Sie sind auf Seite 1von 25

Oct

14, 2017

Nontrivial Field Effect Transistors:


Electron Optics with p-n Junctions in Graphene
Eakkarat Pattrawutthiwong 57090500714
Departments of Physics, Faculty of Science
King Monkut’s University of Technology Thonburi
Overview
Prologue

Introduction
• Discovery of graphene
• Atomic structure
• Exotic properties of graphene
• Veselago Lens
• Electron-optic behavior

Graphene-based p-n junction


• Electrical doping of graphene
• Negative refraction in graphene
• Electron Veselago Lens

Conclusion

Reference
https://wallpaperscraft.com/image/mac_apple_computers_evolution_66783_1920x1080.jpg
Prologue

A Colossus computer as it was during World War II

1 https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossus_computer
Prologue

Intregrated Circuit

2 http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2009/12/10/2766523.htm
Prologue

Graphene chip

https://www.extremetech.com/extreme/175727-ibm-builds-graphene-chip-thats-10000-times-faster-
3 using-standard-cmos-processes
4
Discovery of Graphene
Graphene was discovered in 2004 by Andre and Konstantin, both received
Nobel Prize in 2010 in physics

Andre Geim Konstantin Novoselov Graphene structure

http://www.condmat.physics.manchester.ac.uk/people/academic/geim/
5 https://manchester2016.esof.eu/en/speakers/speakers-details/sir-konstantin-novoselov.html
http://scienceinpoland.pap.pl/en/news/news,409686,wroclaw-researchers-are-working-on-medical-applications-of-graphene.html
Atomic structure 4 P. Kim Séminaire Poincaré

𝜋 − 𝑏𝑜𝑛𝑑
A sublattice(K)

B sublattice(K’)

Unit cell

𝜎-bond

• The carbon atoms in graphene condense in a


honeycomb lattice
• two inequivalent lattice per unit cell
Figure 2: (a) Real space image of graphene lattice structure. Two di↵erent sub-lattices are marked
by red and blue color. (b) Low energy approximation of energy band near the charge neutrality
• Each carbon atom share 3 sp
of graphene energy band. Two inequivalent corner of the Brillouin 2 electrons with 3
zone are marked by K and K0 ,
respectively.
neighboring atoms forming 𝜎-bond
The structure• ofOne free electron is in 2p
this “Dirac” equation is interesting z–orbital forming 𝜋
for several reasons.− 𝑏𝑜𝑛𝑑
First,
the resulting energy dispersion near the zone corners is linear in momentum, E() =
±~vF ||, where the wave vector  is defined relative to K(or K0 ), i.e.,  = k K(or
Figure(upper left) from https://www.researchgate.net
K0 ). Consequently, the electrons near these two Dirac points always move at a
6 Figure(bottom left) from http://personal.monm.edu/gebauer_peter/chem_230/Lect_pages/Bruice_jpgs&pgs/sp2_hybrids.jpg
constant speed, given by the Fermi velocity vF ⇡ c/300 (rather than the real speed
Figure(upper right) from Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics
Exotic Properties of Graphene
Electronic Band Structure The Dirac-like Hamiltonian

Dirac Fermion Si-based Semiconductor

ℋ = ξ𝑣+ 𝜎,·𝒑
Conduction band

Dirac point
ξ = Valley index = ±1
𝑣+ = Fermi velocity ~ 10=
K
K’
Valence band
𝒑 = momentum operator = −𝑖ℏ𝛻
𝜎⃑ = Pauli matrix
0 1 0 −𝑖 1 0
𝜎x = , 𝜎y = , 𝜎z =
1 0 −𝑖 0 0 −1
𝑝E (ℏ𝑘)E
𝐸 = ±ℏ𝑣+ 𝑘 𝐸 = =
2𝑚 2𝑚

7 Figure(left) https://physics.aps.org/articles/v4/25
Exotic Properties of Graphene
Quantum Hall Effect Klein Tunneling
QHE in graphene can be observed at room temperature Quantum Mechanics

At room temperature Quantum Electrodynamics

GaAs ℏ𝜔K << 𝑘M 𝑇

Graphene ℏ𝜔K >> 𝑘M 𝑇

8 Figure(left) from http://slideplayer.com/slide/6610062/


Veselago Lens
Veselago lens is made of metamaterials and have negative refractive index

𝜃1 n1

n2

-𝜃2

Positive and negative refraction Negative-index metamaterial

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v480/n7375/fig_tab/480042a_F1.html
9 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metamaterial
Electron-Optic Behavior

The transmission of charge through the PNJ bears resemblance to the refraction of light

10 http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2016/oct/03/negative-refraction-of-electrons-spotted-in-graphene
atures T between 10 K and 100 K. Even at room

Electrical Doping of Graphene


temperature µ is limited by impurity scattering
(and not phonon scattering) and therefore it can
be improved considerably.2,3 A band overlap oc-
curs, if the measured compound has more than one
layer. The size of the overlap (in the region from
Electric Field Effect in Graphene 4 to 20 meV) depends on the number of layers and
vanishes if there is only one single layer.1 So the
Si wafers covered with 300 nm thermally grown SiO2 were used as a substrate
essence here is a high mobility of CC and a tuneable
CC-concentration in semi-conductore range via Vg .

Graphene sheet

Fig.

Schematic of bottom-gated graphene field-effect transistor Voltage applied vs Resistance


Fig. 5: EFE in graphene. For negative/positive
gate voltage VG the charge carriers are
Figure(left) from [9]
11 holes/electrons.2,3 symmetric behavior for
http://www.pi1.uni-stuttgart.de/lehre/ws_2013-2014/Graphen.pdf
(2D) Indeed, let us consider, in Figs. 2A and 3A, the PNJ transforms a divergent flow of electrons
uning a de Broglie wave of an electron approaching emitted by a source on the n-side into a con-
ns of
nder-
thus
Electrical Doping of Graphene
the PNJ from the n-side with the velocity V =
(vcosqc,vsinqc) and the wave vector k =
(kccosqc,kcsinqc). At the interface, this wave is
vergent flow on the p-side. This results in fo-
cusing (Fig. 2A) for a symmetric junction, rh =
re corresponding to n = −1. Under the latter con-

Downloaded from www.sciencemag.org on December 5, 2007


listic partly reflected to the state with the wave vector dition, electrons injected at (−a,0) in the n-region
ne is k′ = (−kccosqc,kcsinqc) and partly transmitted to at the Fermi energy meet again in a symmetric
7, 8). the valence band state with the velocity V = spot at (a,0).
trons Voltages ±U applied to the two gates shift the
ptical
erials Fig. degeneracy point of the electron dispersion cones
1. Graphene p-n
junction (PNJ). Monolayer
The down by ħ𝑣𝑘 on the left and up byħ𝑣𝑘R on the right
of graphite is placed over K
rrent,
the split gate, which is
hene
.
Electron in conduction band
used to create n- (left)
and p-doped (right) re-
hene gions. The energy dia-
s va- gram shows the position 𝐸𝑐 = +ħ𝑣+ 𝑘
ouch of the Fermi level with
ermi respect to the touching
𝒌
𝑉𝑐 = 𝑣
ongs point of the valence and 𝑘
Bloch the conduction bands. XY Z
ouin ⍴𝑐 =
r the [
Fermi level
unted Hole in valence band
louin
V= 𝐸𝑣 = −ħ𝑣+ 𝑘
ħvk,
−ħvk, Dirac point 𝒌
𝑉𝑣 = −𝑣
nck’s
Fig. 2. Focusing of elec- 𝑘
ch a E
hene
trons by symmetric PNJ, 𝑘R
rh = re. (A) Classical ⍴ℎ =
ght). trajectories of electrons 𝜋
s ±U diverging from a source
racy 12 Figure from [1]
at distance a from the
Negative Refraction in Graphene
symmetric junction, ⍴𝑐= ⍴ℎ 𝑛 = −1

n-type region p-type region

Incident electrons momentum Transmitted electrons momentum


𝐤 = (𝑘K cos 𝜃K , 𝑘K sin 𝜃K ) 𝐤 = −𝑘R cos 𝜃R , −𝑘R sin 𝜃R
Reflected electrons momentum
𝐤′ = (−𝑘K cos 𝜃K , 𝑘K sin 𝜃K )

13 Figure from [1]


Negative Refraction in Graphene
𝑛 = −1

n-type region p-type region

The electron momentum along a straight interface should be conserved

cde (fY ) hXg


𝑘K sin 𝜃K = −𝑘R sin 𝜃R = ≡𝑛
cde fg XY

14 Figure from [1]


analysis of

Downloaded from www.science


Electron Veselago lens
electron de
B show the
culations of
(−a,0) and
ocal point in
the vicinity
The densities of charge carriers in p-region can be controlled by the top gate
n the sym-
3B). The
pplying the p-type region
e Dirac-like
graphene. It Fig. 4. (A) Electron
stic, that is, Veselago lens and (B
an free path and C) prism-shaped
l size of the focusing beam splitter in
the ballistic n-p-n junc-
e to the fo-
tion in graphene-based
ated current
transistor.
ffiffiffi
2 stands for

focus]. The
is caused by
coefficient
ed at shorter
calculated n-type region
≠ re shows
the canon-
pe of wave
the current 15 Figure from [1]
Conclusion
• Electrons transport in graphene is governed by Dirac equation

• p-n junction in graphene can be created by applying gate voltage

• Ballistic electrons transport crossing a p-n junction in graphene can mimic


electron-optic behavior

• Electron Veselago lensing is a new approach of fabricating electronic


devices to solve the problem of Klein tunneling

16
References
1. Vadim V. Cheianov, Vladimir Fal'ko, B. L. Altshuler, 2007, The Focusing of Electron Flow and a Veselago Lens in Graphene p-
n Junctions, Science, Vol. 315, Issue 5816, pp. 1252-1255

2. Victor Veselago, Leonid Braginsky, Valery Shklover, Christian Hafner, 2006, Negative Refractive Index Materials, Journal of
Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience, Volume 3, Number 2, pp. 189-218

3. K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, A. A. Firsov, 2004, Electric Field Effect in
Atomically Thin Carbon Films, Science, Vol. 306, Issue 5696, pp. 666-669

4. Marek S. Wartak, Kosmas L. Tsakmakidis, Ortwin Hess, 2011, Introduction to Metamaterials, Physics In Canada, Vol. 67, No. 1

5. Jean-No𝑒̈ l FUCHS, Mark Oliver GOERBIG, 2008, Lecture Notes Introduction to the Physical Properties of Graphene, pp. 3-18

6. Gil-Ho Lee, Geon-Hyoung Park, Hu-Jong Lee, 2015, Observation of negative refraction of Dirac fermions in graphene, Nature
Physics, Vol. 11,pp. 925–929

7. J. B. Pendry, 2000, Negative Refraction Makes a Perfect Lens, Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 85, Iss. 18

8. K. S. Novoselov1, A. K. Geim1, S. V. Morozov2, D. Jiang1, M. I. Katsnelson3, I. V. Grigorieva1, S. V. Dubonos2 & A. A. Firsov, 2005,
Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene, Nature, Vol. 483, pp. 197-200

17
References
9. Shaoqing Wang, Zhi Jin, Xinnan Huang, Songang Peng, Dayong Zhang, Jingyuan Shi, 2016, Abnormal Dirac point shift in graphene
field-effect transistors, Materials Research Express, Vol. 3, No. 9

18
Appendix: Classical Hall Effect

https://www.miniphysics.com/uy1-hall-effect.html
19
Appendix: Conventional doping

Impurity is added in order to manipulate the concentration of carriers

Group V atom has 5 electrons, 4 electrons Group III atom has 3 electrons,
use to establish the bonds with silicon one more electron is needed to
atoms and one free electron left to move form the bonds
freely

http://www.pveducation.org/pvcdrom/doping
20
Appendix: Electron Veselago lens
Actual device developed in Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology

Figure 1Schematic of Veselago lens with current


| Negative refraction in graphene p-n junctions. Scanning electron microscopy image of
a, Band structure of graphene and
trajectories under a focusing condition the Veselago lens device
Figure 1 | Negative refraction in graphene p-n junctions. a, Band structure of graphene and
the dispersion relation of the wave vector (k) and the group velocity (V g ) for the electron-
the dispersion relation
21 of the wave vector (k) and the group velocity (V g ) for the electron-
Figure from http://www.nature.com/nphys/journal/v11/n11/full/nphys3460.html