Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

Computer Technology and Application 3 (2012) 188-193 D DAVID PUBLISHING

Applying Innovation Resistance Theory to Understand


User Acceptance of Online Shopping: The Moderating
Effect of Different Product Types
Jiunn-Woei Lian1, Hao-Ming Liu2 and I-Lin Liu2
1. Department of Information Management, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40401, Taiwan
2. Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Taichung University of Science and Technology,
Taichung 40401, Taiwan

Received: October 15, 2011 / Accepted: November 02, 2011 / Published: February 25, 2012.

Abstract: There exists a gap between the number of Internet and electronic commerce (EC) user. Previous researches attempt to
explore the factors that will affect user acceptance of online shopping, in order to increase the EC market. However, this study insists
that for those users who known but never (rarely) use EC services, it is important to understand the reasons of why they refuse to use.
Innovation resistance theory is employed in this study to understand this issue. Besides, previous studies indicated that different product
types will influence the relationship between factors and user intention in various degrees in the context of online shopping. Therefore,
the purpose of this research attempts to integrate innovation resistance theory and product types to explore the moderating effect of
different product types. The result indicates that value and image barriers are critical factors for user refused to shop online. The authors
also find that “intangible and information products” have more strong moderating influence than “tangible and physical products”
between usage barriers/value barriers and intention to use.

Key words: Innovation resistance theory, online shopping, moderating effect, different product types.

1. Introduction context of EC [1, 9-11]. Therefore, the purpose of this


research attempts to understand user acceptance of
There exists a gap between the number of Internet
online shopping from resistance view instead of
and electronic commerce (EC) user. Previous
acceptance view. Innovation resistance theory and
researches attempt to explore the factors that will affect
different product types are employed in order to
user acceptance of online shopping, in order to increase
explore the effect of different product types in the
the EC market [1-3]. However, this study insists that
relationships between online shopping adoption
for those users who known but never (rarely) use EC
barriers and intention to use. This paper is organized as
services, it is important to understand the reasons of
follows: Section 2 is related literature review; section
why they refuse to use. Although, previous studies
3 is research model and hypotheses; section 4 is
attempted to understand the barriers that will affect
research design; section 5 is data analysis and results;
user refuse to adopt EC applications [4-8]. But, all of
section 6 is the conclusions.
them are focused on single product type or service.
However, previous studies indicated that different 2. Literature Review
product types will influence the relationship between
2.1 Online Product Types
factors and user intention in various degrees in the
In traditional marketing field, product characteristic
Corresponding author: Jiunn-Woei Lian, Ph.D., research is one of the most important variables in any discussion
fields: electronic commerce, electronic business. E-mail:
jwlian@nutc.edu.tw. on consumer behavior. It is also critical in the context of
Applying Innovation Resistance Theory to Understand User Acceptance of 189
Online Shopping: The Moderating Effect of Different Product Types

EC. In the EC researches, Klein differentiated between elderly, it was found that the main factor causing
search products and experience products in referring to resistance to this innovation for all users was the value
online product types [12]. Lal and Sarvary barrier. Furthermore, differences in risk barrier and
differentiated between digital products and non-digital image barrier existed among different age groups [6].
products [13]. Additionally, Peterson et al. insisted that Similar studies have also shown that among the factors
in the context of the Internet, a more relevant creating resistance to online banking, functional and
classification system is necessary for classifying psychological barriers appear in the processes of
products online. They proposed a specially designed meeting consumer needs in the levels of service,
classification system for online products and services. channel (medium), consumer, and communication [19].
The system is based on the following three dimensions: Based on above discussions, we can find that
cost and purchase frequency, value proposition and innovation resistance theory can also be applied in the
degree of differentiation [14]. Finally, Phau and Poon context of EC environment. Therefore, this theory is
differentiated online products between intangible employed in present study.
(information) goods and tangible (physical) goods [15]. Additionally, present study finds that few researches
have explored the innovation resistance theory to study
2.2 Innovation Resistance Theory
consumers’ acceptance of innovation products in
In an examination of the inability of users to accept online shopping. Most of them were focused on
innovation, Ram first proposed the idea of innovation intangible (information) products than tangible
resistance with the three dimensions of innovation (physical) products. Additionally, most of them were
characteristics, user characteristics, and sales and focused on a single product type. These studies are
marketing mechanisms to understand the reasons of summarized in Table 1.
people can’t accept innovation [16]. Besides, Ram and
Sheth indicated that the reason that users resist
3. Research Model and Hypotheses
innovation is because of the obstacles produced by the Based on the innovation resistance theory and
change, and conflicts brought by innovation. These related researches, this study proposes a research
barriers can be divided into functional barriers and model (Fig. 1) to understand the user’s intention to use
psychological barriers. Usage barrier, value barrier and B2C online service in the context of different product
risk barrier belong to functional barrier. Tradition types. Additionally, six hypotheses are inferred.
barrier and image barrier belong to psychological Based on the argumentation of innovation resistance
barrier [17]. Ram also found that strategies for lessening theory, we can infer follow five hypotheses:
innovation resistance will differ by product [18]. H1~5: There is a negative relationship between the
user’s intention to use an online service and the usage
2.3 Apply Innovation Resistance Theory in B2C
barrier (H1)/value barrier (H2)/risk barrier (H3)/image
(Business to Consumer)
barrier (H4)/traditional barrier (H5).
In the context of EC, with mobile banking as the Previous B2C E-commerce studies confirm that
subject, in a comparison of young people and the different product types affect consumers’ attitude and

Table 1 Apply innovation resistance theory in the B2C.


Source Product type Barriers
Molesworth and Suortti [4] Buying car online Usage, risk, traditional, image
Luarn and Lee [5] Mobile banking Usage, value, traditional, image
Laukkanen et al. [6] Mobile banking Usage, value, risk, traditional, image
Laukkanen et al. [7] Online banking Risk, traditional, image
190 Applying Innovation Resistance Theory to Understand User Acceptance of
Online Shopping: The Moderating Effect of Different Product Types

Different product types (H6a~H6e)

Usage barrier (H1)

Value barrier (H2)

Intention to use
Risk barrier (H3)

Image barrier (H4)

Traditional barrier (H5)

Fig. 1 Research model.

intention toward Internet shopping and their value, risk, tradition, and image barrier items are
importance in B2C E-commerce [1, 9-11]. Brown et al. adapted from Laukkanen et al. with modifications to
pointed out that different product types affect the users’ make them suitable for the online shopping service
intention to use online services [9]. Lian and Lin situation [6]. User intention items are adapted from
indicated that the determinants of online shopping previous research with modifications to make them
acceptance differ among different product types [1]. suitable for the online shopping service situation [20].
Besides, Hao et al. found that product types play as the Totally this questionnaire contains 21 items.
moderating role toward online shopping decision Finally, based on the operation in Phau and Poon’s
making [10]. Finally, Korgonkar et al. proposed that study [15], in this study, Internet banking was used as
different product types constitute an important factor an example of intangible and service related product
affecting consumers’ attitude toward online auction types. The online bookstore was used as a tangible and
[11]. Based on above discussions, following physical product type.
hypotheses were inferred:
5. Data Analysis and Results
H6a~6e: Different product types have a moderating
affect on the relationship between the usage barrier 5.1 Demographics
(H6a)/value barrier (H6b)/risk barrier (H6c)/image A total of 215 subjects participated in this research.
barrier (H6d)/traditional barrier (H6e) and the intention Among them 178 valid questionnaires is returned. The
to use an online service. return rate is 83%. Table 2 contains the descriptive
statistics of the 178 valid questionnaires.
4. Research Design
5.2 Reliability and Validity Testing
Survey study is employed in this research. Following
sections are illustrations related to our research design. Construct reliability was assessed using Cronbach’s
Subjects were college students who majored in IS α-values which were vary from 0.707 to 0.869.
related departments in Taiwan. Construct reliability was within the acceptable range.
The constructs employed in this study are measured Besides, factor analysis with Quartimax rotation is
with multi-item scales. The items are written in the used to test construct validity. The factor loading of
form of 5 point Likert scale. Items were generated from each question item was greater than 0.45. Therefore,
previous researches and modified when necessary to fit there were 21 items used to obtain an overall score for
the context of innovation resistance theory. The usage, innovation resistance barriers.
Applying Innovation Resistance Theory to Understand User Acceptance of 191
Online Shopping: The Moderating Effect of Different Product Types

Table 2 Demographics. 4 is the results of hypotheses testing.


Characteristics Category N %
Male 97 55.2
5.4 Results
Gender
Female 81 44.8
In our study, the different product types were
15-19 41 23.0
Age 20-24 129 72.5 divided into intangible (information) goods and
Other 8 4.5 tangible (physical) goods. Our study found that value
Have computer at home Have computer and internet 174 97.8 barrier (p = 0.000) and image barrier (p = 0.004) have a
7-9 years 66 37.1 significant effect. Therefore, the H2 and H5 are
Internet experience More than 10 years 63 35.4
supported.
Other 49 27.5
1-2 hours 34 19.1 Additionally, we found that different product types
3-4 hours 73 41.0 have a moderating effect on usage barrier and intention
Use internet per day
5-6 hours 34 19.1 to use (p = 0.035), while different product types
Other 37 20.8 moderating effect on value barrier and intention to use
Table 3 Summary of regression analysis. (p = 0.015) have significant moderating effects.
Model F-Value P-Value R2 Durbin-Watson test Therefore, H6a and H6b are supported.
Five barriers 22.114 0.000 0.374
6. Conclusions
Moderating 18.110 0.000 0.404 1.682
Our study referred to Ram and Sheth’s research [17]
5.3 Regression Analysis
regarding classification of the functional and
The dependent variables measured the different psychological level barriers, and discusses the factors
product types of consumer users’ intention to use. The of users’ refusal toward online shopping. The study
independent variables are x1: usage barrier; x2: value results point to value and image barriers having
barrier; x3: risk barrier; x4: image barrier; and x5: significant direct effects. The value barrier is the
traditional barrier. Our study reduced collinearity by functional level barrier, while the image barrier is the
using stepwise regression. The condition index (CI) psychological level barrier. According to research data,
was reduced from 96.54 to 64.587 by using stepwise the usage and value barriers have a moderating affect
regression. The regression results are shown in Tables on the relationship between the barrier and the
3-4. Table 3 shows the computed F-value and R2 to intention to use an online service. The following
reveal the overall significance of each equation. Table sections discuss the functional and psychological level.

Table 4 Different product types moderating of regression analysis.


Variables/product types Standardized (p-value) Condition index
Usage barrier 0.102(0.342) 3.311
Value barrier 0.576(0.000***) 10.381
Traditional barrier -0.004(0.845) 12.361
Risk barrier 0.003(0.751) 17.515
Image barrier 0.192(0.004**) 20.197
Different product types moderating affect to usage barrier and intention to use 0.937(0.035*) 64.587
Different product types moderating affect to value barrier and intention to use -1.045(015*) 32.587
Different product types moderating affect to traditional barrier and intention to use N/A(0.912) N/A
Different product types moderating affect to risk barrier and intention to use N/A(0.926) N/A
Different product types moderating affect to image barrier and intention to use N/A(0.480) N/A
*: p < 0.05, **: p < 0.01, ***: p < 0.001.
192 Applying Innovation Resistance Theory to Understand User Acceptance of
Online Shopping: The Moderating Effect of Different Product Types

6.1 The Functional Level impression of other online services in the past, the
innovative online service could not elicit recognition
The online bookstore did not have the function: “try
and support. Therefore, the researcher recommends
to read” or the information on “try to read” was
changing the characteristics of online product (quality,
insufficient to confirm whether the books which the
trademarks, service, etc.), organization (process,
user desired to purchase were available via online
benefits, etc.), and environment (façade, the system’s
bookstores. Therefore, the user perceived that online
demonstration, etc.) to enhance positive image of
bookstores could not provide higher value and refuse to
online users. Reducing the users’ image barriers will
change. In regard to online banking, the users of
change the users’ impression and enhance the
financial services may believe that traditional service
motivation to adopt online services.
staff will provide more personalized information which
Finally, the result of present research indicates that
is suitable to them. Online banking cannot have the
value and image barriers are critical factors for user
ability to provide such information, so the user resists
refused B2C E-commerce. We also find that
changing their financial habits. Therefore, our study
“intangible and information products” have more
recommends that the introduction of online services
strong moderating influence then “tangible and
should emphasize the network services’ convenience
physical products” between usage barriers/value
and various discounts in order to appear more attractive.
barriers and intention to use. Our findings can be used
Using an interactive interface increases the service
as the basis for future Internet marketing in order to
information, letting more users know that the online
expand online commerce.
service will provide many more benefits.
Additionally, the research found that intangible Acknowledgment
(information) goods had a stronger effect than did
The authors would like to thank the National Science
tangible (physical) goods in regard to the usage and
Council of Republic of China, Taiwan, for financially
value barriers in the moderating effect of different
supporting this research under contract No. NSC
product types. Many users encounter different online
99-2410-H-025-007- and NSC 100-2410-H-025-003-.
banking service operational difficulties, so they resist
using online banking. The users did not experience the References
convenience of online banking; however, the online
[1] J.W. Lian, T.M. Lin, Effects of consumer characteristics
bookstore was easy to operate and also had a shorter on their acceptance of online shopping: comparisons
purchase process. From the above information, our among different product types, Computers in Human
study found that online banking had a stronger effect Behavior 24 (2008) 48-65.
[2] P.G. Schierz, O. Schilke, B.W. Wirtz, Understanding
than did the online bookstore, resulting from usage and
consumer acceptance of mobile payment services: an
value barriers, in moderating different product types. empirical analysis, Electronic Commerce Research and
The authors recommend simplifying the service Applications 9 (2010) 209-216.
interface to reduce the time needed for users will solve [3] C.C. Shen, J.S. Chiou, The impact of perceived ease of use
on Internet service adoption: the moderating effects of
different problems, i.e., create increased opportunities
temporal distance and perceived risk, Computers in
for user acceptance of innovative services. Reducing Human Behavior 26 (2010) 42-50.
the users’ value barrier to online banking increases the [4] M. Molesworth, J.P. Suortti, Buying cars online: the
intention to use an online service. adoption of the web for high-involvement, high-cost
purchases, Journal of Consumer Behavior 2 (2) (2002)
6.2 The Psychological Level 155-168.
[5] P. Luarn, C.Y. Lee, An exploratory study of why mobile
On the psychological level, if the user had a bad customers resist the innovation of mobile Internet,
Applying Innovation Resistance Theory to Understand User Acceptance of 193
Online Shopping: The Moderating Effect of Different Product Types
Marketing Review 1 (1) (2004) 21-36. [13] R. Lal, M. Sarvary, When and how is the Internet likely to
[6] T. Laukkanen, S. Sinkkonen, M. Kivijärvi, P. Laukkanen, decrease price competition?, Marketing Science 18 (4)
Innovation resistance among mature consumers, Journal (1999) 485-503.
of Consumer Marketing 24 (7) (2007) 419-427. [14] R.A. Peterson, S. Balasubramanian, B.J. Bronnenberg,
[7] P. Laukkanen, S. Sinkkonen, T. Laukkanen, Consumer Exploring the implications of the internet for consumer
resistance to internet banking: postponers, opponents and marketing, Journal of Academy of Marketing Science 25
rejectors, The International Journal of Bank Marketing 26 (4) (1997) 329-346.
(6) (2008) 440-455. [15] I. Phau, S.M. Poon, Factors influencing the types of
[8] T. Laukkanen, V. Kiviniemi, The role of information in products and services purchased over the Internet, Internet
mobile banking resistance, International Journal of Bank Research: Electronic Networking Applications and Policy
Marketing 28 (5) (2010) 372-388. 10 (2) (2000) 102-113.
[9] M. Brown, N. Pope, K. Voges, Buying or browsing? An [16] S. Ram, A model of innovation resistance, Advances in
exploration of shopping orientations and online purchase Consumer Research 14 (1) (1987) 208-212.
intention, European Journal of Marketing 37 (11/12) [17] S. Ram, N.J. Sheth, Consumer resistance to innovations:
(2003) 1666-1684. the marketing problem and its solutions, The Journal of
[10] Y.Y. Hao, Q. Ye, Y.J. Li, Z. Cheng, How does the valence Consumer Marketing 6 (2) (1989) 5-14.
of online consumer reviews matter in consumer decision [18] S. Ram, Successful innovation using strategies to reduce
making? Differences between search goods and consumer resistance: an empirical test, Journal of Product
experience goods, in: 43rd Hawaii International Innovation Management 6 (1) (1989) 20-34.
Conference on System Sciences, 2010. [19] T. Kuisma, T. Laukkanen, M. Hiltunen, Mapping the
[11] P. Korgaonkar, E. Becerra, B. O’Leary, D. Goldring, reasons for resistance to internet banking: a means-end
Product classification, consumer characteristics, and approach, International Journal of Information
patronage preference for online auction, Journal of Management 27 (2) (2007) 75-85.
Retailing and Consumer Services 17 (2010) 270-277. [20] C.V. Slyke, F. Belanger, C.L. Comunale, Factors
[12] L.R. Klein, Evaluating the potential of interactive media influencing the adoption of web-based shopping: the
through a new lens: search versus experience goods, impact of trust, The DATABASE for Advances in
Journal of Business Research 41 (1998) 195-203. Information Systems 35 (2) (2004) 32-49.