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A General Autofrettage Model of a Thick-Walled Cylinder Based on Tensile-Compressive Stress-Strain


Curve of a Material
X. P Huang
The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design 2005 40: 599
DOI: 10.1243/030932405X16070

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599

A general autofrettage model of a thick-walled


cylinder based on tensile–compressive
stress–strain curve of a material
X P Huang
School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030,
People’s Republic of China. email: xphuang@sjtu.edu.cn

The manuscript was received on 21 October 2004 and was accepted after revision for publication on 24 March 2005.

DOI: 10.1243/030932405X16070

Abstract: The basic autofrettage theory assumes elastic–perfectly plastic behaviour. Because of
the Bauschinger effect and strain-hardening, most materials do not display elastic–perfectly
plastic properties and consequently various autofrettage models are based on different
simplified material strain-hardening models, which assume linear strain-hardening or power
strain-hardening or a combination of these strain-hardening models. This approach gives a
more accurate prediction than the elastic–perfectly plastic model and is suitable for different
strain-hardening materials. In this paper, a general autofrettage model that incorporates the
material strain-hardening relationship and the Bauschinger effect, based upon the actual
tensile–compressive stress–strain curve of a material is proposed. The model incorporates the
von Mises yield criterion, an incompressible material, and the plane strain condition. Analytic
expressions for the residual stress distribution have been derived.
Experimental results show that the present model has a stronger curve-fitting ability and gives
a more accurate prediction. Several other models are shown to be special cases of the general
model presented in this paper. The parameters needed in the model are determined by fitting
the actual tensile–compressive curve of the material, and the maximum strain of this curve
should closely represent the maximum equivalent strain at the inner surface of the cylinder
under maximum autofrettage pressure.

Keywords: thick-walled cylinder, von Mises yield criterion, Bauschinger effect, strain-hardening,
autofrettage model

1 INTRODUCTION may limit their accuracies [2]. The basic autofrettage


model proposed by Hill [3] is an elastic–perfectly
The autofrettage process is a practical method for plastic model, shown in Fig. 1(a). Because of the
increasing the elastic-carrying capacity and the fatigue Bauschinger effect and strain-hardening, most
life of a thick-walled cylinder such as a cannon or a materials do not satisfy the elastic–perfectly plastic
high-pressure tubular reactor. The essence of the auto- assumption, and consequently alternative autofrettage
frettage technique is the introduction and utilization of models, based on various simplified material strain-
residual stresses. These residual stresses are generated hardening characteristics, have been proposed [4].
after pressurizing to cause yielding partway through These are an unloading linear strain-hardening model
the cylinder wall. The reliable prediction of the [5, 6], a bilinear strain-hardening model [7–9], a loading
influence of residual stresses on the elastic-carrying elastic–perfectly plastic and unloading power strain-
capacity, fatigue crack growth, and fracture in a thick- hardening model [9, 10], a loading and unloading
walled cylinder requires accurate estimation of the power strain-hardening model [11], and a loading
residual stress field [1]. Residual stress distributions linear and unloading power strain-hardening model
can be determined by experiment or calculation. The [12], shown in Fig. 1. These models give more accurate
calculation procedures usually involve making simpli- solutions than the elastic–perfectly plastic model and
fying assumptions about the material behaviour, which each of them suits different strain-hardening materials.

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600 X P Huang

Fig. 2 General material tensile–compressive stress–strain


curve

(a) Loading phase O–A–B. In the Cartesian coordi-


nate system ð"OÞ, shown in Fig. 2, there is an initial
tensile loading regime, O–A, during which the steel
behaves elastically up to the yield point s ð"s Þ; the
elastic modulus over this range is E . The material
then behaves plastically (A–B). This phase may
involve significant non-linearity. The relationship of
stress–strain can be expressed as
Fig. 1 Four typical autofrettage models: (a) elastic–per-
fectly plastic model; (b) linear strain-hardening Linear elastic regime O–A
model; (c) unloading power function strain-harden-  ¼ E" ð" 4 "s Þ ð1Þ
ing model; (d) power function strain-hardening
model Strain-hardening regime A–B

 ¼ A1 þ A2 "B1 ð" 5 "s Þ ð2Þ


Numerical analysis procedures are required when
material behaviour is so complex that an analytical (b) Unloading phase B–D–E. In the Cartesian
model cannot properly represent the material or coordinate system (" B ), shown in Fig. 2, there is
boundary conditions. Such procedures have been an unloading elastic regime, B–D, during which the
employed by Parker and his co-workers [13, 14]. In steel behaves elastically up to the yield point D ð"s Þ;
this paper, a general autofrettage model considering the elastic modulus over this range is E 0 . The material
the material strain-hardening relationship and the then behaves plastically (D–E). This phase exhibits
effect of Bauschinger, based on the actual tensile– significant non-linearity. The relationship of stress–
compressive curve of the material and the von Mises strain can be expressed as
yield criterion, is proposed. Elastic regime B–D

 ¼ E 0 " ð" 4 "s Þ ð3Þ


2 THEORETICAL ANALYSIS AND FORMULA
DERIVATION Strain hardening regime D–E

 ¼ A3 þ A4 ð" ÞB2 ð" 5 "s Þ ð4Þ


2.1 Material stress–strain relationship and
fundamental assumptions
2.1.2 Fundamental assumptions
2.1.1 Description of the material stress–strain
relationship (a) Unique curve assumption. The relationship
between the equivalent strain (strain intensity) "i
A general material tensile–compressive stress–strain and the equivalent stress (stress intensity) i under
curve is shown in Fig. 2. The curve can be divided complex stress states is the same as the strain–stress
into four segments, O–A, A–B, B–D, and D–E, and relationship under uniaxial tensile–compressive
can be expressed by four equations. loading, i.e. equations (1) to (4) remain valid when

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A general autofrettage model of a thick-walled cylinder 601

"‚ ð" ‚  Þ is replaced by "i ‚ i ð"i ‚ i Þ. and the corresponding strains "r and " , are given in
terms of the radial displacement, u, by
Stress intensity i
qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi du
"r ¼
i ¼ 12 ½ð  r Þ2 þ ðr  z Þ2 þ ðz   Þ2  ð5Þ dr
u
" ¼
Strain intensity "i r
ð11Þ
pffiffiffi qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
2 and the deformation theory constitutive equations
"i ¼ ð"  "r Þ2 þ ð"r  "z Þ2 þ ðz " Þ2 ð6Þ
3 are valid [15].
(b) Incompressible volume assumption 3"i
"r ¼ ð  m Þ
2i r
" þ "r þ "z ¼ 0 ð7Þ
3"i
" ¼ ð  m Þ
(c) Plane strain assumption 2i 
3"i
"z ¼ 0 ð8Þ "z ¼ ð  m Þ
2i z
ð12Þ
2.2 Yield criterion
where
The yield criterion adopted here is the von Mises
m ¼ 13ðr þ  þ z Þ ð13Þ
criterion, i.e.
Substituting "z ¼ 0 into equations (12) and (13) gives
i ¼ s ð9Þ
z ¼ 12ð þ r Þ ð14Þ
2.3 Loading stress analysis Substituting equation (14) into equation (5) gives
The loading stress analysis is based on the Cartesian 2
coordinate system "O, shown in Fig. 2. The radii of  ¼ pffiffiffi i þ r
3
elastic–plastic zones in the cylinder wall are shown
in Fig. 3. 1
z ¼ pffiffiffi i þ r
3
2.3.1 Basic equations ð15Þ
Assuming small strain and no body forces in the axi- The radial stress r can be obtained from equations
symmetric state of generalized plane strain, the radial (10) and (15)
and tangential stresses, r and  , must satisfy the ð
equilibrium equation 2 
r ¼ pffiffiffi i dr ð16Þ
3 r
dr r  
þ ¼0 ð10Þ From equations (6), (7), and (11)
dr r
2 c
"i ¼ pffiffiffi 2 ð17Þ
3r
where c is an integration constant.
2.3.2 Stress analysis
(a) Loading elastic zone (rc 4 r 4 ro ). Substituting
equations (1) and (17) into equation (16) gives
2Ece
r ¼  þ c01 ð18Þ
3r2

(b) Loading plastic zone (ri 4 r 4 rc ). Substituting


equations (2) and (17) into equation (16) gives
 B1
2 A2 2 1
r ¼ pffiffiffi A1 ln r  pffiffiffi pffiffiffi ðcp ÞB1 2B þ c02
3 3B1 3 r 1

Fig. 3 Radii of elastic–plastic zones ð19Þ

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602 X P Huang

   
where ce , cp , c01 , and c02 are integration constants, 1 r
which can be determined from boundary conditions. z ¼ pffiffiffi 2 ln þ 1 A1
3 ri
2.3.3 Boundary conditions  
s  A1 2B1 1 1
þ pffiffiffi rc þ ðB1  1Þ 2B  pa
The autofrettaged cylinder is subjected to internal 3B1 r2B
i
1 r 1
pressure pa and the external pressure is zero. The ð23Þ
following boundary conditions exist under auto-
frettage pressure:
1. Both of the stress intensities in the elastic zone 2.4 Unloading stress analysis
ði Þe and plastic zone ði Þp at the elastoplastic
Unloading stress analysis is based on the Cartesian
radius reach the yield strength, i.e.
coordinate system " B , shown in Fig. 2. The radii
ði Þe jr ¼ rc ¼ s of elastic–plastic zones in the cylinder wall are
shown in Fig. 3. The procedure of unloading stress
ði Þp jr ¼ rc ¼ s analysis is the same as that for loading stress analysis.
ð20Þ Elastic unloading and the elastic–plastic unloading
2. The radial stress r at the inner surface and outer are each discussed below.
surface are 2.4.1 Yielding on unloading
r jr ¼ ri ¼ pa For sufficiently thick cylinders and depths of yielding
during the autofrettage process, reverse yielding may
r jr ¼ ro ¼ 0
ð21Þ take place adjacent to the inner surface when the
internal pressure is removed. For a yield stress in
The following integration constants are determined compression equal in magnitude to that in tension,
from equations (15), (18), (19), and boundary reverse yielding will not happen until k ¼ ro =ri
condition equations (20) and (21) exceeds a value of about 2.2 [3]. It can take place at
pffiffiffi lower k values if yielding occurs in compression at a
3 s 2 1 r2 lower stress than in tension due to the Bauschinger
ce ¼ rc ‚ c01 ¼ pffiffiffi s 2c
2 E 3 ro effect. This effect can be taken into account by letting
pffiffiffi 1=B1 the yield stress in compression be bef s , where bef is
3 s  A1
cp ¼ r2c the Bauschinger effect factor [2]
2 A1
  j
s j
2 s  A1 rc 2B1 bef ¼ ð24Þ
c02 ¼ pa  pffiffiffi A1 ln ri þ pffiffiffi s
3 3 B1 r i
In general, bef is found to be material dependent and
2.3.4 Loading stress distribution sensitive to the amount of previous plastic strain.
(a) Elastic zone (rc 4 r 4 ro ) Typical values of bef in the range 0.3–1.0 have been
  measured [16]. The greater the previous plastic
 1 1 strain, the smaller is the Bauschinger effect factor.
r ¼ psffiffiffi r2c 2  2
3 ro r The lower the bef , the earlier is the onset of reverse
  yielding and the greater is the impact upon residual
 1 1
 ¼ psffiffiffi r2c 2 þ 2 stress distribution. In this paper, the Bauschinger
3 ro r
effect is treated as constant and incorporated via
 1 parameter D. Parameter D is also dependent on
z ¼ psffiffiffi r2c 2
3 ro the prior plastic strain. From Fig. 2, bef can be
ð22Þ expressed as

(b) Plastic zone (ri 4 r 4 rc ) D ð"max Þ  A1  A2 "Bmax


1
bef ¼ ð25Þ
    s
2 r s  A1 2B1 1 1
r ¼ pffiffiffi A1 ln þ pffiffiffi rc  2B  pa
3 ri 3B1 r2B
i
1 r 1 It is very important to determine the maximum strain
    "max of the stress–strain curve of a material; this will
2 r be discussed in section 4.
 ¼ pffiffiffi ln þ 1 A1
3 ri
  2.4.2 Elastic unloading
s  A1 2B1 1 1
þ pffiffiffi rc þ ð2B1  1Þ 2B  pa When the autofrettage pressure is totally removed,
3B1 r2B
i
1 r 1 the unloading pressure p is equal to pa. If there is

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A general autofrettage model of a thick-walled cylinder 603

no reverse yielding, the unloading is perfectly elastic.    


s 2 1 1 pa r2o
In this case, the unloading stresses in the whole wall R
r ¼ p ffiffi
ffi r c   r 2
i 1 
3 r2o r2 r2o  r2i r2
(ri 4 r 4 ro ) follow the Lamé equations
   
  s 2 1 1 pa r2o
 pa r2o  ¼ pffiffiffi rc 2 þ 2  2
R
ri 1 þ 2
2
r ¼ 2 ri 1  2
2
3 ro r ro  r2i r
ro  r2i r
  s 2 1 pa
p r2 z ¼ pffiffiffi rc 2  2
R r2
2 i
 ¼ 2 a 2 r2i 1 þ o2 3 o r ro  r i
ro  ri r ð29Þ
p
z ¼ 2 a 2 r2i (b) Plastic loading and elastic unloading zone
ro  ri (ri 4 r 4 rc )
ð26Þ    
2 r s  A1 2B1 1 1
r ¼ pffiffiffi A1 ln
R
þ pffiffiffi rc  2B
3 ri 3B1 r2B
i
1 r 1
2.4.3 Elastic–plastic unloading (reverse yielding  
taking place) pa r2i
 2 ro 1  2
2

(a) Unloading elastic zone (rd 4 r 4 ro ) ro  r2i r


   
  2 r s  A1 2B1
 1 1  ¼ pffiffiffi ln
R þ 1 A1 þ p ffiffiffi rc
r ¼ pDffiffiffi r2d 2  2 3 r 3B1
3 ro r i

     
 1 1 1 1 p r2
 ¼ pDffiffiffi r2d 2 þ 2  2B þ ð2B1  1Þ 2B  2 a 2 r2o 1 þ i2
3 ro r ri 1 r 1 ro  ri r
   
 1 1 r s  A1 2B1
z ¼ pDffiffiffi r2d 2 z ¼ pffiffiffi 2 ln
R þ 1 A1 þ p ffiffiffi rc
3 ro 3 r i 3 B1
ð27Þ  
1 1 p
 2B þ ðB1  1Þ 2B  2 a 2 r2o
(b) Unloading plastic zone (ri 4 r 4 rd ) ri 1 r 1 ro  ri
ð30Þ
   
2 r   A3 2B2 1 1
r ¼ pffiffiffi A3 ln þ D pffiffiffi rd   pa 2.5.2 Elastic–plastic unloading (reverse yielding
3 ri 3B2 r2B
i
2 r2B2 taking place)
   
 2 r (a) Elastic loading zone and elastic unloading zone
 ¼ pffiffiffi ln þ 1 A3
3 ri (rc 4 r 4 ro )
   
D  A3 2B2 1 1 p
1
ffiffi

1 1
þ pffiffiffi rd þ ð2B2  1Þ 2B  pa R
r ¼ ð r2
s c   r
D d
2
Þ 
3 B2 r2B 2 r 2 3 r2o r2
  
i
  
1 r 1 1 1
z ¼ pffiffiffi 2 ln þ 1 A3 R
 ¼ p ffiffi
ffi ð r2
s c   r
D d
2
Þ þ
3 ri 3 r2o r2
  1 2 1
  A3 2B2 1 1 z ¼ pffiffiffiðs rc  D rd Þ 2
R 2
þ D pffiffiffi rd þ ðB 2  1Þ  pa 3 ro
3 B2 r2B
i
2 r2B2 ð31Þ
ð28Þ
(b) Plastic loading zone and elastic unloading zone
(rd 4 r 4 rc )
2.5 Residual stress distribution    
2 r s  A1 2B1 1 1
The residual stress distribution can be determined r ¼
R
p ffiffi
ffi A1 ln þ p ffiffi
ffi rc  2B
3 ri 3B1 r2B 1 r 1
by subtracting the unloading stress from the i
corresponding loading stress, i.e. R ¼    .  
 1 1
Because ri 4 rd 4 rc 4 ro , the residual stress distribu-  pDffiffiffi r2d 2  2  pa
3 ro r
tion should be discussed for two different cases and in    
three zones. 2 r s  A1 2B1
 ¼ pffiffiffi ln
R
þ 1 A1 þ p ffiffiffi rc
3 ri 3B1
2.5.1 Elastic unloading (no reverse yielding)
   
1 1 D 2 1 1
(a) Elastic loading and elastic unloading zone  2B þ ð2B1  1Þ 2B  pffiffiffi rd 2 þ 2  pa
(rc 4 r 4 ro ) ri 1 r 1 3 ro r

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604 X P Huang

   
1 r s  A1 2B1 3.2 The relationship of rd  pa
R
z ¼ pffiffiffi 2 ln þ 1 A1 þ p ffiffiffi rc
3 ri 3B1 When the autofrettage pressure pa is greater than the
  critical autofrettage pressure pacr , reverse yielding will
1 1  1
 2B þ ðB1  1Þ 2B  pDffiffiffi r2d 2  pa take place near the inner surface of the autofrettaged
ri 1 r 1
3 ro cylinder. The reverse yielding elastoplastic radius rd
ð32Þ can be determined by
   
(c) Plastic loading zone and plastic unloading zone 2 rd D  A3 rd 2B2
pa ¼ pffiffiffi A3 ln þ pffiffiffi
(ri 4 r 4 rd ) 3 ri 3B2 ri
   2
2 r  r ð1  B2 ÞD  A3
r ¼
R
p ffiffi
ffi ðA1  A3 Þ ln  pDffiffiffi d  pffiffiffi ð35Þ
3 r i 3 o r 3B2
 
s  A1 2B1 1 1
þ pffiffiffi rc  2B 3.3 Critical autofrettage pressure pacr
3B1 r2B
i
1 r 1
  The critical autofrettage pressure is defined as the
D  A3 2B2 1 1
 p ffiffiffi rd  autofrettage pressure when reverse yielding just
3B2 r2Bi
2 r2B2 takes place at the inner surface of the autofrettaged
    cylinder. Because of the Bauschinger effect, the
2 r
R
 ¼ p ffiffi
ffi ln þ 1 ðA1  A3 Þ reverse yield will take place easily. In the present
3 ri
model, the Bauschinger effect can be considered
 
s  A1 2B1 1 1 using parameter D. From equation (35) and letting
þ p ffiffiffi rc þ ð2B 1  1Þ rd ¼ ri , the critical autofrettage pressure is
3B1 r2B
i
1 r2B1
    2 
D  A3 2B2 1 1  r
 pffiffiffi r þ ð2B2  1Þ 2B pacr ¼ pDffiffiffi 1  i ð36Þ
3B2 d r2B 2 r 2 3 ro
i
    Reverse yielding will take place when pa > pacr . The
1 r
z ¼ pffiffiffi 2 ln
R
þ 1 ðA1  A3 Þ reverse yielding radius can be determined from equa-
3 ri tion (35), where it can be seen that parameter D is
 
s  A1 2B1 1 1 important and can be determined by fitting the
þ pffiffiffi rc þ ðB1  1Þ 2B stress–strain curve of the material. The unloading
3B1 r2B
i
1 r 1
  stress–strain curve is defined by the maximum tensile
D  A3 2B2 1 1 strain in the uniaxial tension–compression test of the
 pffiffiffi rd þ ðB2  1Þ 2B
3B2 r2B
i
2 r 2 material. Determining the maximum strain of the
ð33Þ tensile–compressive stress–strain curve of a material
is very important.

3 AUTOFRETTAGE PRESSURE
4 ACCURATE DETERMINATION OF THE
The elastoplastic radius rc is a basic design parameter EXPERIMENTAL TENSILE–COMPRESSIVE
in autofrettage processes of a thick-walled cylinder. CURVE
The autofrettage pressure pa depends upon the
parameter rc. It is essential to obtain an appropriate experimental
uniaxial tension–compression curve to define equiva-
lent stress during autofrettage loading and unloading.
3.1 The relationship of pa  rc This curve should match the behaviour of the
The autofrettage pressure pa can be derived from material at the bore of the tube, in particular its max-
imum equivalent strain value.
ðr Þe jr ¼ rc ¼ ðr Þp jr ¼ rc If the desired autofrettage radius is rc , then for
    elastic–perfectly plastic behaviour
2 rc s  A1 rc 2B1  
pa ¼ pffiffiffi A1 ln þ pffiffiffi p E
3 ri 3B1 ri rc ¼ ri exp
ref
ð37Þ
   s Et
 r 2 ð1  B1 Þs  A1
 psffiffiffi c  pffiffiffi where Et and E are Young’s modulus of the material
3 ro 3B1 under operation temperature and room temperature
ð34Þ respectively and p is operation pressure.

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A general autofrettage model of a thick-walled cylinder 605

Table 1 Calculation parameters of 30CrNiMo8

s (MPa) E (MPa) A1 (MPa) A2 (MPa) B1 D (MPa) E 0 (MPa) A3 (MPa) A4 (MPa) B2

960.7 207 000 918.2 9157 1.0 1420 201 000 5.0 10 850 0.47

The maximum strain "max is then determined by


 ref 2
r
"max ¼ "s c ð38Þ
ri

This provides a good, initial estimate of the maximum


plastic strain for the non-ideal case. An initial uniaxial
test is performed to a strain level somewhat greater
than "max . In practice it is advisable to run this test
to a strain level slightly greater than that envisaged
for any likely tube geometry to avoid the need for
re-testing.
This initial behaviour is then used to obtain values
for parameters E , A1 , A2 , and B1 . These are then
employed in selecting an appropriate autofrettage
radius and pressure for the loading phase. Some
iteration may be necessary to ensure that the maxi-
mum plastic strain is properly fitted by the various
parameters since it is pointless to fit behaviour
beyond the calculated maximum strain. Once a
specific pressure has been selected, the precise Fig. 4 Stress–strain curve of 30CrNiMo8
maximum plastic strain at the peak of the loading
cycle "max , may be calculated. A second uniaxial test junctions of the elastic–plastic curves between the
is then performed to a level of "max in tension, actual curve and the fitting curve. To overcome this,
followed by load reversal to define the unloading parameters s and D should correspond to the
behaviour. Once again, to avoid the need for re- values of intersection of equations (1) and (2), and
testing, it is advisable to continue the load reversal equations (3) and (4) respectively. The internal and
beyond the likely equivalent strain value at the bore external radii, autofrettage pressure, and some
of the tube. important results are listed in Table 2. The predicted
residual stress distributions and the experimental
data measured by Sach’s boring method are shown
5 EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATIONS in Fig. 5. The calculated elastoplastic radius is smaller
than the measured value and the predicted residual
The experimental material of the specimen is stresses are in good agreement with test data. This
30CrNiMo8, made in Germany. The tensile–compres- difference can be improved by adopting modified
sive stress–strain curve of the material in this yield criterion (see reference [17]).
experiment is shown in Fig. 4. The parameters
needed in the calculation were determined by fitting
the tensile–compressive stress–strain curve using 6 COMPARISON OF AUTOFRETTAGE MODELS
equations (1) to (4) and are listed in Table 1. The
dots shown in Fig. 4 are determined by equations There are several autofrettage models based on
(1) to (4) using the data in Table 1. This shows that different simplified material strain-hardening
equations (1) to (4) can fit the stress–strain curve characteristics mentioned in section 1. They are
well. Note that there is a small difference at the two the elastic–perfectly plastic model, the unloading

Table 2 Radii and autofrettage pressure of the cylinder

ri (mm) ro (mm) pa (MPa) pacr (MPa) rcc (mm) rm


c (mm)

rd (mm)

19.3 43.7 740 658.3 28.0 30.2 20.6


 c
rc ¼ calculation value; rm
c ¼ experimental value.

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606 X P Huang

Fig. 5 Residual stress distribution Fig. 6 Stress–strain relationship assumptions of the three
models

linear strain-hardening model, the bilinear strain- relationships between these models and the present
hardening model, the loading elastic–perfectly plastic model are listed in Table 3. The present model is a
and unloading power strain-hardening model, the general model for it can replace the other models.
loading and unloading power strain-hardening
model, and the loading linear and unloading power
strain-hardening model. The present model does 7 CONCLUSIONS
not need the prior assumption of the material
stress–strain curve type, such as the elastic–perfectly A general autofrettage model that incorporates the
plastic or linear hardening, but depends on the material strain-hardening relationship and the
tensile–compressive curve of the material. Compar- Bauschinger effect, based upon the actual tensile–
ing Figs 1 and 2, it can be seen that the present compressive stress–strain curve of a material, has
model is a general form of those models. It has a been proposed. The model incorporates the von
very strong curve-fitting ability, which can give Mises yield criterion, an incompressible material,
better simulation of the material stress–strain and plane strain. Experimental results show that the
relationship than other models, such as the elastic– present model has a strong curve-fitting ability and
perfectly plastic model and the bilinear strain- the predicted residual stresses are in good agreement
hardening model, shown in Fig. 6. These models with test data. The required parameters are deter-
can be drawn from the present model by letting mined by fitting the actual tensile–compressive
some parameters attain certain values. The curve of the material using equations (1) to (4).

Table 3 The relationship between the past models and the present model

Case A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 Comment

1 s 0 2s 0 1 1 Elastic–perfectly plastic model [3]


2 s 0 D  A4 "s 6 0
¼ 1 1 Loading elastic–perfectly plastic and unloading
linear strain-hardening model [4]
3 s  A2 "s 6¼ 0 D  A4 "s 6¼ 0 1 1 Bilinear strain hardening model [8]
4 s 0 0 6¼ 0 1 6¼ 1 Loading elastic–perfectly plastic and unloading
power strain-hardening model [10]
5 0 6¼ 0 0 6¼ 0 6¼ 1 6¼ 1 Loading and unloading power strain-hardening
model [11]
6 s  A2 "s 6¼ 0 0 6¼ 0 1 6¼ 1 Loading linear and unloading power strain-
hardening model [12]

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A general autofrettage model of a thick-walled cylinder 607

Reverse yielding will take place when the auto- 11 Su, H. J. and Huang, X. P. Autofrettage technology
frettage pressure pa is higher than the critical pressure research (II) (in Chinese). J. Daqing Petroleum Inst.,
pacr . Some models as special cases of the present 1995, 19(2), 78–82.
model can be drawn by letting some parameters 12 Huang, X. P. and Cui, W. C. Autofrettage analysis of
thick-walled cylinder based on tensile–compressive
attain certain values.
curve of material. Key Engng Mater., 2004, 274–276,
The Bauschinger effect is a function of the prior
1035–1040.
plastic strain and is incorporated via parameter D. 13 Parker, A. P. Autofrettage of open-end tubes – pressures,
In order to represent properly the Bauschinger effect, stresses, strains and code comparisons. Trans. ASME, J.
the maximum tensile strain of the tensile–compressive Pressure Vessel Technol., 2001, 123, 271–281.
stress–strain curve should be approximately equal to 14 Parker, A. P., Troiano, E., Underwood, J. H., and
the maximum equivalent strain at the inner surface Mossey, C. Characterization of steels using a revised
of the cylinder under autofrettage pressure. For the kinematic hardening model incorporating Bauschinger
equations to remain valid throughout, parameters effect. Trans. ASME, J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 2003,
B1 ¼6 0 and B2 6¼ 0. 125, 277–281.
15 Jia, N. W. Plastic mechanics (in Chinese), 1992 (Chongqi
University Press, China).
16 Milligan, R. V., Koo, W. H., and Davidson, T. E. The
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Bauschinger effect on a high-strength steel. J. Basic
Engng, 1966, 88, 480–488.
The author greatly appreciates the help of Professor 17 Huang, X. P. and Cui, W. Effect of Bauschinger effect
A. P. Parker who supplied many references and gave and yield criterion on residual stress distribution of
some useful suggestions and comments. autofrettaged tube under different end conditions.
Accepted by International Conference of Gun Tubes,
Keble College Oxford, UK, 2005.
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