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EE101: Basics

KCL, KVL, power, Thevenin’s theorem

M. B. Patil
mbpatil@ee.iitb.ac.in

Department of Electrical Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4
A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4
i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4
R1

E i1 D
v1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4
A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4
i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4
R1

E i1 D
v1

* Kirchhoff’s
P current law (KCL):
ik = 0 at each node.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4
A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4
i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4
R1

E i1 D
v1

* Kirchhoff’s
P current law (KCL):
ik = 0 at each node.
e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4
A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4
i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4
R1

E i1 D
v1

* Kirchhoff’s
P current law (KCL):
ik = 0 at each node.
e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.
(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4
A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4
i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4
R1

E i1 D
v1

* Kirchhoff’s
P current law (KCL):
ik = 0 at each node.
e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.
(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)
* Kirchhoff’s
P voltage law (KVL):
vk = 0 for each loop.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4
A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4
i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4
R1

E i1 D
v1

* Kirchhoff’s
P current law (KCL):
ik = 0 at each node.
e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.
(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)
* Kirchhoff’s
P voltage law (KVL):
vk = 0 for each loop.
e.g., v3 + v6 − v1 − v2 = 0.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Kirchhoff’s laws

v3 v4
A B C

R2 i3 R3 i4
i2 i6 i5

v2 v6 V0 v5 I0

α v4
R1

E i1 D
v1

* Kirchhoff’s
P current law (KCL):
ik = 0 at each node.
e.g., at node B, −i3 + i6 + i4 = 0.
(We have followed the convention that current leaving a node is positive.)
* Kirchhoff’s
P voltage law (KVL):
vk = 0 for each loop.
e.g., v3 + v6 − v1 − v2 = 0.
(We have followed the convention that voltage drop across a branch is positive.)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Circuit elements

Element Symbol Equation


v
Resistor v =Ri
i

v di
Inductor v =L
i dt
v dv
Capacitor i =C
i dt
v
Diode to be discussed
i

C
BJT B to be discussed
E

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Sources

Element Symbol Equation


v
Independent Voltage source v (t) = vs (t)
i

v
Current source i(t) = is (t)
i

v
Dependent VCVS v (t) = α vc (t)
i

v
VCCS i(t) = g vc (t)
i

v
CCVS v (t) = r ic (t)
i

v
CCCS i(t) = β ic (t)
i

* α, β: dimensionless, r : Ω, g : Ω−1 or f (“mho”)


* The subscript ‘c’ denotes the controlling voltage or current.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Instantaneous power absorbed by an element

i2
i1
V2 i3
V1
V3 P(t) = V1 (t) i1 (t) + V2 (t) i2 (t) + · · · + VN (t) iN (t) ,
VN where V1 , V2 , etc. are “node voltages” (measured
iN with respect to a reference node).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Instantaneous power absorbed by an element

i2
i1
V2 i3
V1
V3 P(t) = V1 (t) i1 (t) + V2 (t) i2 (t) + · · · + VN (t) iN (t) ,
VN where V1 , V2 , etc. are “node voltages” (measured
iN with respect to a reference node).

* two-terminal element:
P = V1 i 1 + V2 i 2
v
V1 V2 = V1 i1 + V2 (−i1 )
i1 i2
= [V1 − V2 ] i1 = v i1

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Instantaneous power absorbed by an element

i2
i1
V2 i3
V1
V3 P(t) = V1 (t) i1 (t) + V2 (t) i2 (t) + · · · + VN (t) iN (t) ,
VN where V1 , V2 , etc. are “node voltages” (measured
iN with respect to a reference node).

* two-terminal element:
P = V1 i 1 + V2 i 2
v
V1 V2 = V1 i1 + V2 (−i1 )
i1 i2
= [V1 − V2 ] i1 = v i1
* three-terminal element:
P = VB iB + VC iC + VE (−iE )
VC
iC = VB iB + VC iC − VE (iB + iC )
VB = (VB − VE ) iB + (VC − VE ) iC
iB
iE
VE = VBE iB + VCE iE

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same
sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the
resistor and the rest of the world.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same
sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the
resistor and the rest of the world.
* Often, a “heat sink” is provided to dissipate the thermal energy effectively so
that the device temperature does not become too high.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same
sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the
resistor and the rest of the world.
* Often, a “heat sink” is provided to dissipate the thermal energy effectively so
that the device temperature does not become too high.
* A source (e.g., a DC voltage source) can absorb or deliver power since the signs
of v and i are independent. For example, when a battery is charged, it absorbs
energy which gets stored within.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Instantaneous power

* A resistor can only absorb power (from the circuit) since v and i have the same
sign, making P > 0. The energy “absorbed” by a resistor goes in heating the
resistor and the rest of the world.
* Often, a “heat sink” is provided to dissipate the thermal energy effectively so
that the device temperature does not become too high.
* A source (e.g., a DC voltage source) can absorb or deliver power since the signs
of v and i are independent. For example, when a battery is charged, it absorbs
energy which gets stored within.
* A capacitor can absorb or deliver power. When it is absorbing power, its charge
builds up. Similarly, an inductor can store energy (in the form of magnetic flux).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v
A B A B
i R1 i R
R2 R3

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v
A B A B
i R1 i R
R2 R3

v1 = i R1 , v2 = i R2 , v3 = i R3 , ⇒ v = v1 + v2 + v3 = i (R1 + R2 + R3 )

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v
A B A B
i R1 i R
R2 R3

v1 = i R1 , v2 = i R2 , v3 = i R3 , ⇒ v = v1 + v2 + v3 = i (R1 + R2 + R3 )

* The equivalent resistance is Req = R1 + R2 + R3 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in series

v1 v2 v3 v
A B A B
i R1 i R
R2 R3

v1 = i R1 , v2 = i R2 , v3 = i R3 , ⇒ v = v1 + v2 + v3 = i (R1 + R2 + R3 )

* The equivalent resistance is Req = R1 + R2 + R3 .


Rk
* The voltage drop across Rk is v × .
Req

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in parallel

i1 R1
v
A B A B
i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in parallel

i1 R1
v
A B A B
i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

i1 = G1 v , i2 = G2 v , i3 = G3 v , where G1 = 1/R1 , etc.


⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in parallel

i1 R1
v
A B A B
i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

i1 = G1 v , i2 = G2 v , i3 = G3 v , where G1 = 1/R1 , etc.


⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

* The equivalent conductance is Geq = G1 + G2 + G3 , and the equivalent


resistance is Req = 1/Geq .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in parallel

i1 R1
v
A B A B
i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

i1 = G1 v , i2 = G2 v , i3 = G3 v , where G1 = 1/R1 , etc.


⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

* The equivalent conductance is Geq = G1 + G2 + G3 , and the equivalent


resistance is Req = 1/Geq .
Gk
* The current through Rk is i × .
Geq

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in parallel

i1 R1
v
A B A B
i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

i1 = G1 v , i2 = G2 v , i3 = G3 v , where G1 = 1/R1 , etc.


⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

* The equivalent conductance is Geq = G1 + G2 + G3 , and the equivalent


resistance is Req = 1/Geq .
Gk
* The current through Rk is i × .
Geq
* If N = 2, we have
R1 R2 R2 R1
Req = , i1 = i × , i2 = i × .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 R1 + R2

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Resistors in parallel

i1 R1
v
A B A B
i i2 R2 i R

i3 R3

i1 = G1 v , i2 = G2 v , i3 = G3 v , where G1 = 1/R1 , etc.


⇒ i = i1 + i2 + i3 = (G1 + G2 + G3 ) v .

* The equivalent conductance is Geq = G1 + G2 + G3 , and the equivalent


resistance is Req = 1/Geq .
Gk
* The current through Rk is i × .
Geq
* If N = 2, we have
R1 R2 R2 R1
Req = , i1 = i × , i2 = i × .
R1 + R2 R1 + R2 R1 + R2
* If Rk = 0, all of the current will go through Rk .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

i1 2Ω

4Ω i2
3Ω
6V
5 2.5 2.5

(a) 3Ω
Example

i1 2Ω

4Ω i2
3Ω
6V
5 2.5 2.5

(a) 3Ω
Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)
Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)
Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)

i1

4Ω i2

6
6V
3

(c)
Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)

i1

4Ω i2

6
6V
3

(c)
Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1

4Ω i2 4Ω
6 2Ω
6V 6V
3

(c) (d)
Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1
6V
i2 i1 = = 1A.
4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω
6 2Ω
6V 6V
3

(c) (d)
Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1
6V
i2 i1 = = 1A.
4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω
6 2Ω 6Ω 2
6V 6V i2 = i1 × = A.
3 6Ω+3Ω 3

(c) (d)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1
6V
i2 i1 = = 1A.
4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω
6 2Ω 6Ω 2
6V 6V i2 = i1 × = A.
3 6Ω+3Ω 3

(c) (d)

Home work:
* Verify that KCL and KVL are satisfied for each node/loop.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

i1 2Ω i1

4Ω i2 4 Ω i2 2Ω
3Ω 3Ω 1Ω
6V 6V
5 2.5 2.5 3Ω
(a) 3Ω (b)

i1 i1
6V
i2 i1 = = 1A.
4Ω 4Ω 4Ω+2Ω
6 2Ω 6Ω 2
6V 6V i2 = i1 × = A.
3 6Ω+3Ω 3

(c) (d)

Home work:
* Verify that KCL and KVL are satisfied for each node/loop.
* Verify that the total power absorbed by the resistors is equal to the power
supplied by the source.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Nodal analysis

R1
V1 V2

R2
R3 v3
I0
k v3

0 V3
R4

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Nodal analysis

* Take some node as the “reference node” and denote


the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,
etc.

R1
V1 V2

R2
R3 v3
I0
k v3

0 V3
R4

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Nodal analysis

* Take some node as the “reference node” and denote


the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,
etc.
* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node
voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current
R1 leaving a node is positive.
V1 V2

R2
R3 v3
I0
k v3

0 V3
R4

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Nodal analysis

* Take some node as the “reference node” and denote


the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,
etc.
* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node
voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current
R1 leaving a node is positive.
V1 V2
1
(V1 − V2 ) − I0 − k (V2 − V3 ) = 0 ,
R2 R1
R3 v3
I0 1 1 1
k v3
(V2 − V1 ) + (V2 − V3 ) + (V2 ) = 0 ,
R1 R3 R2
0 V3 1 1
R4 k (V2 − V3 ) + (V3 − V2 ) + (V3 ) = 0 .
R3 R4

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Nodal analysis

* Take some node as the “reference node” and denote


the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,
etc.
* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node
voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current
R1 leaving a node is positive.
V1 V2
1
(V1 − V2 ) − I0 − k (V2 − V3 ) = 0 ,
R2 R1
R3 v3
I0 1 1 1
k v3
(V2 − V1 ) + (V2 − V3 ) + (V2 ) = 0 ,
R1 R3 R2
0 V3 1 1
R4 k (V2 − V3 ) + (V3 − V2 ) + (V3 ) = 0 .
R3 R4
* Solve for the node voltages → branch voltages and
currents.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Nodal analysis

* Take some node as the “reference node” and denote


the node voltages of the remaining nodes by V1 , V2 ,
etc.
* Write KCL at each node in terms of the node
voltages. Follow a fixed convention, e.g., current
R1 leaving a node is positive.
V1 V2
1
(V1 − V2 ) − I0 − k (V2 − V3 ) = 0 ,
R2 R1
R3 v3
I0 1 1 1
k v3
(V2 − V1 ) + (V2 − V3 ) + (V2 ) = 0 ,
R1 R3 R2
0 V3 1 1
R4 k (V2 − V3 ) + (V3 − V2 ) + (V3 ) = 0 .
R3 R4
* Solve for the node voltages → branch voltages and
currents.
* Remark: Nodal analysis needs to be modified if there
are voltage sources.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is
i1 i2
is

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is
i1 i2
is

* Write KVL for each loop in terms of the “mesh currents” i1 and i2 . Use a fixed
convention, e.g., voltage drop is positive. (Note that is = i1 − i2 .)

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is
i1 i2
is

* Write KVL for each loop in terms of the “mesh currents” i1 and i2 . Use a fixed
convention, e.g., voltage drop is positive. (Note that is = i1 − i2 .)
−Vs + i1 R1 + (i1 − i2 ) R3 = 0 ,
R2 i2 + r1 (i1 − i2 ) + (i2 − i1 ) R3 = 0 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Mesh analysis

R1 R2

Vs R3 r1 is
i1 i2
is

* Write KVL for each loop in terms of the “mesh currents” i1 and i2 . Use a fixed
convention, e.g., voltage drop is positive. (Note that is = i1 − i2 .)
−Vs + i1 R1 + (i1 − i2 ) R3 = 0 ,
R2 i2 + r1 (i1 − i2 ) + (i2 − i1 ) R3 = 0 .
* Solve for i1 and i2 → compute other quantities of interest (branch currents and
branch voltages).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Linearity and superposition

* A circuit containing independent sources, dependent sources, and resistors is


linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Linearity and superposition

* A circuit containing independent sources, dependent sources, and resistors is


linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.
* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with
v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Linearity and superposition

* A circuit containing independent sources, dependent sources, and resistors is


linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.
* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with
v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.
* For a linear system, we can apply the principle of superposition.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Linearity and superposition

* A circuit containing independent sources, dependent sources, and resistors is


linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.
* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with
v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.
* For a linear system, we can apply the principle of superposition.
* In the context of circuits, superposition enables us to consider the independent
sources one at a time, compute the desired quantity of interest in each case, and
get the net result by adding the individual contributions.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Linearity and superposition

* A circuit containing independent sources, dependent sources, and resistors is


linear, i.e., the system of equations describing the circuit is linear.
* The dependent sources are assumed to be linear, e.g., if we have a CCVS with
v = a ic2 + b, the resulting system will be no longer linear.
* For a linear system, we can apply the principle of superposition.
* In the context of circuits, superposition enables us to consider the independent
sources one at a time, compute the desired quantity of interest in each case, and
get the net result by adding the individual contributions.
* Caution: Superposition cannot be applied to dependent sources.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition

* Superposition refers to superposition of response due to independent sources.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition

* Superposition refers to superposition of response due to independent sources.


* We can consider one independent source at a time, deactivate all other
independent sources.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition

* Superposition refers to superposition of response due to independent sources.


* We can consider one independent source at a time, deactivate all other
independent sources.
* Deactivating a current source ⇒ is = 0, i.e., replace the current source with an
open circuit.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition

* Superposition refers to superposition of response due to independent sources.


* We can consider one independent source at a time, deactivate all other
independent sources.
* Deactivating a current source ⇒ is = 0, i.e., replace the current source with an
open circuit.
* Deactivating a voltage source ⇒ vs = 0, i.e., replace the voltage source with a
short circuit.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

2Ω

i1

18 V 4Ω
3A
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .


2Ω

2Ω i1
4Ω
i1
18 V
18 V 4Ω
3A
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .


2Ω

2Ω i1
4Ω (1)
i1 i1 = 3 A
18 V
18 V 4Ω
3A
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .


2Ω

2Ω i1
4Ω (1)
i1 i1 = 3 A
18 V
18 V 4Ω
3A
Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .
2Ω

i1
4Ω
3A
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .


2Ω

2Ω i1
4Ω (1)
i1 i1 = 3 A
18 V
18 V 4Ω
3A
Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .
2Ω

i1
4Ω (2) 2Ω
i1 = 3 A × = 1A
2Ω+4Ω
3A
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .


2Ω

2Ω i1
4Ω (1)
i1 i1 = 3 A
18 V
18 V 4Ω
3A
Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .
2Ω

(1) (2) i1
inet
1 = i1 + i1 = 3 + 1 = 4 A 2Ω
4Ω (2)
i1 = 3 A × = 1A
2Ω+4Ω
3A

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

i 12 V
v 3Ω
1Ω
6A
2i
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .

i 12 V
v 3Ω
1Ω
i 12 V
v 3Ω
2i
1Ω
6A
2i
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .

i 12 V
v 3Ω
KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0
1Ω
i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .
v 3Ω
2i
1Ω
6A
2i
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .

i 12 V
v 3Ω
KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0
1Ω
i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .
v 3Ω
2i
1Ω
6A
2i

Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .

i
v 3Ω
1Ω
6A
2i
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .

i 12 V
v 3Ω
KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0
1Ω
i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .
v 3Ω
2i
1Ω
6A
2i

Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .

i
v 3Ω
KVL: i + (6 + i) 3 + 2 i = 0
1Ω
⇒ i = −3 A , v(2) = (−3 + 6) × 3 = 9 V .
6A
2i
Example

Case 1: Keep Vs , deactivate Is .

i 12 V
v 3Ω
KVL: − 12 + 3 i + 2 i + i = 0
1Ω
i 12 V ⇒ i = 2 A , v(1) = 6 V .
v 3Ω
2i
1Ω
6A
2i

Case 2: Keep Is , deactivate Vs .

i
vnet = v(1) + v(2) = 6 + 9 = 15 V v 3Ω
KVL: i + (6 + i) 3 + 2 i = 0
1Ω
⇒ i = −3 A , v(2) = (−3 + 6) × 3 = 9 V .
6A
2i

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

KCL at nodes A and B:

1 1 1
(V1 − Vs ) + V1 + (V1 − V2 ) = 0 ,
R1 R2 R3
1
−Is + (V2 − V1 ) = 0 .
R3

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

KCL at nodes A and B:

1 1 1
(V1 − Vs ) + V1 + (V1 − V2 ) = 0 ,
R1 R2 R3
1
−Is + (V2 − V1 ) = 0 .
R3

Writing in a matrix form, we get (using G1 = 1/R1 , etc.),


» –» – » –
G1 + G2 + G3 −G3 V1 G1 Vs
=
−G3 G3 V2 Is

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

KCL at nodes A and B:

1 1 1
(V1 − Vs ) + V1 + (V1 − V2 ) = 0 ,
R1 R2 R3
1
−Is + (V2 − V1 ) = 0 .
R3

Writing in a matrix form, we get (using G1 = 1/R1 , etc.),


» –» – » –
G1 + G2 + G3 −G3 V1 G1 Vs
=
−G3 G3 V2 Is

» – » – » – » –
V1 G1 Vs V1 −1 G1 Vs
i.e., A = → =A .
V2 Is V2 Is

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –
V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs
=A ≡ .
V2 Is m21 m22 Is

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –
V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs
=A ≡ .
V2 Is m21 m22 Is

We are now in a position to see why superposition works.


" (1) # " (2) #
V1 V1
» – » –» – » –» –
V1 m11 G1 m12 Vs m11 G1 m12 0
= + ≡ + .
V2 m21 G1 m22 0 m21 G1 m22 Is V2
(1) (2)
V2

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –
V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs
=A ≡ .
V2 Is m21 m22 Is

We are now in a position to see why superposition works.


" (1) # " (2) #
V1 V1
» – » –» – » –» –
V1 m11 G1 m12 Vs m11 G1 m12 0
= + ≡ + .
V2 m21 G1 m22 0 m21 G1 m22 Is V2
(1) (2)
V2

The first vector is the response due to Vs alone (and Is deactivated).


The second vector is the response due to Is alone (and Vs deactivated).

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Superposition: Why does it work?

V1 V2
R1 A R3 B

Vs R2 Is

» – » – » –» –
V1 −1 G1 Vs m11 m12 G1 Vs
=A ≡ .
V2 Is m21 m22 Is

We are now in a position to see why superposition works.


" (1) # " (2) #
V1 V1
» – » –» – » –» –
V1 m11 G1 m12 Vs m11 G1 m12 0
= + ≡ + .
V2 m21 G1 m22 0 m21 G1 m22 Is V2
(1) (2)
V2

The first vector is the response due to Vs alone (and Is deactivated).


The second vector is the response due to Is alone (and Vs deactivated).
All other currents and voltages are linearly related to V1 and V2
⇒ Any voltage (node voltage or branch voltage) or current can also be computed using
superposition.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem

Circuit A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B
Thevenin’s theorem

RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
VTh
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem

RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
VTh
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

* VTh is simply VAB when nothing is connected on the other side, i.e., VTh = Voc .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem

RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
VTh
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

* VTh is simply VAB when nothing is connected on the other side, i.e., VTh = Voc .
* RTh can be found by different methods.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:
RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
VTh
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

* Deactivate all independent sources.


Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:
RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
VTh
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

* Deactivate all independent sources.


Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:
RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
VTh
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

* Deactivate all independent sources.


* RTh can often be found by inspection.
Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:
RTh
A Is
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
VTh
CCVS, CCCS, Vs
VCVS, VCCS) B B
B
RTh
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS) B B

* Deactivate all independent sources.


* RTh can often be found by inspection.
* RTh may be found by connecting a test source.
Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:
RTh
A Is
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
VTh
CCVS, CCCS, Vs
VCVS, VCCS) B B
B
RTh
A
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources, Vs
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
Is
VCVS, VCCS) B B
B

* Deactivate all independent sources.


* RTh can often be found by inspection.
* RTh may be found by connecting a test source.
Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 1:
RTh
A Is
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources,
current sources,
VTh
CCVS, CCCS, Vs
VCVS, VCCS) B B
B
RTh
A
Circuit A A
(resistors,
voltage sources, Vs
current sources,
CCVS, CCCS,
Is
VCVS, VCCS) B B
B

* Deactivate all independent sources.


* RTh can often be found by inspection.
* RTh may be found by connecting a test source.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:
A

Voc

* Find Voc .
Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:
A A

Voc Isc

B B

* Find Voc .
* Find Isc .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:
A A

Voc Isc

B B

* Find Voc .
* Find Isc .
Voc
* RTh = .
Isc

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem: RTh

Method 2:
A A

Voc Isc

B B

* Find Voc .
* Find Isc .
Voc
* RTh = .
Isc
* Note: Sources are not deactivated.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω
A
R1 R3

3Ω RL
9V
R2
B
Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh
A
A
R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL
9V
R2
B
B
Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh
A
A
R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL
9V
R2
B
B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω
A

3Ω Voc
9V

B
Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh
A
A
R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL
9V
R2
B
B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω
A

3Ω Voc
9V

B
3Ω
Voc = 9 V ×
6Ω+3Ω
1
= 9V × = 3V
3
Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh
A
A
R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL
9V
R2
B
B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω RTh : 6Ω 2Ω
A A

3Ω Voc 3Ω
9V

B B
3Ω
Voc = 9 V ×
6Ω+3Ω
1
= 9V × = 3V
3
Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh
A
A
R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL
9V
R2
B
B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω RTh : 6Ω 2Ω
A A

3Ω Voc 3Ω
9V

B B
3Ω
Voc = 9 V × RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2
6Ω+3Ω
1 1×2
 
= 9V × = 3V =3× +2 = 4Ω
3 1+2
Thevenin’s theorem: example

6Ω 2Ω RTh 4Ω
A A
A
R1 R3

3Ω RL ≡ VTh RL
R ≡ 3V RL
9V L
R2
B
B B

VTh : 6Ω 2Ω RTh : 6Ω 2Ω
A A

3Ω Voc 3Ω
9V

B B
3Ω
Voc = 9 V × RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2
6Ω+3Ω
1 1×2
 
= 9V × = 3V =3× +2 = 4Ω
3 1+2

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
(resistors,
iL
voltage sources,
current sources, RL
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B
Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
iL
(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,
voltage sources,
current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
B
Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
iL
(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,
voltage sources,
current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
* For a given black box, what is the
B value of RL for which PL is
maximum?
Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
iL
(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,
voltage sources,
current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
* For a given black box, what is the
B value of RL for which PL is
maximum?
* Replace the black box with its
Thevenin equivalent.
Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
iL
(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,
voltage sources,
current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
* For a given black box, what is the
B value of RL for which PL is
RTh maximum?
A
iL * Replace the black box with its
Thevenin equivalent.
VTh RL

B
Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
iL
(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,
voltage sources,
current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
* For a given black box, what is the
B value of RL for which PL is
RTh maximum?
A
iL * Replace the black box with its
Thevenin equivalent.
VTh RL
VTh
* iL = ,
RTh + RL
B RL
2 ×
PL = VTh .
(RTh + RL )2
Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
iL
(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,
voltage sources,
current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
* For a given black box, what is the
B value of RL for which PL is
RTh maximum?
A
iL * Replace the black box with its
Thevenin equivalent.
VTh RL
VTh
* iL = ,
RTh + RL
B RL
2 ×
PL = VTh .
(RTh + RL )2
dPL
* For = 0 , we need
dRL
(RTh + RL )2 − RL × 2 (RTh + RL )
= 0,
(RTh + RL )4
i.e., RTh + RL = 2 RL ⇒ RL = RTh .
Maximum power transfer

A
Circuit
iL
(resistors, * Power “transferred” to load is,
voltage sources,
current sources, RL PL = iL2 RL .
CCVS, CCCS,
VCVS, VCCS)
* For a given black box, what is the
B value of RL for which PL is
RTh maximum?
A
iL * Replace the black box with its
Thevenin equivalent.
VTh RL
VTh
* iL = ,
RTh + RL
B RL
2 ×
PL = VTh .
PL
(RTh + RL )2
Pmax
L
dPL
* For = 0 , we need
dRL
(RTh + RL )2 − RL × 2 (RTh + RL )
= 0,
(RTh + RL )4
i.e., RTh + RL = 2 RL ⇒ RL = RTh .
RL
RL = RTh

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω
A
R1 R3
6Ω RL
12 V R2 2A
B
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω
A
R1 R3
6Ω RL
12 V R2 2A
B
RTh : 3Ω 2Ω
A
R1 R3
6Ω
R2
B
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω
A
R1 R3
6Ω RL
12 V R2 2A
B
RTh : 3Ω 2Ω
A
R1 R3
6Ω
R2
B
RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2
1×2
 
=3× +2 = 4Ω
1+2
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω
A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω RL 6Ω
12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A
B B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω
A
R1 R3
6Ω
R2
B
RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2
1×2
 
=3× +2 = 4Ω
1+2
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω
A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω RL 6Ω
12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A
B B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω Use superposition to find Voc :


A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω
R1 R3 A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω
6Ω 6Ω
R2
B
12 V R2 R2 2A
RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B

1×2
 
=3× +2 = 4Ω
1+2
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω
A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω RL 6Ω
12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A
B B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω Use superposition to find Voc :


A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω
R1 R3 A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω
6Ω 6Ω
R2
B
12 V R2 R2 2A
RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B
(1) 6
Voc = 12 × = 8 V
1×2
  9
=3× +2 = 4Ω
1+2
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω
A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω RL 6Ω
12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A
B B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω Use superposition to find Voc :


A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω
R1 R3 A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω
6Ω 6Ω
R2
B
12 V R2 R2 2A
RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B
(1) 6 (2)
Voc = 12 × = 8 V Voc = 4 Ω × 2 A = 8 V
1×2
  9
=3× +2 = 4Ω
1+2
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω
A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω RL 6Ω
12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A
B B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω Use superposition to find Voc :


A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω
R1 R3 A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω
6Ω 6Ω
R2
B
12 V R2 R2 2A
RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B
(1) 6 (2)
Voc = 12 × = 8 V Voc = 4 Ω × 2 A = 8 V
1×2
  9
=3× +2 = 4Ω (1) (2)
1+2 Voc = Voc + Voc = 8 + 8 = 16 V
Maximum power transfer: example

Find RL for which PL is maximum.


3Ω 2Ω Voc : 3Ω 2Ω
A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω RL 6Ω
12 V R2 2A 12 V R2 2A
B B

RTh : 3Ω 2Ω Use superposition to find Voc :


A 3Ω 2Ω 3Ω 2Ω
R1 R3 A A
R1 R3 R1 R3
6Ω
6Ω 6Ω
R2
B
12 V R2 R2 2A
RTh = (R1 k R2 ) + R3 = (3 k 6) + 2 B B
(1) 6 (2)
Voc = 12 × = 8 V Voc = 4 Ω × 2 A = 8 V
1×2
  9
=3× +2 = 4Ω (1) (2)
1+2 Voc = Voc + Voc = 8 + 8 = 16 V

RTh A
PL is maximum when RL = RTh = 4 Ω
iL

VTh RL ⇒ iL = VTh /(2 RTh ) = 2 A

Pmax 2
L = 2 × 4 = 16 W .
B

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

RTh :
4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
C
Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

RTh :
4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
C

A B

3Ω

4Ω
C
Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

RTh :
4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
C

A B

3Ω
≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω
4Ω
C
Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω
Voc :
4Ω A B 4Ω
6A 48 V
Voc
12 Ω 48 V
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
2Ω 6A 12 Ω
C i
RTh :
4Ω A B 4Ω

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
C

A B

3Ω
≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω
4Ω
C
Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω
Voc :
4Ω A B 4Ω
6A 48 V
Voc
12 Ω 48 V
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
2Ω 6A 12 Ω
C i
RTh :
4Ω A B 4Ω Note: i = 0 (since there is no return path).
VAB = VA − VB
= (VA − VC ) + (VC − VB )
12 Ω = VAC + VCB
2Ω 12 Ω
C = 24 V + 36 V = 60 V

A B

3Ω
≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω
4Ω
C
Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω
Voc :
4Ω A B 4Ω
6A 48 V
Voc
12 Ω 48 V
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
2Ω 6A 12 Ω
C i
RTh :
4Ω A B 4Ω Note: i = 0 (since there is no return path).
VAB = VA − VB
= (VA − VC ) + (VC − VB )
12 Ω = VAC + VCB
2Ω 12 Ω
C = 24 V + 36 V = 60 V

A B

3Ω VTh = 60 V
≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω RTh = 7 Ω
4Ω
C
Thevenin’s theorem: example

4Ω A B 4Ω
Voc :
4Ω A B 4Ω
6A 48 V
Voc
12 Ω 48 V
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
2Ω 6A 12 Ω
C i
RTh :
4Ω A B 4Ω Note: i = 0 (since there is no return path).
VAB = VA − VB
= (VA − VC ) + (VC − VB )
12 Ω = VAC + VCB
2Ω 12 Ω
C = 24 V + 36 V = 60 V
A B
A B

3Ω VTh = 60 V
7Ω
≡ ⇒ RTh = 7 Ω RTh = 7 Ω
60 V
4Ω
C

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh
SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh
SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω

6A 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Connect a voltage source between A and B.


Plot i versus v.

4Ω A B 4Ω
i
6A v 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Voc = intercept on the v-axis.


Isc = intercept on the i-axis.
Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh
SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω
10
6A 48 V 8

i (Amp)
6
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω 4
2
0
Connect a voltage source between A and B.
0 20 40 60
Plot i versus v. v (Volt)

4Ω A B 4Ω
i
6A v 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Voc = intercept on the v-axis.


Isc = intercept on the i-axis.
Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh
SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω
10
6A 48 V 8

i (Amp)
6
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω 4
2
0
Connect a voltage source between A and B.
0 20 40 60
Plot i versus v. v (Volt)

4Ω A B 4Ω Voc = 60 V, Isc = 8.5714 A


i RTh = Vsc /Isc = 7 Ω
6A v 48 V

2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω

Voc = intercept on the v-axis.


Isc = intercept on the i-axis.
Graphical method for finding VTh and RTh
SEQUEL file: ee101 thevenin 1.sqproj

4Ω A B 4Ω
10
6A 48 V 8

i (Amp)
6
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω 4
2
0
Connect a voltage source between A and B.
0 20 40 60
Plot i versus v. v (Volt)

4Ω A B 4Ω Voc = 60 V, Isc = 8.5714 A


i RTh = Vsc /Isc = 7 Ω
6A v 48 V
A B
2Ω 12 Ω 12 Ω
VTh = 60 V
7Ω
RTh = 7 Ω
Voc = intercept on the v-axis. 60 V

Isc = intercept on the i-axis.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Norton equivalent circuit

RTh
A

VTh

B
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh
A A

VTh RN
IN
B B
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh
A A

VTh RN
IN
B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Norton equivalent circuit

RTh
A A

VTh RN
IN
B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh
A A

VTh RN
IN
B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .
Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh
A A

VTh RN
IN
B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .
Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .
⇒ VTh = IN RN .
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh
A A A A
RN
VTh RN VTh Isc Isc
IN IN
B B B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .
Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .
⇒ VTh = IN RN .
* Consider the short circuit case.
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh
A A A A
RN
VTh RN VTh Isc Isc
IN IN
B B B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .
Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .
⇒ VTh = IN RN .
* Consider the short circuit case.
Thevenin circuit: Isc = VTh /RTh .
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh
A A A A
RN
VTh RN VTh Isc Isc
IN IN
B B B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .
Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .
⇒ VTh = IN RN .
* Consider the short circuit case.
Thevenin circuit: Isc = VTh /RTh .
Norton circuit: Isc = IN .
Norton equivalent circuit

RTh RTh
A A A A
RN
VTh RN VTh Isc Isc
IN IN
B B B B

* Consider the open circuit case.


Thevenin circuit: VAB = VTh .
Norton circuit: VAB = IN RN .
⇒ VTh = IN RN .
* Consider the short circuit case.
Thevenin circuit: Isc = VTh /RTh .
Norton circuit: Isc = IN .
⇒ RTh = RN .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

5Ω i 1A

20 V 10 Ω
Example

A
5Ω i 1A

20 V 10 Ω

B
Example

A
5Ω i 1A RN = 5 Ω
20 V
20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A
5Ω
B
Example

A
5Ω i 1A RN = 5 Ω
20 V
20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A
5Ω
B
A

4A i 1A

5Ω 10 Ω

B
Example

A
5Ω i 1A i
RN = 5 Ω 3A
20 V
20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω
5Ω
B
A

4A i 1A

5Ω 10 Ω

B
Example

A
5Ω i 1A i
RN = 5 Ω 3A
20 V
20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω
5Ω
B
A
5
i = 3A ×
4A i 1A 5 + 10
= 1A
5Ω 10 Ω

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

A
5Ω i 1A i
RN = 5 Ω 3A
20 V
20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω
5Ω
B
A
5
i = 3A ×
4A i 1A 5 + 10
= 1A
5Ω 10 Ω

Home work:
* Find i by superposition and compare.

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay


Example

A
5Ω i 1A i
RN = 5 Ω 3A
20 V
20 V 10 Ω IN = = 4A 5Ω 10 Ω
5Ω
B
A
5
i = 3A ×
4A i 1A 5 + 10
= 1A
5Ω 10 Ω

Home work:
* Find i by superposition and compare.
P
* Compute the power absorbed by each element and verify that Pi = 0 .

M. B. Patil, IIT Bombay