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Valve Selection

EPT 09-T-02

August 1998

Scope
This Mobil Engineering Practice Tutorial (EPT) supplements the valve requirements contained in the
MP 16-P-30A (M&R) and MP 16-P-31A (E&P) series by providing tutorial information on valve
selection and applic ation for onshore and offshore production and processing facilities.

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Table of Contents

Scope................................................................................................................................................... 1

Table of Figures ................................................................................................................................ 5

Table of Tables ................................................................................................................................. 6

1. References.................................................................................................................................. 7

1.1. MEP–Mobil Engineering Practices............................................................................... 7

1.2. Mobil Tutorials ................................................................................................................. 7

1.3. API–American Petroleum Institute ............................................................................... 8

1.4. ASME –Society of Mechanical Engineers ................................................................... 8

1.5. ASTM–American Society of Testing and Materials ................................................... 8

1.6. BSI–British Standards Institute .....................................................................................9

1.7. MSS–Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valves and Fittings Industry,


Inc......................................................................................................................................9

1.8. NACE–Association of Corrosion Engineers .............................................................10

2. Definitions ................................................................................................................................10

3. General ......................................................................................................................................15

4. Valve Types and Use .............................................................................................................16

4.1. General...........................................................................................................................16

4.2. Gate Valves ...................................................................................................................17

4.3. Ball Valves .....................................................................................................................19

4.4. Check Valves.................................................................................................................20

4.5. Globe Valves .................................................................................................................24

4.6. Plug Valves ....................................................................................................................25

4.7. Butterfly Valves .............................................................................................................27

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4.8. Special Application Valves ..........................................................................................28

5. Valve Design Details ..............................................................................................................34

5.1. Valve Bodies..................................................................................................................34

5.2. Bonnets and Body Joints .............................................................................................35

5.3. Seats and Seat Pockets ..............................................................................................37

5.4. Stems and Stem Seals ................................................................................................38

5.5. Closure Elements..........................................................................................................40

5.6. Valve Operators ............................................................................................................40

6. Materials ....................................................................................................................................41

6.1. Body and Bonnet Materials .........................................................................................41

6.2. Trim Materials ................................................................................................................43

6.3. Stem Materials ..............................................................................................................43

6.4. Seat Materials ................................................................................................................44

6.5. Closure Members..........................................................................................................44

6.6. Seat Spring Materials ...................................................................................................44

6.7. Sealing Surfaces–Resilient Seated Valves ..............................................................45

6.8. Sealing Surfaces–Metal Seated Valves ....................................................................45

6.9. Elastomeric Materials ...................................................................................................45

7. Inspection and Tests .............................................................................................................47

7.1. General...........................................................................................................................47

7.2. Non-Destructive Examination .....................................................................................47

7.3. Pressure Tests ..............................................................................................................49

7.4. Low Temperature Tests ...............................................................................................50

7.5. Functional Tests ............................................................................................................50

8. Valve Standards ......................................................................................................................51

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8.1. ASME B16.34 ................................................................................................................51

8.2. ASME B16.33, ASME B16.38.....................................................................................51

8.3. API SPEC 6A.................................................................................................................51

8.4. API SPEC 6D ................................................................................................................51

8.5. API STD 594..................................................................................................................51

8.6. API STD 600..................................................................................................................52

8.7. API STD 602..................................................................................................................52

8.8. API STD 609..................................................................................................................52

8.9. Miscellaneous Valve Standards .................................................................................52

9. Reconditioned and Surplus Valves ...................................................................................53

9.1. Reconditioned Valves ..................................................................................................53

9.2. Surplus Valves ..............................................................................................................54

Appendix A: Selection of Valve Type ......................................................................................55

1. Introduction ..............................................................................................................................55

2. Valve Characteristic Rating Charts....................................................................................56

3. Valve Type Selection Charts ................................................................................................57

3.1. Legend for Tables A–3 through A–10 .......................................................................57

Appendix B: Figures of Typical Valve Types ........................................................................66

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Table of Figures
Figure B–1: Typical Gate Valve................................................................................................. 66

Figure B–2: Typical Through-Conduit Gate Valve ............................................................... 67

Figure B–3: Typical Floating Ball Valve.................................................................................. 68

Figure B–4: Typical Trunnion Mounted Ball Valve .............................................................. 68

Figure B–5: Typical Utility Butterfly Valve .............................................................................69

Figure B–6: Typical High-Performance Butterfly Valve ...................................................... 69

Figure B–7: Typical Plug Valve ................................................................................................. 70

Figure B–8: Typical Globe V alve ............................................................................................... 71

Figure B–9: Typical Swing Check Valve................................................................................. 71

Figure B–10: Typical Single Plate Wafer Check Valve........................................................ 72

Figure B–11: Typical Dual Plate Wafer Check Valve ...........................................................72

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Table of Tables
Table 1: Commonly Used Body/Bonnet Materials ............................................................... 42

Table 2: Cast Valves–NDE Requirements and Sampling Frequency.............................. 49

Table A– 1: Isolation Valve Characteristic Ratings ............................................................. 56

Table A– 2: Check Valve Characteristic Ratings.................................................................. 56

Table A–3: Service: Sweet, Dry Process ............................................................................... 58

Table A–4: Service: Sweet, Wet Process............................................................................... 59

Table A–5: Service: Sour, Dry Process.................................................................................. 60

Table A–6: Service: Sour, Wet Hydrocarbons .....................................................................61

Table A–7: Service: Sweet Injection Water ...........................................................................62

Table A–8: Service: Injection Water with H 2S 4 .....................................................................63

Table A–9: Service: Utilities ......................................................................................................64

Table A–10: Service: Lube and Seal Oil ................................................................................. 64

Figure B–1: Typical Gate Valve................................................................................................. 66

Figure B–2: Typical Through-Conduit Gate Valve ............................................................... 67

Figure B–3: Typical Floating Ball Valve.................................................................................. 68

Figure B–4: Typical Trunnion Mounted Ball Valve .............................................................. 68

Figure B–5: Typical Utility Butterfly Valve .............................................................................69

Figure B–6: Typical High-Performance Butterfly Valve ...................................................... 69

Figure B–7: Typical Plug Valve ................................................................................................. 70

Figure B–8: Typical Globe Valve ............................................................................................... 71

Figure B–9: Typical Swing Check Valve................................................................................. 71

Figure B–10: Typical Single Plate Wafer Check Valve........................................................ 72

Figure B–11: Typical Dual Plate Wafer Check Valve ...........................................................72

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1. References
The following publications form a part of this Tutorial. Unless otherwise specified herein, use the
latest edition.

1.1. MEP–Mobil Engineering Practices


MP 16-P-30A Piping - Materials and Service Classifications (M&R)
MP 16-P-30B Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Line Class 125
MP 16-P-30C Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Line Class 150
MP 16-P-30D Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Line Class 300
MP 16-P-30E Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Line Class 600
MP 16-P-30F Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Line Class 900
MP 16-P-30G Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Line Class 1500
MP 16-P-30H Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Line Class Atmospheric
MP 16-P-30I Piping-Classifications-(M&R)-Appendices
MP 16-P-31A Piping-Classific ations-(E&P, On/Offshore)
MP 16-P-31B Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class 125
MP 16-P-31C Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class 150
MP 16-P-31D Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class 300
MP 16-P-31E Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class 600
MP 16-P-31F Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class 900
MP 16-P-31G Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class 1500
MP 16-P-31H Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class 2500
MP 16-P-31I Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Line Class Atmospheric
MP 16-P-31J Piping-Classifications-(E&P, On/Offshore)-Appendices

1.2. Mobil Tutorials


EPT 08-T-03 Materials for Sour Service

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1.3. API–American Petroleum Institute

API SPEC 6A Specification for Wellhead and Christmas Tree Equipment Seventeenth
Edition
API SPEC 6D Specification for Pipeline Valves (Gate, Plug, Ball, and Check Valves)
Twenty-First Edition; Supplement 1 - 1996
API SPEC 6FA Specification for Fire Test for Valves Second Edition
API STD 594 Wafer and Wafer-Lug Check Valves Fourth Edition
API STD 598 Valve Inspection and Testing Seventh Edition
API STD 599 Metal Plug Valves - Flanged and Welding Ends Fourth Edition
API STD 600 Steel Gate Valves - Flanged and Butt-Welding Ends, Bolted and Pressure
Seal Bonnets Tenth Edition
API STD 602 Compact Steel Gate Valves - Flanged, Threaded, Welding, and Extended-
Body Ends Sixth Edition
API STD 607 Fire Test for Soft-Seated Quarter-Turn Valves Fourth Edition
API STD 609 Lug- and Wafer-Type Butterfly Valves

1.4. ASME–American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASME B16.33 Manually Operated Metallic Gas Valves for Use in Gas Piping Systems up
to 125 psig (Sizes 1/2 Through 2)
ASME B16.34 Valves - Flanged, Threaded, and Welding End
ASME B16.38 Large Metallic Valves for Gas Distribution (Manually Operated, NPS 2 1/2
to 12, 125 psig Maximum) R(1994)
ASME B16.47 Large Diameter Steel Flanges NPS 26 Through NPS 60
ASME B31.3 Process Piping
ASME B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas,
Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols
ASME B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems

1.5. ASTM–American Society of Testing and Materials

ASTM A36/A36M Standard Specification for Carbon Structural Steel


ASTM Standard Specification for Hot-Rolled and Cold-Finished Age-Hardening
A564/A564M Stainless Steel Bars and Shapes

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1.6. BSI–British Standards Institute

BS 6364 Specification for Valves for Cryogenic Service


BS 6755-2 Testing of Valves–Part 2: Specification for Fire-Type Testing
Requirements

1.7. MSS–Manufacturers Standardization Society of the


Valves and Fittings Industry, Inc.
MSS SP-25 Standard Marking System for Valves, Fittings, Flanges and Unions
MSS SP-42 Class 150 Corrosion Resistant Gate, Globe, Angle and Check Valves with
Flanged and Butt Weld Ends R(1995)
MSS SP-44 Steel Pipeline Flanges; Errata - 1996
MSS SP-45 Bypass and Drain Connections
MSS SP-53 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges and
Fittings and Other Piping Comp onents Magnetic Particle Examination
Method
MSS SP-54 Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and
Other Piping Components Radiographic Examination Method
MSS SP-55 Quality Standard for Steel Castings for Valves, Flanges and Fittings and
Other Piping Components Visual Method for Evaluation of Surface
Irregularities
MSS SP-61 Pressure Testing of Steel Valves
MSS SP-70 Cast Iron Gate Valves, Flanged and Threaded Ends
MSS SP-71 Cast Iron Swing Check Valves, Flanges and Threaded Ends
MSS SP-80 Bronze Gate, Globe, Angle and Check Valves
MSS SP-91 Guidelines for Manual Operation of Valves R(1996)
MSS SP-92 Valve User Guide R(1992)
MSS SP-93 Quality Standard for Steel Castings and Forgings for Valves, Flanges and
Fittings and Other Piping Components Liquid Penetrant Examination
Method R(1992)
MSS SP-94 Quality Standard for Ferritic and Martensitic Steel Castings for Valves,
Flanges, and Fittings and Other Piping Components Ultrasonic
Examination Method
MSS SP-96 Guidelines on Terminology for Valves and Fittings
MSS SP-99 Instrument Valves

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1.8. NACE–National Association of Corrosion Engineers

NACE MR0175 Sulfide Stress Cracking Resistant Metallic Materials for Oilfield Equipment

2. Definitions
Actuator The mechanical, hydraulic, electric or pneumatic device or mechanism used
to open, position or close a valve.
Angle Valve A variation of the globe valve, in which the end connections are at right
angles to each other, rather than being in line.
Backseat A seat on the bonnet or bonnet bushing which contacts a corresponding
seating surface on the stem of the valve when the stem is fully retracted.
Backface The surface of a flange on a valve that is opposite the gasket face.
Ball The closure member in a ball valve or the closure member in a ball check
valve.
Ball Valve A valve using a spherical closure element (ball) that is rotated through 90
degrees to open and close the valve.
Ball Check Valve A check valve in which the check closure member is a ball.
Bellows Seal Valve A valve with a stem seal using a bellows.
Bidirectional A valve with substantially equivalent flow and shut-off capability in both
Valve directions.
Block and Bleed A valve with two seating surfaces that provide simultaneous blockage of
Valve flow from both valve ends and a means for draining or venting the cavity
between the seating surfaces. This feature may be useful for testing the
integrity of seat seals and providing positive isolation.
Blowdown or A valve used to release the pressurized contents of a pressure vessel or
Blowoff Valve piping system.
Body The principal pressure containing shell of a valve that has ends adapted for
connecting into a piping system.
Body-Bonnet The connection of a valve body to the bonnet. This may be threaded,
Joint union, bolted, welded or pressure seal type or a combination thereof. A
capability for seal welding may be included.
Bonnet The top part of a valve that contains an opening for the stem. It guides the
stem and adapts to extensions, operators, actuators, etc.
Bonnet Bushing An insert in a bonnet that serves as a stem or plug guide and may also
provide a back seat surface.
Bore (or Port) The inside diameter of the smallest opening through a valve (for example,

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the inside diameter of the ball, plug, seat rings, flange, etc.).
Boss A raised area on the surface of a valve body or bonnet, used for making a
connection into the valve cavity.
Butterfly Valve A valve that uses a rotatable disc as a closure member and obstructs flow
when the disc is rotated to block the flow. The valve is available with
various end connections, such as wafer (no flanges), lugged (single flange)
or double flanged.
Buttwelding The ends of a valve that are adapted for welding to the pipe by abutting the
ends and welding within the groove formed between the prepared ends.
Bypass A piping loop provided to permit flow around a valve closure member in its
closed position.
Casting A part formed by pouring molten metal into a mold.
Chainwheel A manual actuator that uses a chain-driven wheel to turn a valve stem,
handwheel or gearing.
Check Valve A one-direction (unidirectional) valve that is opened by the fluid flow in
one direction and that closes automatically when the flow stops or reverses
direction, thus preventing flow in the reverse direction.
Chevron Packing A type of packing consisting of a nest of "V-shaped" cross-sectional rings.
Clapper/Flapper The hinged closure element of a swing check valve.
Closure Member The moveable internal component attached to the valve stem that provides
(Element) variable flow restriction, including shutoff. In specific designs, it may also
be called a disc, wedge, plug, ball or gate.
CRA Corrosion-resistant alloy.
Cold Working The maximum pressure at which a valve is allowed to be used at ambient
Pressure (CWP) temperature.
Control Valve A valve serving as a control element in a system providing means for
varying the flow of the fluid passing through the valve.
Diaphragm Valve A valve containing a diaphragm deformed to permit throttling of fluid flow
by forcing it against a raised section or weir in the body flow passageway to
close off line flow.
Disc The closure member (element) of a gate, globe, check or butterfly valve.
Double Disc A two-piece disc used in a gate valve.
Dual Sealing A valve that uses redundant seat sealing means.
Valve
End Entry Ball A design of ball valve in which the ball and seats are accessible by the
Valve removal of an end piece.
ENP Electroless-nickel plating; a nickel plating process that requires no external
electrical power and is the result of a chemical reaction between the part
and the plating solution.
Expanding Gate A gate valve with flat, finely finished, parallel faces (as opposed to a wedge

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gate) and a mechanism that forces each face into contact with its seat ring in
the closed or open position.
Fabricated Valve A valve in which the body parts are not cast or forged but are formed from
plate or pipe, then welded or bolted together.
Flexible Wedge A gate valve disc that has a solid center but is flexible at the sealing
Disc periphery.
Floating Ball A ball valve with the ball held in position only by the seat rings; the ball is
Valve free to "float" between the seat rings. This type of valve is significantly
impacted by the pressure in the system.
Flow Coefficient A measure of the flow capacity of a valve in fully turbulent flow. In U.S.
(Cv) Customary units, the valve flow coefficient, Cv, is the flow rate in U.S.
gallons per minute of water at 60°F, through the valve at a pressure drop of
1.0 psi.
Four-Way Valve A valve with four ports, arranged to control the direction of fluid flow
through the valve.
Full Bore (Full Describes a valve whose bore/port is nominally equal to the bore of the
Port) connecting pipe.
Gate The closure member of a gate valve.
Gate Valve A valve with a straight through pattern whose closure element is a gate,
wedge, disc, double disc or parallel sided slab. The closure element is
situated between two fixed seating surfaces, with means to move it in and
out of the flowstream in a direction perpendicular to the pipe axis.
Gland See Packing Gland.
Globe Valve A valve whose closure member is a flat disc or conical plug, sealing on a
seat, which is usually parallel to the flow axis. The winding flow path
produces a relatively high-pressure loss.
Handwheel A rimmed component designed to facilitate manual actuation of a valve.
Hardfacing A surface preparation in which an alloy is deposited on a metal surface,
usually by weld overlay, to increase abrasion and/or corrosion resistance.
High-Performance A butterfly valve of rugged construction (as opposed to rubber-lines
Butterfly Valve butterfly valves), with the shaft and/or disc offset in one, two or three
directions to enhance the valve's shut-off capabilities. Also referred to as
Category B valves in API STD 609.
Injection Lines All piping from the pump or compressor final discharge block valve to the
injection wellhead.
ISRS A valve whose stem threads are inside the valve body and exposed to the
line fluid.
Metal-Seated The seal produced by metal-to-metal contact between the sealing faces of
the seat ring and the closure element, without the benefit of a synthetic seal
(e.g. PTFE, Viton, etc).
Mill Certificates Certificates provided by the manufacturing steel mill that indicate the
(Mill Test chemical composition and physical properties of a specific batch (pour) of

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Reports) steel.
Needle Valve A type of small valve used for metering flows, with a tapered needlepoint
plug or closure element and a seat with a small orifice.
Non-Rising Stem A gate valve having its stem threaded into the gate. As the stem turns, the
gate moves, but the stem does not rise. Stem threads are exposed to the line
fluid.
OS&Y (Outside A valve in which the line fluid does not come in contact with the stem
Screw and Yoke) threads. The stem sealing element is between the valve body and the stem
threads.
Packing The deformable sealing material inserted into a valve stem stuffing box,
which when compressed by a gland, provides a tight seal around the stem.
Pipeline or A pipe installed for the purpose of transmitting a fluid from a source or
Transmission Line sources of supply to one or more distribution centers or a pipe installed to
interconnect sources of valve whose closure element is usually a tapered
plug having a rectangular port; the plug is rotated through 90 degrees to
open or close the valve.
Plug Valve A quarter-turn valve where the closure element is a slightly tapered or
cylindrical plug, usually with a trapezoidal, rectangular or round port.
Some plug valves use sealant distributed about the plug-body interface for
sealing, others may use non-metallic liners.
Regular Port A term usually applied to ball or plug valves. The "regular" port of such
valves is smaller than the bore of the connecting pipe. In ball valves, this
port is customarily reduced one line size from the connecting pipe. In plug
valves, the port can vary from 40 to 100 percent of the line size open area.
Regulating Valve A term used to describe valves that throttle (regulate) flow, such as globe
and needle valves.
Quarter Turn A term used to describe a valve whose closure rotates 90 degrees to open
and/or close, as opposed to a valve whose closure element moves
perpendicular to the line.
Resilient Seat A valve seat containing a soft seal, such as a nylon or PTFE insert or a non-
metallic O-ring.
Rising Stem A valve stem that moves into and out of the valve when the valve is
actuated.
Seat (or Seat That part of a valve against which the closure element (gate, ball, plug, disc,
Ring) etc) presses to effect a shut-off.
Slab Gate A gate with flat, finely finished, parallel faces, as opposed to a wedge gate.
Such a closure element slides across the seats and depends on line pressure
rather than on stem force to achieve tight shut-off.
Sour Service A fluid service containing water as a liquid and hydrogen sulfide exceeding
the limits defined in NACE MR0175. This type of fluid service may cause
stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of susceptible materials.
Stop Check Valve A check valve in which the closure member can be mechanically closed.

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Stuffing Box The annular chamber provided around a valve stem; the part of a sealing
system into which deformable packing is introduced.
Swing Check A check valve in which the closure member is mounted so that it swings
Valve away from the seat.
Three-Way Valve A valve with three ports, arranged to control the direction of fluid flow
through the valve and connected piping system.
Throttling The changing of valve position (flow resistance) for process control, for
example to achieve a desired flow rate, pressured, pressure drop or liquid
level.
Through-Conduit An expression characterizing valves where, in the open position, the bore
presents a smooth, uninterrupted interior surface across the seat rings and
through the valve bore, thus affording minimal pressure drop. There are no
areas that can accumulate debris that might impede pipeline cleaning
equipment or restrict the valve's motion.
Tilting Disc Check A check valve in which the closure member pivots, but not entirely, out of
Valve the flow passage.
Trim The components of a valve that are not integral with the body and that are
in contact with the process fluid. Usually refers to the stem, closure
member and seating surfaces.
Trunnion The part of a ball valve that holds the ball on a fixed vertical axis and about
which the ball turns.
Trunnion Ball A ball valve with the ball supported by two bearings (trunnions) in the
Valve valve body.
Unidirectional A valve designed for sealing in one direction only.
Valve
Wafer Valve A valve designed to be installed between flanges, with a short face-to-face
dimension in relation to the pipe diameter.
Waterhammer The pressure surge resulting from a rapid change in liquid flow velocity, as
when a pipeline valve is closed. Severe vibration and a hammering noise
are associated with this phenomenon; damage to the piping system
(including supports) can result.
Wedge A gate valve closure member with inclined surfaces that mechanic ally
forces sealing contact between the gate or disc(s) and seats.
Wedge Gate A gate whose seating surfaces are inclined to the direction of closing thrust,
so that mechanical force on the stem produces tight contact with the
inclined seat rings. The gate may be solid or have a groove designed in for
flexibility (to account for thermal expansion and/or pressure thrust).
Y-Type Valve A modified globe valve in which the seat and bonnet are at an angle other
than 90 degrees to the flow passage.
Yoke The part of a gate valve that serves as a spacer between the bonnet and the
handwheel/operator.

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3. General
Valve selection and application for onshore and offshore production and processing facilities shall be
in accordance with requirements of this EPT, unless superceded by more stringent local regulations.

All valves have pressure-temperature (P-T) ratings. This means that for any given temperature, the
valve has a maximum pressure to which it can be exposed. Pressure ratings are expressed in PN (SI
metric) or Class (U.S. customary units).

• Commonly used ratings are:


− PN 20 (Class 150)
− PN 50 (Class 300)
− PN 110 (Class 600)
− PN 130 (Class 800)
− PN 150 (Class 900)

− PN 260 (Class 1500)


− PN 420 (Class 2500)
• API SPEC 6A also has ratings as follows:
− API 1000
− API 2000
− API 3000
− API 5000
− API 10000
− API 15000
− API 20000
− API 30000
• ASME B16.34 is the recommended source for obtaining the P -T ratings of valves. The rating for
Class 800 valves are listed in API STD 602.
All valve body and trim components shall be suitable for the full range of operating temperatures
expected in service. This is of particular importance where the valve incorporates non-metallic
resilient materials for seating or sealing (e.g. packing). Care shall be taken to ensure that short-term
excursions are inclu ded in the specifications for a valve.

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Provided pressure drop considerations are not critical, the use of reduced port valves shall be
maximized wherever possible, especially offshore, to reduce weight and cost. Valves for use in lines
subject to pigging shall be full bore.

All valves shall be marked in accordance with the requirements of the applicable specification.
Markings shall not be less than those specified in MSS SP-25.

4. Valve Types and Use

4.1. General
Valves control fluids in piping in three ways:

• Shutoff (flow on or off)


• Modulation (regulation of flow rate or pressure)
• Non-return (prevention of reverse flow)
The focus in this EPT is on shutoff valves operated by hand (including with gear
operators) and non-return (check) valves. Although most of the shutoff valves can be
fitted with actuators for on/off operation, they are usually different from valves intended
to continuously modulate fluid flow or pressure.

4.1.1. Commonly Used Valves


The types of valves commonly used in the oil industry are:

• Gate
• Ball

• Plug
• Butterfly
• Globe
• Check

4.1.2. Common Characteristics


Each of these types of valves comes in a variety of different designs,
materials, seat designs, etc. However, they all have the following
characteristics in common:

• Fluid-flow passageway

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• Stem or shaft for opening/closing the passageway


• Lever/wrench for operating the valve

• Packing gland for sealing the opening(s) through which operating parts
pass through the pressure boundary wall
• Seats and seating surfaces for sealing the passageway
• Bonnet, cap or tailpiece for assembling and disassembling the valve

4.2. Gate Valves


Gate valves are the most generally used valves for isolation service in onshore facilities
(ball valves are more generally used offshore, because of their more compact size). Gate
valves offer high reliability and favorable economics. However, other factors, such as
actuator torque requirements, space limitations, etc., may drive the selection to other valve
types, such as ball, plug and butterfly valves.

All NPS 3/4 and larger gate valves shall be the OS&Y type.

4.2.1. Wedge Type


Of the various types of gate valves available, those of the wedge style are the
most compact. This type shall be used where the service is essentially clean
and the exposed valve cavity is not likely to fill with solid matter, blocking
valve closure.

• All wedge style gate valves are normally supplied as metal seated, with
various metallurgies available for different services. Metal seating is
essential in dirty services, where the seat sealing surfaces, as well as the
gate, may be hardfaced.
• Wedge type gate valves shall be selected based on one of the following
design standards: API STD 600, API STD 602, ASME B16.34 or API
SPEC 6D. If valves only conform to ASME B16.34, they shall be tested
in accordance with one of the API standards, because ASME B16.34 has
no leakage criteria.

4.2.1.1. Advantages of Wedge Type Valves


The advantages of wedge type gate valves are:

• Low pressure drop


• General purpose valve used in many types of service
• Generally the lowest priced flanged valve
• Suitable for hig h temperature service because it has no elastomers
• Generally provides a tight shutoff

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• Can be supplied in a wide variety of body and trim materials

4.2.1.2. Disadvantages of Wedge Type Valves


The disadvantages of wedge type gate valves are:

• Unsuitable for throttling service


• Has a body cavity that traps solids

• Is not suitable for slurry applications, because the seats are exposed to
the flowing medium
• Is not easy to automate
• Inline repair to the valve/seats is difficult

4.2.2. Through-Conduit Style


Through-conduit style valves have been used successfully in E&P
applications for isolation in dirty liquid and high pressure gas services.

• Of these, the slab type is normally used, with the expanding type selected
for critical shutoff applications and for double block and bleed isolation.
If the expanding-type valve is used in liquid service, it shall be provided
with an external means of cavity pressure relief. Slab type valves do not
normally need external cavity pressure relief, provided the valve seats
are pressure energized and not fixed.
• Through-conduit style gate valves may be supplied with resilient seats or
metal seats. Resilient seated gate valves are often used in double block
and bleed applications where tight shutoff is required. Resilient seats are
less likely to be damaged in through-conduit type valves, as opposed to
wedge gates, because they are protected in both the open and closed
positions.
• Through-conduit gate valves shall be in accordance with API SPEC 6D
or API SPEC 6A for wellhead valves.

4.2.2.1. Advantages of Conduit Gate Valves


Through-conduit gate valves overcome some of the disadvantages of the
wedge gate. Since the seats are protected in both the open and closed
positions, it is suitable for services containing solids and slurries. Also, the
design prevents solids from accumulating in the body cavity. It can also be
used as a double -block and bleed.

4.2.2.2. Disadvantages of Conduit Gate Valves


The disadvantages of this type of valve are its large size/weight and that it is
usually more expensive than many other types of valves.

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4.3. Ball Valves


The ball valve is a quarter-turn valve, similar to the plug valve, except the opening in the
ball is round. The opening in the ball may be full line size (full port) or smaller than line
size (reduced port). Generally a reduced port valve is used, because of its smaller
size/weight and lower cost. A full port is required if the line shall be pigged.

Ball valves are suited to both liquid and gas services and provide a compact means of
isolation. They are also used where relative quick shut-off is required. However, their
reliability in dirty liquid service is generally inferior to that of metal seated valves, such as
gate and plug valves. Therefore, resilient seated ball valves are not recommended for
dirty services.

All ball valves for use in liquid hydrocarbon service shall be designed so that liquid
trapped in the valve cavity will not overpressure the valve as the liquid heats up. This is
usually accomplished by having self-relieving seats or by providing some means for
relieving the cavity pressure, such as a hole behind the seat, hole in ball, etc. All ball
valves in hydrocarbon service shall be of a fire safe design. Fire safe designs have been
tested with liquid in the valve cavity, which provides a good test of the valve's cavity
relief feature.

4.3.1. Types of Ball Valves


• The two basic types of ball valves are:
− Seat-supported ball
− Trunnion supported ball
• The seat supported type is generally referred to as a "floating ball" valve,
since the ball is suspended between the two seats. Line pressure assists
in sealing by pushing the ball into the downstream seat. Floating ball
valves are used for smaller size valves and lower pressure classes.
• All valves NPS 6 and larger shall be trunnion type for Class 150 and 300.

• For Class 600 and higher, all ball valves shall be trunnion type.

4.3.2. Use of Resilient and Metal Seats


Ball valves are usually supplied as resilient seated, which is essential for
bubble tight shut-off in most ball valve designs. The use of resilient seats
affects the pressure-temperature rating of the valve; the rating can vary
between manufacturers. A large variety of resilient seat materials are
available; each material may have a different P -T rating. Generally PTFE
(Teflon) is commonly used in the chemical and refin ing industries and nylon
is more generally used in E&P applications.

Metal seated ball valves are gaining in popularity, but are still relatively
expensive, compared to resilient seated ball valves. Some specialty metal

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seated designs are available that can provide "bubble tight" shut-off at high
pressures.

4.3.3. Advantages of Ball Valves


• Provide a smooth flow path, resulting in a low pressure drop, especially
for full bore valves
• Quarter-turn operation, which makes it a quick opening/closing valve
• Easy to automate for on/off service
• Use of resilient seats provides tight shutoff
• Many designs and manufacturers from which to chose
• Relatively low in cost

4.3.4. Disadvantages of Ball Valves


• Unsuitable for throttling service.
• Except for expensive metal-seated designs, they are temperature limited
because of the resilient seats.
• The resilient seats can be easily damaged by construction debris, solids
in fluid, etc.
• Proper selection of resilient seats, body seals and stem seal requires
experience and good engineering judgement.
• Fire-safe design is required for hydrocarbon service.

4.4. Check Valves


There are a wide variety of check valves, but all operate in essentially the same manner.
As long as fluid is flowing through the valve, it stays open. When the fluid velocity drops
to zero or actually reverses, the valve closes. Their success relies principally on proper
selection of type and internal trim. Because an operating mechanism is usually not
required, the valve is normally smaller and less expensive than other type of shutoff
valves.

The various types fall into two main groups, based on flow pattern through the valve.

• The normal choice of dual plate check or swing check provide straight-through flow
with minimal pressure drop.
• Alternatively, ball and piston check valves are usually offered in a globe type body,
which introduces a higher pressure drop.
Check valves shall not be used in lines where the normal flow is vertically downward.
Valves for use where "non-slam" characteristics are required shall be given special

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consideration (see axial flow type and dual-plated type). Check valves in lines that will be
pigged also require special checks.

4.4.1. Swing Check Valves


This is the oldest type of check valve. It consists of a disc, hinged at the top
by means of an arm, that is swung open by fluid force and that falls closed
when flow stops or slows.

Swing checks have traditionally been used in onshore and offshore


applications, but offer little advantage over the dual plate check, except in
lines that require pigging. Ordinary flanged and buttweld swing checks are
considerably more bulky than dual-plate wafer checks. Except for lines
requiring pigging, use of swing checks shall be limited.

4.4.1.1. Design of Swing Checks


• Swing checks shall be designed in accordance with API STD 600 or API
STD 602 wall thickness.
• For E&P applications, swing checks in accordance with API SPEC 6D
and API SPEC 6A are also used.
• When API SPEC 6D check valves are used, body wall thickness shall be
in accordance with ASME B16.34 as a minimum.

4.4.1.2. Sizes
Forged swing check valves are available in sizes NPS 1 /2–2. These valves are
generally more reliable than piston and ball checks in these sizes, although
piston checks are more commonly used in these sizes because of their
slightly lower costs.

4.4.1.3. Advantages of Swing Check Valves


• Piggable designs are available.
• They are suitable for high pressure/temperature services.
• They operate equally well whether installed horizontally or vertically.

• They can be designed with mechanical closure assistance.

4.4.1.4. Disadvantages of Swing Check Valves


• Valve is large and heavy, compared to dual-plate checks.
• Not suitable for pulsating flow.
• The fluid force required to lift the disc can be considerable, especially in
large valves.
• It is not suitable in services where a non-slam valve is required.

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• The disc may flutter or slam shut frequently at low flow rates.

4.4.2. Dual-Plate Check Valves


The spring actuated dual-plate check valve has become the most widely used
style of check valve being used today. It has been successfully used in either
gas service or clean/dirty liquid service.

• Valves in dirty service shall be provided with hardfaced metal-to-metal


seats.
• In clean service, a soft seat insert can be provided to improve reverse
leakage performance or enhance "non-slam" behavior.
The recommended body style for hydrocarbon service and firewater service
is either lugged (with through-drilled holes) or flanged. Wafer style valves
may be used in utility services.

4.4.2.1. Design Considerations


• Use of the "pin retainerless" design is recommended for hydrocarbon
service. The threaded body plugs used for valve assembly are eliminated
in this design and it is now standard design for at least one major check
valve manufacturer. This design also eliminates the gasket seating
surface interruption (at the fasteners for the retaining ring) that occurred
in the older design.
• For gas applications that will subject the dual-plate check to rapid
openings, special designs with extended bodies are recommend. These
designs are more rugged and have a plate configuration that allows each
plate to strike the stop pin in its center of percussion. The stop pin is
oversized and the hinge lugs of the plates are enlarged to absorb high
impacts.
• Dual-plate check valves shall be in accordance with API STD 594. Note
that the overall length of the "retainerless" design and the double -flanged
valves may be greater than given in API STD 594.

4.4.2.2. Advantages of Dual-Plate Check Valves


• Compact design
• Light weight
• Low pressure drop
• Lower in cost than swing checks, especially in alloys and stainless steel

4.4.2.3. Disadvantages of Dual-Plate Check Valves


• Not suitable for pulsating flow.

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• Wafer-type designs are subject to external leakage due to exposed


bolting during a fire.
• Not a non-slam valve, but it is better at reducing water-hammer than a
swing check.
• If the valve fails, pieces of the springs or discs can travel down the line
and end up in equipment.

4.4.3. Ball Check Valves


Ball check valves are available in either straight or angle body patterns.
Their use shall be limited to utilities and non-fouling process services in sizes
NPS 1 /2–2.

• In general, the straight through pattern shall be used in vertical lines,


(with upward flow only) and the angle pattern in horizontal lines.
• All ball check valves shall be fitted with springs to assist closure.
• Ball checks shall not be used in applications where scale or other solid
particles are present or anticipated.
• They are also unsuitable for lines subject to pigging.
• Both piston and swing checks are preferable over the ball check.
• Ball checks shall not be used in pressure classes higher than Class 800.

4.4.4. Piston Check Valves


These valves are similar to and can be interchanged with ball check valves in
the smaller sizes (NPS 2 and smaller). The same limitations on application
apply; however, piston checks are more commonly used than ball checks.

• All piston check valves shall have a spring load piston so it can be used
in both the vertical (upward flow) and horizontal lines. Unless specified,
some manufacturers will supply piston checks without springs.
• Spring loaded piston check valves are the preferred type for reciprocating
pump and compressor service for lines NPS 1 /2–2.
• Y-pattern piston checks provide a smoother flow pattern and lower
pressure drop.
• Both piston and ball checks shall not be used in applications where scale,
rust and other solid particles are present. Swing check valves are more
tolerant for applications of this nature.

4.4.5. Axial Flow Check Valves


Axial flow check valves are only used in special applications where a non-
slam check valve is required. Axial flow describes the in-line symmetrical

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flowpath between the valve inner-body and outer-body. The valve shall be
carefully designed and sized for the expected flow conditions.

This type of valve is generally only used where a non-slam check valve is
required, such as pipelines, discharge lines for large pumps, liquid loading
lines, etc.

4.4.5.1. Advantages of Axial Flow Check Valves


• A true non-slam check valve.
• Very low pressure drop.
• Tight shut-off seats are available.
• Valve can be buried or installed in locations where spa ce is a premium.

4.4.5.2. Disadvantages of Axial Flow Check Valves


• High costs
• Long deliveries because each valve is specially designed for the flow
conditions

4.4.6. Proprietary Check Valves


Hoerbiger makes a proprietary check valve with spring loaded valves plates,
similar to reciprocating compressor discharge valves. This design is
available in either wafer or flanged type. This type of valve is non-slamming
and is recommended when check valves are required for discharge lines on
reciprocating pumps and reciprocating compressors.

4.5. Globe Valves


The most common type of throttling valve is the globe valve. Other types, such as the
angle, needle and Y-pattern valves, represent little more than variations on the same
operating principle.

• This valve differs from a gate valve in that the disc moves directly away from, not
across, the seat when it is opened. This requires that the seat be concentric with the
stem, which places it at right angles to the flowpath. Thus, the flowstream shall make
two right-angles turns, which generates a pressure drop much higher than that
produced by a gate valve. Because the flow area changes linearly with the stem
movement, this valve is ideal for control applications.
• Different shaped discs can produce different control characteristics.
− The most common disc is the plug type with a conical seating surface.
− The ball type disc with a spherical seating surface is used for handling viscous
fluids; it is slightly less likely to bind in the seat.

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− The V-port disc gives very fine control at low flow rates. Smaller seat diameters
provide fine throttling at low flow rates.
• The globe valve can seat tighter under average operating conditions than can a gate
valve. This is possible because the force applied to the stem is transmitted directly as
a seating force, rather than as the wedging action in a gate valve.
• Using manual type control valves as bypasses around conventional control valves is a
typical application. Use of globe valves is generally restricted to sizes NPS 6 and
smaller. For larger sizes, a gate valve is recommended because of price and
availability.

4.5.1. Advantages of Globe Valves


• Can be used to modulate flow or to stay partially open to impose a
certain pressure drop.
• The disc is usually free to rotate, so erosion and wear on it is usually
distributed evenly.
• Seating surface is more easily accessible through the bonnet than that of
a gate valve, so inline regrinding or repair is easier.
• A variety of different types of disc are available to accommodate
different throttling applications.
• Globe valves can provide tight shutoff, particularly when the disc is
equipped with a resilient-seat.

4.5.2. Disadvantages of Globe Valves


• The pressure drop through the valve is several times that of an equivalent
gate valve.
• The globe valve performs poorly in dirty or erosive service and is larger
and heavier than most other types of valves.
• The stem force required to close it can be very high, because the disc is
pushing directly against the oncoming fluid.
• Gear operators are usually required in the larger sizes.
• The globe valve passes flow in only one direction, the flow coming from
under the disc; reversing the flow can cause erosion or mechanical
damage.

4.6. Plug Valves


The plug valve is the simplest form of valve, composed of a body with a tapered seating
surface, into which a tapered plug fits. A less frequently used design has parallel seating
surfaces.

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Plug valves are available in either a lubricated or nonlubricated design, a variety of port
openings and several plug designs. When used, plug valves shall comply with ASME
B16.34, API STD 599, API SPEC 6D or API SPEC 6A.

4.6.1. Lubricated Plug Valves


The use of lubricated plug valves declined in the 1970's and 1980's because
of frequent maintenance (lubrication) requirements. However, recent
innovations in lubricated plug valve design have reversed their declining
usage. They are being successfully used in applications where a tight shutoff
is required. Some examples of such applic ations are wellhead manifolds,
pipelines and meter proving applications.

The correct choice of lubricant is important for successful performance.


Lubricants are available in stick form, tubes and bulk; stick or tube lubricant
is usually used when a small number of valves shall be serviced or they are
scattered throughout a plant.

4.6.2. Advantages of Plug Valves


• Minimum installation space
• Simple operation
• Quarter-turn quick action
• Relatively little turbulence within the valve
Another important characteristic of the plug valve is its adaptation to
multiport construction. For diverting flow, multiport valves simplify piping
and provide more convenient operation than multiple gate valves.

4.6.3. Disadvantages of Plug Valves


• Regular lubrication of the valve is required.
• Lubricant can be washed from the plug's face and contaminate the
process stream.
• Pressure drop is higher than gate & ball valves.
• Tapered plug is prone to "sticking" when the valve is not cycled
regularly.

4.6.4. Non-Lubricated Plug Valves


• Non-lubricated sleeve-lined plug valves never require lubrication. These
valves are available in a variety of body/sleeve materials and are
primarily used in chemical services. They are available in a wide variety
of body/plug materials, as well as sleeve materials. Mobil has used this
type extensively for services such as HF acid.

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• Wedge type plug valves do not require lubrication and use O-rings for
sealing both the upstream and downstream seats. This type of valve is
designed for double block and bleed service, thus eliminating the need
for two valves with a bleed valve between them. In liquid service, the
valve shall be provided with a means to relieve cavity pressure in the
closed position, since the seats seal the body cavity in both the open and
closed position.

4.7. Butterfly Valves


There are two totally different types of butterfly valves.

• The "rubber lined" type has been used in water services for more than 50 years. It is
this type that has given butterfly valves a bad name with many users. This type is
cheap and readily available, but usually provides a tight shutoff for only a short period
of time. In API STD 609, the rubber-lined butterfly valve is called Category A type.
• The second type of butterfly valve became popular in the early 1970's and it was
referred to as a "high-performance" butterfly valve. This type of valve is referred to
as Category B type in API STD 609. However, users had leakage problems with most
early types of this valve, so they found out that many "high performance" butterfly
valves were not truly high performance.
In recent years, butterfly valves with a triple offset disc and a laminated seat consisting of
graphoil "sandwiched" between stainless steel rings have proved to be the first truly "high
performance" butterfly valves. The seat is referred to as a "flexible metal" seat and zero
leakage rates are possible with this type of seat design.

• Mobil has successfully used this type of valve in a wide range of applications, such as
− General hydrocarbon service
− Steam service

− Cryogenic service
− Steam jacketed valves in liquid sulfur service
• Since the valve has no elastomers, it has been used at temperatures as high as 430°C,
(800°F) and as low as -196°C (-320°F). Several companies manufacturer this type of
valve, such Adams, Vanessa and Orbit.
• This ty pe of valve is available with end flanges, rather than the "wafer" type.
Generally, the valve is available in two face-to-face dimensions. One is a short
pattern, based on an ISO standard and the other is a long pattern, which has the same
face-to-face as gate valves.

4.7.1. Application Considerations


• For hydrocarbon and firewater services, valves shall either be the flanged
type or have lugs with through-drilled holes. Also, the valve design shall

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have been proved fire safe to one of the following fire test standards;
API STD 607, API SPEC 6FA or BS 6755-2.
• For applications where a positive shutoff in required, the triple offset disc
type, with a laminated seat design, is recommended. With proper
material selection, this type will provide tight shutoff, with minimum
maintenance.
• The rubber-lined butterfly valves shall only be used where tight shutoff
is not required and where frequent maintenance of valves is acceptable.

4.8. Special Application Valves

4.8.1. Wellhead Manifold Block Valves


The proper selection of wellhead manifold block valves is very important
because these valves cannot be depressurized for repairs without a shutdown
of the manifold. This can result in production losses in the hundreds of
thousands of dollars in some cases. Listed below is a discussion of the
different type of wellhead manifold valves.

Refer to Appendix A for information on selection of the appropriate valve


type. Mobil's Approved Manufacturers List (AML) gives names of
companies that manufacture the various types of valves mentioned below.

4.8.1.1. Through-Conduit Expanding Wedge Gate


Valves
Through-conduit expanding wedge gate valves offer excellent resistance to
sand and scale. However, in sizes NPS 6 and larger, the top works can get
quite large and require several dozen of turns to open and close. This type of
valve has double block and bleed capability, which is achieved by
mechanical means via the wedge gate design. The disadvantage to using this
type of valve is cost and the large amount of space required for the manifold
skid.

4.8.1.2. Plug Valves


Plug valves offer excellent resistance to sand and scale. Operating torque is
typically high for plug valves, but this can be overcome with gear operators
and/or actuators. These valves typically have face-to-face dimensions about
the same as ball or gate valves, but are lighter and more compact than gates.

• Use of hub (grayloc type) connectors will greatly reduce the weight and
space of plug valves, especially for higher pressure classes and larger
sizes.
• Plug valves do require periodic lubrication, but this can be a plus,
because valves that have developed leaks can usually be made leak tight
again by lubricating them.

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• At least two plug valve manufacturers have developed a double block


and bleed valve that incorporates two plugs in one body. This ty pe of
valve has been used successfully in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico.
Its use has primarily been to replace existing valves that are experiencing
seat leakage problems.

4.8.1.3. Through-Conduit Slab Gate Valves


Through-conduit slab gate valves offer excellent resistance to sand and scale.
It has the same characteristics as the expanding wedge gate mentioned above,
except it seals on the downstream seat only, since it's sealing depends on the
slab being "pushed" into the downsteam seat by line pressure. Double block
and bleed (DBB) capability can be achieved by specifying that the upstream
seat by pressure-energized. However, if DBB is required, a wedge type is
recommended.

4.8.1.4. Compact Floating Ball Valves


Compact floating ball valves have become popular because of their compact
size and lower costs, compared to other types listed above. This valve has a
floating ball with extra wide resilient seats. It has preformed very well in
sizes through NPS 4. Starting at size NPS 6, Mobil has experienced high
torque problems with this type of valve from one manufacturer. Higher
torques occur with valves in gas service because of the lack of sufficient
liquid hydrocarbon to lubricate the seats. Also, certain seat materials may
"swell" in hydrocarbon services, causing the valve torque to increase.

4.8.1.5. Trunnion-Mounted Ball Valves


Trunnion-mounted ball valves perform very well in solids -free gas or liquid
service. However, if sand and/or scale is introduced in anything other than
nominal amounts the risk of cutting the seats increases greatly. This can be
overcome at great expense by going to a metal-seated design. If the solids
are fine enough, the operation of the seat rings will be affected. This can
manifest itself by leakage across the seat(s), even with a metal-seate d design
or by extremely high operating torques. Double block and bleed can be
achieved by specifying the seats as double -acting. In this mode of operation,
the downstream seat will be reverse-acting in the event that the upstream seat
develops a leak that causes the body cavity to pressurize.

4.8.2. Double Block and Bleed


Double block and bleed valves are generally available in at least five
different designs:

1. Through-conduit valve with expanding gate


2. Non-lubricated expanding plug valve
3. Trunnion ball valve
4. Double plugs in one body

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5. Wedge gate with resilient seat inserts (used less often)


Mobil's Approved Manufacturers List (AML) gives names of companies that
manufacture the various types of valves mentioned below.

4.8.2.1. Through-Conduit Gate with a Parallel


Expanding Gate
• The through-conduit gate with a parallel expanding gate has proved to be
a very reliable double block and bleed for E&P applications. This type
provides a tight mechanical seal, both upstream and downstream, and is
available with a full-bore. Since the seating surfaces are protected in
both open and closed positions, this type has excellent resistance to sand
and scale.
• The two main disadvantages of this type of valve are its large size/weight
and relatively high costs. Liquid is trapped in the body cavity in the
closed position, so a cavity relief valve is required in liquid service, but
not gas service.
• Manufacturers of this type of valve that are used most often include BEL
and WKM.

4.8.2.2. Non-Lubricated Wedge Plug Valves


• Non-lubricated wedge plug valves, with "slips" containing O-rings for
sealing, have been a very popular valve for double block and bleed
applications.
• The wedging action of the tapered plug and slip assembly against the
sealing surface of the valve body helps minimize abrasion of the resil ient
seal. Selection of the appropriate material for the resilient O-ring seals is
very important.
• Since the valve provides metal-to-metal secondary sealing, this type of
valve can be used where fire safe valves are required. Liquid is trapped
inside the body cavity in the closed position and a cavity relief valve is
required in liquid service, but not gas service.
• Manufacturers of this type of valve that are used most often include
General's Twinseal valve and Orbit's TruSeal valve.

4.8.2.3. Trunnion-Mounted Ball Valve


• A trunnion-mounted ball valve can serve as double block and bleed if the
seats are specified as "double -acting." In this mode of operation, the
downstream seat will be reverse -acting in the event the upstream seat
develops a leak that causes the body cavity to become pressurized.
• Many ball valves are advertised as being double block and bleed, but
they only work when the valve is pressurized from both sides
simultaneously. This does not offer the same protection as that provided
by the two valve types listed previously.

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• Additionally, since the valve has resilient seats, it does not perform well
if there is any sand/scale other solids in the fluid. In solids -free gas and
liquid service, it has performed well, unless the seats are damaged during
start-up by debris left in the piping system.
• Manufacturers of this type of valve that are used most often include
Grove, Pibivisse and PBV-USA.

4.8.2.4. Double Plugs in One Body


• A lubricated plug valve containing two plugs in one valve body has
become increasing popular in recent years. So far, Mobil has used this
type of valve primarily to replace existing valves that are leaking or
causing problems. It has been used primarily in the North Sea and the
feedback so far has been very favorable.
• It does have the typical disadvantages of plug valves, namely a high
pressure drop and the need for periodic lubrication.
• Manufacturers of this type of valve that are used most often include
Christensens and Serck-Audco.

4.8.2.5. Wedge Gate with Resilient Seals


• Wedge gate valves with elastomeric seals inserted in both sides of the
disc have been used as double block and bleed valves.
• This type of valve has the disadvantages listed in Section 4.2 of this
Tutorial for gate valves, plus the added disadvantage of damage to the
elastomer renders the valve ineffective as a double block and bleed.
• Pacific has manufactured this type of valve for Mobil applications.

4.8.2.6. Orbit Valve Design Limitations


Orbit can make their ball valve with double block and bleed capability, but it
shall only be used in very clean service. Their design has two seating
surfaces on one seat ring, with a bleed hole between the seating surfaces.
Since the bleed hole is very small, it can become plugged easily by any solids
in the fluid.

4.8.3. Cryogenic Valves


• The temperature range where valves shall be designed for "cold" service,
or "cryogenic" service is -50°C to -196°C (-60°F to -320°F). Valves
used in the temperature range of -18°C to -49°C (0°F to -59°F) need to
be evaluated to determine if any of the features of cryogenic valves listed
below are needed for the valves to be used.
• Valve types that are available for cryogenic services include the
following:
− Gate

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− Globe
− Ball

− Butterfly
− Check
In sizes larger than NPS 24, butterfly valves are the most commonly used
type for block valve service. Type 304 or 316 stainless steel is the most
commonly used material.

• Special features of cryogenic valves may include the following:


− Extended bonnet
− Body cavity relief
− NDE of castings
− Drip rings
− Live loaded packing
− Special testing, including cryogenic testing
− Special marking/tagging
− Special attention to piping layout
Valve design shall be in accordance with BS 6364, except union bonnets
are not permitted. Additional requirements and recommendations are
listed below.

• Packing gland (stem) extensions shall be in accordance with BS 6364,


Table 1, as a minimum. An additional length of extension will generally
be needed if the valve is not installed with the stem in the vertical
position.
• All gate valves and ball valves to be used in liquid service shall be
designed to relieve pressures above normal working pressures that may
build up in trapped body cavities due to thermal expansion or
evaporation of liquid.
− For trunnion ball valves, this is accomplished through the use of
spring-loaded self-relieving seats.
− For floating ball valves and gate valves, a pressure relief hole is
generally drilled in the disc/ball to relieve pressure in the
bonnet/body cavity to the upstream side of the valve. This makes the
valves unidirectional in operation, and the valve end with the vent
hole shall be clearly tagged (see tagging below).
− Valves that contain no body cavity, such as butterfly and check
valves, require no cavity relief feature.

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• NDE recommendations for cold service valves are listed in Section 7.2 of
this Tutorial.
• A drip ring is recommended for all insulated valves NPS 2 and larger.
For valves that are unidirectional, attach a metal tag marked "Vent Hole
Side" to the drip ring so that it will be visible after the valve is insulated.
The drip ring shall be attached to the shaft extension tubing by a
continuous weld, and shall be located outside of the insulation.
• Use of live loaded (Belleville spring washers) packing is recommended
for gate valves NPS 3 and larger. Use of bellows seal valves is not
recommended. Packing shall be flexible graphite and shall be in
accordance with Section 5.4 of this Tutorial.
• Pressure tests and low temperature tests shall be in accordance with
Sections 7.3 and 7.4 of this Tutorial. Pressure test procedures shall
ensure that no moisture remains in the valve. Packing/shipping
procedures shall protect the valve from ingress of moisture. End covers
shall have rubber gaskets and shall be secured with a minimum of four
bolts. Covers shall remain in the valve until installation.
• All unidirectional valves shall be tagged with a permanently attached
stainless steel metal tag. The tag shall be marked "Vent Hole Side" to
inform construction personnel of the correct valve orientation. NPS 3
and larger valves shall have the tag attache d to the drip ring. Check
valves shall have a flow arrow cast into the body, in addition to a
marked, permanently attached metal tag.
• Valves with extended bonnets in liquid service shall be installed with the
stems in a vertical position. The extension is intended to provide a vapor
area that will protect the packing area from freezing temperatures.
Valves in liquid service may be provided with the valve stem at or above
45 degrees above the horizontal position, if the valve manufacturer is so
notified, and the extension length is sized for the intended position.
• Special attention to piping layout is required for valves in cold service.
For example, valves with extended bonnets cannot be installed in vertical
lines because that would require the valve stem to be horizontal. Flanged
joints shall not have excessive bending loads that may cause the joints to
leak. Supports shall be designed so that support points will not have
excessive loads, and so piping will not lift off the support in cold
conditions. A computer stress analysis is recommended for cryogenic
lines.

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5. Valve Design Details

5.1. Valve Bodies


Valve bodies may be made as single or multipiece construction, using castings, forgings
or fabricated plate. Use of fabricated valves may be considered in certain applications (for
example, pipelines), but forgings or castings are preferred. Weld end valves may require
"pup piece" extensions welded onto the valve by the manufacturer to reduce the
possibility of damage to the valve resilient seats during fie ld welding or PWHT.

Flanged valves shall be made with integrally forged or cast flanges.

• Welded-on flanges are not recommended for anything other than fabricated valves.
When they are used, weld neck type flanges are required.
• Flange dimensions shall be in accordance with the appropriate design standard.
• The finish on the gasket surface shall be in accordance with the applicable ASME
flange standard, which is in the range of 125–250 microinches Root Mean Square
(RMS).
Valves that are unidirectional, such as check valves, or those with a preferred sealing
direction, such as Orbit valves, shall have a directional arrow integral with the body.

5.1.1. Wafer Type Valves


Wafer type valves, such as check and butterfly valves, shall be provided with
through drilled lugs or flanges to protect the long exposed bolting from a fire
and also to facilitate installation.

• With Mobil approval, flangeless wafer valves may be used in


hydrocarbon service if the bolt exposure between adjacent pipe flanges is
75 mm (3 in) or less.
• All valves in locations where the downstream piping will be
disconnected or for end-of-line usage shall have flanged bodies.
• For valves with more than 75 mm (3 in) of exposed bolting, a less
suitable alternative is to shield the bolting with 0.25 mm (0.10 in) thick
stainless steel sheet. This shall be wrapped around the valve and banded
to the outside of the mating flanges by means of stainless steel banding.

5.1.2. Corrosive Services


In corrosive services, carbon and low alloy steel valve bodies fitted with
seats tha t require non-metallic O-rings/seals behind them (to prevent by-
passing between the seat and the body) shall have the body seat pockets and

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body stem sealing area overlayed with a corrosion resistance material. In


most cases, Type 316 stainless steel is adequate, but for some corrosive
services the overlay material shall be subject to the approval of a Mobil
materials/corrosion engineer.

5.1.3. Auxiliary Body Connections


The number of auxiliary body connections that are not needed for normal
valve operation shall be minimized to reduce the risk of leakage or failure.
This is especially true for plugged threaded connections, which shall be
eliminated wherever possible.

• Original (and replacement) auxiliary piping/connections shall have


corrosion resistance properties equal to or greater than the valve body (to
minimize the potential for corrosion, including galvanic corrosion).
• If a body connection is essential to assist with the valve testing, a studded
flanged connection is preferable on hydrocarbon valves NPS 4 and
larger.
• Seal-welding of threaded plugs is not recommended and may not be
possible on certain body materials.

• Body connections required on low alloy valves (11 /4 Cr, 5 Cr, etc.) shall
be welded in and post weld heat treated (PWHT) by the manufacturer. In
addition, care shall be taken to protect these connections from damage
during shipment.

5.1.4. Cavity Relief


Valves that have a body/bonnet cavity that can be completely isolated from
the piping system (for example, double seated ball and gate valves), shall be
provided with a means to limit the excessive buildup of pressure in the cavity
when in liquid service.

Generally, ball valves are provided with self-relieving seats, which releases
the cavity pressure into the valve bore. However, on valves with fixed seats
(for example, expanding gate valves and seat supported ball valves), an
alternative method, such as a relief valve, is necessary.

If valves are in gas service only, then cavity relief is not required.

5.2. Bonnets and Body Joints


Bonnets shall be bolted, except gate and globe valves in sizes NPS 2 and smaller in non-
corrosive service may be welded.

• Stud bolts shall be used for bonnet bolting for sizes NPS 2 and larger.
• Hex-headed bolts (not cap screws) may be used on smaller sizes.

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• A minimum of 4 bonnet bolts are required, irrespective of valve size.


• In sizes NPS 3 and larger, use of welded or pressure sealed bonnets may be
considered, subject to Mobil approval.

5.2.1. Bonnet and Body Joint Gaskets


Bonnet and body joint gaskets are usually provided according to the valve
design standard, such as API STD 600, API STD 602, API SPEC 6D, etc.

• Gasket materials shall be checked for compatibility with the body


material, design temperature and process fluid. For example, Teflon is
acceptable for use with most fluids, but shall not be used at temperatures
above 260°C (400°F).
• A wide variety of bonnet gaskets are available and manufacturers are
permitted to choose their own, as long as it is permitted by the valve
design standard.
• The two most widely used materials are graphit e and metal (with or
without graphite). For example, spiral wound with flexible graphite filler
material or corrugated metal with graphite bonded to the metal have
proven to be very reliable and can be used at high temperatures.
• Gate and globe valves shall be the OS&Y type, with an adjustable
packing gland.
• Two- or three-piece bodies shall be designed so that body joint gaskets
and bolting can safely withstand piping loads generated by internal
pressure and expected bending moments, without leakage or affecting
valve sealing performance. The retention system of end entry designs
shall not rely on adjacent piping for safe operation.
• When valves are provided with low strength bolting, such as most of the
stainless steel bolting, the bonnet and body joint design shall be checked
to ensure there is sufficient bolt loading available to adequately seat the
gasket. The required loading for gasket seating will vary according to
type of gasket used. For example, spiral wound gaskets require larger
loads than corrugated metal gaskets.

5.2.2. Subsea Valve Bonnets


For subsea valve bonnets, a double seal is recommended: an outer seal to
keep out the seawater and an inner seal to prevent fluid leakage. Note:
Mobil has experienced a bonnet seal collapsing due to external sea pressure
before the application of hydrostatic pressure test. Leakage occurred when
hydrostatic internal pressure was applied.

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5.3. Seats and Seat Pockets


In corrosive services, carbon and low alloy steel valve bodies fitted with seats that require
non-metallic O-rings/seals behind them (to prevent bypassing between the seat and body)
shall have the body seat pockets overlayed with a corrosion resistant material. In most
cases, Type 316 stainless steel is adequate, but for some corrosive services the overlay
material shall be subject to review and approval by a Mobil materials/corrosion engineer.

Certain valves, using a single seat, can provide double block and bleed (DBB) capability.
Some of these, such as the Orbit valve, are susceptible to block in service because of the
small bleed hole(s). Only valves whose DBB design accommodates the potential for
blockage shall be used in dirty services.

5.3.1. Hardfaced Seats


Carbon steel and low alloy steel gate and globe valves shall have hardfaced
seats. The seat rings can be welded or threaded into the body for Class 150
and 300 applications, but shall be welded into the body for Class 600 and
higher. In sour service, all welding, including welds on seat rings, shall meet
the requirements of NACE MR0175. In valves NPS 2 and smaller, the seats
may be shrink fitted or hydraulically pressed into the body, provided the
manufacturer has demonstrated this method does not allow leakage or
corrosion between the seat and body.

Use of metal seated ball valves shall be limited to dirty services or to critical
applications where a long service life is required.

• For large valves or high pressure classes, the choice of ball material is
critical if ball distortion is to be minimized.
• Generally, balls made from lower strength materials, i.e. 316 stainless
steel, may not have adequate strength when used in large valves or high
pressures.
• Care shall also be taken in high temperature applications to consider the
effects of differential thermal expansion and potential distortion and/or
binding.

5.3.2. Wiper Rings


Wiper rings shall be used on expanding through-conduit gate valves to
ensure that the sealing surfaces are kept clean during valve operation in dirty
service. Their presence shall not be necessary to achieve seat leakage
performance or affect the fire safe aspects of the valve design. Care shall be
taken to ensure that the wiper ring is securely fixed into the seat so that it
cannot be extruded or loosened during valve operation.

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5.3.3. Use of Resilient Seats


The provision for injecting seat sealant in resilient seated valves is not
recommended in services where fouling or blockage of downstream
equipment or instrumentation may result. If used, the sealant material shall
be compatible with the process fluid.

Resilient seated valves used in hydrocarbon services shall satisfy the


requirements of API SPEC 6FA or API STD 607.

Use of any type of resilient (or soft non-metallic) seat shall be limited to
clean service.

• The seat material shall be compatible with the intended service medium
and temperature.
• Seat design shall ensure that extrusion or pullout of resilient seat inserts
is not possible.
• On large ball valves, resilient seat width shall be the minimum necessary
to give adequate shear strength, in order to minimize valve operating
torque.
• Fire safe valves shall have a backup metal-to-metal seating capability in
the event the resilient seat is destroyed.

5.3.4. Spring-Assisted, Pressure Energized Seats


Spring-assisted, pressure-energized seats are recommended for use on slab
type, through-conduit gate and trunnion mounted ball valves. When used in
self-relieving seats, the spring shall be so that the body cavity pressure never
exceeds 120 percent of the valve design pressure. The design shall
incorporate features to prevent or minimize the intrusion of fouling material
into the spring or seat pocket area.

Pipeline and other E&P valves fitted with pressure-energized seats that need
to have additional sealing performance in one direction, can be fitted with a
reverse- or double-acting seat in place on one of the normal seats. A reverse-
acting seat shall only be specified where a unidirectional valve is acceptable.
Double-acting seats on ball valves are frequently used in E&P applications.

5.4. Stems and Stem Seals


• All valve stems shall be provided with a means to prevent "blowout" of the stem if it
fails. Packing glands shall not be used to provide this protection.
• Inside screw gate and globe valves shall not be used, except in clean utility services.
• For valves using packing rings (e.g. gate, globe and butterfly), the finish of the bonnet
packing area (stuffing box) shall be approximately 125 microinches RMS, to obtain an
effective stem seal. Also, it shall not be overly deep; in typical gate and globe valves,

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it shall be able to accommodate five rings of packing. Any excess depth shall be
taken up using a spacer of appropriate material. In some applications, the stuffing box
may require a lantern ring or other feature so sealant material can be injected in the
event of stem leakage.
• Valves requiring seat pocket overlay (Section 5.3 of this Tutorial) shall also have the
stem sealing area of the body overlaid with the same corrosion resistant alloy.
• The surface finish on stems through the packing area shall be 32 microinches RMS or
smoother. Also the stem runout/taper in the area contacting the packing shall not
exceed 0.08 mm (0.003 in) through the full travel distance.

5.4.1. Seals
• O-rings seals shall not be used on rising stem valves.
• All stem seals on rising stem valves, except those on valves fitted with
backseats, shall be provided with a grease/sealant injection capability.
• Use of bellows seal valves is generally not recommended, because of
their higher costs and higher torque requirements. The graphitic packing
described below has been found to adequately address stem leakage.
Bellows seal valves may be considered as alternatives for rising stem
valves in services where absolutely no stem leakage is allowed.

5.4.2. Packing
• For valves using packing rings, the preferred stem packing material for
most services is flexible graphite. This packing shall meet the following
specifications:
− The material shall be a minimum of 95 percent pure carbon.
− No binders, lubricants or similar additives are allowed.
− The packing shall incorporate an approved corrosion inhibitor.
− Die formed rings to a density of 1120–1280 kg/m3 (70–80 lb/ft3 )
shall be used.
• In most applications, a stack of five packing rings is sufficient, consisting
of three inner rings of die-formed flexible graphite and end rings of
braided graphite to serve as anti-extrusion rings.
• Teflon packing may be used in low temperature utility services (air,
water, nitrogen, steam), but it is not recommended for hydrocarbon
services, due to its deterioration at higher temperatures, particularly in
fire situations. Note that Teflon packing is often supplied as the standard
packing in stainless and other high alloy valves. Teflon packing shall
never be used in high temperature (greater that 205°C [400°F]) services.
• Pipeline valves typically use chevron, "T" or "U" type pressure activated
packing. The preferred material for these is Viton, provided the

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temperature limitations are met. In addition, provisions are normally


provided for injecting sealant into the packing area shall leakage occur.
• The use of a spring-assisted packing gland design (e.g. Belleville spring
washers) is not normally required. However, this design could be
considered for use in certain applications (e.g. toxic services, severe
cycling, etc.) to maintain an adequate load on the packing material.

5.5. Closure Elements


Depending on the type of valve, closure elements may be called a gate, disc, ball, plug or
flapper. The design of closure elements made from low strength materials, such as 316
stainless steel, in high-pressure valves shall be reviewed to ensure the elements are
adequately sized to prevent excessive distortion and leakage, especially in gate and ball
valves. Alternatively, higher strength materials may be used for the closure elements.

• On rising stem valves, the stem-to-gate/disc connection shall be designed so that no


permanent deformation occurs when opening the valve against full design differential
pressure.
− Additionally, the connection shall be designed so that if failure does occur, the
first point of failure is outside the valve body.
− Further, the load for the second point of failure shall be significantly higher that
the load for the first failure.
− For actuated shut-off valves, the stem connection shall be designed to safely
withstand the maximum available actuator load.
• The stem-to-ball/plug/d isc connection on quarter-turn valves shall be designed so that
no permanent deformation occurs during opening of the valve against full design
differential pressure.
− For actuated shut-off valves, the stem connection shall be designed to safely
withstand the maximum available actuator load.
− For pipeline and other ball valves subject to pigging, the stem-to-ball connection
shall be designed to ensure that the ball is sufficiently fixed to the stem to prevent
any offset when the valve is in the open position.

5.6. Valve Operators


A gear operator shall be provided for all valves in the sizes listed below. Sizes smaller
than those shown may be handwheel/lever operated, provided the torque to break open or
close the valve at maximum differential pressure does not exceed 205 N-m (150 ft-lb).
The handwheel/lever shall be sized so that a force of no more than 35 kg (75 lbs) on the
end of lever or handwheel will open/close the valve.

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All manually operated valves shall be provided complete with handle/handwheel. The
maximum lever length shall be 500 mm (20 in) for hand operated valves. For valves with
handwheel, the handwheel diameter shall not exceed the valve face-to-face dimensions.

Gear operators shall be heavy-duty type and shall be completely housed in a weatherproof
enclosure. Provide gear operators for the following NPS and larger size valves:

Class Gate Globe Ball Ball Plug Butterfly


(Floating) (Trunnion)
150 14 10 8 8 8 8
300 12 8 6 8 8 8
600 8 4 – 6 – 6
900 6 3 – 4 – –
1500 4 3 – 3 – –
2500 4 3 – 2 – –

6. Materials
This Section addresses some of the more fundamental factors affecting valve material selection for
body, trim and seats. Wherever possible, material selection shall be confirmed by a Mobil
Materials/Corrosion Engineer. Valves for sour service shall comply with NACE MR0175 and the
recommendations in EPT 08-T-03.

6.1. Body and Bonnet Materials


Valve body material selection follows the materials selected for the other piping
components in the same line class. Normally, the same material type and grade as used
for pipe and flanges shall be used. However, in some cases, selection of a superior
material for the valve construction can offer distinct cost and delivery advantages. An
example of this is the use of 316 stainless steel valves in a 304 stainless steel piping
system (because of availability and pricing).

Some of the commonly used body/bonnet materials are listed in the table below.

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Table 1: Commonly Used Body/Bonnet Materials

Valve Materials

Nominal Minimum ASTM Specification for Product Form


Material Temperature
Forging Casting Plate (Note 1)
Carbon steel -29°C (-20°F) A105 A216 WCB A515, A516 Gr. 70
L.T. carbon steel -46°C (-50°F) A350 LF2 A352 LCB A515, A516 Gr. 65
1 1
1 /4 Cr– /2 Mo. -29°C (-20°F) A182 F11 A217 WC6 A387 Gr. 11, Cl. 2
21 /4 Cr–1 Mo. -29°C (-20°F) A182 F22 A217 WC9 A387 Gr. 22, Cl. 2
5 Cr– 1/2 Mo. -29°C (-20°F) A182 F5a A217 C5 A387 Gr. 5, Cl. 1or 2
9 Cr–1 Mo. -29°C (-20°F) A182 F9 A217 C12
13 Cr (410 SS) -29°C (-20°F) A182 F6a A217 CA15
18 Cr–8 Ni (304 SS)2 -255°C (-425°F) A182 F304 A351 CF8 A240 304
18 Cr–8 Ni (304L SS)2 -255°C (-425°F) A182 F304L A351 CF3 A240 304L
16 Cr–2 Ni–2 Mo -198°C (-325°F) A182 F316 A351 CF8M A240 316
(316 SS)
16 Cr–2 Ni–2 Mo -255°C (-425°F) A182 F316L A351 CF3M A240 316L
(316L SS)
18 Cr–10 Ni–Ti -198°C (-325°F) A182 F321 A240 321
(321 SS)
18 Cr–10 Ni–Cb -255°C(-425°F) A182 F347 A351 CF8C A240 347
(347 SS)
22 Cr Duplex SS
25 Cr Duplex SS
Incoloy 825 B 425
(UNS N08825)
Inconel 625 B 564
(UNS N06625)
Titanium B 367 B381 B 265
Alloy 20 A351 CN-7M
Monel A494 M35-1
Ni-Al-Brz -29°C (-20°F) B148 C95800

NOTES:

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1. The minimum temperatures shown are for valves with cast or forged bodies. For minimum
temperature of valves fabricated from plate, refer to Appendix A in ASME B31.3.
2. 316 stainless steel valves are commonly used in 304 stainless steel piping system, because they
are generally more readily available and cost no more than 304 SS valves.
• In the case of expensive material, such as Incoloy 825, consideration shall be given to
using internally clad carbon steel valves, especially in sizes NPS 6 and larger. Clad
carbon steel valves might also be considered as alternatives to other alloys.
• For fabricated valves and other valves requiring weld repair, the need for PWHT shall
be confirmed with a materials/corrosion engineer. In addition, all welds on valves in
sour service shall meet the requirements of NACE MR0175.

6.2. Trim Materials


Valve trim includes all internal valve components that are not an integral part of the body
but are in contact with the process fluid. The selection of trim material is governed by
body material, service fluid and availability.

• For wedge style gate and globe valves in sweet hydrocarbon service or utility service,
13 Cr trim is preferred. For example, use Trim No. 1 or 8 for API STD 600 and API
STD 602 valves. When 13 Cr trim is required, the "free-machining" grades (e.g. type
416 SS) shall not be used, due to their susceptibility to cracking in H2 S environments.
• For subsea valve applications, when long delays are expected between hydrotest and
commissioning, consideration shall be given to the potential for galvanic corrosion
induced by seawater in contact with dissimilar metals.

6.3. Stem Materials


• Stems shall be made from forged materials of high strength. Upset forged T-head
stems shall be used in gate and globe valves; welded stems are prohibited.
• The use of 316 stainless steel for stems shall be minimized because of its low strength
and the resultant increase in required stem size. Except for 13 Cr trim valves, the
conventional stem material is 17-4 PH. It shall be specified as ASTM A564/A564M,
Type 630, Condition H1150M. However, in valves requiring the corrosion resistance
of duplex stainless or better, the stem material shall normally be Inconel 718. In
valves for operation at low temperatures, 17-4 PH and duplex stainless trim materials
shall not be used below -46°C (-50°F).
• 17-4 PH steel is not resistant to pitting type corrosion in water service. Mobil has
experienced a number of failures in water flood service with this alloy and it's use in
components that may come into contact with water (balls, stems, seat rings, etc.) is not
recommended.

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6.4. Seat Materials

• Metal seats that are not integral with the body shall be made from solid alloy material.
Coated or plated carbon steel seat rings are not recommended except in pipeline
applications in conjunction with resilient seats.
• For API STD 600 valves with metal seat rings that are seal welded into the body,
manufacturers typically use carbon steel seat rings with a hardfacing (weld applied)
applied to the sealing surface of the seat ring. This is permissible and is in compliance
with API STD 600.
• When required, the minimum finished thickness of hard-faced weld overlay shall be
1.5 mm (1 /16 in).

6.4.1. Seating Materials


• The preferred resilient seating materials are nylon and reinforced Teflon
(PTFE), but Viton has also been used successfully in a number of
pipeline applications. Nylon is more typically used in E&P applications
and PTFE in chemical and refinery applications. These materials are
subject to maximum temperature limits; nylon to 121°C (250°F), Viton
to 175°C (350°F) and reinforced Teflon to 205°C (400°F). (See Section
6.9 of this Tutorial).

• For valves required to operate at low temperatures [-29°C (<-20°F)],


Kel-F and unreinforced Teflon are usually required to overcome the
tendency to harden with decreasing temperatures.
• Resilient seating materials are not recommended in services where solids
and/or abrasives are present in the process medium.

6.5. Closure Members


The base material of the valve closure member (gate, disc, ball or plug) shall be selected
to suit the service fluid. Solid corrosion resistant alloy material is preferred for
hydrocarbon and chemical service, but plated or coated carbon steel closures may be
considered.

6.6. Seat Spring Materials


For the majority of applications, Inconel X-750 or X-718 are the preferred spring
materials. Suitable materials for bronze and titanium valves shall be recommended by the
valve manufacturer and approved by Mobil.

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6.7. Sealing Surfaces–Resilient Seated Valves


All closure members and seats shall be made of a corrosion resistant material (CRA). In
sizes NPS 6 and larger, it may be more cost effective to use non-corrosion resistant
closure members and coat the surface of the members with a weld deposited CRA material
or with electroless-nickel plating (ENP). Electroless-nickel plating shall have a minimum
thickness of 75 µ (3 mil). Chrome plating is not recommended, except when a layer of
ENP is first applied.

The entire closure member shall be coated to avoid undermining the coating edges.
Valves such as Orbit ball valves, which have the sealing area coated with a layer of weld
applies CRA material, are an exception. All coatings shall be sufficient to account for
expected wear during the life of the valve.

6.8. Sealing Surfaces–Metal Seated Valves


For services containing solids or for erosive services, all sealing surfaces on the closure
member and seats shall be coated with a wear-resistant material. Preferred materials are
Stellite 6 (weld deposit) or tungsten carbide (spray deposit by Praxair 'D-Gun' process or
equal). All hard facing deposition procedures, together with any heat treatments, shall be
subject to Mobil approval.

6.9. Elastomeric Materials


The use of non-metallic materials in a valve can often lead to premature valve
deterioration or failure due to incorrect selection or use. In addition, their presence in
valves designated as fire safe requires the valve to undergo a fire test to demonstrate that
the valve integrity is not dependent on such fire degradable materials. It is essential that
the use of any non-metallic materials, especially elastomers, has been confirmed either by
previo us performance in the particular service or by relevant testing.

Elastomers are commonly used as O-ring seals at stems and/or behind floating seats or as
body seals in end entry valves. The secondary components in a hydrocarbon stream are
usually the things that complicate material selection. These are components like H2 S,
CO2, chlorides in water, amine (as used in corrosion inhibitors), methanol or glycol (as
used in hydrate inhibitors), etc. Sulfide compounds associated with H2 S can cause
elastomer embrittlement. CO2 can cause explosive decompression in high pressure gas
service. Amines can cause excessive swelling and methanol can act as a solvent.

6.9.1. Nylon
Nylon is a commonly used seating material for E&P applications. It is a
harder material than Teflon and is more resistant to solids in the hydrocarbon
stream. Nylon shall be limited to a maximum temperature of 121°C (250°F).

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6.9.2. Viton F and Viton GFLT


Viton F and Viton GFLT are generally acceptable materials. The individual
temperature limitations and their compatibility with the process fluids shall
be checked when specifying them for a particular service. Generally, they
can be used up to a temperature of 175°C (350°F). Viton has good resistance
to hydrocarbons and chemicals and has been used successfully in pipelines
and other E&P applications.

6.9.3. Reinforced Teflon


Reinforced Teflon is a common seat material for ball valves used in chemical
plants and refineries. It has outstanding resistance to most chemicals as well
as hydrocarbons. It also has a low coefficient of friction, so valve torques are
usually lower than for many other types of seat materials. It can be used up
to a temperature of 205°C (400°F). However, it does "cold flow", so a
valve's pressure-temperature rating drops off sharply as the temperature
approaches 205°C (400°F). PTFE is normally only used in Class 300 and
lower valves.

6.9.4. PEEK
PEEK is a high temperature material that can be used up to 230°C (450°F).
It has a high coefficient of friction, so the operating torques will be high for
PEEK seats.

6.9.5. Buna-N
Buna-N (Peroxide cured) is a commonly used elastomer. The curing process
enhances its high-temperature properties and resistance to explosive
decompression. The Shore Hardness of Buna-N shall be 70 or harder.

6.9.6. EPDM
EPDM is an ethylene-propylene compound that has good resistance to
hydrocarbon fluids. It is susceptible to explosive decompression and has a
tendency to swell in liquid hydrocarbon streams.

6.9.7. TFE/P
TFE/P is the generic name of Aflas and is sometimes referred to as "Teflon-
Propylene." This material has been used successfully as an O-ring material,
but it has the same limitations as EPDM listed above.

6.9.8. Chemraz
Chemraz has been used as an O-ring material. It's temperature limitations
and compatibility with the process fluids shall be checked when specifying
this material for a particular service.

© Mobil Oil,1998 46 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

6.9.9. Kalrez
Kalrez is a very expensive proprietary material manufactured by Dont. It is
an excellent material, but Mobil has little experience with it because other
materials have been found to be more cost effective.

7. Inspection and Tests

7.1. General
Valves shall be inspected and tested in accordance with their referenced design
specification and any additional requirements listed in the project specifications and MP
16-P-30A (M&R) or MP 16-P-31A (E&P) series. When valves are purchased from Mobil
approved manufacturers, additional inspection and/or testing is usually not required,
unless Mobil has experienced problems with the particular manufacturer.

However, in severe services and/or critical applications, additional steps shall be taken to
ensure integrity and quality of the valves to be used. Some examples of where additional
inspection is recommended are:

• Pressure Classes 1500 and higher


• Sour or toxic services

• HF acid service
• Cryogenic service

7.2. Non-Destructive Examination

• Non-destructive examination of valves and valve components generally consists of


one or more of the following examinations:
− Radiographic Examination (RT)
− Magnetic Examination (MT)

− Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT)


− Ultrasonic Examination (UT)
− Positive Material Identification (PMI)
• Most valve specifications do not require any non-destructive examination of valves.
Generally, this is a supplementary requirement that shall be specified by the user.

© Mobil Oil,1998 47 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

7.2.1. Required Samples


The following requirements apply to cast valves purchased from approved
manufacturers. The manufacturer shall have available, for Mobil's review,
the results of the radiography examination (RT) of a "sample casting" from
each foundry source. A "sample" is required for:

• New patterns
• Revised patterns
• Re-rigged patterns
• Changes in processing, such as core making, sand control and melt
practice
• Pattern is sent to another foundry
• Rejection of a sample

7.2.2. Examination Requirements per Lot


The quantity of valves to be examin ed shall be the required percentage of
each lot, but a minimum of one per lot. The lot is defined as all the items of
a single type, class, size and heat/batch.

• When sample inspection is carried out, the lot shall only be accepted if
all items of the sample meet the acceptance criteria.
• If any of the inspected items is found unacceptable, an additional sample
shall be inspected. If the additionally inspected items are acceptable, the
total lot shall be accepted with the exception of the rejected item(s) found
in the initial sample.
• However, if any of the additionally inspected items fail to meet the
requirements, a 100 percent inspection of the total lot shall be carried
out.

7.2.3. Examination Specifics


• The radiography (RT) procedure and acceptance standards shall be in
accordance with ASME B16.34, Annex B. Critical areas for RT shall be
as defined in ASME B16.34.
• Castings of magnetic materials shall be examined by magnetic particle
(MT) in accordance with ASME B16.34, Annex C. All accessible
exterior and interior surfaces of the casting shall be examined.
• Castings of non-magnetic materials shall be examined by liquid
penetrant (PT) in accordance with ASME B16.34, Annex D. All
accessible exterior and interior surfaces of the casting shall be examined.

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Table 2: Cast Valves–NDE Requirements and Sampling Frequency

Type of Service Pressure Class Visual Radiography (MT) or


(RT)* (PT)
General process, hydrocarbons 600 & lower 100% 0% 0%
Non-sour service, steam 900, 1500 100% 0% 100%
Condensate, chemicals Class 2500 100% 10% 100%
API 5000 100% 10% 100%
API 10000 100% 100% 100%
Sour hydrocarbon service 900 & lower 100% 10% 100%
Hydrogen 1500 & higher 100% 100% 100%
Hydrofluoric (HF) acid service All Classes 100% 100% 100%
Cryogenic (cold) service All Classes 100% 10% 100%
Air, water, nitrogen All Classes 100% 0%
*Critical areas, as specified in ASME B16.34.

• Forged valves generally do not require any NDE, unless it is specified in the valve
standard or in the valve specifications. For special applications or for alloy valves,
random examination of all accessible surfaces of the body and bonnet may need to be
performed.
• It is recommended that all welds in valves fabricated from plate be examined if the
valve will be in hydrocarbon or chemical service. The examination shall include
radiographic examination (RT) of welds. All plate used for pressure containing parts
shall be inspected for laminations using MP or PT, as applicable. The mill certificates
(certs) for the pipe and plate used in the fabrication of valves shall be reviewed for
compliance with specifications.
• The welding ends of buttweld valves shall be inspected for laminations using MP or
PT, as applicable.

7.3. Pressure Tests


Shell, seat and backseat tests (where applicable) shall be performed on all valves in
accordance with the applicable standard to which the valve is purchased. As a minimum,
the tests shall include a body/shell test, a closure/seat test and a stem backseat test where
applicable. The test medium, test pressure and duration of the tests is dependent on the
valve standard. All tests shall be carried out prior to any painting of the valve.

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EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Valves conforming to ASME B16.34 shall have seat leakage tests performed in
accordance with either API STD 598 or API SPEC 6D. (ASME B16.34 does not list any
seat leakage criteria.)

7.4. Low Temperature Tests


• For valves required to operate at a process temperature below -18°C (0°F), a design
proof test, incorporating closure and torque tests at the minimum design temperature,
shall be carried out. In lieu of repeating this test, a manufacturer may submit a test
report performed on previously tested valves of the same design for Mobil's approval.
• Valves intended for cryogenic service shall be tested at cryogenic temperature in
accordance with a test procedure approved by Mobil. A minimum of one valve for
each size and pressure class shall be tested. Leakage rate shall be approved by Mobil.
The recommended maximum allowable seat leakage during cold tests are:

Ball and butterfly valves with metal seats:


Class 150 15 ml/min/NPS
Class 300 30 ml/min/NPS
Class 600 40 ml/min/NPS
Ball and butterfly valves with resilient seats:
Class 150 10 ml/min/NPS
Class 300 20 ml/min/NPS
Class 600 25 ml/min/NPS
Gate and globe valves with metal to metal seats:
Class 150 30 ml/min/NPS
Class 300 40 ml/min/NPS
Class 600 50 ml/min/NPS

7.5. Functional Tests


All actuated valves shall be subjected to a functional test with the actuator mounted on the
valve. This test shall use the intended actuator control system and shall demonstrate the
adequacy of the actuator sizing, along with the time required to stroke the valve against its
full rated design pressure differential.

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EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

8. Valve Standards

8.1. ASME B16.34


Use of valves fabricated from plate/pipe is not recommended. Use of "Special Class" and
"Limited Class" valves is not recommended. Pressure Classes 400 and 4500 shall not be
used unless approved by Mobil. Seat leakage rates for valves built to this standard shall
not exceed the rates listed in API STD 598 or API SPEC 6D.

8.2. ASME B16.33, ASME B16.38


Valves to standards ASME B16.33 and ASME B16.38, which address manually operated
metallic valves in low pressure gas service, shall not be used.

8.3. API SPEC 6A


Gate, ball and check valves to API SPEC 6A may be used downstream of production
choke valves or in injection systems when pressures greater than 5000 psig are required.
They may also be used in lower pressure downstream applications, but valves to other
design standards are usually more economical. Wherever they are used, the upper
temperature limit and required quality level shall be approved by Mobil.

8.4. API SPEC 6D


Valves to API SPEC 6D may be used, subject to the following limitations:

• Structural grades of steel (e.g., ASTM A36/A36M) shall not be used for any pressure
containing parts.
• No flanges shall be made from plate.
• O-ring stem seals shall not be used on rising stem valves.
• Body wall thickness shall be in accordance with ASME B16.34, as a minimum.

8.5. API STD 594


NPS 24 and larger dual plate check valves shall have independently suspended plates. For
sizes NPS 26 and larger, the valve purchase order shall specify the type of flanges that
will be used. ASME B16.47, Series A flanges have the same dimensions as MSS SP-44
flanges. ASME B16.47, Series B flanges were previously known as API 605 flanges. For
hydrocarbon service, use of the double -flanged check valve is recommended for the sizes

© Mobil Oil,1998 51 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

where it is available (generally NPS 12 and larger). For smaller sizes, wafer valves with
through-drilled lugs shall be specified.

Body and plate material may be the same, unless serious corrosion or erosion problems
are expected, in which case reference to Table 4 in API STD 594 shall be made. Use of
the retainerless design is recommended for hydrocarbon and chemical services.

8.6. API STD 600


Pressed or stamped steel handwheels shall not be used. For hydrocarbon services, use of
valves from Mobil approved manufacturers will help ensure that fugitive emissions are
kept within acceptable limits.

8.7. API STD 602


Valves to this standard are generally used for vents and drains and sometimes as the root
valve for instrument takeoffs and orifice taps. The extended body type is recommended if
a more rugged takeoff connection is needed. Inside Screw Rising Stem (ISRS) and union
bonnet valves are not recommended. Screwed packing glands shall not be used. Hex
head bolts, not cap screws, shall be used for bonnet bolting.

8.8. API STD 609


For valves with seat retainer rings, the width of the heads of the seat retainer screws shall
not occupy more than 50 percent of the sealing width of gaskets for mating flanges.
Where available, use of retainless designs shall be used.

8.9. Miscellaneous Valve Standards


• The following API standards have been discontinued by API and shall no longer be
used:
− API STD 593
− API STD 595
− API STD 597
− API STD 604
− API STD 606
• Use of valves to AWWA shall be limited to valves for onshore water services.
• MSS SP-80 bronze valves may only be used in air and fresh water service. The
following additional MSS standards are very good sources of information on valving,
valve inspection and examination:

© Mobil Oil,1998 52 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

− MSS SP-42
− MSS SP-45

− MSS SP-53
− MSS SP-54
− MSS SP-55
− MSS SP-61
− MSS SP-70
− MSS SP-71
− MSS SP-91
− MSS SP-92
− MSS SP-93
− MSS SP-94
− MSS SP-96
− MSS SP-99

9. Reconditioned and Surplus Valves

9.1. Reconditioned Valves

• Valves removed from service at Mobil facilities may be reconditioned and reused,
provided the reconditioning is done by Mobil-approved valve repair facilities in
accordance with Mobil's "Specification for Valve Reconditioning." This document
was prepared in 1996 as part of a program to reduce valving costs. At that time,
Mobil evaluated various valve repair facilities and selected certain quality facilities
near various Mobil facilities. Valves reconditioned as part of that program ma y be
used as if they are new valves.

• Valves that have been reconditioned following service at a non-Mobil facility are not
recommended for use in Mobil facilities. These valves are normally unacceptable due
to the uncertainty over the previous service conditions of the valve. If Mobil
personnel can verify the previous service conditions and repairs are made by Mobil
approved repair shops, these valves may be considered for usage.

• Valves removed from Mobil facilities and reconditioned by the original manufacturer
or at a repair facility authorized by the original manufacturer are suitable for reuse in
Mobil facilities.

© Mobil Oil,1998 53 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

• All reconditioned valves shall be pressure tested as if new, in accordance with Mobil's
reconditioning specification mentioned above. A copy of this specification can be
obtained by contacting one of Mobil piping specialists.

9.2. Surplus Valves


Some new valves are delivered to a project, stored onsite and not used. These valves are
sometimes restocked by the local supplier/agent and later resold as "new" valves or "new
surplus" valves.

Such valves shall not be used by Mobil unless:

• The valves are retested in accordance with the API STD 598 or API SPEC 6D.
• The original documentation for the valves is available.

© Mobil Oil,1998 54 of 72
Appendix A: Selection of Valve T ype

1. Introduction
The selection of an appropriate valve type for a particular service or application depends on a
multitude of different parameters, such as flow characteristics, weight, operability, etc. The following
charts are provided to assist the specifying engineer in evaluating the various types of valves. No
chart is provided for regulating valves; these can be selected based on the size that is required.

The charts rate the various valve types according to the different characteristics that are applicable to
the category. For example, plug valves are rated excellent in providing tight closure, but are rated
"Poor" with respect to pressure drop. However, there are exceptions if one considers special designs,
since some plug valves are now available with full circular bores. Not every characteristic is
considered; only those usually required in a category and which allow a common basis for
comparison.

To use the charts, the specifying engineer shall first identify the basis valve category (i.e. isolation or
check) and then go to the appropriate chart. Using the characteristics that are important for the
service/application in question, the engineer can develop an overall rating for a particular valve type.

• Note that engineering judgement will often be required to weight the relative importance of the
individual characteristics.
• The overall rating shall allow the engineer to choose the optimum valve type. In many instances,
the overall ratings of several types will be close, making the optimum choice difficult to
determine. In these cases, the choice may be based on considerations outside the charts (e.g., past
experience, price, availability, etc.).
• Information on price and availability can be obtained generating purchase descriptions from this
document or the MP 16-P-30A or MP 16-P-31A series and obtaining quotations from the
manufacturers of each type of valve. Whatever the case, engineering judgement will be required.

© Mobil Oil,1998 55 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

2. Valve Characteristic Rating Charts


Table A– 1: Isolation Valve Characteristic Ratings
Characteristic Gate Valves Ball Plug Butterfly Butterfly
Valves Valves Valves Valves**

EX S W
Piggability E E P* E P P P
Quick Shut-off P P P G G E E
Low Pressure Drop E E E E/G P* G G
Size (Compactness) P P G E G E E
Weight P P G G G/P E E
In-line Maintenance E E G P* E P P
Tight Closure E G G G E G/P E
Resistance to Solids E E G/P P G P* G
Ease of Automating G/P G/P G/P E E/G E E
Comparable Cost P G/P G/P P/G P E G
EX = Expanding Gate E = Excellent Rating
S = Slab Gate G = Good Rating
W = Wedge Gate P = Poor Rating
* Some designs are available that exceed the general rating.

** Triple offset, flexible metal seat type, such as Vanessa and Adams.

Table A– 2: Check Valve Characteristic Ratings

Characteristic Wafer-Plate Through- Ordinary Ball Piston Axial


(Single/Dual) Conduit Swing Flow
Swing
Piggable P E G P P P
Size/Compactness E P P -- P P
Weight E P P -- P P

© Mobil Oil,1998 56 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Characteristic Wafer-Plate Through- Ordinary Ball Piston Axial


(Single/Dual) Conduit Swing Flow
Swing
Low Pressure Drop P*/G E E P P E
Quick Acting G G G E E E
Comparable Cost E G G -- P P
Resistance to water G P P G G E
hammer
Resistance to Solids E/G E E P P G
E = Excellent rating G = Good Rating P = Poor Rating
* Some single -plate wafer check valves have a relatively high pressure drop.

3. Valve Type Selection Charts

3.1. Legend for Tables A–3 through A–10

Code Description of Material


C.S. Carbon or low alloy steel
C.S. (IPC) Carbon or low alloy steel, internally plastic coated
C.S. (ENP) Carbon or low alloy steel, electroless nickel plated
13 Cr AISI 410 stainless steel
4140 AISI 4140 low alloy steel, used in quenched and tempered condition
17-4 PH 17-4 PH stainless steel, age hardened
303 AISI 303 stainless steel (wrought)
304 AISI 304 stainless steel
316 AISI 316 stainless steel
IN-X-750 Inconel alloy X-750, age hardened
Duplex A stainless steel with a duplex structure of austenite and ferrite, for
example 2205
In 718 Inconel alloy 781, age hardened
K500 Monel alloy K-500, age hardenable nickel copper alloy
In 825 Incoloy alloy 825

© Mobil Oil,1998 57 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Code Description of Material


M400 Monel alloy 400, nickel copper alloy
NiAlBz Nickel aluminum bronze
Buna Rubber compound or butadiene polymer
Nylon Elastomer or polyamide material
Viton Fluoroelastomer
Ryton Thermoplastic resin of polyphenylene sulfide
Teflon Plastic polymer of polyphenylene (PTFE)
PEEK Plastic polymer of polyetheretherketone

Table A–3: Service: Sweet, Dry Process

Component Liquid Gas


Body and Bonnet C.S.1 C.S.1
Closure Elements C.S. (ENP) C.S. (ENP)
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) 3162 3162
17-4 PH 17-4 PH
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings C.S. (ENP) C.S. (ENP)
13 Cr C.S. (316 overlay)
13 Cr
Resilient Seats Nylon Nylon
Teflon Teflon
Viton Viton
Stem 4140 (ENP) 4140 (ENP)
13 Cr 13 Cr
17-4 PH 17-4 PH
316 316
Springs 303 303
In X-750 In X-750
Elastomers 3 Buna-N Buna-N
Viton Viton
Packing Viton Viton
Graphite Graphite

NOTES TO TABLE A–3:

1. In corrosive services, consideration shall be given to overlaying critical areas in the valve, such as
seat pockets and stem seal area.

© Mobil Oil,1998 58 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

2. Where the service is erosive (e.g. presence of solids), harder seating areas (i.e. seat rings and
closure elements) and/or hardfacing overlay shall be used.
3. Where CO 2 is present, elastomer selection shall consider the possibility of explosive
decompression for pressure Class 900 and higher. Additionally, in glycol/methanol services or
where amine -based corrosion inhibitors are used, the compatibility of the elastometric material to
the service (or inhibitor) shall be confirmed.

Table A–4: Service: Sweet, Wet Process

Component Liquid Gas


Body and Bonnet C.S.1 C.S.1
C.S. (IPC) C.S. (IPC)
Closure Elements 3162, 4 3162, 4
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) 17-4 PH 17-4 PH
Duplex Duplex
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings 13 Cr C.S. (316 overlay)
3164 13 Cr
3164
Resilient Seats Nylon Nylon
Teflon Teflon
Viton Viton
Stem 3164 3164
13 Cr 13 Cr
17-4 PH 17-4 PH
Duplex Duplex
Springs 3034 3034
In X-750 In X-750
In 718 In 718
Elastomers3 Buna-N Buna-N
Viton Viton
Packing Viton Viton
Graphite Graphite
NOTES TO TABLE A–4:

1. In corrosive services, consideration shall be given to overlaying critical areas in the valve, such as
seat pockets and stem seal area.
2. Where the service is erosive (e.g. presence of solids), harder seating areas (i.e. seat rings and
closure elements) and/or hardfacing overlay shall be used.
3. Where CO 2 is present, elastomer selection shall consider the possibility of explosive
decompression for pressure Class 900 and higher. Additionally, in glycol/methanol services or
where amine -based corrosion inhibitors are used, the compatibility of the elastometric material to
the service (or inhibitor) shall be confirmed.

© Mobil Oil,1998 59 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

4. The use of 300 series stainless steels at temperatures above 66°C (150°F) shall be evaluated by a
materials/corrosion engineer.

Table A–5: Service: Sour, Dry Process

Component Liquid Gas


Body and Bonnet C.S.1 C.S.1
Closure Elements C.S. (ENP) C.S. (ENP)
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) 316 4 316 4
17-4 PH 17-4 PH
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings C.S. (ENP) C.S. (ENP)
13 Cr2 13 Cr2
3162, 4 3162, 4
Resilient Seats Nylon Nylon
Teflon Teflon
Viton Viton
Ryton Ryton
Peek Peek
Stem 4140 (ENP) 4140 (ENP)
13 Cr 13 Cr
17-4 PH 17-4 PH
3164 3164
Springs In X-750 In X-750
K500 K500
Elastomers3 Viton Viton
Packing Viton Viton
Graphite Graphite

NOTES TO TABLE A–5:

1. In corrosive services, consideration shall be given to overlaying critical areas in the valve, such as
seat pockets and stem seal area.
2. Where the service is erosive (e.g. presence of solids), harder seating areas (i.e. seat rings and
closure elements) and/or hardfacing overlay shall be used.
3. Where CO 2 is present, elastomer selection shall consider the possibility of explosive
decompression for pressure Class 900 and higher. Additionally, in glycol/methanol servic es or
where amine -based corrosion inhibitors are used, the compatibility of the elastometric material to
the service (or inhibitor) shall be confirmed.
4. The use of 300 series stainless steels at temperatures above 66°C (150°F) shall be evaluated by a
materials/corrosion engineer.

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Table A–6: Service: Sour, Wet Hydrocarbons

Component Liquid Gas


Body and Bonnet C.S.1 C.S.1
C.S. (IPC) C.S. (IPC)
Closure Elements 316 316
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) 17-4 PH 17-4 PH
In 718 In 718
In 825 In 825
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings 13 Cr2 13 Cr2
3162, 4 3162, 4
In 825 In 825
Resilient Seats Nylon Nylon
Teflon Teflon
Viton Viton
Ryton Ryton
Peek Peek
Stem 17-4 PH 17-4 PH
3164 3164
In 718 In 718
Springs In X-750 In X-750
In 718 In 718
Elastomers3 Viton Viton
Peroxide cured Buna-N Peroxide cured Buna-N
Packing Viton Viton
Graphite Graphite

NOTES TO TABLE A–6:

1. In corrosive services, consideration shall be given to overlaying critical areas in the valve, such as
seat pockets and stem seal area.
2. Where the service is erosive (e.g. presence of solids), harder seating areas (i.e. seat rings and
closure elements) and/or hardfacing overlay shall be used.
3. Where CO 2 is present, elastomer selection shall consider the possibility of explosive
decompression for pressure Class 900 and higher. Additionally, in glycol/methanol services or
where amine -based corrosion inhibitors are used, the compatibility of the elastometric material to
the service (or inhibitor) shall be confirmed.
4. The use of 300 series stainless steels at temperatures above 66°C (150°F) shall be evaluated by a
materials/corrosion engineer.

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EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Table A–7: Service: Sweet Injection Water

Component Liquid Gas


Body and Bonnet C.S. (IPC)1 C.S. (IPC)1
C.S. (ENP)4 C.S. (ENP)4
316 316
NiAlBz NiAlBz
Duplex Duplex
Closure Elements C.S. (ENP)4 C.S. (ENP)4
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) 3162 3162
M4002 M4002
NiAlBz NiAlBz
Duplex Duplex
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings 3162 3162
M400 M400
Resilient Seats Nylon Nylon
Teflon Teflon
Viton Viton
Stem 316 316
K500 K500
In 718 In 718
Springs K500 K500
In X-750 In X-750
Elastomers3 Viton Viton
Packing Viton Viton
Teflon Teflon
Graphite Graphite

NOTES TO TABLE A–7:

1. In corrosive services, consideration shall be given to overlaying critical areas in the valve, such as
seat pockets and stem seal area.
2. Where the service is erosive (e.g. presence of solids), harder seating areas (i.e. seat rings and
closure elements) and/or hardfacing overlay shall be used.
3. Where CO 2 is present, elastomer sele ction shall consider the possibility of explosive
decompression for pressure Class 900 and higher. Additionally, in glycol/methanol services or
where amine -based corrosion inhibitors are used, the compatibility of the elastometric material to
the service (or inhibitor) shall be confirmed.
4. Electroless-nickel plated coatings often fail after continuous long immersion in salt water. Their
uses shall be limited to the less severe services (neutral pH's and temperatures <93°C [200°F]) or
to locations/services where successful use has been documented.

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Table A–8: Service: Injection Water with H2S4

Component Liquid Gas


Body and Bonnet C.S. (IPC)1 C.S. (IPC)1
316 316
NiAlBz NiAlBz
Duplex Duplex
Closure Elements 3162 3162
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) M4002 M4002
NiAlBz NiAlBz
Duplex Duplex
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings 3162 3162
M400 M400
Resilient Seats Nylon Nylon
Teflon Teflon
Viton Viton
Stem 316 K500
K500 In 718
In 718
Springs K500 K500
In X-750 In X-750
Elastomers3 Viton Viton
Packing Viton Viton
Teflon Teflon
Graphite Graphite

NOTES TO TABLE A–8:

1. In corrosive services, consideration shall be given to overlaying critical areas in the valve, such as
seat pockets and stem seal area.
2. Where the service is erosive (e.g. presence of solids), harder seating areas (i.e. seat rings and
closure elements) and/or hardfacing overlay shall be used.
3. Where CO 2 is present, elastomer selection shall consider the possibility of explosive
decompression for pressure Class 900 and higher. Additionally, in glycol/methanol services or
where amine -based corrosion inhibitors are used, the compatibility of the elastometric material to
the service (or inhibitor) shall be confirmed.
4. Produced brine shall be kept deaerated as a general rule. Aeration increases the corrosion rate of
the water and impedes the performance of corrosion inhibitors. It will cause formation of
elemental sulfur in a sour water, which in turn can cause pitting in a number of alloys on this list.

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Table A–9: Service: Utilities

Component Gas or Liquid


Body and Bonnet C.S.
Closure Elements C.S. (ENP)
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) 13 Cr
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings C.S. (ENP)
13 Cr1
Resilient Seats Nylon
Teflon
Viton
Stem C.S. (ENP)
13 Cr
17-4 PH
Springs 303
Elastomers 2 Buna-N
Viton
Packing Viton
Teflon
Graphite

NOTES TO TABLE A–9:

1. Where the service is erosive (e.g. presence of solids), harder seating areas (i.e. seat rings and
closure elements) and/or hardfacing overlay shall be used.
2. Where CO 2 is present, elastomer selection shall consider the possibility of explosive
decompression. Additionally, in glycol/methanol services, or where amine-based corrosion
inhibitors are used, the compatibility of the elastomeric material to the service (or inhibitor) shall
be confirmed.

Table A–10: Service: Lube and Seal Oil

Component Liquid
Body and Bonnet 304
316
Closure Elements 304
(ball, disc, gate, etc.) 316
Metallic Seats/Seat Rings 304
316
Resilient Seats Teflon
Nylon

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EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Component Liquid
Stem 304
316
Springs 303
3
Elastomers Buna-N
Viton
Packing Teflon
Graphite

© Mobil Oil,1998 65 of 72
Appendix B: Figures of Typical Valve Types
Figures B–1 through B–11 depict the typical types of valves described in the text of this EPT. These figures
are intended to provide the user with some of the design features generally associated with the various valve
types. Numerous design alternatives/enhancements are available that could be applicable to the user's specific
service conditions. The user is urged to contact a Mobil valve specialist for assistance in evaluating the valve
alternatives for his particular application.

Figure B–1: Typical Gate Valve

© Mobil Oil,1998 66 of 72
EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Figure B–2: Typical Through-Conduit Gate Valve

© Mobil Oil, 1998 67 of 72


EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Figure B–3: Typical Floating Ball Valve

Figure B–4: Typical Trunnion Mounted Ball Valve

© Mobil Oil, 1998 68 of 72


EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Figure B–5: Typical Utility Butterfly Valve

Figure B–6: Typical High-Performance Butterfly Valve

© Mobil Oil, 1998 69 of 72


EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Figure B–7: Typical Plug Valve

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EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Figure B–8: Typical Globe Valve

Figure B–9: Typical Swing Check Valve

© Mobil Oil, 1998 71 of 72


EPT 09-T-02 Valve Selection August 1998

Figure B–10: Typical Single Plate Wafer Check Valve

Figure B–11: Typical Dual Plate Wafer Check Valve

© Mobil Oil, 1998 72 of 72