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Electric Power Components and Systems

ISSN: 1532-5008 (Print) 1532-5016 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uemp20

Participation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator


Based Wind Turbine in Frequency Regulation with
Frequency-linked Pricing

Yajvender Pal Verma & Ashwani Kumar

To cite this article: Yajvender Pal Verma & Ashwani Kumar (2012) Participation of
Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbine in Frequency Regulation with
Frequency-linked Pricing, Electric Power Components and Systems, 40:14, 1586-1604, DOI:
10.1080/15325008.2012.707289

To link to this article: https://doi.org/10.1080/15325008.2012.707289

Published online: 10 Oct 2012.

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Electric Power Components and Systems, 40:1586–1604, 2012
Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1532-5008 print/1532-5016 online
DOI: 10.1080/15325008.2012.707289

Participation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator


Based Wind Turbine in Frequency Regulation
with Frequency-linked Pricing

YAJVENDER PAL VERMA 1 and ASHWANI KUMAR 2


1
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, UIET, Panjab
University, Chandigarh. India
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology
Kurukshetra, Haryana, India

Abstract The increasing share of wind power in the generation mix may lead to
serious threats to system frequency, as the wind unit does not provide inertia and
isolates from the grid during disturbances. The adverse effects of disturbances can
be mitigated if wind units also contribute to system inertia. This article analyzes
the dynamic participation of a doubly fed induction generator based wind turbine in
system frequency regulation. The modified inertial control scheme is proposed for a
doubly fed induction generator that uses frequency deviations, instead of derivative of
frequency, to provide fast active power injection, which arrests the fall in frequency
during transient conditions. To enhance the participation of a doubly fed induction
generator in frequency control, optimal values of the speed control parameters of a
doubly fed induction generator based wind turbine have been obtained using the
integral square error technique. Frequency-linked pricing control is used to pro-
vide secondary frequency control to reset the frequency close to its nominal value.
The simulation studies have been conducted in a two-area interconnected power
system to demonstrate the contribution of the doubly fed induction generator and
frequency-linked pricing control in system frequency regulation.

Keywords doubly fed induction generator, frequency regulation, frequency-linked


pricing, availability-based tariff

1. Introduction
There is a worldwide drive to include cleaner sources of energy in the generation mix
to meet rising energy demand and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among renewable
sources of energy, wind is one of the most promising technologies. It has been in use for a
significant period of time and has the greatest potential to reduce conventional generation.
However, with the large penetration of wind power into the power system, the grid
frequency will be more vulnerable to disturbances, as wind energy converters generally
do not participate in frequency regulation or automatic generation control (AGC) services.
But as the wind penetration level increases, it is essential to explore the possibility of the

Received 9 January 2012; accepted 25 June 2012.


Address correspondence to Mr. Yajvender Pal Verma, Department of Electrical and Electronics
Engineering, UIET, Panjab University, Chandigarh, Sector 25 Chandigarh, Chandigarh, 160014,
India. E-mail: yajvender_verma@yahoo.com

1586
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1587

doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind turbine in frequency control along
with conventional generators. The inertial and dynamic characteristics of wind generators
are different from conventional generators. The kinetic energy of wind generators will
no longer be available to support the system frequency in the event of any contingency.
Such problems become delicate in isolated systems with wind units integrated into the
system. If installed wind capacity can provide some inertial support, the adverse effects
of contingency can be reduced [1, 2].
Technological advancements have made it possible for wind generators to participate
in frequency control services. It increases the robustness of the operation and makes
wind power penetration safer. In case of DFIGs, the inertia of the turbine is effectively
decoupled from the system, thus preventing the generators from responding to system
frequency changes. The power electronic controller controls the operation and acts as
an interface between the machine and grid. This behavior of DFIGs is not desirable
when operating in large number, as the frequency of the system will change rapidly due
to disturbance with lower system inertia. Few methods have been reported in literature
on how a variable-speed wind turbine can participate effectively in system frequency
regulations. One method is based on inertial control, another is the power reserve con-
trol method (pitch control and speed control), and yet another is the control through
communication method [3]. In [4], an additional inertia control loop having a gain of
2H is introduced, which is sensitive to system frequency and releases the kinetic energy
from the DFIG to support system inertia. Primary frequency is controlled through the
DFIG by injecting active power during frequency excursion. The capability of the DFIG
in frequency regulation is exploited through combined control of static converters and
pitch control. The rotor speed and active power were adjusted according to the deloaded
optimum power extraction curve in [5] to extract maximum power. Dynamic participation
of the DFIG in frequency control is analyzed by a frequency control support function
that responds proportionally to frequency deviation and uses the kinetic energy of turbine
blades to improve frequency [6, 7]. The DFIG’s contribution in frequency regulation is
also studied by governor setting and system inertial response [8].
Different types of controllers are used to maintain the power system in a nor-
mal state of operation. These controllers for AGC are proportional and integral (PI),
proportional-integral-derivative (PID), and optimal controllers. Among other controllers,
the fuzzy-based controller is also very efficient in system frequency regulation. In [9], a
fuzzy controller was used to provide ancillary services through price-based and bilateral
contract mechanisms in a competitive way in a market structure. A fuzzy-based automatic
generation controller with a FACTS (flexible AC transmission system) device was also
proposed for frequency control in an open access market scenario. Phase angle control
of thyristor-controlled phase shifter (TCPS) was used to stabilize the system frequency
and tie-line power oscillations along with fuzzy controller in [10].
With power system restructuring, frequency regulation has become challenging,
because good coordination is required with a large number of GENCOs (generation
companies) and distribution companies (DISCOs). Many approaches have been presented
in the literature to regulate frequency under the open access market. Berger and Schweppe
[11] demonstrated the real-time pricing of generation using the PI feedback control law of
frequency deviations to assist in load frequency control. An integral controller approach
was used while studying an AGC simulator for price-based operation in [12]. Frequency-
linked pricing is one such approach that encourages generators to respond proportionally
to frequency deviations or corresponding price signals sent out by the independent system
operator (ISO) and help restore the system frequency back to nominal or close to nominal
1588 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

value [9, 13, 14]. Unintended unscheduled interchanges (UIs) among the participants can
be avoided or reduced by these frequency-linked price signals [14, 15].
The objective of the article is to analyze the load frequency control problem in a two-
area interconnected system with a DFIG-based wind turbine integrated to both areas and
to show the effectiveness of coordinated control of the DFIG and frequency-linked pricing
mechanism in frequency regulation. It has been assumed that conventional generators re-
spond to a frequency-based price signal without any delay. The DFIG operates according
to the deloaded optimum power extraction curve and incorporates the frequency deviation
signal to inject the electrical power. In this way, active power injected by the DFIG is
kept on, while frequency deviation stands, therefore contributing in frequency control. The
different wind penetration levels (5, 10, and 20%) were used, and frequency responses
for load perturbation of 2% were obtained with optimized parameters of the DFIG
controller. System responses have been analyzed and compared for secondary control
through frequency-linked price control (FLC) and PI control alternatively. The simulations
experiments were conducted using SIMULINK in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick,
Massachusetts, USA).
The rest of the article is structured as follows. In Section 2, a linearized model of
the two-area system with frequency-linked pricing is presented; then modeling of DFIG
for frequency regulation through inertial control is discussed; and finally, the concept
of FLC is given. Problem formulation and optimization of parameters are discussed in
Section 3. Simulation, results, and discussions are covered in Sections 4 and 5, respec-
tively; Section 6 carries the conclusions.

2. Models for Simulation

2.1. Power System Model


Figure 1 shows the transfer function block diagram of a two-area interconnected power
system consisting of conventional generators and DFIG-based wind turbine generators
connected to both areas. The dynamic contribution of a DFIG-based wind turbine in
frequency regulation is studied, which is connected to a system comprising a conventional
prime-mover model and a non-reheat type turbine. The model simulates frequency regu-
lation after a disturbance and includes conventional system parameters, such as damping
factor (D), droop (R), inertia (H ), and governor time constants (Th and Tt ) of the system
equivalent (governor and turbine) unit. TP and KP are power system time constant and
power system gain, respectively, and Ph is the incremental hydraulic valve position
change. The turbine has Pg as output, and incremental power demand PD is subtracted
from it, along with total active power interchanged (P12 ) with neighbor systems, while
power supplied by non-conventional source PNC is added to the system, as shown in
Eq. (1):
Pg C PNC P12 PD D Pf ; (1)

where
2H
TP D ; (2)
fD
1
KP D : (3)
D
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1589

Figure 1. Transfer function model of a two-area system with DFIG generation for frequency
support.

Pref stands for the secondary control or AGC power reference, which is provided
by FLC.

2.2. DFIG Modeling


During AGC, when wind generators participate in frequency regulation, the wind turbines
(fixed-speed turbines) prevent themselves from supplying their maximum available power
so as to maintain a reserve margin for frequency control. But now, with advanced control,
kinetic energy stored in the mechanical system of wind turbines can be extracted with
variable-speed generators. DFIG-based wind turbines can produce power with variable
mechanical speed and extract kinetic energy to support the primary frequency regula-
tion [4]. The active and reactive power output of a DFIG can be controlled as desired
by the operator. Although the steady-state active power delivered to the grid by a
wind energy conversion system (WECS) depends on the wind speed, the power can
be dynamically controlled to a certain extent by utilizing the stored mechanical energy.
Figure 2 shows the dynamic model used for the study of frequency regulation with
a DFIG-based wind generator, which has the essence of emulation inertial control as
given in [16]. In emulation inertial control of a DFIG, an additional control signal helps
to adapt the power set-points Pf as a function of deviation and rate of change of
frequency. The controllers try to keep the turbine at its optimal speed in order to produce
the maximum power. The controller provides a power set-point P! that is based on
measured speed and measured electrical power. The support to primary frequency control
depends on activation of this additional loop, as the grid frequency exceeds certain limits.
As the system frequency drops, the set-point torque is increased, the rotor slows down,
and kinetic energy is released. PNC has two components: Pf , the additional reference
point based on frequency change as given in [17] with conventional inertial control, and
1590 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

Figure 2. DFIG-based wind turbine control based on frequency change.

P! , which is based on optimum turbine speed as a function of wind speed, discussed
here:
df
Pf D Kdf Kpf f; (4)
dt
where Kdf is a constant weighting the frequency deviation derivative, and Kpf weights
the frequency deviation itself. f is the frequency deviation behind a high-pass filter,
which is unaffected of permanent frequency deviation. The equivalent non-conventional
machine recovers the optimal speed once the frequency transient is over. A power
reference point Pw , forcing the speed to follow a desired speed reference, is given as
Z
P! D Kwp .! 
!/ C Kwi .!  !/ dt; (5)

where Kwp and Kwi are constants of the PI controller, providing fast speed recovery and
transient speed variation, which helps non-conventional generators to supply the required
active power to reduce deviations. The total non-conventional power injection is given
by PNC as under:

PNC D Pf C P! : (6)

The system inertia translates into H  in conventional inertial control when the non-
conventional generating unit also contributes to system inertia. The system inertia is
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1591

controlled by Kdf , whereas Kpf provides the system damping, as given below:
 
2H df
C Kdf D Pf Df
f dt
„ ƒ‚ …
2H 

D Pg C PNC P12 PD .Kpf C D/ f: (7)


„ ƒ‚ …
D

The contribution of the DFIG toward system inertia in modified inertial control is given as

2H df
D Pf Df D Pg C PNC P12 PD Df: (8)
f dt

It has an additional reference power setting that is built based on the change in frequency
using a washout filter with time constant Tw , which relies on a conventional primary
regulation performance in a transient. The reference point Pf is obtained from Eq. (9)
and is given as

1
Pf D .X2 /; (9)
R

where R is the droop constant as used conventionally, and X2 is the frequency change
measured where the wind turbine is connected to the network.
The DFIG responds to frequency deviations during transients by using their stored
kinetic energy, and it cannot act in a permanent system frequency deviation. For this
reason, the frequency term (X2 ) used in Eq. (9) is the result of a washout filter, as
shown in Figure 2. The controller proposed makes use of frequency deviations instead
of derivative of frequency, as in the control law to provide fast active power injection
control. The active power injected by the wind turbine is PNC . The power injected is
compared with PNC ref so as to obtain the maximum power output, which is obtained by
maintaining reference rotor speed, where maximum power is obtained. The mechanical
power captured by the wind turbine is given by Eq. (10):
01 1
Ar
Pmech D @ 2 Cp:opt A !s3 ;
B C
(10)
Sn

where

 is the air density in kg/m3 ,


Ar is the rotor swept area in m2 ,
Cp:opt is the maximum value of the Cp ./ curve at a pitch angle ˇ D 0ı ,
opt is the optimal value of  for which the value of Cp:opt is maximum,
Sn is the wind turbine rating in MW, and
!s is the wind speed.

The values of these parameters are given for a GE 3.6-MW turbine in [18].
1592 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

2.3. FLC
The concept of the availability-based tariff (ABT) was introduced in India in the year
2000 to maintain the grid discipline and keep the frequency close to nominal value. The
GENCOs and load utility have to pay a price based on a UI charge in case they deviate
from their scheduled generation or demand, respectively. The UI rates are decided by the
Central Electricity Regulation Commission (CERC) and obtained from the frequency-
linked UI rate curve, as shown in Figure 3. The ABT mechanism also encourages
the beneficiaries to take part in normalizing the frequency by managing their demand
requirements. A mathematical framework was proposed in [13, 19] based on the ABT,
which provides a secondary frequency control to bring the frequency to a nominal value.
Wind, being a cheap and clean source of energy, is used on priority and is kept free from
the ABT mechanism.
In India, AGC has not been implemented [20], and all the commissioned generators
have to operate under the free governor mode of operation all the time, providing primary
frequency control to maintain the grid frequency. The secondary control is based on the
frequency-linked pricing concept known as the ABT. The conventional frequency control
consists of two control loops. The first loop controls the frequency by the self-regulating
feature of the governor, and the secondary control loop has a controller that can fully
eliminate the frequency error with the help of integral control. The input power of the
governor can be controlled to increase or decrease the plant output depending upon nature
of disturbance. Figure 4 shows the mathematical framework proposed in [19], wherein
the ABT is used to generate the frequency-linked pricing signal given to the governor.
In the ABT-based frequency control scheme, the primary control is similar to that of
conventional frequency control, but the secondary control loop incorporates the UI price
signal. The system frequency is monitored at a dispatch center, and the corresponding
UI rate is compared with the incremental cost of the generators. If the incremental cost
of the generating unit exceeds the UI rate, it then reduces the generation or vice versa.
The frequency-linked pricing signal is sent to the governor of the generator to increase
or decrease the generation depending upon the nature of signal. Thus, the governor gets
a signal based on the difference, and action is taken to bring the frequency back to

Figure 3. Frequency-linked UI rate curve. (color figure available online)


Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1593

Figure 4. ABT-based frequency control scheme.

nominal value. This method is very useful in power-deficit countries like India to ensure
grid discipline.

3. Mathematical Problem Formulation


The AGC model investigated is comprised of an interconnected two-area system with a
DFIG integrated to both of the areas. The objective of the AGC is to re-establish the pri-
mary frequency regulation capability and to bring the frequency back to its nominal value
as soon as possible, minimizing the tie-line power flow oscillations between neighboring
control areas. The secondary frequency regulation is provided by a frequency-linked
pricing mechanism in conventional plants. It has been assumed that the conventional
generators respond to the UI price signal without any delay. The DFIG, along with a
non-reheat type system having FLC, responds to frequency deviations caused by a load
change. The DFIG responds quickly during transients, whereas the secondary frequency
control of conventional generators takes time to eliminate the frequency error.
Under normal operating conditions, each area strives to carry its own load and
a portion of the neighboring area’s load through the tie-line if scheduled in advance.
During normal operation, the tie-line power flow is given as

jV1 jjV2 j
P12 D sin.ı1 ı2 /; (11)
X12

where ı1 and ı2 are the angles of the tie end voltages V1 and V2 , respectively, and P12
is the power in the tie-line. For small values of ı1 and ı2 , the tie-line power increment
can be written as follows:
P12  T12 .ı1 ı2 /; (12)
1594 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

where
jV1 jjV2 j
T12 D cos.ı1 ı2 /: (13)
X12
Analogous to the electric stiffness concept of synchronizing machines, T12 is considered
as the synchronizing torque coefficient. The dynamic model is developed using small
load perturbation analysis. The model can be represented in state-space form from the
transfer function as
dX
D AX C €p; (14)
dt
where
2 3T
Pref 1 Ph1 Pg1 f1 P12 X1 1 X2 1
6 7
6
6 X3 1 PNC1 !1 7
7
X D6 7 ; (15)
6 Pref 2 Ph2 Pg2 f2 X1 2 X2 2 X3 2
7
4 5
PNC 2 !2

€ D Œ0 0 0 Kp1 =Tp1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Kp2 =Tp2 0 0 0 0 0T ; (16)

P D Œ0 0 0 PD1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

PD2 0 0 0 0 0T : (17)

In the above, X is the state-vector comprising the system variables (shown for both
areas with subscripts), and P is the perturbation vector. The matrixes A and € are
state and perturbation matrices of appropriate dimensions, respectively. In a state vector,
Ph is the hydraulic governor valve position change, Pg is the conventional generator
power increment, PNC is the non-conventional power support provided by a DFIG, !
is the increment speed of the wind turbine, f is the increment frequency change, X1 is
the frequency after being measured by transducer, X2 is the frequency change after
washout filter, and X3 is the increment change in a DFIG integral speed control.
The system behavior depends upon the network parameters, tie-line power, and conven-
tional system parameters. To enhance the participation of a DFIG in frequency control
in response to system disturbances, optimal values of the speed control parameters (Kwp
and Kwi ) of a DFIG-based wind turbine have been obtained. The integral square error
(ISE) technique is used for obtaining the optimum values of Kwp and Kwi to minimize
the objective function, defined as performance index J :
X 
J D f12 C f22 C Ptie 2
T; (18)

where T is a given time interval for taking samples, fi is a discrete value of incremen-
tal change in frequency for the i th area, and Ptie is the value of incremental change in
tie-line power. The sample values are obtained from their respective plots derived through
transfer function analysis. The optimal values of the DFIG speed controller parameters
are obtained by searching for the minimum value of J.
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1595

4. Simulation Studies
Simulations studies have been conducted to investigate the role of the DFIG in system
frequency control with a DFIG-based wind turbine providing varying active power sup-
port. The system is tested when secondary frequency control is provided by FLC or by
PI controller. In this article, a linearized model of the two-area interconnected system is
used, as shown in Figure 1, with a DFIG integrated to both areas, as shown in Figure 2,
and FLC applied on traditional generators, as mentioned in Figure 4. The different levels
of wind penetration were used, and results have been shown for a wind penetration
level of 10%. The level of wind penetration is defined as
wind generation
Wr D : (19)
total generation
The following cases have been considered during simulation studies.

4.1. FLC with DFIGs Connected in Both Areas


Simulations have been conducted considering the dynamic model shown in Figure 1
for a load perturbation of 2% in area 1 at time t D 1 sec. A step-load perturbation is
considered in each area (A, B) separately, and in both areas (A, B) alternatively. Different
levels of wind penetrations were applied to investigate the impact of a DFIG in system
operation. The optimal setting of DFIG controller parameters in two areas is obtained
to enhance the participation of a DFIG-based wind turbine in frequency control. The
frequency excursion curves have been presented for a wind power penetration level of
10%. The step-load perturbation causes substantial fall in frequency. The traditional as
well as DFIG would start increasing their generations to arrest the initial fall in frequency.
It has been assumed that wind speed remains constant during the simulation and that the
DFIG-based wind turbine works at optimal speed with maximum power obtainable from
the wind, as discussed in Section 2. The conventional generator is able to supply the
additional load after settlement of the transient. The FLC responds to the UI price signal
after comparing it with incremental costs of the generating units. The cost curves of the
two-area generators are assumed to be the same; cost coefficients and other data are given
in Appendix A.

4.2. Secondary Frequency Control Through PI Controller with


DFIG Connected
In this case, secondary control is provided with a PI controller, and a load perturbation of
2% is considered, with the DFIGs connected to both areas. The speed control parameters
of the DFIG and integral gains of the PI controller were obtained using the ISE technique
to increase the contribution of wind turbine in frequency control.

4.3. System Frequency Control Without DFIG


In this case study, the system is simulated without any DFIGs connected to the system
to evaluate the effect on the system frequency response in the absence of DFIGs. An
event is also simulated when the system is operating with one DFIG in area 1 only. A
step-load perturbation of 2% is applied in each area (A, B) separately and in both areas
(A, B) alternatively.
1596 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

Figure 5. Area 1 frequency response for 2% load change in area 1. (color figure available online)

5. Results and Discussion


The results of the simulation studies have been obtained and compared for FLC and
PI control. In the simulation study, an additional power PD1 of 2% is added to the
reference point in area 1. Figures 5 and 6 show the frequency excursion curves of areas 1
and 2, respectively, for three different cases, as discussed in Section 4. The DFIG reacts
fast and provides active power support proportional to frequency deviation. The inertial
support is provided by the DFIGs by lowering their rotor speeds and transferring more
kinetic energy into the grid and compensating the load perturbation. It can be seen
that frequency deviation is smallest when DFIGs are providing frequency support. The
response with the FLC controller with a DFIG as compared to no DFIG has less transient

Figure 6. Area 2 frequency response for 2% load change in area 1. (color figure available online)
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1597

Figure 7. Area 1 frequency response for 2% load change in area 2. (color figure available online)

settling time. It is observed from the responses that the frequency deviations and tie-line
power deviations are zero in steady state. The frequency deviations are settling at zero
steady state in less than 23 sec with FLC control with a DFIG. The response is better
with secondary control with FLC as compared to secondary control with a PI controller
in terms of shorter transient time settlement and lower transient power excursion peaks.
The PI controller with a DFIG also results in lower peak excursions and smaller settling
time as compared to no DFIG operation.
The simulations were conducted for a step-load perturbation of 2% in area 2. The
frequency responses obtained in Figures 7 and 8 show that the FLC have the least

Figure 8. Area 2 frequency response for 2% load change in area 2. (color figure available online)
1598 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

Figure 9. Wind turbine: (a) electrical power and (b) wind turbine speed variation following a load
change of 2% in area 1. (color figure available online)

settling time and lower peak excursions when DFIGs participate in frequency control.
The participation of a DFIG in frequency control with conventional plants operated with
FLC arrests the transients and succeeds in lowering the overshoots.
Figure 9 shows the active power and rotor speed response of the DFIG while
participating for frequency control. It can be seen that when the load increases at t D 1,
the DFIG releases its kinetic energy by reducing the mechanical speed instantly, thereby
increasing its power output to contribute to frequency regulation. Thereafter, DFIG output
decreases, since the speed is no longer at the optimal value and power extracted from the
wind is reduced. As the DFIG speed controller acts and the optimal speeds are attained,
the DFIG power output returns to its nominal value. The wind speed and wind penetration
level for simulation studies have been assumed as 7.5 m/s and 10%, respectively, in both
areas. It is observed that the DFIG’s extra active power supports frequency in the transient
period only, and it does not contribute to frequency control after steady state is reached.
The conventional generator, on the other hand, regulates its output and attains a new
steady-state operation level while providing regulation service.
Figure 10 shows the generation response of conventional generators following a load
change in area 1. Generators of both areas respond to the load perturbation and increase
their generations. With active power support from a DFIG, the conventional generators
are burdened less to regulate frequency. This is evident from the curves of generating
units in which they attain the same generation level in steady state, but in initial intervals,
the generation of conventional units is less, as the DFIG is proving active power support.
In thermal plants, there is delay in control valve motion to generate the mechanical power,
which slows down the response of a conventional generating unit. The DFIG responds
instantly and can help in preventing the initial dip in frequency. The DFIG provides
frequency support during transients only, and the deviations in load are finally taken over
by the conventional generators. This is due to the reason that conventional generators
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1599

Figure 10. Generation response from conventional units following a load change of 2% in area 1.
(color figure available online)

have sufficient inertia as compared to wind turbines. The generator with FLC settles at
a generation level less than the PI controller in a two-area interconnected system. This
depends upon the cost characteristics of the generating units which are assumed similar
here. Due to this, the generation response from both generators equalize after some time
in FLC. Generation response from the generators of area 2 is small compared to area 1
during load perturbation in the case of PI control.
It is observed that the response of AGC with support from a DFIG compared to no
DFIG to minimize the tie-line power flow is improved in terms of smaller transient settling
time when load change is considered in each area separately, as shown in Figure 11.
The peak excursion, however, is higher, but the settling time is less compared to no
DFIG. This is due to quick active power support provided by the wind turbine in initial
intervals.
In Figure 12, the behavior of frequency is presented when a load change of 2% is
considered in both areas. With FLC of thermal turbines and the DFIG’s participation in
frequency control with optimal speed control parameters, the fall in system frequency is
successfully arrested by transferring the kinetic energy of wind units. Figure 13 shows the
area frequency responses when the DFIG of area 2 is removed. The frequency response
of area 1 is better than area 2 in terms of peak excursion and settling time. This is due
to active power support provided by the DFIG to the system in area 1. As there was
no support from the DFIG in area 2, conventional generators are stressed more during
transients, resulting higher frequency excursions. The improvement in frequency response
with a DFIG in area 1 confirms the participation of the DFIG in system frequency
control.
1600 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

Figure 11. Tie-line power following a load changes of 2% in: (a) area 1 and (b) area 2. (color fig-
ure available online)

Figure 12. Grid frequency behavior following a load change of 2% in both areas. (color figure
available online)
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1601

Figure 13. Frequency response with and without DFIG 2 for load change of 2% in area 1. (color
figure available online)

The simulations were conducted for wind penetration levels of 5, 10, and 20%, as
shown in Figure 14. The increase in active power support from wind turbine decreases
the rotor speed further and transfers the higher kinetic energy to the system to provide
frequency control. Wind units no doubt contribute to system inertia, but large penetration
may lead to frequency response deterioration by way of increased settling time and

Figure 14. (a) Wind turbine electric power and (b) rotor speed for different wind penetration
levels. (color figure available online)
1602 Y. P. Verma and A. Kumar

Table 1
Optimal parameters of the controllers for
different wind penetrations

Area 1 Area 2

Wind penetration Kwi1 Kwp1 Kwi 2 Kwp2

5% 0.12 1.1 0.05 1.0


10% 0.18 1.32 0.1 1.15
20% 0.28 1.72 0.1 1.41

high steady-state errors. Table 1 gives the optimal values of speed control parameters
of the DFIG obtained through the ISE technique. The optimal values of speed control
parameters for different wind penetration levels improve the performance of a DFIG in
system frequency control.
Simulation results show the improvement in frequency response with active power
support from a DFIG, which confirms the participation of DFIGs in frequency control.
The higher wind penetration can improve the frequency profile compared to no wind
support. The capabilities of fast response of wind units can be used to arrest the initial
drop in frequency. Since conventional units take some time to respond to any change
(generation loss, load change, etc.), the DFIG along with a conventional unit can be
used effectively in frequency regulation. Since wind units act during transients only and
later return back to their normal generation, proper coordination between the wind unit
and conventional generators through a communication system needs to be established
for efficient frequency regulation. However, selection of secondary control depends upon
the suitability of controller toward policies and regulations adopted in those regions of
operation.

6. Conclusion
Large penetration of wind units into the power system decreases the system inertia as
the DFIG decouples itself from the grid frequency in the event of disturbance. DFIGs
have a significant amount of kinetic energy stored in the rotating mass of their blades,
and the power electronic control of WECSs provides fast response capabilities to them
as compared to conventional generation systems, which can be used to improve the
transient performance of existing frequency control procedures. In this article, the DFIG
is used, which provides short-term transient active power support and arrests initial
frequency dips. The controller considers the frequency deviations, not the derivative
of frequency as used in conventional inertial control. Unlike normal inertial control, an
additional reference power output is used, which helps in releasing the kinetic energy
from rotating masses of the DFIG to support the system inertia. The secondary control
is provided by a frequency-linked pricing signal, which decides the gain based on the
frequency deviation and UI price signal. The optimal speed control parameters have been
used for a DFIG to increase its participation in frequency control. The simulation results
show that FLC together with a DFIG contributing to frequency regulation yield better
frequency control performance than a PI controller.
Frequency Regulation with Frequency-linked Pricing with DFIG 1603

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Appendix
Model constants for areas 1 and 2 that are used for simulation are shown in Table A1.

Table A1
Model constants used for simulation

Area 1 Area 2 Description Value

He1 He2 Equivalent wind turbine inertia 3.5 p.u. MW.sec


Kagc1 Kagc2 AGC integral control gain 0.05
Kp1 Kp2 Power system gain 50, 60 Hz/p.u.
Kwi1 Kwi 2 DFIG integral controller gain 0.1
Kwp1 Kwp2 DFIG proportional speed 1.23, 1.58
controller gain
R1 R2 Regulation droop 3, 3
Tı Tı Tie-line synchronizing coefficient 0.07 p.u. MW/Hz
Ta1 Ta2 DFIG turbine 0.2 sec
Th1 Th2 Conventional generation governor 0.1 sec
time constant
Tp1 Tp2 Power system time constant 10 sec, 15 sec
Tr1 Tr 2 Transducer time constant 15 sec
Tt1 Tt2 Conventional generation turbine 1 sec
time constant
Tw1 Tw1 Washout filter time constant 6 sec
for DFIG
a a Cost coefficients 1.930 $/MWh2
b b Cost coefficients 0.856 $/MWh