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Inductors & EMC-Ferrites


Basics - Parts and Applications

Wurth Electronics Inc.


Field Application Engineer
Michael Eckert

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


What is an Inductor ?

technical view:
„ a piece of wire wounded on something
„ a filter
„ an energy-storage-part (short-time)
„ examples:

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


What is an EMC-Ferrite ?

Technical view:
„ Frequency dependent filter
„ Absorber for RF-energy
„ examples:

EMC Snap-Ferrites EMC-Ferrites for SMD-Ferrites


Flatwire

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Magnetic Field Strenght H of some configurations

I
long, straight wire H=
2 ⋅π ⋅ R

N⋅I
Toroidal Coil H=
2 ⋅π ⋅ R

N⋅I
Long solenoid H=
(e.g. rod core indcutor)
l

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Example: Conducted Emission Measurement

• Dosing pump for chemicals


industry.

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Conducted Emission Measurement
• Power supply V 1.0

PCB

Buck Converter ST L4960/2.5A/fs 85-115KHz


Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Conducted Emission Measurement

• Power supply V 1.1

PCB

Schematic
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Awareness:

• Select the right parts for your


application

• Do not always look on cost

Very easy solution with a


dramatic result!!!

or

Choke before Choke after


Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
What is permeability [ur]?

– Permability (µr): describe the


capacity of concentration of the
magnetic flux in the material.

typical permeabilities [µr] : Magnetic induction in ferrite:

B = μ0 ⋅ μ r ⋅ H
- Iron powder / Superflux : 50 ~ 150
- Nickel Zinc : 40 ~ 1500
- Manganese Zinc : 300 ~ 20000

Non-Linear Function ( µr!)

The relative permeability is dependent on frequency……

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Frequency dependent Permeability

R
Tanδ =
XL
Loss factor

R = ω L 0 μ ||

resistive component
(material it self)
frequency dependent core losses

X L = jω L 0 μ |

„ideell“ (without material)


inductive component
frequency dependent inductive portion

complex permeability
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Measurement of Core Material Properties

R
L

X
L

Core Material Impedance Analyser Core Material Parameter


(Fe / MnZn/
NiZn/ …)
= R +X
2 2
Z L

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Permeability vs. Temperature

+ 40%
700 Curie-Temperatur
- 40% Loses its magentic properties

400

23 85

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


How to find the best part for my application ?

Core Material Comparison

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


When to use which type of material for filtering ?
Resistive part of Impedance

=> It depends on frequency-range to filter !


Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
When to use which material for store energy
Inductive part of Impedance

=> It depends on application frequency for EACH Core-Material !


Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
When to use an Inductor ?
When to use an EMC-Ferrite ?

=> Application Storage Choke:

Request: lowest possible losses at application frequency


high Q-factor

=> Application as absorber-filter:


Request: highest losses possible at application frequency range
low Q/factor

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Inductor vs. EMI-Ferrit:

Vergleich Güte Ferrit <=> Induktivität XL


Comparison Q-Factor: Ferrite vs. Inductor Q=
R
Losses

Inductor
Q-Factor

Ferrite

Frequency [MHz]
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Frequency-Spectrum and suggested Core Materials

Suggested Core
Ceramic
Materials for filtering:
NiZn
MnZn
Iron-Powder

Let´s take a closer look...

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Frequency range for EMI tests

150KHz 30MHz 1GHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Overview FCC Tests

Radiated Configuration Noise Spectrum

EUT

FCC limit line

Conducted Configuration Noise made


by the device
150MHz 450MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


What‘s the main Interference we see on the board level?

Common Mode Interference


(asym. Interference)

Differential Mode Interference


(sym. Interference)

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


How can we find out what interference we have on the
PCB‘s?

Take a Snap Ferrite and fix it on the cable


(both lines e.g. VCC and GND)

noise reduction
or „noise immuntiy increase“

you have Common Mode Interference

if not

you have Differential Mode Interference

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Example: Flyback Converter

Appearance of differential noises on the input line of a Flyback Converter

mostly high Cap‘s >100uF; Xc=1/(ωxC)

differential interference
L1

differential interference
Switch (e.g Transistor)
P
E

differential interference occurs mainly at lower frequencies

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Example: Flyback Converter

Appearance of common mode noises on the input line of a Flyback Converter

mostly high Cap‘s >100uF; Xc=1/(ωxC)

common mode interference

L1

differential interference
N

common mode interference


Switch (e.g Transistor)

P
E

parasitic capacities ; in the lower pF (e.g: VCC layer to GND layer( coupling))

common mode interference occurs mainly at higher


frequencies

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Current Compensated Chokes

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Replace a „Snap Ferrit“ by a common choke ?

We can replace ferrite by common mode choke


Both are common mode filters !

First check for the technologie and look the impedance curve

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Impedance increase vs. numbers of turns
increase Impedance

Fres.-decrease
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Functionality of a common mode choke:

operational current / wanted signal N1

5V AC/DC Converter
(diff. mode)
e.g. 24AC Supply
Source

Load
disturbance current
(common mode)

N2

The operational current (diff. mode) is routed by all relevant conductors through the core
(e.g. +/- or L/N).
That´s why the magnetic fields of these two conductors compensate each
other to zero => no influence on the wanted signal
The disturbance current flows on both wires in the same direction and generates a magnetic
field in the toroidal core => the choke is able to filter unwanted noises.

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Common Mode Choke

sectional winding bifilar winding

< advantage? >

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Why bifilar / sectional winding ?

sectional winding:
• Same number of windings placed opposed on the toroidal core
• In addition to the common mode suppression (asym. noises) the high leakage inductance also
allows filtering of differential interferences (sym. noises)

bifilar winding:
• Parallel wiring around the core (in most cases we use wires with different colors)
• Small leakage inductance and therefore less attenuation of high-frequency
differential noises

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Sectional winding:

For example: WE-SL2 744227S


Common Mode suppression

Differential Mode suppression


is high!

ATTENTION:
SECTIONELL WINDING MUST BE
USED ON MAIN-POWER SUPPLY !
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Bifilar winding vs. Sectional winding

For example: WE-SL2 744227


Common Mode suppression

signal (Differential)

Differential Mode S-Type


Differential Mode suppression
is low!

interference(Common Mode )

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Advantage of a Common Mode Choke

Filtering with two inductors or ferrites

Signal before filtering after filtering

¾Rise-time of the signal is affected,


which could cause problems for
fast data and signal lines

which occurs from the DC current the filtering


performance is shortened.
¾because of the pre-magnetization (saturation)
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Advantage of a Common Mode Choke

Filtering with a Common Mode Choke

Signal before filtering after filtering

¾ no affect on the signal rise-time,


because of magnetic field compensation
¾ no influence of the wanted signal
(the two windings are magnetically
coupled)

¾ no pre-magnetization (saturation) occurs from the DC current,


because of magnetic coupling
¾ much better performance vs. two separate inductors or ferrites
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Filtering the USB 2.0 interface via CMC

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


USB 2.0 Filtering via WE-CNSW
measurement point TP2

EMI-filter EMI-filter

90 Ohm @ 100 MHz C.M. 600 Ohm @ 100 MHz C.M. WE-CBF
20 Ohm @ 240 MHz D.M. 40 Ohm @ 240 MHz D.M. 120 Ohm @ 100 MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Portfolio of eiSos:

common mode chokes by Würth Elektronik

for 115VAC / 250VAC / max. 20A for signal / data lines


Umax. = 42VAC (80VDC) / I up to 5A

THT with sectional THT SMD sectional bifilar


winding

common mode
WE-SL series WE-SL series
WE-LF WE-CMB Ferrite- WE-SL
WE-VB / VB 2 WE-CNSW
Bridges series
WE-CNSW WE-VB / VB 2
6-hole-
common mode
Ferrite bead
Chip-bead

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Common mode chokes in SMD:

WE-CMS for signal / data lines up to Imax = 5 A


NiZn Z = 52 Ohm @ 100 MHz

WE-SL for signal / data lines up to Imax = 5,6 A

MnZn (für L > 60uH) NiZn (für L < 100uH)

L ~ 10 µH ... ~ 47 mH

WE-CNSW for signal / data lines up to Imax = 0,4 A


NiZn Z = 67–2200 Ohm @ 100 MHz

WE-VB2 for signal / data lines up to Imax = 0,5 A


NiZn L~ 15 uH… ~ 80 uH
f
(MHz)
0,1 1 10 100 1000
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Common mode chokes in SMD:

WE-SL2 for signal / data lines up to Imax = 1,6 A

MnZn (für L < 250uH) NiZn (für L > 51uH)


L ~ 25 µH ... ~ 47 mH

WE-SL1 for signal / data lines up to Imax = 0,3 A


NiZn L ~ 10 µH… ~ 330 µH

WE-SL3 for signal / data lines up to Imax = 0,7 A


NiZn L ~ 20 uH… ~ 100 uH

WE-SL5 for signal / data lines up to Imax = 2,5 A


NiZn L ~ 120 uH… ~ 4,7 mH
f
(MHz)
0,1 1 10 100 1000

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Common mode chokes for THT:

Ferrite bridge für VCC-lines, signal / data lines up to Imax = 16 A


(WE-MLS)
NiZn Z = 264 – 334 Ohm

WE-VB for VCC-lines, signal / data lines up to Imax = 1,6A

NiZn L ~ 10 µH… ~ 100 µH

WE-LF for 115 / 230VAC up to Imax = 6 A


MnZn L ~ 1 mH… ~ 47 mH

WE-CMB for 115 / 230VAC up to Imax = 15 A


MnZn L ~ 150 uH… ~ 39 mH
f
(MHz)
0,1 1 10 100 1000
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Ferritebridge WE-MLS:

With an adequat PCB layout it´s pos-


sible to realize up to 5 applications
with only 1 standard component !

Examples:

Replacement for 6-Hole Ferrite-Bead Dual common mode choke; 4A

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Applications with the WE-MLS:

Dual CM choke Single CM choke Single CM choke 4 windings Single winding


Z ~ 170 .. 350 Ω Z ~ 170 .. 350 Ω Z ~ 600 .. 900 Ω Z ~ 900 .. 1500 Ω Z ~ 170 .. 350 Ω
@ 100 MHz @ 100 MHz @ 100 MHz @ 100 MHz @ 100 MHz

I = 4A I = 8A I = 4A I = 4A I = 16 A
RDC < 2 mΩ RDC < 1 mΩ RDC < 4 mΩ RDC < 10 mΩ RDC < 1 mΩ

optimal for e.g. filtering in power supplies (U < 60VDC), charger or sensor
technology
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Common mode chokes for SMD:
Size [mm] Impedance [Ω] Current [A] Application

2.0 x 1.2 x 1.2 130 – 910 0.28 – 0.4 USB 2.0


WE-CNSW 3.2 x 1.6 x 1.9 60 – 400 0.20 – 0.37 Firewire/ high speed dataline

ISDN
WE-SL 12.7 x 10.5 x 5,75 1100 – 14400 0.20 – 2.70
Telecom Applications

PCMCIA cards
WE-SL 1 6.5 x 3.6 x 1.65 300 – 2000 0.30
NEW
744212xxx

VCC Power & Datalines


WE-SL 2 9.2 x 6.0 x 5.0 1000 – 20000 0.40 – 1.60

WE-SL 3 VCC Power & Datalines


NEW 9.2 x 6.6 x 2.5 1250 – 5000 0.50 – 0.70 higher current ratings
744252/253xxx

WE-SL 5
NEW 10.0 x 8.2 x 6.5 290 – 13000 0.35 – 2.50 VCC Power Lines
744272xxx

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Differential Mode suppression : SMD-Ferrit WE-CBF

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Impedance: SMD-Ferrite (Chip Bead)

XL(NiZn)

inductive component

Advantage of SMD-Ferrites:
resistive component broadband, frequency-dependent
Absorber for RF-noise in the frequency
range 10 MHz ... > 1GHz
with very low DC-Resistance
(< 0,8 Ohm max. !)

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Which impedance do we need ?

Level [dBµV/m]

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
30M 40M 50M 70M 100M 200M 300M 400M 600M 1G

Frequency [Hz]

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Insertion Loss Model

Equivalent circuit of Filter

Equivalent circuit Equivalent circuit of


of source system impedance

Z A + ZF + ZB
Insertion Loss => A = 20 log in (dB)
Z A + ZB

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


The real world........ !

Simulation load
source Model Fer.

Noise
source

? Simulation
Model Cap
?
Equivalent Circuit of
Equivalent circuit of source Filter-Components
Equivalent
circuit of load
for Inductor and Capacitor one
can find Simulation-Models

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Starting Point: Practical figures for ZA / ZB

* Groundplanes : Impedance range 1 ... 2 Ω

* VCC-Distribution: Impedance range 1 ... 2 Ω

* Video-/ Clock-/ Dataline: Impedance range 50 ... 90 Ω

* Long Datalines: Impedance range 90 ... >150 Ω


With this we can make a first decision of a Ferrite-Impedance ZF
which would suppress noise in our application :

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Which Impedance ZF is needed ?

Example 1: required attentuation


= 20dB @ 200 MHz
VCC-Distribution
=> goto Nomogramm:
180 Ω => chosen: 220 Ω
Attenuation [dB]

Impedance of the Ferrite 180Ω

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Insertion Loss vs. Impedance of Source/ Load (ZA / ZB)

with ZA = ZB = 5000 Ω =constant


no effect in filtering !

A = - 3 dB max.
with ZA = ZB = 1000 Ω = constant

A = - 8 dB max.
Insertion Loss (dB)

with ZA = ZB = 200 Ω = constant

A = -18 dB max.
with ZA = ZB = 50 Ω = constant

A = -32 dB max.
with ZA = ZB = 10 Ω = constant

Frequency (Hz)

SMD-Ferrite ZF = 600 Ohm @ 100 MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation with RF Sim 99 or SWITCHER CAD III

Demostration
a) via equivalent circuit

b) via S-Parameters

ZA + ZF + ZB
Insertion Loss => A = 20 log in ( dB )
ZA + ZB

S-parameters are available on our homepage


Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
SMD-Ferrite listed in LTSpice/SwitcherCADIII

Freeware !Download www.linear.com_

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


SMD-Ferrites LTSpice/SwitcherCADIII

You can sort database by :


Part.Nr.; RDC; Current ; Impedance @100MHz
or
maximum Impedance @ which Frequency
SwCAD III.lnk Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Design-In mistakes of Ferrites

Examples:
¾ Saturation of the ferrite
(Impect of DC-bias (magnetize))

¾ To high inrush current


(switch on current )

¾ Wrong layout of the filter circuit


(noise coupling)

¾ Wrong compination of components


(Lsrf = Csrf >> no wideband suppression)

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Design-In mistakes of Ferrites

Impect of DC-bias (pre-magnetization (saturation)

800Ω@100MHZ (0ADC)

420Ω@100MHZ (1,7ADC)

230Ω@100MHZ (3ADC)

742792515 (3A typ)


Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Impect of DC-bias (pre-magnetization (saturation)

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Design-In mistakes of Ferrites

Destroy the ferrite due over current/inrush current

RDC 0,15Ω Iconst= 500mA

DC
7427907
DC Uo=12V RL
100uF

Io = Uo/ (RDC ferrite +R ESR capacity)

= 12V / (0,15Ω+0,5Ω) = 18A


18 time higher current

Ferrite can be destroyed , muss not fail directly.


„creeping process“

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Design-In mistakes of Ferrites

Destroy the ferrite due switch on current


(no current limitation was done by the customer)

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Basic Design-Rules of EMC-Filters

Low DC-Resistance; high Absorption for


RF-noise; no SRF-Point

Low ESR;
„zero“-Ohm-Path to GND for RF-noise
stabilzie VCC for Pulse-Currents

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Basic Design-Rules of EMC-Filters

Equivalent Circuit: Capacitor


IZI [Ω]
log

ωLS

1
ωCS

RS

f [MHz] log
Inductance of connection: ESR:
SMD-types 1 nH ... 5 nH SMD-types 20 mΩ ... 300 mΩ
wired 10 nH ... 50 nH ! up to 1 Ω
(see Datasheet )

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Basic Design-Rules of EMC-Filters

Equivalent circuit : Inductor /Ferrite


Losses:
Inductors (at SRF ! ) up to 30 kΩ
SMD-EMC-Ferrite (broadband !) 10 Ω ... 3 kΩ
RP
IZI [Ω]
log
1
ωLp ωCp

Parasitic Capacitance:
f [MHz] log
SMD-EMC-Ferrite 5 fF ... 5 pF
winded Inductors 10 pF ... 500 pF !

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Basic Design-Rules of EMC-Filters

1 mm ~ 1nH
1 via ~ 0.5 nH
0.5 nH @ 100 MHz = 0.314 Ω
0.5 nH @ 1 GHz = 3.14 Ω !

Zges: ESR+Lr (2nH)+Lvia(0,5nH)


100nF= 0,2Ω+1,2Ω+0,3Ω= 1,7Ω@100MHz
Size: 0603/X7R

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Grounding / Layout

LC-Lowpassfilter Layout Lowpassfilter

Ground-Level

Why will this Filter not work properly at RF-Frequencies ?

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Grounding / Layout

bad solution optimized


Inductive coupling

Contraction for RF
Capacitive coupling

Bypass for
noise
Connection to Case

more vias to GND


too long tracks = low impedance

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Layout for Ground

bad good
IGND

IGND
IC2a vias to
ground
IC2a
The GND-Potential is affected
Separated ways for RF-current
by current driven through
of C2a and semiconductor
ground-pin of semiconductor !

More vias = smaller DCR/L

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Impedance vs. Frequency of Capacitors

3/4 parts are needed to,,,,,,,,,,,, !!


Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Paralleled Capacitors

a:
100nF // 100 pF
(without Ferrite !)
Attention !
Resonant Circuit !!

SRF ~ 20 MHz
b:
1 x 100nF

c:
2 x 100nF paralleled
lower Impedance

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation with RF Sim 99 or SWITCHER CAD III

¾ Simulation of parallel resonance due to the wrong choice


of Cap‘s (100nF; 1nF; 100pF)

¾ Correct choice of parallel Cap‘s (100nF; 22nF; 5nF)


Attenuation of at least 12dB in the range of 1 MHz to 500MHz

¾ Optimal solution: (100nF; SMD Ferrit)


Wideband attenuation of the complete frequency range

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation-Modell for EMC-Ferrites and
Power Inductors

Model as Parallel-Circuit with


constant Parametern for
Rp / Lp / Cp

can be used in any


Simulationprogram
(like P-SPICE or Electronics
Workbench, ...) !
Datas: see Book
„Trilogy of Inductors“
Seite 113ff

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Recommended Filtercircuits
Source Impedance Load Impedance

low high
Suggested Circuits

ATTENTION !
high high Self-Resonant-Frequency
of Components !!!

high or high or
unknown unknown
smaller C = higher SRF

low low
If you choose SMD-Ferrite
instead of Inductor L
= no Resonance with C
low or low or = broadband filtering
unknown unknown

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Noise source

Source: USB/Battery

Pi-Filter

PD Typ M 22uH
7447779122 Crystal Oscillators
LC-Filter (25MHz and 100MHz)
DC-DC-Converter LT1304 to generate the noise
3,3V to 5V spectrum
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Filter Topologies

50 Ohm Ref. Line

3xC Capacitance Filter

„L“Filter with SMD


Ferrite
„L-C“ Filter with SMD
Ferrite und Capacitor

„PI“ Filter

„T“ Filter

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


The „L“ Ferrite –Filter

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


The „L“ Ferrite –Filter

Insertion Loss

-5

-10

-15
in dB

-20

-25

-30

-35
Ferrite-Filter Simulation modell)
-40
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Ferrite –Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Insertion Loss

-5

-10

-15
in dB

-20

-25

-30

-35
Ferrite-Filter (Insertion Loss)
Ferrite-Filter Simulation modell)
-40
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


LC-Filter

L=742 792 093


C=100nF

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


LC-Filter

Dämpfung

0
LC-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
-10

-20

-30

-40
in dB

-50

-60

-70

-80

-90

-100
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


LC-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

0
LC-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
LC-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
-10

-20

-30

-40
in dB

-50

-60

-70

-80

-90

-100
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Parallel capacitors

C1= 1nF
C2=10nF
C3=100nF

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Parallel capacitors

Dämpfung

0
C-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
-10

-20

-30

-40
in dB

-50

-60

-70

-80

-90
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


C-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

0
C-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
C-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
-10

-20

-30

-40
in dB

-50

-60

-70

-80

-90
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Pi-Filter

C1=1nF
L=742 792 093
C2=100nF

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Pi-Filter

Dämpfung

0
Pi-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100

-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Pi-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

0
Pi-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
Pi-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100

-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Pi-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100 Pi-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)


Pi-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
PI-Filter (Spectrum Analyzer)
-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


T-Filter

L1=742 792 040


C=100nF
L2=742 792 092

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


T-Filter

Dämpfung

0
T-Filter (Simulationsmodell)

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100

-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


T-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

0
T-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
T-Filter (Simulationsmodell)

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100

-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Ferrite –Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Insertion Loss

20

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100
Ferrite-Filter (Insertion Loss)
Ferrits-Filter Simulation modell)
Ref.-Meas. (Spectrum Analyzer)
-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Ferrite –Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Insertion Loss

20

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80
Ferrite-Filter (Insertion Loss)
-100 Ferrite-Filter Simulation modell)
Ref.-Meas. (Spectrum Analyzer)
Ferrite-Filter (Spectrum Analyzer)
-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


T-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20
T-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
T-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
0 Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
T-Filter (Spectrum Analyzer)

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100

-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


C-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20
C-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
C-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
0

-20
in dB

-40

-60

-80

-100
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


C-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20
C-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
C-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
0 C-Filter (Spectrum Analyzer)

-20
in dB

-40

-60

-80

-100
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


LC-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20
LC-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
LC-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
0

-20
in dB

-40

-60

-80

-100
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


LC-Filter: Mesaurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20
LC-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
LC-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
0
LC-Filter (Spectrum Analyzer)

-20
in dB

-40

-60

-80

-100
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Pi-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100 Pi-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)


Pi-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


T-Filter: Measurement vs. Simulation

Dämpfung

20
T-Filter (Einfügedämpfung)
T-Filter (Simulationsmodell)
Ref.-Messung (Spectrum Analyzer)
0

-20

-40
in dB

-60

-80

-100

-120
1 10 100 1000
Frequenz in MHz

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Testboard VCC-decoupling

Filter circuit 1uF; Ferrit; 1uF

IC
74LS132

RL=220Ω

R=470Ω
CL=47pF
5,1VDC
Trimmer 10K

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


VCC- decoupling via discrete π-Filter

π-Filter: 1uF-742792093-1uF
VCC

IC
GND GND

Attenuation

0
-20

-40
-60
Pi-Filter Simulation
dB

-80
-100

-120
-140
1 10 100 1000
Frequency [MHz]

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Filter Circuit Simulation: VCC- π -Filter

Impedance Characteristic Zmax@100MHz


742792093

SwCAD III.lnk Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Noise-Spectrum on VCC

no filtering on Vcc
(condition: max. Hold)

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation VCC decoupling 1uF

Step 1: C-Filter with 1uF


1uF Cap.
VCC

IC
GND

Attenuation

0
-20

-40
50dB
-60 C-Filter
dB

-80
-100

-120
-140
1 4MHz 10 100 1000
Frequency [MHz]

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation VCC decoupling 1uF
C-Filter: 1uF
Step 1:
1uF Cap. VCC

IC
GND

Attenuation

0
-20
-40
without filtering
50dB -60
dB

C-Filter 1uF
-80 C-Filter Simulation

-100
-120
-140
1 4MHz 10 100 1000
Frequency [MHz]

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation VCC decoupling 1uF - Ferrite

Step 2: LC-Filter: 1uF-742792093


1uF Cap.
VCC

IC
& Ferrite
GND

Attenuation
0

-20

-40

-60
LC-Filter-Simulation
dB

-80 C-Filter Simulation

-100

-120 main attenuation


done by the ferrite
-140
1 10 100 1000
Frequency [MHz]

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation VCC decoupling 1uF - Ferrite

Step 2: LC-Filter: 1uF-742792093


1uF Cap.
VCC

IC
& Ferrite

GND

Attenuation

-20

-40
C-Filter 1uF
-60 LC-Filter 1uF_742792093
dB

-80 without filtering

-100 LC-Filter-Simulation

-120 main attenuation


done by the ferrite
-140
1 10 100 1000
Frequency [MHz]
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Simulation VCC decoupling 1uF - Ferrite

Step 3: π-Filter: 1uF-742792093-1uF


1uF//1uF Cap.
VCC

IC
& Ferrite

GND GND

Attenuation

0
-20
-40
LC-Filter-Simulation
-60
C-Filter Simulation
dB

-80
Pi-Filter-Simulation
-100
-120
additional attenuation
-140 for the lower frequency
1 10 100 1000
Frequency [MHz]

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Simulation VCC decoupling 1uF – Ferrite – 1uF

Step 3: π-Filter: 1uF-742792093-1uF


1uF//1uF Cap.
VCC

IC
& Ferrite

GND GND

Attenuation

-20

-40
C-Filter-Simulation
C-Filter 1uF
-60
LC-Filter 1uF_742792093
dB

PI-Filter 1uF//1uF_742792093
-80
without filtering
LC-Filter-Simulation
-100
Pi-Filter-Simulation
-120 additional attenuation
for the lower frequency
-140
1 10 100 1000
Frequency [MHz]
Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert
Final Result

π-Filter: 1uF-742792093-1uF
VCC

IC
GND GND
no filtering on Vcc filtering on Vcc

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


You want to know more ??

Look at our Book:


Chap.1: Basics
keep it simple, stupid

Chap.2: Components
Descriptions, Applications, Simulation
Models and many more
Chap.3: Filter-Circuits
Design, Grounding, Layout, Tipps

Chap.4: Applications
Circuit, suggested parts, Layout

Chap.5: Appendices
from A to Z

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert


Online:

www.we-online.com

Würth Elektronik eiSos © May/2006 Michael Eckert