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8.5 THE RANKINE CYCLE WITH REHEAT AND REGENERATION 355

The input heat transfer rate per unit mass is

Q;, = h, - h4 = 3213.6 - 724.7 = 2488.9 kkJg


m,
The cycle thermal efficiency is

lV,,, lV,,, / m, (395.8 + 480.2 - 0.33 - 3.6) kJ /kg


~"d, = -.-
Q;,
= Q;,
. /. = m, 2388.9 kJ kg
/ = 0.350

Comments:
If the open feedwater heater were removed from the cycle, then the total steam flow would expand
from 40 bar, 400°C to 20 kPa in one turbine, and there would be only one pump. With all other
conditions remaining the same, an analysis of such a cycle would give:

lVT = h, - h, = 3213.6 - 2230 = 983.6 kg


kJ
m,
!: = V, (P2 - P,) = (0.001017 ~;) (4000 - 20) :z = 4.1 t!
(251.4 + 4.1)
m, = h, - h4 = 3213.6 -
Q;, = 2958.2 kkJg
fJcycle = 0.331

Note the decrease in cycle efficiency.

EXAMPLE 8-9 Rankine cycle with regeneration-closed feedwater heater


An ideal Rankine cycle has one stage of reheat and one closed feedwater heater, as shown in the
figure. The desired power output is 100 MW. The steam conditions at the inlet to the high-pressure
turbine are 10 MPa, 550°C. A fraction y of the steam is extracted at 1.0 MPa and is used to heat
the feedwater in the closed feedwater heater; the outlet temperature of the feedwater equals the
saturation temperature of the extracted steam. The remainder of the steam is reheated to 550°C
and then expanded in the low-pressure turbine to a pressure of 10 kPa. The condensate from the
condenser is saturated liquid.

a) Determine the fraction of the total flow extracted from the turbine.
b) Determine the mass flow rate entering the high-pressure turbine.
c) Determine the cycle thermal efficiency.

Approach:
The approach to this problem is very similar to that followed in Example 8-8. We define all the
mass flow rates into and out of a control volume around the closed feedwater heater in terms of
the mass flow entering the high-pressure turbine and apply conservation of mass and energy. The
mass flow rate can be canceled out, leaving the fraction we seek. The total mass flow rate can be
determined through the use of the given net power output and energy balances around the turbines
and pump. For cycle thermal efficiency, we are given the net power output; the total heat input can
be detennined with an energy balance around the boiler and reheater.

Assumptions: Solution:
a) Referring to the system schematic, the fraction of the total flow extracted from the turbine can
be determined through a mass and energy balance around the closed feedwater heater.
356 CHAPTER 8 REFRIGERATION. HEAT PUMP. AND POWER CYCLES

(1 - y)m,
5

J,!ig~-:
pt:.e~s!iur,e~
Jt;J(bjr:te: :
4

P4 = 10 MPa
T4 = 550'C
7 P7 =10kPa
m10 =ym4
Extracted steam

3 ;---- ----I
I I

Closed L _____ ':":_r


feedwater Saturated liquid
heater 8
9

We define mlU in tenns of the total flow entering the high-pressure turbine:

so that the extracted flow equals InlD = Yln4. The extracted flow does not mix with the liquid
feedwater as it did in the open feed water heater; the heat exchanger tubes in the closed feedwater
heater separate the two flows.
Applying conservation of mass separately to the feedwater flow and the extracted steam flow
A 1. The complete and assuming steady flow [AI], we obtain:
system and individual
components are steady extracted flow
feedwater

Applying conservation of energy to the overall control volume around the feedwater heater, assuming
steady-state conditions, negligible potential and kinetic energy effects, adiabatic conditions, and
A2. These are negligible no work [AI], [A2], [A3], [A4], we obtain:
potential and kinetic
energy effects.
A3. The feedwater
heater, pump, and Combining the mass and energy equations,
turbine are adiabatic.
A4. No work occurs in
the feedwater heater,
boiler, or reheater. and solving for y,

where hID = hs . The enthalpies can be determined from the given infonnation.
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8.5 THE RANKINE CYCLE WITH REHEAT AND REGENERATION 357

b) The mass flow rate entering the high-pressure turbine is calculated with the given net power
output (100 MW) and application of the energy equation to the two turbine stages and the pump:

Applying conservation of energy to the two turbines and the pump assuming steady-state conditions,
negligible potential and kinetic energy effects. and adiabatic conditions [All. [A2l. [A3l gives:

IVTl = m4 ("" - h,)


IVT2 = (1- y)m, (h, - h,)

IVp = m, (h, - hil

The enthalpies in these equations can be determined from the given information. When the last four
equations are combined, the only unknown is m4. which is one of the quantities we seek.
e) The cycle thermal efficiency is

We need the input heat transfer rate. and that can be determined from conservation of energy around
the water flowing through the hoiler and reheater assuming steady-state conditions, negligible
potential and kinetic energy effects. and no work [All. [A2l. [A4l. Therefore. we obtain

The enthalpies can be detennined from the given infonnation.


The water properties can be evaluated with Tables A-II and A-I2.
State 1: PI = 10 kPa. saturated liquid -+ hI = hjI(Pd = 45.81 kJ/kg. VI = vjI(Pd =
0.001010 m'/kg
A5. The pump and State 2: P, = 10 MPa. subcooled liquid -+ The pump is ideal [A5l. so the enthalpy change
turbines are isentropic. across the pump is [A6l
AS. The subcooled liquid
approximation is valid. h, '" hI + VI (P, - PI)

= 45.81 ~ + (0.001010 ~;) (10000 - 10) kPa (I ~J:2) (I J..kJ m)

kJ
h, = 45.81 + 10.1 = 55.9 kg

State 3: P, = 10 MPa. T, = T,,,(P,) -+ using [A6l:

h, '" hj' + vf2 (P, - P,)

= 762.81 ~ + (0.001127 ~;) (10000 -lOoo)kPa C~J:') CJ..~m)


kJ
h, = 762.81 + 10.1 = 773.0 kg

State 4: P4 = 10 MPa. T, = 550'C -+ superheated vapor -+ h, = 3500.9 j5J/kg. S4 =


6.7561 kJ/kg.K . .
358 CHAPTER 8 REFRIGERATION, HEAT PUMP, AND POWER CYCLES

State 5: Ps = 1 MPa, Ss = S4 ---+ superheated vapor ---+ by interpolation, hs = 2860.2 kl/kg


State 6: P6 = 1 MPa, T6 = 550°C ---+ superheated vapor ---r by interpolation, h6 = 3588.2
kJlkg, S6 = 7.8956 kJlkg·K
State 7: P7 = 10 kPa, S7 = S6 ---+ two"phase
Note that

X7 = h7 - hf7 = S7 - sf7 = 7.8956 - 0.6943 = 0 972


hg7 - hf7 Sg7 sf7 8.1502 - 0.6943 .

Solving for h7:

h7 = hf7 + X7 (hg7 - hf7) = 191.83 + 0.972 (2584.7 - 191.83) = 2517.4 ~

State 8: P, = 1 MPa, saturated liquid -+ hs = hf8 (PS) = 762.81 kJlkg

Using these enthalpies, we obtain the fraction extracted:

h, - h, 773.0 - 55.9 0342


Y = hlO - h, = 2860.2 762.81 = .

We combine the expressions for the individual power terms to obtain:

Solving for m4,

100,000 kW
kl / lkW)
s
e k
=74.9~
[(3500.9 - 2860.2) + (1- 0.342) (3588.2 - 2517.4) - (55.9 _ 45.8)] ~ s

The input heat transfer rate is

Q;" = mdh4 - h3) + (1 - y) mdh6 - hs)

= (74.9 ksg) [(3500.9 - 773.0) + (1 - 0.342) (3588.2 - 2860.2)] ~ ( 11 ~/s)


= 240,200kW

The cycle thermal efficiency is

1]cycie = -.-
IV"" =
100,000 kW = 0 416
240,200 kW .
Qin

Comments:
As noted above, the method used to evaluate the fraction extracted from the closed feedwater heater
is the same as that used to evaluate the fraction extracted from the open feedwater heater. However,
because one is simply a mixing device (open feedwater heater) and the other one is a heat exchanger
(closed feedwater heater), the expressions we developed for the fraction extracted are different.