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Scripta Materialia 68 (2013) 530–533

Effect of c/a axial ratio on Schmid factors in hexagonal

close-packed metals
Xiao-Long Nan, Hui-Yuan Wang,⇑ Zhi-Qiang Wu, En-Song Xue,
Lei Zhang and Qi-Chuan Jiang⇑
Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanling Campus,
Jilin University, No. 5988 Renmin Street, Changchun 130025, People’s Republic of China
Received 29 August 2012; revised 4 December 2012; accepted 6 December 2012
Available online 14 December 2012

Schmid factors (m) for typical slip modes (basal hai, prismatic hai, pyramidal hai and hc + ai slips) and twinning patterns
(f1 0 1 2g and f1 0 1 1g twins) were systematically calculated in hexagonal close-packed Cd, Zn, Mg, Zr, Ti and Be. A monotonic
effect on m-values was presented for pyramidal hai and hc + ai slips, and f1 0 1 2g and f1 0 1 1g twinning patterns with decreasing
c/a ratio. The results calculated herein were used to characterize deformation behaviors and provide essential data for anisotropic
feature analysis.
Ó 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Slip; Twinning; Plastic deformation; Texture

The axial ratio (c/a) has a significant effect on the f1 0 1 1g twins), and gave a reasonable interpretation to
deformation behavior in hexagonal close-packed (hcp) describe the flow stress and characterizing deformation
metals; for example, the f1 0 1 2g twin is considered pffiffiffi to behaviors in magnesium [10]. However, differences from
be a compression twin for Cd and Zn ðc=a > 3Þ p but
ffiffiffi the m-value of magnesium (c/a = 1.624) remain unclear
a tension twin for all the other hcp metals ðc=a < 3Þ when the c/a ratio is far from 1.624. To extend our previ-
with respect to the c-axis [1,2]. In addition, the dominant ous work [10] to hcp metals with a c/a ratio close to, or
slip mode is hai slip on the basal f0 0 0 1g plane for Cd greater or lower than that of Mg, the m-values for relative
and Zn (c/a > 1.633) but on the prismatic f1 0 1 0g plane deformation modes were calculated for Cd (1.886), Zn
for Ti and Zr (c/a < 1.633), apart from certain excep- (1.856), Mg (1.624) [10], Mg–(17 at.%) Li (1.607), Zr
tions (e.g. Mg, Be) [3–7]. It is assumed that the texture (1.593), Ti (1.587) and Be (1.568) in the present work.
evolution depends strongly on the c/a ratio for hcp met- Supposing that the loading directions sketched in
als [8,9]. Wang and Huang [9] have summarized that the Figure 1a are along ½1 1 2c1  (r1, 0°) and ½1 0 1c3  (r3,
main features of deformation texture in hcp metals with 30°), then the projective location of the relative loading
different c/a ratios can be broadly classified into three direction on the basal plane can be plotted. This is
groups, i.e. the ideal basal texture for Mg with a c/a shown in Figure 1b. The Schmid factors ðm ¼ cos
of 1.624 close to the critical value and the other two / cos kÞ, which have functional relationship with the
parts of non-basal textures in which basal poles are angles (h) between the c-axis and the loading directions,
tilted away from the normal direction (ND) either were calculated by:
toward the rolling direction (RD) for Cd and Zn or
½u1 u2 þ v1 v2  12 ðu1 v2 þ u2 v1 Þ þ ðac Þ2 w1 w2 
toward the transverse direction (TD) for Ti and Zr. cos /ðkÞ ¼ ð1Þ
More recently, we calculated the Schmid factors ½ðu21 þ v21  u1 v1 þ ðac Þ2 w21 Þðu22 þ v22  u2 v2 þ ðac Þ2 w22 Þ1=2
(m) for four slip systems (basal f0 0 0 1g hai slip, prismatic where [u1v1w1] is the 3-index slip (twinning) plane nor-
f1 0 1 0g hai slip, pyramidal f1 0 1 1g hai slip and f1 1 2 2g mal or 3-index slip (twinning) direction, while [u2v2w2]
hc + ai slip) and two twinning patterns (f1 0 1 2g and is the 3-index loading direction. Details of the calcula-
tions used are reported in Ref. [10].
⇑ Corresponding authors. Tel./fax: +86 431 8509 4699; e-mail Figures 2 and 3 show the Schmid factors for pyrami-
addresses:; dal f1 0 1 1g hai slip (Fig. 2a and b), pyramidal f1 1 2 2g

1359-6462/$ - see front matter Ó 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
X.-L. Nan et al. / Scripta Materialia 68 (2013) 530–533 531

Figure 1. (a) Schematic relations of four slip systems (basal f0 0 0 1g

hai, prismatic f1 0 1 0g hai, pyramidal f1 0 1 1g hai and f1 1 2 2g hc + ai
slips) as well as two twinning patterns (f1 0 1 2g and f1 0 1 1g twinning)
and two loading directions (r1 and r3), and (b) the projective location
of relative loading direction on basal plane. Figure 3. Schmid factors for (a, b) f1 0 1 2g twinning and (c, d) f1 0 1 1g
twinning along the r1 and r3 loading directions, respectively, as a
function of the angles between the c-axis and the loading directions.
hc + ai slip (Fig. 2c and d), f1 0 1 2g twinning (Fig. 3a
and b) and f1 0 1 1g twinning (Fig. 3c and d) with m-curves. Unlike most variants, which present two con-
decreasing c/a ratios, from the 1.886 of Cd to the versely monotonic m-curves for pyramidal hai slip, three
1.568 of Be, respectively. Unlike the polar mechanism sections of monotonic m-curves are noted in most of the
in deformation twinning, dislocation slip allows simple variants for pyramidal hc + ai slip (Fig. 2c and d).
shear in both the forward and backward directions Different from the multi-sections of monotonic
[2,11], and the absolute m-value is then used for pyrami- m-curves in most variants on pyramidal slips (hai and
dal hai and hc + ai slips. The roman numerals (i–vi) (see hc + ai) and f1 0 1 1g twinning (Fig. 3c and d), all of
the right side) in Figures 2 and 3 represent the variants them for f1 0 1 2g twinning in Figure 3a and b appear
for corresponding deformation modes, where the super- with unique monotonic regularity. Note that variants i
position of m-curves is characterized by two numbers (ii) exhibit an overlapping m-range but the opposite var-
(e.g. variants i and iv or ii and iii in Fig. 2a). iation tendency with decreasing c/a ratio compared with
It can be seen that the variants i (iv), ii (iii) and v (vi) variants iv (v) in Figure 3a (shown by the red arrow).
(Fig. 2a) in the r1 loading direction and variants i (iii), ii Similar appearances can be observed between variants
(v) and iv (vi) (Fig. 2b) in the r3 loading direction show i and iv and between variants iii (v) and ii (vi) in Fig-
m-curves that overlap for pyramidal hai slip. The ure 3b, respectively. In addition, the Schmid factors of
m-curves of variants ii and v calculated here exhibit a variants iii (vi) in Figure 3a show less dependence on
constant zero in the r3 loading direction. A monotonic the c/a ratio.
tendency in m-values with decreasing c/a ratio is present Table 1 gives the Schmid factors of all six variants in
at a definite h angle (e.g. shown by the grey arrow in Cd, Mg, Ti and Be along three particular loading direc-
Fig. 2a). Except for the unique monotonic regularity tions, i.e. parallel with the c-axis (h = 0°) and in the
in the m-curves for variants i and iv (Fig. 2a) and the ½1 1 2 0 and ½1 0 1 0 directions (h = 90°). The numbers
constant zero of m-values for variants ii and v in brackets (i.e. 2, 4 and 6) refer to the number of vari-
(Fig. 2b), all of others exhibit multi-section monotonic ants presenting the relative m-value. Schmid factors of
Zn (1.856), Mg–(17 at.%) Li (1.607) and Zr (1.593) are
not shown in Table 1; however, these can be represented
approximately by the values for Cd (1.886), Mg (1.624)
and Ti (1.587), owing to their similar c/a ratios. For
example, with decreasing c/a ratio from 1.624 (Mg) to
1.607 (Mg–17 at.% Li), there is only a limited increase
in Schmid factors, from 0.447 to 0.449 and 0.415 to
0.418 for pyramidal hc + ai slips and f1 0 1 2g twinning,
respectively, in c-axis loading.
Note that the m-values vary monotonically with
decreasing c/a ratio at constant angles; however,
whether the function is monotonically increasing or
decreasing depends on the variants and the h angles. A
significant effect of the c/a ratio on m-values is observed,
e.g. the maximum Schmid factors for pyramidal hc + ai
slip increase from 0.414 (0.310) in Cd to 0.453 (0.340) in
Be when tensioned along the ½1 1 2 0 ð½1 0 1 0Þ direction
Figure 2. Schmid factors for (a, b) pyramidal f1 0 1 1g hai slip and (c, (Table 1). The Schmid factors for basal hai and pris-
d) pyramidal f1 1 2 2g hc + ai slip along the r1 and r3 loading matic hai slip were also calculated in the aforementioned
directions, respectively, as a function of the angles between the c-axis hcp metals, indicating a negligible effect of c/a ratios on
and the loading directions. m-values at the same h angle. Details of the m-values for
532 X.-L. Nan et al. / Scripta Materialia 68 (2013) 530–533

Table 1. Schmid factors for pyramidal f1 0 1 1g hai slip, pyramidal f1 1 2 2g hc + aislip, f1 0 1 2g twinning and f1 0 1 1g twinning at two basal h angles
(0, 90°) in the r1 and r3 loading directions.
h (degree) Loading direction Cd (1.886) Mg (1.624) Ti (1.587) Be (1.568)
Pyramidal hai 0 c-axis 0(6) 0(6) 0(6) 0(6)
90 r1 ð½1 1 2 0Þ 0.394(4)/0(2) 0.382(4)/0(2) 0.380(4)/0(2) 0.379(4)/0(2)
r3 ð½1 0 1 0Þ 0.394(4)/0(2) 0.382(4)/0(2) 0.380(4)/0(2) 0.379(4)/0(2)
Pyramidal hc + ai 0 c-axis 0.414(6) 0.447(6) 0.451(6) 0.453(6)
90 r1 ð½1 1 2 0Þ 0.103(4)/0.414(2) 0.112(4)/0.447(2) 0.113(4)/0.451(2) 0.113(4)/0.453
r3 ð½1 0 1 0Þ 0.310(4)/0(2) 0.335(4)/0(2) 0.338(4)/0(2) 0.340(4)/0(2)
f1 0 1 2g twinning 0 c-axis 0.498(6) 0.499(6) 0.498(6) 0.498(6)
90* r1 ð½1 1 2 0Þ 0.374(4)/0(2) 0.374(4)/0(2) 0.374(4)/0(2) 0.373(4)/0(2)
r3 ð½1 0 1 0Þ 0.125(4)/0.498(2) 0.125(4)/0.499(2) 0.125(4)/0.498(2) 0.124(4)/0.498(2)
f1 0 1 1g twinning 0* c-axis 0.379(6) 0.415(6) 0.420(6) 0.423(6)
90 r1 ð½1 1 2 0Þ 0.284(4)/0(2) 0.311(4)/0(2) 0.315(4)/0(2) 0.317(4)/0(2)
r3 ð½1 0 1 0Þ 0.095(4)/0.379(2) 0.104(4)/0.415(2) 0.105(4)/0.420(2) 0.106(4)/0.423(2)
The numbers in brackets refer to the numbers of variants presenting the relative m-value, while the values in bold represent the maximum m-value in
relative loading directions.
Negative Schmid factors forf1 0 1 2g and f1 0 1 1g twinning indicate their favorite orientation within a compression loading direction.

basal hai and prismatic hai slip for other hcp metals are m-values was shown to be only 56–60% or 21–23%
given in Ref. [10]. in Zr [21] and 47% or 27% in Mg [22], respectively.
Generally, as a relevant parameter, Schmid factors Note that the departure between high Schmid factors
are applied in various aspects. First, they are frequently and twin variant selections resulted from local stress
used to predict the nature of the slip system that can be variations, or the accommodation strain required to per-
activated in a specific zone [12–14]. For example, Bridier mit their formation [20,21,23,24]. For instance, there
et al. [13] found that the activated slips in duplex a/b was good agreement with the Schmid factor criterion
titanium alloy clearly appear in good correspondence for f1 0 1 1g primary twinning, but a departure from
with the highest m-value domains. Secondly, the strain the f1 0 1 2g secondary twinning in that only the 38°
accommodated by twinning (the twinning strain, etwin) h1 2 1 0i variant was favored in f1 0 1 1g primary twins,
can be calculated by: etwin ¼ ftwin  m  ctwin , where ftwin , as only this showed the strain compatibility needed for
m and ctwin represent the volume fraction of the twin, secondary twins to grow [24]. It was considered that
the average Schmid factors and the characteristic twin- the Schmid factor cannot be the only relevant parameter
ning shear, respectively [3,15]. This has been calculated for twin variant selection [23,25,26]. Therefore, Schuman
for Zr–2.5%Nb, providing values of about 0.048 and et al. [26–28] proposed a new energetic twin variant
0.006 for the f1 0 1 2g twinning strain during two differ- selection criterion considering the deformation energy
ent rolling processes [16]. Moreover, Brown et al. [17] needed to create a primary twin, i.e. the selected twin
presented a relation between the fraction of total strain variants
pffiffiffi were those with a maximal absolute value of
accommodated by twinning and strain rates (104– e033 = L, where e033 and L are the twinning deformation
104 s1) during compression deformation of beryllium. expressed in the sample coordinate system and the max-
Based on the assumption that grains under ½1 0 1 0 com- imum length of a variant in a grain, respectively. For
pression twin more easily because of a largest Schmid pure titanium, the Schmid factor criterion gave only
factor of 0.5 (i.e. 0.498 in Table 1), Brown et al. sug- 50% correct prediction of the twin variant selection;
gested that twinning has a more important role at high however, the energy rule showed more than 85% correct
strain rates (25% total strain) than at low strain rates prediction when taking the grain size as one of the essen-
(lower than 5% total strain) with an upper bound of m tial factors [27,28].
of 0.5. Studying compression transverse to the basal It should be recognized that Schmid factors are
poles in textured AZ31 (Mg–3Al–1Zn), Brown et al. indeed very important in describing flow stress and
[18] showed that 61% strain was accommodated by characterizing deformation mechanisms [12,29,30]. Re-
f1 0 1 2g twinning from 0–5% early plastic deformation cently, Chun and Davies [31] provided systematic
with an m of 0.32 (see Table 1, (0.374 + 0.499 + experimental data on the stress–strain curves of a highly
0.125)/3  0.33). textured AZ31 (Mg–3Al–1Zn) plate under uniaxial ten-
Ultimately, the Schmid factor is thought to be a per- sion and compression states, which showed similar yield
tinent parameter to show the selection of specific twin- stress (67 MPa in RD or TD compression and
ning systems; for example, the activated twinning 62 MPa in ND tension) but a distinct appearance in
systems during compression testing in AM30 (Mg– stress–strain curves. Similar results with yield stresses
3.4Al–0.33Mn) tubes were found to have high m-values of 66 and 58 MPa were also obtained by Hong et al.
[19]. However, the Schmid factor criterion for twin selec- [32,33] for RD compression and ND tension in hot-
tion was brought into doubt by the absence of many po- rolled AZ31 (Mg–3.6Al–1.0Zn–0.5Mn). The minor
tential high m-twins but the presence of low and very higher yield stress in RD (or TD) compression than
low m-twins [20]. In recent statistical analyses, the prob- ND tension may result from the lower average Schmid
ability of twin variants with highest or second-highest factor of 0.437 (i.e. (0.374 + 0.499)/2) rather than
X.-L. Nan et al. / Scripta Materialia 68 (2013) 530–533 533

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