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AP Euro Spielvogel Chapter 23

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1. Aletta she founded the first birth control clinic Initially 5. cartels formed to decrease competition internally.
Jacob and family planning was the suggestion of reformers independent enterprises worked together to
"family who thought that the problem of poverty could control prices and fix production quotas,
planning" be solved by reducing the number of children thereby restraining the kind of competition that
among lower classes. The practice spread quickly led to reduced prices. strong in Germany, where
among the propertied class rather than many banks moved to protect their investment
impoverished. by elimination the "anarchy of competition"
2. Alexander believed that reform was a mistake and instituted 6. Coney
III and exceptional measures. powers of the secret Island and
Nicholas police were increased. advocates for Blackpool
II constitutional monarchy and social reform, and
revolutionary groups were persecuted. Districts
placed under martial law and the powers of the
zemstvos were curtailed. His son took over after
his death, and adopted the the conviction that
absolute powers should be preserved. with
industrial growth it was not realistic. was only 8 miles from central New York City;
______ in England was a short train ride from
3. Bismarck's in 1878 he got parliament to pass a stringent anti
nearby industrial towns. With their Ferris wheel
welfare socialist law that outlawed social democratic
and other daring rides that threw young men
legislation party and limited social meetings and
and women together, amusement park offered a
publications, although socials candidates were
whole new world of entertainment
permitted to run for reichstag. He also enacted
social ________ _________. a full pension was payable 7. Consuelo Wealthy american heiresses were in special
only at age seventy after 40 years of Vanderbilt demand. when _______ _______, married the duke of
contribution. no benefits were paid to widows or marlborough, the new duchess brought $10
their children. million to her husband

4. Boy 8. Contagious British government did attempt to enforce the


Scouts Diseases _________ _______ Acts in the 1870s and 1880s by
Acts giving authorities the right to examine
prostitutes for venereal disease.Opposition to
these acts soon arose from middle class female
reformers.
9. Cuba and
the
Philippines

the emphasis on manliness stemmed not only


from military concerns but also conceptions of
masculinity in the late 19t century. ____ ____
promoted the image of manliness with stories of
youthful heroes who demonstrated their self
control by conquering the challenges of the wild. Spain's defeat in the Spanish American war in
The boy scouts sought to reinforce victorian and 1898 and the loss of cuba and philippines to the
edwardian codes of masculinity do counter the united states increased the discontent with the
possible dangers that female domination of the status quo.When political and social reforms
home posed for male development. were called for, liberals and conservatives
sought to expand the electorate to win support
for their policies. Reform was not to be easily
accomplished because of the tie to the
conservative order
10. day- 14. Football team sports developed into a form of mass
trippers Association leisure. The rules were products of these
- National- organized athletic groups. New team sports
American soon became professionalized. The national
Leagues and american leagues had a monopoly over
professional baseball. Teams became object of
mass adulation by crowds of urbanites who
compensated their lost sense of identity in mass
urban areas by developing these new loyalties.
15. France's
Third
Thanks to the railroad, seaside resorts, once the
Republic
preserve of the wealthy, became accessible to
more people for weekend visits, much to the
disgust of one upper class regular, who
complained about the new "day trippers"
11. Depression

the defeat of France by the prussian army in


1870 brought the downfall of Louis Napoleon's
second empire French republicans initially set
up a provisional government, which soon
became a government chosen by universal
male suffrage.The constitution of 1875 intended
only as a stopgap measure, solidified the
Economic - Even though the economy was republic which lasted 65 years. The hands of
booming in most industrialized places, these the republicans were strengthened, instituting
still occurred, and there was a famous one in ministerial responsibility and establishing power
America Medical - new therapies for of the chamber of deputies.
depression included water immersion (keeping
16. garden city Ebenezer Howard's movement, which
people under water for as long as possible
movement advocated the construction of new towns
without drowning them) and a special spinning
separated from each other by open country
stool to induce dizziness (to rearrange the
with recreational areas, fresh air, and sense of
contents of the brain into the correct positions).
community that would encourage healthy
Benjamin Franklin introduced an early form of
family life
electroshock therapy. Horseback riding, special
diets, enemas and vomiting were also 17. General a popular military officer who attracted the
recommended therapy. Georges public's attention of all those discontented with
Boulanger the third republic: monarchists, bonapartists,
12. domestic at the bottom of the working class hierarchy
aristocratic and nationalists who favored a war
servants stood the largest group of workers, the
of revenge against Germany. appears as the
unskilled laborers. The _______ _______ were a part of
savior of France. by 1889 many expected a
this group. One out of every seven employed
coup d'etat he lost his nerve and fled France.
persons in Great britain was one, most were
the crisis served to rally support for the resilient
women.
republic.
13. Eduard he was a member of the German Social
18. Gottlieb The development of the internal combustion
Bernstein Democratic Party who had spent years in exile
Daimler engine gave rise to the automobile and the
in Britain, where he had been influenced by
airplane. The invention of a light engine by
moderate English socialism and the British
__________ ________ in 1886 was the key to the
parliamentary system. he challenged Marxism
development of the automobile.
with his book Evolutionary Socialism.
19. Graham 22. internal
Bell combustion
engine

The first _________ ________ ______, fired by gas and


air, was produced in 1878. It proved
A revolution in communications was fostered unsuitable for widespread use as a source of
when this man invented the telephone in 1876 power in transportation until the
development of liquid fluid -petroleum and
20. Guglielmo
its distilled derivatives.
Marconi
23. Irish Home charles parnell called for this. Soon irish
Rule peasants were responding to british inaction
with terrorist acts, forcing the british do
react with more force, causing the irish
catholics do demand independence.
24. Jean Jaures The leader of French socialism, was an
independent socialist who looked to the
French revolutionary tradition rather than
Marxism to justify revolutionary socialism
25. Kulturkampf it was a struggle for civilization who
distrusted catholic loyalty to the new
he sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic germany.
in 1901. Although most electricity was initially
26. Lord Poem written to describe the women's
used for lighting, it was eventually put to use in
Tennyson's position as much more than just working at
transportation.
The Princess them home and being inferior to
21. Henry men.Wanted to be equal to men
Ford
27. Magyarization Unlike Austria, Hungary had a working
parliamentary system, but it was controlled
by the great ______ landowners, who
dominated both hungarian peasantry and
other ethnic groups in Hungary. They
attempted to solve their problems by
systematic ________ The language was imposed
on all schools and was the only language
that could be used by government and
military officials.
by 1906, Americans had overtaken the initial lead
of the French. It was an American, _________ __________, 28. Marxist used to refer to various ideas, principles and
who revolutionized the car industry with the "revisionism" theories that are based on a significant
mass production of the Model T. revision of fundamental Marxist premises.
29. Mass to impart knowledge to children that they need 38. Reform Act the right to vote was further extended during
education to effectively function as a member of society. of 1884 the second ministry of William Gladstone with
This includes literacy, basic arithmetic and a the passage of this act of 1884. it gave the
basic understanding of civics in order to vote do all men who paid regular rents or
participate in our republic. The second function taxes; by largely enfranchising agricultural
is a sifting process It recognizes that not workers, a group previously excluded, the act
everyone can become a doctor, lawyer or added another 2 million male voters do the
engineer. It gives employers a basis for choosing electorate. Women were still denied the right
the most appropriate employees for various to vote.
jobs.
39. Russification
30. Mass New work patterns after WWI gave people more
leisures leisure time. The 8-hr day was the norm. Pro
sporting events were especially prominent.
31. Mass political order resting on the emergence of mass
politics political parties. The emergence of this generally
associated with the rise of mass society
coinciding with the Industrial Revolution in the
West.
Policy imposing Russian customs and
32. Mass any society of the modern era that possesses a traditions on other people. Pursued by
society mass culture and large-scale, impersonal, social Alexander II,of the numerous nationalities that
institutions. a society in which prosperity and made the russian empire. It served primarily to
bureaucracy have weakened traditional social anger national groups and create new sources
ties. of opposition do tsarist policies.
33. May Day it was made an international labor day to be 40. Second
marked by strikes and mass labor Industrial
demonstrations difference often wreaked havoc Revolution
at the organization's congresses.
34. Michael lack of revolutionary fervor drove some people
Bakunin from Marxist socialism into a movement that was
and especially prominent in less industrialized and
anarchism less democratic countries. The Russian _________
_________ believed that small groups of well trained,
fanatical revolutionaries could perpetrate so This played a role in the emergence of basic
much violence that the state and all its economic patterns that have characterized
institutions would disintegrate. much of modern European economic life.
35. music they appeared in the second half of the 41. Social German _______ _________ party espoused
halls and nineteenth century. the first music hall in London Democratic revolutionary Marxist rhetoric while organizing
dance was constructed in 1849 for a lower class Party itself as a mass political party competing in
halls audience. by 1880 there were 500 of them. elections for the Reichstag.
promoters gradually made them more
42. Spanish-
respectable and broadened their fare to entice
American
both women and children to attend the
War
program.The new dance halls which were all the
rage by 1900 were more strictly oriented
towards adults.
36. plutocrats In the 19th century, aristocrats merged with the
most successful industrialists, bankers, and
merchants to form the ________, members of the
wealthy elite the loss of this war increased discontent
37. Public British law that prohibited the construction of between the two political groups, liberals and
Health new buildings without running water and an conservatives, whose members stemmed from
Act of internal drainage system. the same social group of great land owning
1875 allied with a few wealthy industrialists
43. sweatshops 48. Thomas
and Cook
"sweating"

referred to the subcontracting of piecework


usually, but not exclusively, in the tailoring
was a british pioneer of mass tourism. Secretary to
trades; it was done at home poorly paid and
a british temperance group, had been responsible
worked long hours.
for organizing the railroad trip do temperance
44. weekend gatherings in 1841. this experience led him do offer
trips on regular basis after he found that he could
make substantial profits by renting special trains,
lowering prices and increasing the number of
passengers. in 1867 he offered tours to paris and by
the 1880's to switzerland.
New York patterns established the _________ as a 49. Thomas
distinct time of recreation and fun, and new Edison
forms of mass transportation railroads and and
streetcars enabled even ordinary workers to Joseph
make excursions to amusement parks. Swan
45. the
assembly
line

Electricity spawned a whole series of inventions.


The invention of the lightbulb by the American
_______ _________ and the British _________ ________ opened
the development of precision tools enabled homes and cities to illumination by electric lights.
manufacturers to produce interchangeable
50. V.A. one of the first German housing reformers.
parts, which in turn led to the creation of the
Huber Believed that the construction of model dwellings
this thing for production.first used in United
and renting at a reasonable price would force other
States for small arms and clocks, moved to
Octavia private landlords to elevate their own housing
Europe by 1850
Hill standards. actually built these model dwellings and
46. the radical republicans created an independent inhabited 3500 tenants.
Commune republican government in Paris known as ____
_________. Working class men and women
supported this. thousands of it's defender's
were massacred by the government.
bequeathed a legacy of hatred that continued
to plague French politics
47. the The lower house of the german parliament,
Reichstadt that elected based on universal male suffrage
but did not have ministerial responsibility. It
presented the opportunities for the growth of
real political democracy, though it failed to
develop before WWI
51. white- 55. yellow
collar press
jobs

with a dramatic increase in literacy after 1871 there


was the rise of mass circulation newspapers.
newspapers that shared common characteristics.
they were written in easily understood style and
tended toward the sensational
the development of larger industrial plants and
the expansion of government services created a
large number of service or ____ ______ ______. they
worked at low wages, coupled with a shortage of
male workers, led employers to hire women.The
expansion of government services created
opportunities for women to be secretaries and
telephone operators and to take job in health
and social services.
52. Wilbur
and
Orville
Wright

In 1903, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, these guys


made the first flight in a fixed wing plane
powered by a gasoline engine.
53. Wilhelm
Liebknect
and
August
Bebel

political career was a pioneering project


combining Marxist revolutionary theory with
practical, legal political activity. the SPD grew
from a tiny sect to become Germany's largest
political party.German socialist politician, writer,
and orator. best remembered as one of the
founders of the Social Democratic Workers' Party
of Germany
54. William II The emperor of Germany from 1888-1918, who
cashiered out Bismarck, eager to pursue his own
policies.