBvTDmiϵHdΩi,Fwi=∫ΩiBwTDmiϵHdΩi.

Appendix D. Components of non-linear tangent stiffness matrices and


forces

KNL,j=∂∂wˆjKNL=0Nu×Nu0Nu×Nv∑i=1JKuw,ji0Nv×Nu0Nv×Nv∑i=1JKvw,ji∑i=1JKwu,ji∑i

Kuw,ji=12∫ΩiBuTDmiBw,jdΩi=12Kwu,ji,Kvw,ji=12∫ΩiBvTDmiBw,jdΩi=12Kwv,ji,

Kwu,ji=∫ΩiBw,jTDmiBudΩi,Kwv,ji=∫ΩiBw,jTDmiBvdΩi,

Kww,ji=12∫Ωi(Bw,jTDmiBw+BwTDmiBw,j)dΩi,

Fw,ji=∫ΩiBw,jTDmiϵHdΩi,

B,j=∂∂wˆjBw=Nj,x(w)N,x(w)Nj,y(w)N,y(w)Nj,x(w)N,y(w)+Nj,y(w)N,x(w)3×Nw.

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