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STUDY MATERIAL
CLASS XII GEOGRAPHY (029)
2015-2016

ZONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING


GITB Press
ZONAL INSTITUTE Campus Area
OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Siddhartha
GITB Press Nagar
Campuspost
Area
Siddhartha Nagar
Raghavendra Nagarpost
,
Raghavendra
Mysore Nagar,
570011
Mysore 570011
Phone No. 0821 2470345
Fax.0821 2478578
e-mail kvszietmysore@gmail.com;zietmysore@rediffmail.com
www.zietmysore.org
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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN


NEW DELHI

STUDY MATERIAL
CLASS XII GEOGRAPHY(029)
2015-2016

Prepared by
Mr. M.Reddenna
PGT (Geo), Faculty, KVS ZIET Mysore

ZONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING


GITB Press Campus
Siddhartha Nagar post
Raghavendra Nagar,
Mysore 570011
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OUR PATRONSt

श्री संतोष कुमार मल्ऱ,आई ए एस


आयुक्त
Shri Santosh Kumar Mall, IAS
Commissioner, KVS

श्री जी. के. श्रीवास्तव, आईएएस


अपर आयक् ु त (प्रशासन)
Shri G.K. Srivastava, IAS
Additional Commissioner (Administration)
श्रीयू एनखवारे
अपर आयुक्त (शैक्षिक)
Shri U. N. Khaware
Additional Commissioner (Academics)

डॉ. शचीकाांत
सांयुक्त आयुक्त (प्रशशिण)
Dr. Shachi Kant
Joint Commissioner (Training)

श्री ए. अरूमग
ु म
सांयुक्त आयुक्त (ववत्त)
Shri M .Arumugam
Joint Commissioner (Finance)

डा .वी. ववजयऱक्ष्मी
संयुक्त आयुक्त (शिक्षा)
Dr. V. Vijayalakshmi
Joint Commissioner (Academics)

डॉ. ई. प्रभाकर
सांयुक्त आयुक्त (काशमिक)
Dr. E. Prabhakar
Joint Commissioner (Personnel)

श्री.एस.ववजयकुमार
सांयक्
ु तआयक्
ु त(प्रशासन)
Shri S. Vijaya Kumar
Joint Commissioner (Admn)
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FOREWORD

The seven PGTs working as members of faculty at KVS,ZIET Mysore - Mr. K


Arumugam (Physics) Mr. Kallu Sivalingam (Maths), Mr. M Reddenna (Geo.), Mr.
Murugan (History), Mr. Hari Shankar (Hindi) Mr. Joseph Paul (Econ.) and Mr. U.P
Binoy (English) prepared Study Materials for Class XII for the academic year 2015-
2016 in their respective subjects.

All these study materials prepared have focused on some select aspects namely;

 Gist of lessons/chapter
 Marking scheme (CBSE)
 Important questions
 Solved Question papers with value point.
 Tips for scoring well in the Board Examination

The above mentioned seven members of faculty at ZIET Mysore have in put a lot
of efforts and prepared the materials in a period of two months. They deserve
commendation for their single-minded pursuit in bringing out these materials.

The teachers of these subjects namely English, Hindi, Mathematics , Physics,


Economics, History and Geography, may use the materials in the month of
January & February 2016 for Pre-Board Examination revision purpose. It is hoped
that the revision of these materials will help the student perform better in the
forthcoming Board Examinations.

The teachers are requested to go through the materials thoroughly, and feel free
to send their opinions and suggestions for the improvement of these materials to
kvszietmysore@gmail.com.

Dr. E.T ARASU


Deputy Commissioner & Director
KVS, ZIET Mysore
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PREFACE

It is a matter of great pleasure that after receiving encouragement from our Deputy
commissioner DR. E.T Arasu I now present the thoroughly revised latest edition of
STUDY MATERIAL OF CLASS XII GEOGRAPHY based on the latest syllabus and revised
question paper pattern to be followed from 2015 onwards.

In this booklet according to the latest syllabus, part I Fundamentals of Human


Geography & Part II India : People and Economy have been included

THE SALIENT FEATURES OF THIS STUDY MATERIAL ARE AS FOLLOWS;

 It covers the syllabus given by CBSE for the class XII Geography
 Gist of each chapter
 Maps prepared on the basis of map items given by CBSE ( 2015)
 Marking scheme given by CBSE ( 2015)
 Four sets of model question papers -to be answered
 Three sets of solved question papers with value points
 Tips for pre-examination and during examination
 The material can be used for the purpose of revision
 All the concepts of the subject have been included in the material

I am sure this material will serve the purpose of helping students perform better in the
Board Examination. However, suggestions and comments from the teachers and the
students for the improvement of this material will be highly appreciated.

Place: Mysore M. Reddenna

Date: 17/12/2015 Faculty ZIET Mysore


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INDEX
S.NO CONTENT PAGE
I GIST OF THE LESSONS
1 HUMAN GEOGRAPHY NATURE AND SCOPE 7-9
2 THE WORLD POPULATION 10-11
3 MIGRATION 12-15
4 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 16-17
5 PRIMARY ACTIVITIES 17-21
6 SECONDARY ACTIVITIES 22-24
7 TERTIARY AND QUARTERNARY ACTIVITIES 25-27
8 TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICAITON 28-34
9 INTERNATIONAL TRADE 35-37
10 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 37-40
11 INDIA-POPULATION 40-42
12 MIGRATION 43-44
13 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 44-46
14 HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 46-48
15 LAND RESOURCE AND AGRICULTURE 49-54
16 WATER RESOURCES 55-57
17 MINERAL AND ENERGY RESOURCES 58-61
18 MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES 62-70
19 PLANNING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 70-72
20 TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION 72-76
21 INTERNATIONAL TRADE 76-79
22 GEPGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE ON SELECTED ISSUES 79-83
AND PROBLEMS
23 MAP WORK 83-106
II CBSE MARKING SCHEME 102-113
III MODEL QUESTION PAPERS 114-124
IV MODEL PAPERS WITH VALUE POINTS 125-152
V HOW TO SCORE WELL IN EXAMINATIONS 153-165
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VOLUME-I
FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
CHAPTER -1
1. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY NATURE AND SCOPE
GIST OF THE LESSON :
 Geography is a field of study is integrative, empirical and practical
 it studies each and every event on the earth over the space and time
 human geography studies the relationship between man and nature
 Geo. Can be studied through law making or descriptive
V. There are two approaches of geography
1.systematic approach
2. Regional approach
Vi physical and human phenomena are described in metaphors using symbols from the
human anatomy
Vii definition of human geography
Human Geography Defined
• “Human geography is the synthetic study of relationship between human societies and
earth‟s surface”. Ratzel
Synthesis has been emphasized in the above definition
.•“Human geography is the study of “the changing relationship between the un-resting
man and the unstable earth.”Ellen C. Semple
Dynamism in the relationship is the keyword in Semple‟s definition.
• “Conception resulting from a more synthetic knowledge of the physical laws governing
our earth and of the relations between the living beings which inhabit it”. Paul Vidal de
la Blache
NATURE OF HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
1. Human geography studies the inter relationship between the physical
environment and socio-cultural environment created by man.
2. Elements of physical are land, water, soil, climate , vegetation, fauna
3. Elements of cultural are transport and communication , settlements, crops
NATURALISATION OF HUMANS
a. Man interact with nature with the help of technology
b. It is not important that what he creates but with what tools he used to create
c. Technology indicates the level of cultural development of society
d. Understanding the nature helps to create technology
1. understanding of friction and heat helped to discover fire
2. understanding DNA helped to eradicate diseases
3. laws of thermodynamics helped to develop fast planes
4. knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop technology and
technology loosens the shackles of environment on human being .
5. the interaction between primitive society and nature is called
ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM.
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HUMANISATION OF NATURE
1. With the development of technology people understood the nature well
2. They move from state of necessity to state of possibilities
3. Human activities created cultural landscape
4. so it is called as possibilism
NEODETERMINISM/ STOP AND GO DETERMINISM
1.Developed by Griffith Taylor
2.It is a middle path between environmental determinism and possibilism
3. the concept shows that neither is there a situation of absolute necessity nor
is there a condition of absolute freedom .
4. sustainable development is the main aim
5. the Neo determinism maintains balance between development and nature
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY THROUGH THE CORRIDORS OF TIME
Schools of human geography
WELFARE SCHOOL
Concerned with social well being of the people a. housing b. Health c. Education
RADICAL SCHOOL
Concerned with causes of poverty, deprivation and social Inequality
BEHAVIOURAL SCHOOL
Given importance to lived experience, perception of space by Social categories
STAGES THROUGH CORRIDORIES OF TIME
PERIOD APPROACHES BROAD FEATURES
colonial exploration & description Imperialism and trade lead to discover many
lands
colonial regional analysis Understanding of parts In totality would
lead to understand the whole
1930- aerial differentiation Find the reasons for the uniqueness of a
interwar region
1950-1960 spatial organization Apply technology to study geography
1970 emergence of humanistic, Emergence of sociopolitical reality with the
radical and behavioral help of schools
school
1990 post modernism Generalization and apply of universal laws
to understand geography
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FIELDS AND SUBFIELDS OF GEOGRAPHY


Fields of human Sub field Sister disciplines
geo
Social geo --- Social science- sociology
Behavioral geo psychology
Geo of social well Welfare economics
being
Geo of leisure sociology
Cultural geo anthropology
Gender geo Sociology , anthropology, women studies
Historical geo History
Medical geo Epidemiology
Urban geo -- Urban studies and planning
Political geo -- Political science
Electoral geo psephology
Military geo Military science
Pop. geo -- Demography

Settlement geo --- Urban and rural planning


Eco. geo --- economics
Geo. of resources Resource economics
Geo of Agriculture Agricultural science
Geo of industries Industrial economics
Geo of marketing Business studies, economics, commerce
Geo of tourism Tourism and travel management
Geo of international International trade
trade
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CHAPTER-2
THE WORLD POPULATION
DISTRIBUTION, DENSITY AND GROWTH
GIST OF THE LESSON:
GENERAL, PATTERNS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION IN THE
WORLD,DENSITY OF POPULATION,FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION, POPULATION GROWTH, TRENDS IN
POPULATION GROWTH, DOUBLING TIME OF WORLD POPULATION
SPATIAL PATTERN OF POPULATION CHANGE, IMPACT OF POPULATION
CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, POPULATION CONTROL
MEASURES.
GENERAL:
 people are real wealth of the country
 Country is known by its people
 Pop of the world is uneven
“ ASIA HAS MANY PEOPLE WHERE PEOPLE ARE FEW AND FEW
PLACES WHERE PEOPLE ARE VERY MANY”-GEORGE B. CRESSEY

PATTERNS OF POPULATION DISTRIBUTION


 Pop. Distribution refers to “ the way the people are spaced over the earth
surface”
 90 % of people are living in 10% of its land
 10 most populas countries (CHINA, INDIA, USA, INDONESIA, BRAZIL,
PAKISTAN
 CIS BANGLADESH HAPAN & NIGERIA) contribute 60% of population.
DENSITYOF POPULATION
RATIO BETWEEN LAND AND PEOPLE,
population
Measured in persons per SQ. km Density =
area
HIGH DENSITY AREAS: ( more than 200persons/sq km) NE USA, NW EUROPE, S,
SE,& E ASIA
LOW DENSITY AREAS ( less the 1 person / sq km) HOT AND COLD DESERTS,
LOW LATITUDE AREAS
MEDIUM DENSITY : (11-50 persons /sq.km)OTHER THAN ABOVE TWO AREAS
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
1. GEOGRPHICAL FACTORS
 Availability of water,
 land forms,
 climate,
 soils
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2. ECONOMIC FACTORS
 Minerals,
 urbanization,
 industrialization
3. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS
 Religious factors,
 social and political unrest,
 border terrorism,
 govt. policies
POPULATION GROWTH
 Change in number of persons of a place during a specific
 Period of time”
 It may be positive or negative
 It may be represented in absolute numbers /percentage
 Change in pop. Is an indicator of eco. Development
BASIC CONCEPTS ARE:
 growth of population,
 growth rate of population,
 natural growth of population,
 +ve growth of population
 –ve growth of population.
COMPONENTS OF POP. CHANGE
 Birth rate,
 Death Rate ,
 Growth Rate ,
 Migration
CRUDE BIRTH RATE: number of live births in a year per thousand of women
Bi
CBR= X 1000
P
CBR= CRUDE BIRTH RATE
Bi: live births P = mid year population
CDR=NUMBER OF DEATHS IN A PARTICULAR YEAR PER THOUSAND
POPULATION
D
CDR= P X 1000
CDR= CRUDE DEATH RATE
D= NO. OF DEATHS P= ESTIMATED MID YEAR POPULATION
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CHAPTER-3
MIGRATION
 Place of origin,
 Place or destination,
 it is the spontaneous effort to achieve a better balance between population and
resources
 It may be permanent ,temporary, / seasonal, it may be rural-rural ,rural-urban,
urban-urban , urban – rural
 Types, immigration, emigration
FACTORS RESPOSIBLE
PUSH FACTORS:
 Unemployment,
 Poor living ,
 Political turmoil,
 Unpleasant climate,
 Natural disasters,
 Epidemics, and
 Socio- economics backwardness
PULL FACTORS:
 More attractive jobs,
 Good living conditions,
 Peace,
 Stability,
 Security of life,
 Pleasant climate
TRENDS IN POPULATION GROWTH: POP growth is due to
 Agricultural development,
 industrial revolution,
 transportation,
 sanitation and medical facilities,
 biotechnology,
 information and computers technological revolution.
 Discovery of machines,
 medicines
 Pop. Increased 10 times during last 500 years,
 4 times in 20th century,
 80 million people are added each year.
DOUBLING TIME OF WORLD POPULATION
1. More than one million to become one billion pop
2. It took 12 years to become from 5 billion to 6 billion
3. Developed countries take more time than developing countries
4. Liberia highest growth rate: 8.2% Latvia lowest gr : -1.5%
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Spatial pattern of population Change


when it is small change applied to large population it is large
GROWTH RATE DECLINES BUT POP STILL INCREASE
IMPACT OF POPULATION CHANGE
1. Depletion of resources
2. Spread of epidemics
3. Reduced life expectancy
4. Increase in social crime rate
5. Health problems
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
1. Predict the future pop. Of any area
2. Any region changes from high BR & DR to low BR& DR
3. progress from rural to urban
4. Illiterate to literate
5. These are collectively known as demographic cycle
STAGE-I ;
 High fertility,
 High mortality,
 Low growth,
 More epidemics,
 Variable food supply ,
 Agriculture is occupation,
 Low life expectancy,
 Illiteracy,
 Low level of technology -
 Rain forest tribes, Bangladesh
STAGE -II
 Fertility remains high ,but decline with time,
 Reduced mortality,
 Improved sanitation,
 Medical facilities
 High growth rate
 Ex. Peru, Sri Lanka, Kenya
STAGE -III:
 Low birth rate and
 Death rate
 Slow GR .
 Stable growth rate
URBANISED POP. HIGH TECHNOLOGY. SMALL FMALIES.
FLEXIBLE FAMILIES EX. CANADA JAPAN USA
POPULATION CONTROL MEASURES:
 Limiting the population growth,
 improving women‟s health,
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 access to family planning services


 Free availability of contraceptives,
 tax disincentives for large families,
 Government incentives for small families.
POPULATIONCOMPOSITION
PEOPLE ARE DIFFERENT IN DIFFERENT WAYS
 Age.
 Sex.
 Place of residence,
 Occupation,
 Education,
 Life expectancy
SEX COMPOSITION
The ratio between number of men and women is called SEX RATIO
MALEPOP
SEX RATIO= FEMALEPOP X 1000
IN INDIA IT IS CALCULATED AS
FEMALEPOP
SEX RATIO: X 1000
MALEPOP
 It shows the status of women in the country
 It is unfavorable to women
 Lower socio economic status
 due to female feticide, female infanticide, domestic violence against
women
 Some times men might have migrated so women no. Is more
 Natural advantages of women: they are more resilient, more resistant
power, more patience
 Sex ratio of the world is: 990 females/ 1000 males
 Latvia highest 1187 lowest is 468/1000males
 It is favorable in 139 countries
 Unfavorable in 72 countries
 Asia has low sex ratio Europe has highest
 Europe has better status of women
 Male dominated out migration
AGE STRUCTURE
 No. of people in different age groups.
 It is an important indicator of pop. Composition
 A large group of population is in age group of 15-59 years
 Large group of pop. Is above 60 years is called aged population
 More expenditure on medical facilities
 High 5 of young pop. Shows high birth rate
 AGE- SEX PYRAMID
 Number of females and males in different age groups
 Pop. Pyramid is used to show age sex structure
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 Shape of pyramid shows the characteristics of population


 Left side male and right side female
 Types of age sex pyramid
I-EXPANDING POPULATION
1.triangular shape , 2. Less developed countries , 3.young pop. is more, 4.ex.
Bangladesh, Mexico, Nigeria
II-CONSTANT POPULATION
1. A bell shaped, 2. Birth and death rates are equal, 3. Ex Australia
III-DECLINING POPULATION
1.narrow base , 2. Low birth and death , 3. Shows developed countries , 4. Growth is
negative or zero ex. Japan
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
1. It is based on residence
2. They differ from each other
3. The criteria for rural and urban varies from country to country
4. Rural population engaged in primary activities where as urban other than
primary activities
5. Rural and urban composition of west European countries is different from
African countries
6. Sex ratio is also different in European countries than African countries
7. In west European countries males are more in rural areas and females are more in
urban areas
8. in Asian countries female is more in rural areas
9. In Asian countries female is less in urban areas due to shortage of housing, high
cost of living, paucity of jobs, lack of security in cities
LITERACY
 Literacy indicated the socio economic development
 Standard of living
 Social status of women
 Availability of facilities
 Policies of government
 In India literate means: pop above 7 years age who is able to read write
and have the ability to do arithmetic calculations with understanding.
OCCUPATIONAL STRUCTURE
I. The working population take part in various occupations such as
primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary activities.
II. each category refers to the level of economic development of the
country.
III. developed countries only show the job opportunities more in
secondary activities
IV. developing countries show more people under primary activity
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CHAPTER-4
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
GROWTH:
 it is the quantitative
 and value neutral,
 it may be positive, or negative,
 ex. Density of population, total population
DEVELOPMENT:
 qualitative change
 always positive,
 an addition to the present condition,
 Ex. Per-capita income facilities
The concept of human development was introduced by DR. Mahbubul Haq :
development that enlarges people‟s choices and improves their lives.
People can live meaningful life. Life with some purpose, people must be
healthy, develop their talents,
The four pillars of human development
 EQUITY: equal opportunities available to everybody.
Irrespective of gender, race, income ( in case of India women and low
caste people drop out the school is more)
 SUSTAINABILITY: continuity in availability of resources, each
generation must have opportunities,
 PRODUCTIVITY: productivity in terms of labor productivity, it
should be constantly enriched.
 EMPOWERMENT: to have power to make decisions. Increasing
freedom and capability, good governance, and govt. policies.
APPROACHES TO HUMANDEVELOPMENT
A. INCOME APPROACH:
oldest method,
level of income leads to development
B. WELFARE APPROACH:
higher the expenditure on education, health, and other amenities by the
government.
C. BASIC NEEDS APPROACH: it was introduced by ILO -SIX BASIC
NEEDS
1. HEALTH
2. EDUCATION
3. FOOD
4.WATER SUPPLY
5. SANITATION
6. HOUSING to be given importance
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D. CAPABILITY APPROACH : associated with Prof. Amartya Sen. Access to


education and health facilities.
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISIONS
 Size of the country and per-capita income are not directly related to
human development. Like SRILANKA AND TRINIDAD HAVE
HIGHER HDI THAN INDIA
 THEY ARE DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS
 HIGH -ABOVE 0.8 :57 COUNTRIES
 MEDIUM – 0.5-0.799 :88 COUNTRIES
 LOW - BELOW 0.5 :32 COUNTRIES
 COUNTRIES WITH HIGH INDEX VALUE: NORWAY, ICELAND,
AUSTRALIA education and health care are priorities for the government.
 COUNTRIES WITH MEDIUM INDEX: it consists of large group, emerged
after second world war, adopting people oriented policies.
 COUNTRIES WITH LOW INDEX VALUE: large number of these countries
are very small . political turmoil, social instability, civil war, high incidence of
diseases.

CHAPTER-5
PRIMARY ACTIVITIES
HUNITING AND GATHERING
1. Depend on their immediate environment
2. Depend on animals they hunted and edible plants which they gathered
3.Primitive societies depend on hunting and gathering , fishing.
4. oldest occupation, practiced in harsh climatic conditions
5. depend on animals , for food , shelter, clothing
6. small capital, low level of technology,
7. practiced in High latitude areas such as Eurasia, Southern Chile. Low
latitude such as Amazon, Congo , S.E. Asian countries
8. in modern market some gathering is done such as leaves, bark nuts, fabric
rubber, balata, gums and resins.
PASTORALISM
NOMEDIC HERDING:
o herders depend on animals for food , transport, and shelter and clothing.
o Keep on moving from one place to another along with their animals .
o Each nomadic community occupies a well identified territory
o Variety of animals are kept indifferent regions
o Sahara& Asiatic deserts: sheep , goat,& camel
o Tibet: yak ,Andes: llamas , arctic region: Reindeer
REGIONS:
1 CORE REGIONS EXTENDING FROM ATLANTIC COAST OF N.AFRICA
THROUGH
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ARABIAN PENINSULA TO CENTRAL CHINA


2.SECOND REGION EXTENDS IN TUNDR REGION OF EURASIA
3. THIRD REGION IS FOUND IN S.W AFRICA AND MADAGASCAR

TRANSHUMANCE: SEASONAL MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE ALONG WITH THEIR


HERDS TO MOUNTAINS IN SUMMER AND TO PLAINS IN WINTER.
Ex. Gujjars, Bakarwals, Gaddis& Bhotias in Himalayas
The number of pastoral nomads is decreasing due to
1. Imposition of political boundaries
2. New settlement plans by different countries
COMMERCIAL LIVE STOCK REARING
1.It is more organized
2. Capital intensive
3.practised in permanent ranches
4.larger areas and divided in to parcels
5Animals are moved from one parcel to another
6.Number of animals are kept based on capacity of the pasture
7.Animals are sheep, cattle, goats and horses and products are meat, wool, hides and
skin
8.Practiced in New Zealand, Australia Argentina Uruguay and USA
AGRICULTURE
TYPES OF AGRICULTURE
SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE a. primitive subsistence agriculture
b. intensive subsistence agriculture
primitive subsistence agriculture:
1. Also called shifting cultivation/ slash and burn agriculture
2.practicved by tribes in topics
3. land holdings are small
4.do not use fertilizers
5. Change the land frequently
6.after 5 yeas they come back again.
7. It is called JHUMING in N.E. INDIA , MILPA in South America, LADANG
in Malaysia
INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE:
1. Found in density populated areas
2.there are two types
A.INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE DOMINATED BY WET
PADDY CULTIVATION
a. dominated by rice crop,
b. land holdings are very small
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c. family labor is used


d. less use of machine
e. manual labor is used
f. Farm yard manure is used
g. Yield per unit is high but per labor is low
B.INTENSIVE SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE DOMINATED BY OTHER
CROPS.
a. depend on climate , soil, relief other crops are cultivated.
b. mainly practiced in SE ASIA.
C. wheat, barley, soya bean, sorghum are cultivated
d. in India wheat is grown in western parts of Ganga plain
e. millets are grown in western parts of south India
f. irrigation is used
g. Europeans introduced Plantation agriculture
PLANTATION AGRICULTURE
1. Introduced by Europeans
2. Found in tropics
3. Important crops are tea, coffee, cocoa, rubber, cotton, oil palm, sugarcane
,banana, &pine apples
4. Large estates, capital, managerial, technical support
5. Scientific methods of cultivation
6. Single crop specialization,
7. Cheap labour
8. Good system of transport
9. Export oriented
10. (a)The French established cocoa and coffee in west Africa
(b)The British setup tea gardens In India and Sri Lanka
Rubber plantation in Malaysia, sugarcane and banana In
west indies
(C) Spanish and Americans introduced coconut and sugar cane in Philippines
(d) Dutch started sugarcane in Indonesia
(e) coffee Fazandas are managed by British in Brazil
EXTENSIVE COMMERCIAL GRAIN CULTIVATION
1. Practiced in semiarid land of mid latitudes
2. Whet is the main crop
3. Corn, barley oats and rye are grown
4. Large land holdings
5. Machines are used
6. Low yield per acre but high yield per person
7. Practiced in prairies, pampas, veldts, down, Canterbury plains.
DAIRY FARMING
1. Most advanced and efficient type of animal rearing
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2.
Highly capital intensive
3.
Animal shed, storage facilities, mulching machines are used
4.
Special emphasis is laid on breeding health care
5.
Highly labour intensive
6.
No off season
7.
Practiced nearby urban areas and industries
8.
Development of transportation, refrigeration pasteurization have
increased the marketing
MEDITERRANEAN AGRICULTURE
1. Highly specialized commercial agriculture
2. Practiced in the countries around Mediterranean sea also
central Chile, SW Africa ,SW Australia& California
3. It is an important supplier of citrus fruits
4. VITICULTURE is specialized in this region
5. Best quality wine is produced from grapes
6. Low quality grapes are used for raisins, and currants
7. Olives and figs are also grown
8. Fruits and vegetable are grown in winter which are great
demand in Europe
MARKET GARDENING AND HORTICULTURE
1. Vegetable, fruits and flowers are grown
2. Small farms, located nearby urban areas
3. Good transportation is required
4. Labor and capital intensive
5. Use of irrigation, HYV seeds, fertilizers & pesticides are used
6. Green houses and artificial heating is used in cold regions
7. Practiced in NW Europe , NE USA & Mediterranean regions
8. Netherlands is famous in growing tulips flower
9. The regions where vegetable are grown is called TRUCK
FARMING
FACTORY FARMING
1.Factory farming is also practiced in NW Europe
2.It consists of poultry farming livestock rearing
3.They are fed on factory feedstuff and carefully
supervised against diseases
4.Heavy capital investments
5.Veterinary services, heating and lightning is
provided
6. Breed selection and scientific breeding is important feature
COPERATIVE FARMING
1. A group of farmers form a society
2. Pool their resources to get more profit
3. Individual farms remain intact
Page 21 of 165

4. Farming is a matter of cooperative initiative


5. Societies help farmers in getting agriculture inputs
6. Sell the products at the most favorable terms
7. Help in processing products at cheaper rates
8. Practiced in Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden & Italy
COLLECTIVE FARMING
1. Social owner ship for means of production and labour
2. It is also called as KOLKHOZ
3. It was introduced in erstwhile USSR
4. Farmers pool their resources like land livestock labour
5. A small land is allowed to retain of their own to grow their own crops
6. Yearly targets are fixed by the government
7. Government fixes the product rates
8. Excess produce is distributed among the farmers
9. The farmers are to pay taxes for their own land
10. Members are paid according to their nature of the work
11. Exceptional work is rewarded by the government
MINING
1. There are stages of minerals copper age, bronze age, iron age
2. Actual development is started with the industrialization
FACTORS AFFECTION MINING ACTIVITY
1. Physical factors such as size, grade, and mode of occurrence of mineral
2. Economic factors such as demand for mineral, technology available, capital ,
labor, and transportation
METHODS OF MINING
1. Depend on mode of occurrence of mineral there are two types of mining
A. SURFACE /OPENCAST MINING
1. Easiest , and cheapest mining
2. Occur close to the surface
3. Low safety precautions
4. Large and quick output
B. UNDERGROUND/SHAFT MINING
1. Vertical shafts to be sunk
2. Minerals are extracted and sent to surface
3. It requires specialized drills , lifts, haulage vehicles ,ventilation
systems
4. This method is risky poisonous gases, fires, floods and caving leads
to accidents
5. It requires large investment
6. Developed countries are showing less interest but developing
countries are more interest due to large labor availability
Page 22 of 165

CHAPTER-6
SECONDARY ACTIVITIES
GIST :
MANUFACATURING, CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN LARGE SCALE
MANUFACTURING, CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
GENERAL:
1. secondary activities add value to natural resources by transforming raw materials into
valuable products
2.Manufacturing:
a. Involves a full array of production from handicrafts to molding iron and steel and
stamping out plastic toys to assembling delicate computer components or space
vehicles
b. Application of power
c. mass production
d. identical products
e. specialized labour f. standardized commodities
CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN LARGE SCALE MANUFACTURING
1. Specialization of skills/ methods of production
2. Mechanization
3. Technical innovation
4. Organizational structure and stratification
5. Uneven geographic distribution
6. Access to market
7. Access to raw material
8. Access to labour supply
9. Access to sources of energy
10. Access to transportation& communication skills
11. Government policy
12. Link to industries
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
A. BASED ON SIZE
1. COTTATGE / HOUSE HOLD
2. SMALL SCALE
3. LARGE SCALE
B. BASED ON INPUT/RAW MATERIAL
1. AGROBASED 2. MINERAL BASED 3.CHEMICAL BASED 4. FOREST BASED
5ANIMAL BASED
C. BASED ON OUTPUT/PRODUCT
1. BASIC INDUSTRIE 2. CONSUMER INDUSTRIES
D. BASED ON OWNERSHIP
1. PUBSIC SECTOR
2. PRIVATE SECTOR
3. JOINT SECTOR
TRADITIONAL LAREGE SCALE INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
Page 23 of 165

1. HIGH PROPORTIONOF EMPLOYMENT


2. HIGH DENSITY OF HOUSING
3. POOR SERVICES INFERIOR QUALITY
4. POLLUTION , WASTE HEAPS
5. UNEMPLOYMENT, EMIGRATION DERELICT LAND AREAS

RUHR COAL FIELD –GERMANY


1. One of the major industrial area
2. Coal, iron, steel are bases for the economy
3. Demand for coal declined so industry shrinking
4. Ruhr region is producing 80% of steel production
5. Problems of industrial waste and pollution
6. New industries emerged in the place of old industries such as car assembly new
chemical industry, universities.
CONCEPT OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY
1. Latest generation manufacturing unit
2. Application of R&D unit
3. Professional workers(white collar) share large group
4. Highly skilled specialists (blue collar) also working
5. Robotics are used in assembly line
6. Computer Aided Design is used
7. Electronic controls
8. Neatly spaced, low modern dispersed office plant and lab buildings
9. Planned business parks for high-tech industries
10. Regionally concentrated, self sustained highly specialized techno-poles
11. Silicon valley in San Francisco and silicon forest near Seattle are techno poles
IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIE
1. Base for other industries so it is called basic industry
2. Provide raw material to other industries
3. Also called heavy industry
4. Use bulky material
5. Produce heavy material
RAW MATERIALS
A. COAL B.LIME STONE C COKE D.IRONORE E. MANGANESE
FEATURES
1. Located nearby raw material or Near the ports
2. Mini steel industries are located near by markets
3. Located nearby integrated steel plants for scrap
DISTRIBUTION
1. Most complex and capital intensive industry
a. North America: USA –
North Appalachian region: PITTISBURG,
Great lake region: CHICOGO, GARRY, ERIE, CLEVELAND LORAIN
BUFALLO , DULUTH
Page 24 of 165

Atlantic region SPARRPWS POINT AND MORRISVILLE


b. Europe UK - Birmingham, &Sheffield
Germany: Duisburg, Dortmund Dusseldorf Essen
France: Le Creosote St.Ettienne
Russia: Moscow, St. Petersburg. Lipetsk Tula
Asia: Nagasaki, Tokyo Yokoma of Japan
Shanghai, Tangshan and Wuhan in China
Jamshedpur, Kulti Burnpur Durgapur Roukela Bhilai Bokaro Salem Vizak of
India
COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY
THREE SUB SECTORS
1. handloom
provide more labour employment, semi skilled workers, small capital, spinning
weaving and finishing of fabrics are important functions
2. 2. Power loom
Machines are used, less labour intensive, volume of production increases
3. 3. Mill sector: highly capital intensive produces cloth in bulk
Distribution: INDIA CHINA USA PAKISTAN UZBEKISTAN EGYPT
Egypt produces half of the world cotton
UK NW EUROPE JAPAN produce textiles by importing raw material from
other countries
Industry facing stiff competition with synthetic fiber
Now it is declining trend due to technology
It is shifted to less developed countries
Page 25 of 165

CHAPTER-7
TERTIARY AND QUATERNARY ACTIVITIES
GENERAL FEATURES
1.large number work in tertiary sector and medium number work in secondary sector
2. they include both production and exchange
3. production includes provision of service
4.output is indirectly measured in terms of wages and salaries
5. exchange involves trade transport and communication
6. provide commercial output service
7. specialized skills are involved
TYPES OF TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
SERVICE SECTOR
SERVICE SECTOR

TERTIARY QUINARY
QUATERNARY

TRADE & TRANSPORT COMMUNICATION SERVICES


COMMERCE

WHOLE SALE RETAIL ROAD RAIL WATER AIR

INLAND OCEANIC
URBAN RURAL
SUPPLY MANDIS
HOUSE
S URBAN RURAL PASSENGER CARGO

PERIODIC
MARKETS

CHAIN MAIL CONVENIENT PDS


STORES ORDER SHOPPING

TELEPHONE INTERNET
Page 26 of 165

COMMUNICATION

TELE-
MEANS OF AUDIOVISUAL
COMMUNIC
TRANSPORT
ATION

TELEPHONE FILMS RADIO TV PRINT

NEWS MAGAZINE
LANDLINE MOBILE

SERVICES

BANKING INSURANCE REAL ESTATE PERRSONAL

PRIVATE GOVT. NGO

QUATERNARY

INFORMATION BASED
R&D BASED

QUINARY

SPECIALIST DECISION MAKERS CONSULTANT POLICY FORMULATORS


S
Page 27 of 165

SOME SELECTED EXAMPLES


Tourism : tourist regions, factors affecting tourism: demand , transport
TOURIST ATTRACTIONS: climate, landscape history and art, culture and economy
Empowered workers,
QUATERNARY ACTIVITIES‟
1. Collection production and dissemination of information ,.
2.Production of information,
3.Research and development,
4.specialized knowledge,
5.technical skills,
6.administrative competence.
QUINARY ACTIVITIES
 The highest level of decision makers, policy makers,
Outsourcing
 Large no. of call centers in India and China opened
Advantages
 Cheap,
 availability of skilled persons,
 English language communication skills,
 out migrating countries.
It includes
1. Knowledge processing outsourcing
2. Home shoring
3. Business process outsourcing 3. Availability of high skilled workers ex. E-
learning, business research intellectual property legal profession and banking
sector
MEDICAL SERVICES FOR OVERSEAS PATIENTS I INDIA
1. India is leading country in medical tourism
2. World class hospitals are located in India
3. Abundant benefits for the developing countries
4. It is cheap for developed countries
5. Advantages for patients
6. Developed transport in India
DIGITAL DIVIDE
1. Availability of information and communication technology
2. It is uneven in the world
3. It depends on the government policy
4. Developed countries provide but developing countries still to provide the
ICT to their people
Page 28 of 165

CHAPTER-8
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
GIST
GENERAL: transport is a service for the carriage of persons and goods
from one place to the other using humans animals and different kind of
vehicles,
Movement may be on the land , water, in the air.
MODES OF TRANSPORT
LAND , WATER &AIR
LAND TRANSPORT: most of the transport is done over the land such
as man, animals, vehicles , pipelines
It is changed due to invention of steam engine, coal, petroleum .
revolution in transport system
ROAD
1. Most economical
2. Suitable for short distances
3. Suitable for rural areas and hilly areas
4. Cheapest means of transport
5. Supplementary to the other means of transport
6. Door to door service
7. Easy to construct and maintain
8. There are metalled and un-metalled roads
9. Not suitable during rainy season
10. Quality of roads depends on country
11. Developed countries have good roads
12. The total motorable road length is 15 million km 33% N. America
13. Highest road density is found in West Europe
14. Traffic flows; increased in recent years.
Problems of road ways
1. Lack of road side amenities
2. Congestion in cities
HIGH WAYS

 Connect distant places. 80meters wide separate traffic lanes


bridges, flyovers and dual carriageways help for traffic
flow
 Every city and port is connected with highways
 NORTH AMERICA: road density is 0.65 km per sq km
 Every place is within 20km from highway,
 cities located in the pacific ocean are well connected,
 trans Canadian highway links Vancouver in British
Columbia to St. John city in the east.
Page 29 of 165

 Pan American highway connects south America with north


America
 Trans -continental Stuart highway connects Darwin with
Alice springs
 Europe has highest no. of vehicles
 In Russia dense highway network is developed in the
industrial region
 In china cities are connected with highways
 In India there are many highways connecting cities
 Border roads connect the countries and integrate the people
RAILWAYS

 Suitable for bulky goods, longer distances, high speed , cheap, it varies from
country to country
 Types of gauges
 Broad gauge: 1.5 meters Standard gauge: 1.44m meter gauge : 1: 00 meter
smaller gauges
 Commuter railways are very popular in In UK , USA Japan and India
 There are 13 lakh km of railways in the world
 Europe has densest network in the world
 They are double and multi tracked Belgium has highest density 1km/ 6.5 sq.km
industrial regions have highest density of railways
 Underground railways are important between Paris and London ex. Channel
tunnel operated by Euro tunnel group
 Most of the railways are found in Urals in Russia
 40% of rail network is found in North America
 In Canada railways are in public sector
 Australia has 40000 km of railways 25% is found in new south Wales
 In South America Rail network is found in Coffee Fazendas and pampas
 There is only one continental rail between Valparaiso and Buenos Aires
 Asia has highest density of rail network
 Africa has 40000 km of rail net work south Africa has alone 18000 km or rail
net work
The important routes are
1. Benguela railway through Angola to Katanga Zambia copper belt
2. Tanzania Railway from the Zambian copper belt to Dar-Es Salam on the coast
3. The railway through Botswana and Zimbabwe linking the landlocked states to the
Republic of South Africa
TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILWAYS
Run across the continent
Link two ends of the continent
Constructed for economic and political reasons
TRANS SIBERIAN RAIWAY
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1. CONNECT St. Petersburg on the west Vladivostok in the east


2. pass through Moscow, Ufa Novosibirsk Irkutsk
3. longest with the length of 9332 km
4. double tracked and electrified
5. helped in connecting west markets to Asian region in the east

TRANS CANADIAN RAILWAY


1. 7050 KM long connect Halifax in the east, with Vancouver on the west coast
2. Connect Montreal, Ottawa Winnipeg Calgary
3. Constructed in 1886
4. Connect Quebec industrial region with wheat belt of prairie region
5. It also connects Winnipeg to thunder water way
6. This is Canada‟s important train route
7. Wheat and meat are important exports
THE UNION PACIFIC RAILWAY
1. Connect New York on the pacific coast with San Francisco on the west
coast
2. Pass through Cleveland, Chicago, Omaha , Evans Ogden Sacramento
3. Important exports are ores, grain paper, chemicals and machinery
THE AUSTRALIAN TRANS CONTINENTAL RAILWAY

1.
Run east west across southern part of Australia
2.
Connect Sydney on the east to Perth on the west coast
3.
Connect Kalgoorli, Broken Hill Port Augusta
4.
Another major line connects from Adelaide and Alice Springs also joins
with this line
THE ORIENT EXPRESS
1. Runs from Paris to Istanbul
2. Pass through Strasbourg , Munich, Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade
3. The travel time from London to Istanbul reduced to 96 hours against
10 days
4. The exports are cheese, bacon, oats, wine, fruits, and machinery
5. There is a proposal to connect Istanbul with Bangkok through Iran,
Pakistan, India , Bangladesh and Myanmar
WATER TRANSPORT

ADVANTAGES

1. Cheapest
2. Suitable for heavy and bulky goods
3. No friction
4. Lest consumption of fuel
5.no route construction
6. Various types of ships can travel
Page 31 of 165

7.port facilities to be provided


OCEAN ROUTES

1. Connect continents
2. Connect longer distances
3. Cheapest and smooth travel
4. No maintenance cost
5. Modern liners equipped with radar, wireless and other navigation aids,
6. development of refrigerated chambers for perishable goods
7. containers used to transport goods easily
IMPORTANT OCEAN ROUTES
I .THE NORTH NORTHERN ATLANTIC SEA ROUTE
1. connect NE USA WITH West Europe
2. connect two industrially developed countries
3. highest trade is taking place on this route
4. ¼ th trade takes place through this route
5. This is called Big Trunk route
6. Connect with old world with new world
II. THE MEDITERRANEAN INDIAN OCEAN ROUTE

1. Connect West Europe with north Africa, south Africa, and Australia
2. Before Suez canal this was an important sea route
3. The distance was 6400 longer than Suez canal between Liverpool to
Colombo
4. The important exports are gold, diamond, copper, tin groundnut , oil
palm coffee and fruits
III THE CAPE OF GOODHOPE SEA ROUTE

1. Connect west European with west African countries


2. Less traffic because of less developed countries

IV NORTH PACIFIC SEA ROUTE

1. Connect west coast of North America with Asia


2. Connect Vancouver with Yokohama
V THE SOUTH PACIFIC SEA ROUTE

1. Connect with North America with West Europe


2. Also connect with Australia and New Zealand
3. Connect scattered islands of pacific Ocean
4. The distance is 12000 km between Panama and Sydney
COASTAL SHIPPING

1. It is convenient for the countries with long coast line


Page 32 of 165

2. Ex. USA Chin India


3. It can reduce the congestion on land routes
SUEZ CANAL

1. CONSTRUCTED IN 1869 between Port said and port Suez


2. Connect Mediterranean and Red Sea
3. The distance reduced 6400 km between Liverpool and Colombo
4. The length is 160 km 11 to 15 meters depth
5. 100 ships can travel each day
6. Time taken is 12 hours
7. Toll is heavy some time it is better to go by cape route
8. A railway line follow along this canal
9. A navigable fresh canal also follows from Nile
THE PANAMA CANAL

1. Connects pacific coast with Atlantic coast


2. The length is 72 km
3. It has SIX lock systems
4. It is 26 meters above sea level
5. It reduces distance between New York and San Francisco about 13000km
6. The economic importance is less then Suez canal
INLAND WATER WAYS
1. Rivers, canals, lakes are the means of inland waterways
2. Boats and steamers are used
3. Development depends on a. navigability b. water flow
c. transport technology
4. rivers are only means in the dense jungles
5.heavy cargo can be transported through canals
6. the problems are
a. completion with other means of ways
b. diversion of water to the fields
c. poor maintenance
7. Domestic and international trade can be done through rivers
8. By dredging, stabilizing river banks and building dams and barrages they are
made navigable
THE RHINE WATERWAYS

1. Flow through Germany and Netherlands


2. It is navigable up to 700 km form Rotterdam to Basel
3. It flows through rich coalfield and industrial region
4. It is heavily used inland water way in the world
5. Connects with industrial areas of Switzerland with Netherlands
THE DANUBE WATERWAY
Page 33 of 165

1. Serves Eastern Europe


2. It raises in the Black forest flows many countries
3. The chief exports are wheat, maize timber , and machinery
VOLGA WATERWAY

1. Most important water way in Russia


2. Provides navigable way up to 12000 km
3. Drains into Caspian sea
4. Volga Moscow canal connect with this canal
5. Volga don canal with Black sea
THE GREAT LAKES ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY
1. Lake superior , Huron Erie and Ontario are connected by SOO canal and Welland
canal
2. Estuary of St. Lawrence river form a inland water way
3. DULUTH and Buffalo are equipped with all facilities
4. The goods are transshipped to small vessels because of rapids
5. Canal is 3.5 meters deep
AIR TRANSPORT

Advantages

1. Fastest means of transport


2. Suitable for longer distances
3. Suitable for rugged terrain
4. Connect with distant places
5. Most comfortable
6. Suitable for snow and forest areas
7. Suitable in disaster areas
It requires

 Capital intensive, maintenance , infrastructure like hangars, landing fuelling


facilities
 Mostly found in developed countries
 No place in the world is more than 35 hours distance
 Distance is measured in hours and minutes
 There are more than 250 commercial airline are working in the world

INTERCONTINANTAL AIR LINES

1. There is dense network of air route in the northern hemisphere


2. Densest one connects USA and West Europe
3. USA alone accounts for 60% of air traffic
4. There is limited air services between 10-35 degrees latitudes due to sparse
population , limited landmass and economic development
Page 34 of 165

PIPE LINES
ADVANTAGES
1. Used to transport liquid and gases and also solids by converting into slurry
2. Un interrupted flow
3. Least consumption of fuel
4. Suitable in the high mountains and sea bottom
5. Water, gas, milk also supplied through pipelines
6. USA has dense network of pipe lines
7. Big Inch is one of the important pipeline connecting Gulf of Mexico with NE
USA
8. In other countries it is used to transport oil from oil field to oil refineries
9. Iran –India pipeline will be longest in the world
COMMUNICATION
1. Telegraph and telephone are important means of communication
2. During mid twentieth century AT&T was the monopoly company in the
world
3. Optical Fiber cable is the breakthrough in the communication
4. THE OFC has following advantages 1.100% error free 2. Large quantity of
data can be transferred 3. Security 4.rapid

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION
 The revolution has come with the invention of Satellite and
connection with computers
 It is called INTERNET
 It was started in 1970 after in USA
 It is cheapest among the communication system,
 In India it is started in 1979 with Bhaskar –I Rohini -1980 APPLE
1981, after INSAT series
CYBER SPACE
 Computer space , it is encompassed with WWW , it is electronic
digital world connecting computers through network
 The majority of users are in USA UK Germany, Japan China India.
Page 35 of 165

CHAPTER-9
INTERNATIONAL TRADE
TWO LEVELS
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL
The initial trade was barter system in which goods are exchanged
Before currency there were flint stones, obsidian, cowries shells tigers paw,
whales teeth dogs teeth skins furs cattle rice pepper corns salt small tools
copper silver and gold.
HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
1. Trade was restricted to small distance due to theft
2. People used to satisfy their immediate facilities
3. Only rich people used to bring jewellary and other ornaments
4. The silk route is an example connecting with china and Rome
5. Wool silk precious stones; were trade
6. After Rome disintegration it was not given importance
7. The slave trade was started with the colonization
8. After industrial revolution raw material and finished products are given
importance
9. During world wars many countries imposed taxes
10. After the world war GATT was formed
WHY DOES INTERNATIONAL TRADE EXIST
1. Specialization in production 2. Division of labor 3. Comparative
advantage 4. Complementarily and transferability of goods, services
5. Mutual benefit 6.foreign policy 7.developed transport and
communication
BASIS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE

1. DIFFERENCE IN NATIONAL RESOURCES


A. Geological structure
B. Mineral resources
C. Climate
2. Population factors
a. Cultural factors
b. Size of population
3. Stage of economic development
4. Extent of foreign investment
5. Transport
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF INTRNATIONAL TRADE

1. Volume of trade
2. Composition of trade
3. Direction of trade
Page 36 of 165

4. Balance of trade
TYPES OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
1. Bilateral trade
2. Multilateral trade
CASE FOR FREE TRADE

DUMPED GOODS

WTO

 GATT WAS FORMED IN1948


 The GATT was transformed in to WTO on 1.1.1995
 It maintains the global rules between the nations
 It resolves the disputes between the nations related to trade
 It covers trade services, telecommunication and banking, intellectual
rights
 It gives importance to rich nations
 It is not favour to poor nations
REGIONAL TRADE BLOCS

ASEAN, CIS,EU,LAIA,NAFTA, OPEC, SAFTA

CONCERNS RELATED TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE

1. Regional specialization
2. Higher level of production
3. Better standard of living
4. World wide availability of goods and services
5. Equalization of prices and wages
6. Diffusion of knowledge and culture
7. Leads to dependence
8. Uneven level of development
9. Exploitation
10. Commercial revelry leads to wars
11. Affect life
12. Production and use of resource raised
13. Depletion of resources
14. More pollution
GATE WAYS OF INTRNATIONAL TRADE
PORTS
1. Provide facilities to cargo and passenger
2. Provide docking, loading unloading, storage facilities for cargo
3. Maintain navigable channels
4. Arrange tugs and barges, provide labor managerial services
Page 37 of 165

5. The quantity of cargo handled by the port is an indicator of level of


development of its hinter land
TYPES OF PORT
BASED ONCARGO HANDLED
1. Industrial ports 2. Commercial ports 3. Comprehensive
BASED ON LOCATION
1. Inland ports 2.outports
BASED ON SPECIALISED FUNCTION
1. Oil ports 2. Ports of call 3. Packet station 4.Entre pot ports 5. Naval ports
CHAPTER-10
HUMAN SETELEMENTS
Classification of settlements
Rural settlements Urban settlements
Patterns of settlements
1. Compact or nucleated settlements
2. Dispersed settlements
RURAL SETTLEMENTS

FACTORS INFLUENCING RURAL SETTLEMENSTS

1. Water supply 2. Land 3. Upland, 4. Building material 5. Defense


PLANNED SETTLEMENTS
1. Constructed by government
2. Provide shelter, water and drainage facilities
3. Provide infrastructure facilities
4. Ex .villagisation in Ethiopia ,Rajasthan canal in India
RURAL SETTELEMENT PATTERN
I. BASED ON SETTING
1. Plain village, 2.plateau villages 3. Coastal villages 4.
Forest villages 5. Desert villages
II. BASED ON FUNCTION
1. Farming, 2 fisherman villages,3.lumber jack villages
4.pastoral villages
III BASED ON SHAPE

1. LINEAR 2 RECTANGULAR 3 CIRCULAR 4.STAR SHAPED,5 T-SHAPED


6.DOUBLE VILLAGE 7. CROSS SHAPED VILLAGE

PROBLEMS OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS


1. Lack of infrastructure
2. Supply of water
3.road facility
Page 38 of 165

4. Waterborne diseases
5.drough and flood
6.absence of toilet and garbage disposal
7: lack of ventilation
8. Lack of health facilities and education
URBAN SETTLEMENTS
 The first city reached one million was London by 1810
 By 1982 there were 175 countries reached one million population
 48 % of population lives in Urban settlements
CLASSIFICTION OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS
POPULATION SIZE
Criteria for urban centers in various countries
 1500 in Columbia
 2000 in Argentina &Portugal
 2500 in USA and Thailand
 5000 in India
 30,000 in Japan
 Density is more than 400 persons /sq km
 More than 75% of people work in other than primary occupation
 250 persons /sq km in Sweden and Denmark Finland
 300 in Iceland 1000 in Canada and Venezuela
ADMINISTRATION
Municipality, cantonment board, notified area council in India is considered as
urban center
Latin America all administrative centers are urban centers
LOCATION
1. Military center,
2. Seaport

3. Strategic towns,
4.mining towns,
5. Tourist towns
6. Recreational town,
7. Educational towns
8.industrial towns
9.administrative town
10 commercial towns
CLASSIFICATION OF TOWNS ON THE BASIS OF FORMS
1. Linear,
2. Square,
3 square
4. Crescent
Page 39 of 165

5. Planned cities
Ex. ADDIS ABABA( THE NEW FLOWER) CANBERRA
BASED ON SIZE
 TOWN: enlarged villages manufacturing, retail, wholesale,
professional services
 CITY: it is a leading town, greater number of functions,
transport terminals, major financial institutions, regional
administrative offices
 CONURBATION: coined by PATRICK GEDDES in 1915 .
merging number of towns / cities ex. London, Manchester,
Chicago ,Tokyo
 MEGOLOPOLIS
USED PY Jean Guttmann : super metropolitan region it is a union of
conurbations ex Boston to Washington
Million city: London is the first town to reach one million in 1800
followed by Paris in 1850, new York 1860, 1950 there were 80 cities
438 in 2005
DISTRIBUTIONOF MEGACITIES
Pop. More than 10 million , New York is the first to attain this status
in 1950 with pop 12.5 million
There are 25 megacities at present.
PROBLEMS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES
1. Unsustainable concentration of population
2. Congested housing and streets
3. Lack of drinking water
4. Lack of electricity, sewage disposal health and education facilities
5. Lack of transport facilities
6. Health and education facilities
7. Water and air pollution
PROBLEMS OF URBAN SETTLEMENTS
I .ECONOMIC PROBLEMS
1. Decreasing employment
2. Pool of semiskilled labour
3. Saturated employment opportunities
II SOCIO CULTURAL PROBLEMS
1. Lack of health and educational facilities, 2.Transport facilities 3.Unbalanced sex ratio,4.Social
ills,5.Insufficient financial Resources,6.Lack of basic needs
III ENVORONMENTAL PROBLEMS
1.Lack of urban waste disposal,2.Lack of potable water,3.Improper sewerage facilities
4.Create heat islands, 5 Air pollution, water pollution, Noise pollution
Page 40 of 165

VOLUME -2
INDIA PEOPLE AND ECONOMY
CHAPTER-1
POPULATION: DISTRIBUTION, DENSITY,GROWTH AND COMPOSITION

Distribution of population

1. Population is distributed unevenly


2. UP has the highest population followed by MS BIHAR,WB , AP
3. MS, UP,BI,WB, AP TN MP RAJ KK GUJ account for 76% of population
4. Arunachal Pradesh 0.11% Uttaranchal 0.83%
FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION
1. PHYSICAL FACTORS: climate, water, terrain, transport ,
2. SOCIO ECONOMIC FACTORS: Settled Agriculture. Agri. develop. pattern of
human settlements, dev. Of transport, industries, urbanization
3. HISTORICAL FACTORS: development of cities such as Mumbai, Kolkata,
Chennai by British
DENSITY OF POPULATION

 Number of persons per unit area


 The density of population (2001) is 313/ sq km.
 Lowest in Arunachal Pradesh: 13/ per sq km NCT : 9340
 WB; 903 BIHAR : 880
 Himalayan states and North East have low density where as Ganga plain has
highest density and other states have moderate population
totalpopulation
 Physiological density= netcultivatedarea
totalagri culturalpopulation
 Agricultural density= netcultivatedarea
GROWTH OF POPULATION
Change in the number of people living in a particular area between two points of time.
It is expressed in %
Two components : 1. Natural 2. Induced natural growth is analyzed by crude birth
rate and crude death rate
Induced growth is calculated with the immigration –outmigration
The annual growth is 2.4% . in36 years its population will be doubled
STAGES OF POPULATION GROWTH
Stage I: 1901 -1921 stagnant growth, slow growth rate, BR & DR were high, poor
medical facilities, low literacy rate, inefficient distribution of food and basic facilities
STAGE II 1921-51: steady growth, improvement in health and sanitation low mortality
rate. better transport facilities, high birth rate and decline death rate. The influence of
world war and Economic depression influenced
Page 41 of 165

STAGE III: 1951-81 : Population explosion , rapid fall in mortality rate, high fertility
rate, introduction of five year plans, improvement of living condition, increased
migration,
STAGE IV 1981 onwards: growth rate declined , crude birth rate declined due to
increase marriage age, improved quality of life& education.
REGIONAL VRIATION IN POPULATION GROWTH
It is less than 20% in southern states. It is high in north west central and northeastern
states. The adolescents % is 22% male 53% female 47%
Features of adolescents population: high potential, quite vulnerable
CHALLENGES FACED BY ADOLESENCE
1. Lower age at marriage 2. Illiteracy 3. Female illiteracy 4.school dropouts 5.low
intake of nutrients 6.high rate of maternal mortality of adolescent mothers,
1. High rate of HIV AIDS 8. Physical and mental disability
9.drug abuse alcoholism 10 juvenile delinquency 11. Crime
Steps taken by the government to channelize the adults
1. National youth policy
2. Encourage the youth for constructive development of the
society
3. Improve patriotism and responsible citizens
4. Youth empowerment
5. Giving importance for youth health, sports and recreation
6. Innovation in the field of science
POPULATION COMPOSITION
1.AGE AND SEX, 2 PLACE OF RESIDENCE 3.ETHNIC CHARACTERISTICS 4.
TRIBES 5. LANGUAGE 6.RELEGION 7.MARITAL STATUS 8.LITERACY 9.
EDUCATION 10 OCCUPATION
RURAL URBAN COMPOSITION
1. 72% lives in villages
2. India has 638588 villages according to 2001 census
3. The state of Bihar and Sikkim have very high % of rural population
4. Goa and Maharashtra have low rural population
5. UT s have low rural population except DDNH
The size of villages varies from
6. In the ne India Rajasthan it is less than 200 persons
7. it is more than 17thousand persons in Kerala
Urban population
It is equal to 27.8% it is quite low
8. It is increased due to economic development, improvement in health, hygienic
conditions
9. It is high in the peripheral areas of metropolitan cities
LINGUISTIC COMPOSITION
1. According to Grierson there are 179 languages 544 dialects, there are about
22 scheduled languages
Page 42 of 165

2. Hindi speakers are 40.42% the smallest language is Kashmiri 0.01%


LANGUGE FAMILIES
1. Austric (1.38% ) –Monkhemar – Meghalaya Nicobar, WB,BI,OR,AS,MP
,MS
2. Dravidian (20%) TN, KK, KER, AP, MP, BI, OR,
3. Sino Tibetan(0.85%) J&K HP SK,ARP AS, NAG, MAN,MZ ,TRI ,MEG
4. Indo-European-outside India, J&K PUN HP, UP RAJ HAR ,OR, WB AS
GUJ MS GOA
RELIGIOUS COMPOSITION
 Hindus are distributed all states except indo Pak border, J&K ne states
 Muslims are concentrated in j7k WB, KER,UP DELHI LAK,
 Christian pop is concentrated in western coast NE states
 Sikhs are concentrated in NW India
 Jains Buddhists are concentrated in RAJ,MS, KK
 Tribes are located in ne India
 Hindus -80.5% muslims-13.55 Christians – 2.3% Sikhs 1.9% buddhists-
0.95 jains-0.45 others-0.6%
 Composition of working population
 Main worker; work more than 183 days
 Marginal worker : less than 183 days
 39% worker 61% non workers
 Large % of dependent population. Large number is unemployed
 25% working population in goa,53% in Mizoram
Occupational categories
1. Cultivators 2. Agricultural laborers
3.house hold industrial workers
4. other workers
SPATIAL VARIATION OF WORKING PARTICIPATION
1.HP and Nagaland have high proportion of cultivators
2. AP, CHHTIS,ORI,JHAR,WB high proportion of Ag. Workers
3.in urban centers high proportion of services
4. Non availability of land and presence of industries encourage workers
Page 43 of 165

CHAPTER-2
MIGRATION
GIST: 1. It was noted in first census 1881
2. Based on place of birth
3. In 1961 two components introduced a. place of birth b. duration
4. In 1971 place of last residence and duration in the place of enumeration is
added in1981
5. Place of birth: if the place of birth is different from the place of enumeration
–life time migrant
6. Place of resident: if the place of last residence is different from the place of
enumeration-known by last residence
STREAMS OF MIGRATION
1. Rural to urban, 2 rural to rural 3.urban to rural 4.urban to urban
2. During 2001 315 million migrants- based on last residence
3. 98 million changed their place of residence in the last ten years
4. the stream was dominated by female migrants
5. Female predominate the streams of short distance rural to rural migration
6. Male domination in rural to urban
7. 96% migrated from neighboring countries to India

SPATIAL VARIATION
1.migrants from UP BIHAR came to MS, DELHI, GUJ, HAR
2.MS stands first in immigration
3. Greater Mumbai received highest no. of migrants
CAUSED OF MIGRATION

1.PUSH FACTORS 2. PULL FACTORS

 PUSH FACTORS; Migrate from rural to urban due to poverty, high pop.
pressure on land , lack of basic facilities, flood , drought, cyclonic storms,
earthquake, wars local conflicts
 PULL FACTORS: better opportunities, presence of regular work, higher wages,
higher education, health facilities, source of entertainment
 Marriage migration is only 2% in the country
CONSEUENCES OF MIGRATION

1. Uneven distribution of population over the space


2. Benefit both the places of migration
ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES
1. Major benefit is remittance sent by migrants
2. It is one of the source of foreign exchange
3. In 2002 it was 11 billion dollars
4. PU, KER,T.N RECEIVE SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT
Page 44 of 165

5. Remittance used for food, repayment of debts, treatment, marriage, child


education, agricultural inputs, construction of house.
6. People migrate form UP ORI MP to PUN,HAR is high %
DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES
1. Redistribution of population
2. Pop. Increases in cities
3. Age and skill pop. Migrate from rural to cities
4. Imbalance in age sex composition
SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES

1. Migrants act as agents of social change


2. New technology, family planning, girl‟s education are diffused
3. Intermixing of different cultures
4. It is positive change for national integrity but leads to unanimity
5. It creates social vacuum and sense of dejection
6. People may fall in antisocial activities
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES
1. Pressure on existing facilities
2. Formation of slums shanty colonies
3. Over exploitation natural resources leads to pollution
4. Depletion of ground water
5. Sewage disposal became major problem
OTHERS
1. Change in women status
2. Male selective migration in rural areas
3. Women migration leads to autonomy but causes vulnerability
to problems
4. Loss of skilled persons in rural areas

CHAPTER-3
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
“ Human development is a process of enlarging the range of peoples choices, increasing
their opportunities for education health care income and empowerment and covering the
full range of human choices from a sound physical environment to economic social and
political freedom”

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT : „progressive democratization and increasing


empowerment of people are seen as the minimum conditions for human development‟

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA


Page 45 of 165

1. India ranked 127 among 172 countries


2. HDI value is 0.602
3. Fall in medium group among the nations
4. Low score is due to
HISTORICAL FACTORS
Colonization, imperialism, neo imperialism,
SOCIO CULTURAL FACTORS
Human rights violation, social discrimination, crimes, terrorism, war
POLITICL FACTORS
Nature of state , form of government, level of empowerment,
IDICATORS OF ECONOMIC ATTAINMENTS
1. Access to all resources by all the people
2. GDP( RS.3200 THOUSAND crore) , per capita income(Rs 20,8130 are the
units to measure HDI
3. Prevalence of poverty , deprivation, malnutrition various types of prejudices
4. Large scale regional disparities
5. MS,PUN,HAR GUJ , DEL, have high per capita income
6. Low per capita income is found in UP BI ORI MP AS J&K
INDICATORS OF HEALTHY LIFE
1. Long life without ailment is called longevity
2. Availability of pre, post health care facilities decrease the death rate
3. Old age health care, adequate nutrition and safety of individual are
important measures for health
4. Death rate decreased from 25.1 / 1000 to 8.1 /1000
5. IMR decreased from 148 to 70
6. Life expectancy increased from 37.1 years to 65.3 years
7. Decreased birth rate from 40.8 to 26.1
8. Decline in sex ratio in rural areas is alarming
INDICATORS OF SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT
1. Access to knowledge about society and environment
2. Literacy rate is the indicator of social development
3. Literacy rate increased to65.4%
4. Literacy rate is Higher than the national average in many states
5. Kerala has highest and Bihar has lowest literacy
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN INDIA
1. Kerala with 0.638 placed on the top
2. Orissa with 0.404 placed at the bottom
3. Due to highest sex ratio and literacy Kerala place on the top
4. Due low sex ratio, per-capita income, and low literacy Orissa kept
at the bottom
REASONS FOR LOW HDI
1. LOW LITERACY RATE
2. LOW ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Page 46 of 165

3. REGIONAL DISPARTITIES OF BRITISH CONTINUED


POPULATION ENVIORNMENT AND DEVELOPMENT

1. Social inequalities, discriminations deprivations


displacement of people, abuse human rights cause low HDI
2. Methods to increase the HDI
3. Sustainable development
4. Got. Expenditure on public health and education
5. Increase social and political freedom
CHAPTER-4
HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
General : cluster of dwellings of any type or size where human beings live

They vary in size from hamlet to metropolitan cities, they may be small and large
closed or spaced, they may practice primary / secondary/ tertiary activities

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RURAL AND URBAN SETTLEMENTS

RURAL URBAN

1. Primary occupation other than primary


2. Provide raw material process the raw material
3. Produce food provide services
4. Low income high income
5. Low density high density
6. Spaced clustered
TYPES OF RURAL SETELEMENT

CLUSTERED SETTLEMENTS;

1. Compact and closely built houses


2. Living area is different form surrounding farms
3. Recognizable pattern
4. Different shapes such as geometric rectangular, radial, linear,
5. Some times defense may cause shape of the settlement
6. Availability of water also decides the shape
SEMI-CLUSTERD SETTLEMENTS
1. Formed due to result from tendency of clustered in restricted area of
dispersed settlement
2. Segregation of large settlement may also cause
3. Some may be forced to live separately from the main village
4. Dominance group live in the center of the village
5. People of lower strata live in out skirt of the village
6. Most common in GUJ. RAJ
Page 47 of 165

HAMLETED SETTLEMENTS
1. Physically separated and located in different place having common name
2. They are locally called panna, para palli,nagla ,dhani
3. They are motivated by social and ethnic factors
4. Found mostly in middle and lower ganga valley
DISPERSED STTLEMENTS
1. They are isolated huts are hamlets
2. Located on hills or agricultural lands
3. It is due to nature of terrain, and land resource , water
4. Found in Meg, Uttaranchal, HP, Ker.

URBAN SETTLEMENTS
1. Compact and large in size
2. Non Agriculture, eco, admin activities
3. Exchange of goods and services
4. Directly linked with rural settlements
EVOLUTION OF CITIES
Ancient towns:
1.developed as religious and cultural towns.
2.over 2000 years old
3. Patna, Varanasi, Madurai, are examples
Medieval towns:
1. They are the headquarters of kingdoms
2. There are more than 100 towns
3. They are fort towns developed over ruined forts
4. DELHI.HYD, JAIPUR, LUCKNOW ,AGRA &NAGPUR
MODERN TOWNS
1. They are developed by British and other Europeans
2. Generally located on the coast
3. They were forts constructed by Europeans
4. Ex. SURAT,DD,GOA, PONDY, MUMBAI. MADRAS,
CALCUTTA
ADMINISTRATIVE HQ
CHANDIGARH, BBSR, GANDHINAGAR, DISPUR planned cities developed after
independence.
URBANISATION IN INDIA
1. % of urbanization in India is 28%
2. Urbanization developed 11 fold during 20th century
3. It is due to development of planned cities
CLASSIFICATION OF TOWNS OPN THE BASIS OF POPULATION SIZE

CLASS I >100000 POPULATION

CLASS II 50,000- 99,999


Page 48 of 165

CLASS III 20,000- 49,999

CLASS IV 10,000-19,999

CLASS V 5000-9,999

CLASS VI < 5000

1-5 MILLION IS CALLED METROPOLITAN CITY

 5 million mega cities


 urban agglomeration:
 1. Town and its adjoining urban outgrowths
 2.two or more towns with or without their outgrowth
 3.the city and one or more adjoining towns
 Ex . Out growth: railway colony, university , port area, military
cantonment
 According to 2001 census there were 423 first class towns and
35 metro cities in India six of them are mega cities grater Mumbai
is the largest city in India
 FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF TOWNS
1.Administrative towns: All capitals of states with national capital
2.Industrial towns: Mumbai. Salem, Coimbatore Modinagar, Jamshedpur
3. transport towns: kandla cochin, vizak
4.commercial towns: Satna Kolkata
5.mining towns: Digboi, Ranigunj, Jharia
6.Garrison cantonment towns: Ambala, Mhow. Jalandhar
7. educational towns: Pilani, Aligarh, Varanasi
8.relegious cultural towns: Amritsar, Varanasi, Tirupati
9.Toutist towns: Shimla, Mussori, Nainital
NAMES OF METRO CITIES 35
Page 49 of 165

CHAPTER-5
LAND RESOURCES AND AGRICULTUE
LAND USE CATEGORIES
1. Forests
2. Land put to non agricultural use
3. Barren and waste land
4. Area under permanent pastures
5. Area under miscellaneous tree crops
6. Culturalble waste land
7. Current fallow land
8. Fallow other than current fallow
9. NET SOWN AREA
LANDUSE CHANGES IN INDIA
THREE TYPES OF CHANGES
I. Size of economy: grow over time , change in income level, marginal
lands will become useful
II. Composition of the economy: the secondary and tertiary grew much
faster than primary sector. Land from Ag. Use to non Ag use such as built
up area
III. The contribution of agricultural activities reduces over time
The share of Ag. Is declined. No. of people fed by Agri. is increasing

INCREASE INTHREE CATEGORIES


1. FOREST. 2. AREA UNDER NONAGRICULTURAL USE 3.
CURRENT FALLOW LAND
2. FOUR AREAS DECLINED
1. Barren and waste land
2. Cultivable wasteland
3. Area under pastures& tree crops
4. Net sown area
COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES

1. PRIVATE 2 .COMMONPROPERTY
I. THE CPTS ARE USED BY COMMON PURPOSE /
SOCIETY OWNED BY STATE
II. PROVIDE FODDER FOR LIVE STOCK FUEL FOR THE
HOUSE HOLDS
III. PRODUCE MINOR FOREST PRODUCTS SUCH AS
FRUITS, NUTS, FIBRE, MEDICINAL PLANTS
IV EVERY MEMBER HAS RIGHT TO ACCESS
Page 50 of 165

AGRICULTURAL LAND USE IN INDIA


1. Contribution of land in agricultural use is more important
2. Lack of access to land leads to poverty
3. Productivity depends on quality of land
4. Land ownership has social value in rural areas
TOTAL CULTIVABLE LAND IS = NETWOWN AREA+FALLOW
LAND+

ULTURABLE WASTE LAND


1.since there is no extra land available only the high yielding
varieties can increase the productivity
2.number of times the land can be increased by providing Irrigation
Crop intensity can be raised
CROPPING SEASONS
SEASON PERIOD CROPS
KHARIF JUNE-SEP RICE, COTTON MILLETS GROUND
NUT
RABI OCT-NOV WHEAT GRAM,RICE MAIZE
MILLETS
ZAID APRIL- VEG. FRUITS
JUNE

TYPES OF FARMING

BASED ON MOISTURE FOR THE CROPS

IRRIGATED FARMING

1.it is protective/ productive of crops,

2.due to moisture deficiency irrigation is essential

3. Supplementary to the rainfall

4.to increase cultivable area

5.to achieve high productivity

RAIN FED FARMING

1. Divided in to two types a. Dry land farming b wet land farming


2. Dry land farming located in the area of less than75 cm rain fall
3. drought resistant crops are grown
4. Millets, maize fodder crops
5. practice rainwater harvesting
Page 51 of 165

WETLAND FARMING
1. Found in areas of high rainfall zones
2. Water intensive crops such as rice, sugarcane, jute are grown
CROPPING PATTERN

FOOD GRAINS

CEREALS:

RICE

 grown on sea level to 2000 mts altitude,


 3000 varieties are grown
 grown in three seasons AUS AMAN BORO in west Bengal / Kharif . Rabi
season .
 22% of rice production in India.
 second after china.
 ¼ area is under rice cultivation.
 WB, PUN UP rice is grown
WHEAT:

 second most important crop,


 12% of production is from India,
 generally in winter it is grown.
 Grown in North and central India,
 irrigation is essential .
 rain fed crop in Himalayan region.
 14% is under wheat cultivation.
 UP, PUN, HAR, RAJ. Are leading producers
JOWAR:

 16.5 % cropped area is under this crop,


 Main food crop in semiarid areas,
 Maharashtra alone produces ½ of the production,
 Others are KK, MP AP
BAJRA:

HOT AND DRY CLIMATIC CONDITIONS ARE NEEDED.

 Grown in drought resistant crop,


 it is cultivated alone or mixed crop,
 5.2% of total cropped area.
 Leading producers are MS, GUJ RAJ, HAR
MAIZE :
Page 52 of 165

 Grown any type of land.


 It is food and fodder crop,
 3.6% total cropped area,
 it is grown all over India,
 the leading producers are MP, AP. KK, RAJ, YIELD IS HIGH IN SOUTHERN
STATE
PULSES,:

 rich source of protein,


 increase natural fertility.
 Used in crop rotation,
 India is leading producer of pulses.
 concentrated in dry lands,
 11% of total cropped area. GRAM, TUR ARE MAJOR CROPS.
GRAM :

 cultivated in subtropical area,


 rain fed crop,
 2.8% of total cropped area,
 leading producers are MP, UP, MS, AP, RAJ
TUR(ARHAR)

 Second important pulse crop,


 it is also called red gram or pigeon pea,
 rain fed crop,
 2% of total cropped area,
 leading producers are MS. UP, KK GUJ
OIL SEEDS : GROUND NUT :

 17% of total production of the world is in India


 ,rain fed,
 grown in Kharif season,
 3.6% of total cropped area,
 leading producers are GUJ, TN, AP, KKA MS
RAPE SEED, MISTARD:

 consists of rai sarson toria taramira ,


 they are subtropical crops,
 grown in Rabi season,
 frost sensitive,
 irrigated crop,
2/3 under irrigation,
2.5 % of cropped area is under this crop.
2.6 Leading producers are RAJ, UP, HAR, WB ,MP
Page 53 of 165

FIBRE CROPS;

COTTON:

 grown in Kharif season,


 semi arid region,
 short staple and long staple are grown,
 black soil is suitable,
 India ranks 4th in the world.
 After China USA and Pakistan.
% of world production.

 4.7% total cropped area. Leading producers are PUN, HAR, RAJ, GUJ MS. AP
KK
JUTE:

 used for packing material,


 cash crop,
 India produces 3/5 of the world production.
 0.5 % total cropped area is under this crop,
 leading states are: WB, BI,AS
OTHERSSUGAR CANE:

 tropical crop,
 cultivated in sub-humid regions,
 irrigated crop,
 India is the second largest producer,
 23% of world‟s production come from India.
 of cropped area is under this crop.
 The leading producers are UP, MS, KK,TN, AP
TEA :

 Plantation crop,
 tea leaf has high content of caffeine and tannin.
 Grown in hilly areas,
 heavy rainfall is needed,
 started in1840 in Assam by British.
 Grown Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Niligiris, Western Ghats,
 28% of world production comes from India.
 India rank 3rd after Sri Lanka & China.
 53.2% total cropped area is under this crop.
Page 54 of 165

 Leading producers are WB & TN


COFFEE;

 three varieties ARABICA, ROBUSTA, LIBERICA,


 4.3% of world production comes from India.
 Sixth after BRAZIL, VIETNAM, COLOMBIA,INDONESIA, MEXICO.
Leading producers are KK, TN, KER
AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

1. 53% of population depends on agriculture


2. 57% land is meant for cultivation
3. 0.31% of hectares per capita
STRATEGY OF EVELOPMENT
Govt. of India took steps to increase the production
i. Switching over from cash crops to food grains
ii. Increase crop intensity
iii. Increasing cultivated area
iv. Improvement of irrigation
v. Intensive agricultural district programme and intensive agricultural area
programme were launched
vi. Use of HYV seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, pesticides,
vii. Use of package technology
viii. Introduction of GREEN REVOLUTION
ix. Large agriculture inputs
GROWTH OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Production and yield increased (wheat, rice, oil seeds, sugarcane, tea
pulses , cattle, milk, ground nut)
2. Expansion of irrigated area
3. Use of HYV seeds
4. Use of modern agricultural technology
5. Increased consumption of chemical fertilizers

PROBLEMS OF INDIAN AGRICULTURE


1. Uneven and unreliable rainfall
2. Low productivity
3. Poverty of the farmers
4. Lack of land reforms
5. Fragmentation of land holdings
6. Lack of commercialization
7. Vast under employment
8. Degradation of cultivable land
9. Illiteracy of the farmers
Page 55 of 165

CHAPTER-6
WATER RESOURCES
WATER RESOURCES IN INDIA
1. India accounts 2.45% of world surface area
2. 4% of world water resource
3. 16% of population
4. Total water available from precipitations 4000 cubic km.
5. Surface water and replenish able water is 1869 cubic km
6. 60% only useful is about 1122 cu.km

SURFACE WATER RESOURFCES


1.there are four major sources of surface water

2. River, lake, ponds, tanks

3.10,360 rivers are present with more than 1.6 km length each

4. Mean annual rainfall is about 1869 cubic km

5. 60% only usable it is equal to 1122cubic.km

SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

1. Four major sources of surface water


2. River, lakes, ponds, tanks
3. There are 10,360 river with the length of more 1.6 km
4. There is about 1869 cu, km of water is available
5. Only 690 cu ,km usable
GROUND WATER RESOURCES

1. Total replenishable ground water is 432 cu.km


2. 46% available from Ganga and Brahmaputra river basins
3. Level of utilization of ground water is high in NW and south India
4. Low in CHH, OR, KERALA
5. moderate in GUJ ,UP ,BI ,TRIPURA, MS
Water utilization
Surface water
1. Agriculture= 89% domestic=9% industrial 2%
GROUND WATER RESOURCES

Agriculture=92% industrial= 5 domestic=3%

DEMAND FOR IRRIGATION


Page 56 of 165

1. Uneven distribution of rainfall


2. Seasonal rain fall
3. High temperature causes more evaporation
4. To grow water intensive crops
5. To increase production
6. To crops in dry season
7. To introduce green revolution
DETERIORATION OF WATER QUALITY
1. Per-capita availability of water is dwindling day by day
2. Increasing population
3. Increase the standard of living
4. Ground water pollution
5. Urban waste and industrial waste is left in to the rivers
6. Cultural activities produce more wastage in to the rivers
7. Ganga and Yamuna are most polluted rivers in India
WATER CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
1. Adopt laws and acts to conserve water
2. Use water saving methods and technology
3. prevent water pollution
4. Watershed development
5. Rainwater harvesting
6. Water recycling and reuse
Prevention of water pollution
1. The central pollution control board along with state pollution control
boards should monitor the pollution
2. Frequent supervision is essential
3. The other rivers such as Sabarmati, Gomati, Kai, Addayar, Vaigai , also
to monitor for pollution
4. Monitoring the industries located along the river banks
RECYCLE AND REUSE OF WATER
1. Low quality of water can be used for industries
2. Water from domestic centers to be used for garden
3. Water used for cleaning vehicles also used for gardening
WATER SHED MANAGEMENT
1. Efficient management of surface and ground water and
conservation is called water shed development.
2. Prevention of runoff, storage and recharge of groundwater
through percolation tanks, recharge sells.
3. Bring balance between natural availability and utility
4. It depends on community participation
5. HARYALI is the water shed development started by Central
Govt.
Page 57 of 165

6. NERU-MEERU by AP govt. ARVARY PANI SANSAD by


Government of Rajasthan.
7. Construction of check dams, plantation ,
8. Making compulsory to the public to make rainwater harvesting
before constructing building done in TN

RAINWATER HARVESTING
1 It is the method of capturing and storing rainwater, for various
uses.
2. Refilled the ground water wells
3. It improves water quality
4. Reduces the water pollution
5. Dilution of salts takes place in the water
6. Rainwater harvesting is practiced in different areas by different tribes
7. Harvesting through service wells ,recharge wells kund or tanka
8. It increases ground water level
NATIONAL WATER POLICY
1. Multipurpose projects should include drinking water
2. Provide drinking water to all animals and man is first priority
3. Regulation of exploitation of ground water
4. Both ground and surface water quality should be regularly
5. Increase the efficacy use of water
6. Awareness of importance of water to be imparted to the common people
7. Conservation of water to be realized by the all people
CASE STUDY RALEGAN SIDDHI \
1. It is an example for watershed development
2. A retired army personnel realized the importance of water shed and
convinced the public
3. Voluntary participation took place and developed the water shed
4. The status of village is changed
5. Dependency started declining
6. Tarun mandal was formed to control pollution
7. Controlled grazing started
8. Dry crops were started growing
9. Community leaders took the control of the village
10. People developed each other
11. It is the model village in India
Page 58 of 165

CHAPTER-7
MINERAL AND ENERGY RESOURCES
A mineral Is a natural substance of organic /inorganic origin with definite
chemical and physical properties.

TYPES OF MINERALS
METALLIC MINERALS
A. FERROUS: IRON MANGANESE
B. NON FERROUS; COPPER BAUXITE
NONMETALLIC MINERAL
A. FUEL MINERAL: COAL, PETROLEUM,
B. OTHER NON METALLIC: LIME STONE
AGENCIES INVOLVED IN THE EXPLORATION OF MINERALS

1. Geological survey of India


2. Oil and natural gas commission
3. Mineral exploration corporation ltd
4. National mineral development corporation
5. Indian bureau of mines
6. Bharat gold mines
7. Hindustan copper ltd
8. National aluminum ltd
9. Dept. Of mining and geology

DISTRIBUTION OF MINERALS
1. Metallic minerals occur in peninsular region
2. Coal reserves are found in valleys of Mahanadi, Godavari, Sone, Damodar
3. Petroleum occur in sedimentary deposits of Assam And Gujarat
4. New reserves are discovered in Krishna Godavari Cauvery basins
5. Most of the minerals occur in east of line linking Mangalore an Kanpur
6. There are located in three broad belts
NORTH EASTERN PLATEAU REGION
1.cover WB,ORI ,CHH
2. Minerals are iron coal manganese, bauxite, mica
SOUTH WESTERN PLATEAU REGION
1. Covers KK ,GOA, KER &TN
2. Minerals are ferrous metals, lime stone, bauxite iron ore, manganese
coal deposits monazite in KERALA iron ore in GOA
NORTH WESTERN REGION
1. Covers RAJ, GUJ
Page 59 of 165

2. minerals are copper zinc, sandstone granite marble, gypsum fullers


earth dolomite and lime stone. Petroleum in GUJ.
Himalayan belt
minerals are copper lead, zinc, cobalt tungsten
FERROUS MINERALS: IRONMANGANESE, CHROMITE
1.iron ore : largest iron ore in Asia, Haematite And Magnetite are the two types of iron
ores, it has great demand in the international market
2. The total reserve is about 20 bi. Tones
955 is located in ORI JHAR, CHH KA, AP TN
Orissa : Sundergarh , Mayurbhanj Jhar mining centers; Gurumahishani, Sulaipet
Badampahar Kiruburu Bonai
Jharkhand; Noamundi And Gua Located Inwest And East Singhbhum
Chh; Durg Danteware Bailadila Dalli Rajhara
Kk: Sundur, Hospet, Bababudn hills, Tumkur Chitradurg
Ms. Chandrapur, Bhandara Ratnagiri
Ap: Kurnool , Karinagar Cudapah Anantapur
MANGANESE
Used in steel making,Orissa is the leading producer, Bonai, Kendujhar, Suddergarh,.
Gangpur, Koraput Kalahandi Bolangir are important producers
KAR: Darwar, Bellary Belgaum N.Canara Chikmagalur
MS: NAGPUR, BAHANDARA RATNAGIRI
NON FERROUS MINERALS
BAUXITE
It is the ore of aluminum
Aluminum is used to make construction, aircraft, utensils , electrical items
ORISSA: KALAHINDI, SAMPALPUR are leading producers
Lohardhaga In Jharkhand,
Kolaba Thane Ratnagiri of MS
Bhavnagar, Jamnagar of Guj.
COPPER
USED INELECTRICAL INDUSTRY
Distribution: Singhbhum in Jharkhand, Balaghat of MP, Jhunjhunu Alwar of raj.
Minor producers are Hassan of Karnataka, Agnigundale of AP
NON METALLIC MINERALS
MICA: used in electical industry and furnace
found in Hazaribagh of Bihar Nellore of ap. Jaipur Bhilwara of RAJ
ENERGY RESOURCES
COAL, PETROLEUM NATURAL GAS,NUCLEAR MINERALS
COAL: there are three types of coal
1. Anthracite: found in Himalayan region
2. Bituminus : located in Gondwana field DVC, Godavari Valley Sone Valley
Jharia, Raniganj, Mahanadi Valley Chanda Wardha Valley
3. Nyvely lignites: found in TN
Page 60 of 165

4. Tertiary coal is found in Assam. ARP, MEG. NAG. J&K


PETROLEUM
 Used to make energy resource, petrochemical industries fertilizer ,
synthetic rubber, wax lubricants, soap cosmetics
 It is also called as liquid gold
 It is found in Digboi , Naharkatia Moran In Assam, Ankaleshwar , Kalol
Mehasena Nawagam In Gujarat. Mumbai High
 Krishna Godavari Basin
 Oil refineries
 There are two types of oil refineries (i) field based (ii) market based
 There are 18 oil refineries
NATURAL GAS
 Found in guj, raj, tri. Krishna Godavari And Cauvery Basin
 Nuclear energy resources
 Uranium and thorium re important minerals
 Uranium is found in Dharwad rocks
 Found in Singhbhum in Bihar,Udipur Alwar, Jhunujhun of Raj. Durg of
Chh .Bhandara of Ms
 Monazite sands of Kerala
 Atomic energy commission was established in 1948
 Nuclear power stations
 Tarapur of MS, Rawatbhata of RAJ, Kalpakkam of TN, Narora of UP
Kaiga of KK Kakarapara of GUJ
 Non-conventional resources

ADVANTAGES OF NON CONVENTIONAL RESOURCES


1. No pollution
2. Abundant
3. Cheapest
4. easy to tap
5. Eternal
SOLAR ENERGY
ADVANTAGES
1. Abundant
2. huge potential used for two purposes
3. photovoltaic‟s, solar thermal technology
4. Cist competitive,
5. environmental friendly
6. Easy to construct
7. 7% more efficient than coal
8. 10% more efficient than coal
9. More applications heater, crop dryers cooker
10. western part has more potential
Page 61 of 165

WIND ENERGY
1. Pollution free
2. inexhaustible
3. simple machinery
4. Wind rotate turbines to produce electricity
5. Permanent wind systems are used to rotate turbines
6. India planned to establish 250 wind driven turbines with 45 mw
potential
7. there are 12 suitable locations
8. India is able to produce 3000 mw , it can produce 50000 mw
9. Lamba and Kutch in GUJ are suitable places
TIDAL WAVE ENERGY
Energy produced with the help of tides and waves of sea
west coast is more suitable
GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
1. Hot water is used to rotate turbines
2. Ground water is heated and gushed out and can be used for
generating electricity
3. Hot springs and geysers are used to generate electricity
BIO ENERGY

1.energy generated from agricultural , animal waste, urban waste,


it can be converted in to electrical energy
3.develop rural areas

4. Clean the environment

5. Cheap and easily available in rural areas

CONSERVATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES

1. Use non conventional resources


2. Recycling of metals
3. Reuse of energy resources
4. Use alternative resources
5. Use scrap metals
6. Export of strategic mineral to be reduced
Page 62 of 165

CHAPTER-8
MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
CLASSIFICATION OF INDUSTRIES
A. ON THE BASIS OF SIZE, CAPITAL LABOUR FORCE
1. Large, 2. Medium 3.small 4. Cottage

B. ON THE BASIS OF OWNERSHIP


1. Public 2. private 3. Joint 4.coperative
C. ON THE BASIS OF PRODUCT
1. Basic 2. Capital 3. Intermediate 4. Consumer industries
D. ON THE BASIS OF RAW MATERIALS
1. Agro based 2. Forest 3. Mineral 4. Industrially processed
E. NATURE OF PRODUCT
1. Metallurgical 2. Mechanical 3. Chemical 4. Textile 5. Food processing 6.
7.electricity generation 8. Electronics 9. Communication
LOCATION OF INDUSTRIES

LOCATIONAL FACTORS

1. Raw materials
2. Power
3. Transport
4. Labour
5. Historical factors
6. Industrial policy
MAJOR INDUSTRIES
IRON STEEL INDUSTRIES
RAW MATERIALS: iron ore, coking coal lime stone ,dolomite ,manganese, fire clay
TYPES OF IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRIES
1. Integrated steel plants
2. Mini steel plants

3. Rolling mills

4. Ancillary industries

INTEGRATED STEEL PLANTS


TISCO
 250km from Kolkata
 Water – Subarnarekha Kharki rivers
 Naomundi and Badampahar- iron ore
 Coal – Joda mines from Orissa
 Coking coal – Jharia
Page 63 of 165

IISCO
 Three factories at Hirapur ,Kulti, and Burnpur
 Coal- Ranigunj, Jharia Ramgarh
 Ironore- Sighbhum
 Water_ Barkar
 Transport Kolkata Asansol railway line
VISL
 Also called Mysore Iron and steel co.ltd
 Iron ore- Kemangundi
 Lime stone manganese- local
 Charcoal used from the forest/ hydal power from jog falls
 Water –Bhadravati
 Produces specialsed steels

ROUKELA
 Collaboration with Germany
 Located near by raw materials
 Coal-Jharia iron ore- Sundargarh
 Power- Hirakud water –Koel
BHILAI

 Russian collaboration
 Iron ore – Dalli Rajhara
 Coal- Korna
 Water-Tandula Dam
 Power –Korba
 Port – Vizak
DURGAPUR
 Collaboration with UK
 Coal –Raniganj
 Iron –Naomundi
 Power-DVC
BOKARO
 Russian collaboration
 Iron ore –Roukela
 Water& power –DVC
Page 64 of 165

THE COTTON TEXTILE INDUSTRY

1. One of the traditional industries in India


2. India is famous for muslin, calicos chintz
ADVANTAGES AVAILABLE FOR COTTONTEXTILE INDUSTRIES
1. Cotton cloth is most comfortable in tropical climate
2. Large area under cotton cultivation
3. Availability of abundant skilled labour
ADVANTAGES OF COTTON TEXTILES INMUMBAI
1. Close to cotton growing areas
2. Mumbai port facility
3. Provide capital for industries
4. Availability of cheap labour
5. Machines can be imported
SECTORS OF COTTON TEXTILES

 Organized sector
 Integrated textiles
 Decentralized sectors
 It includes power looms and handlooms
 Organized sector production declined from 81% to 6%
 decentralized sector produces 59% power looms and 19% hand looms
 COTTON IS NOT WEIGHT LOOSING MATERIAL
INFLUENCING FACTORS ARE

1. Power 2. Labour 3. Capital 4.market


AT PRESET INDUSTRIES ARE LOCATED AT THE MARKET
SWADESI MOVEMET BROUGHT A MAJOR IMPETUS TO THE INDUSTRY
BOYCOTTING BRITISH GOOD AFTER 1921
1. With the development of railway a cotton mills developed
2. In south India they are established in Coimbatore, Madurai Bangalore
3. In central India Nagpur, Indore Sholapur Vadodara
4. Cotton mills at Kanpur based on local investment
5. Cotton mills at Kolkata due to port facilities
6. Development of hydel power also help to industry
7. Lower labour costs helps to locate mills at Ujjain Bharuch Coimbatore
Tirunelveli away from cotton producing areas
 OTHR FACTORS ARE
O Market , cheap labour, availability of power
O Major centers Ahmedabad Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur Nagpur Indore
Ujjain
O They are located near by raw material leading producing states ms.guj, tn
O Tn has largest no of mills produce yarn rather than cloth
Page 65 of 165

O Coimbatore has emerged as important center in south in KK mills are


located near cotton producing areas. Davanger, Hubli, Bellary Mysore,
Bangalore,
O AP :Hyd, Sec, Warngal Guntur
O UP. Kanpur is th largest , Modinagar Hathras, Saharanpur Agra,
Lucknow
O WB; Hugli Howrah SeramPur Kolkata
O Cotton production increased five times from 1950 to 2000
ROBLEMS OF COTTON MILLS
1. Competition from synthetic fiber
2. High cost of production
3. Erratic power supply
4. Frequent strikes, lockouts
5. Climatic changes decrease production
SUGR INDUSTRY
1. Most important industry
2.india is the largest producer of sugarcane
3.8% of sugar production in India
4. Khandasari, jaggary also produced in India
5.provide 4 lakh persons employment
6.it is a seasonal industry
7.at present there are 506 mills with the production of 17699 lakh tones
LOCATION OF SUGAR INDUSTRY
1. It is a weight loosing industry crop
2. The ratio is 9-12 %
3. Sucrose content decrease soon after harvesting
4. Should be harvested before 24 hours
5. Ms is the leading producer
6. 1/3 of production comes from ms
7. There are 119 mills in the state
8. They extend from Manmad to Kolhapur
9. There are 87 mills in cooperative section
Up is the second largest producer of cotton textiles
There are two belts
1. Ganga-Yamuna Doab
2. Tarai region
Other states are TN, KK, AP
PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRIES
 In 1960 demand for organic chemicals increased
 Petroleum reining industry expanded
 Items derived from petroleum are raw materials for other industries
 They are called petro chemical industries
Page 66 of 165

SUBGROUPS OF PETROCHEMICALS
1.POLYMERS 2.SYNTHETIC FIBRE 3. ELASTOMERS 4. SURFACTANT
INTERMEDIATE
Mumbai is hub of petro chemical industry
Cracker units are located at
Auriya Jamnagar, Gandhi Nagar, Hajira Nagothane Ratnagiri Haldia Vizak
Organizations working under petrochemicals
INDIAN PETROCHEMICAL CORPORATION LIMITED
1. It is public sector
2. Produce polymers , chemicals fiber, fiber intermediates
PETROFILS COOERATIVE LIMITED
1.it is the joint venture of govt. And weavers cooperative society
2.produces polyesters nylon chips
Located at Vadodara Naldhari in Gujarat
CENTRL INSTITUTE OF PLASTIC ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
1. Provide training for engineers
Polymers are made from ethylene & propylene
Polymers are used in plastic industry
Plastic is converted into sheets power resin and pellets and then used in plastic
industry
ADVANTAGES:
1. Strength
2 flexible
2. Water and chemical resistance
3. Low price
NATIONAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS INDUSTRIES LIMITED
Established in private sector in 1961
First naphtha based chemical industry at Mumbai
Center of plastic materials Mumbai, Mettur, Pimpri Rishra
They are mostly small scale sector
Uses recycled plastics
Uses of plastic
1. TO MAKE FABRICS
USES
1. Strength 2. Durability 3. Wash ability 4. Resistant to water 5.
Shrinking 6. Easy to maintain
Centers of nylon and polyester: Kota, Pimpri , Mumbai,
Modinagar, Pune
Acrylic staple fiber manufactured at Kota Vadodara
The main problem of plastic is it is non biodegradable
KOWLEDGE BASED INDUSTRY
Page 67 of 165

1. Brought revolution in the industry


2. Brought new economic and social environment
3. Out sourcing is an example
4. Fastest growing industry
5. Software export is expanding every day
6. It surpassed other industries
7. It accounts 2% of GDP
8. Produce quality products
9. MNCs are producing software production
LPG
1. IT IS NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY
OBJECITVES

1.to build on the gains already made

2. Correct the distortions

3.maintain sustained growth

4. Gainful employment

5. Attain international competitiveness

MEASURES ININTIATED

1. Abolishing industrial licensing


2. Free entry of foreign technology
3. Foreign investment policy
4. Access t capital market
5. Open trade
6. Abolition of phased manufacturing
7. Liberalized industrial location programme
DIMENSIONS OF NEW INDUSTIRAL POLICY
1. Industrial licensing has been cancelled expect 1. Security 2. Strategic.
3.environmental concerns
2. Public sectors reduced from17to 3
3. Atomic energy & railways kept under government
4. Govt. offered share holdings to financial institutions, public workers
5. No private permission is required to invest in de-licensing sector
6. FDI is the supplement of domestic investment
7. FDI provide technological innovation
8. Access to global managerial skills optimum use of nature man resources
9. Liberalized t o attract MNS and private sector
10. mining and communications high way construction thrown to private
11. Globalization means integrating national economy with world economy
Page 68 of 165

12. Goods , services capital labour resources can move freely from one
nation to another

STEPS
1. Opening of economy to FDI by providing facilities to foreign
companies to invest in different fields of economic activity
2. Removing restrictions an obstacles to the entry o multinational
company in India
3. Allowing Indian companies to collaborative other countries
4. Carry out massive import
5. Opting exchange rate adjustments to export
PROBLEMS IN NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY
1. Major share went to core industries
2. Infract rue was untouched
3. Gap between developed and developing increased
4. major share went to developed states
5. 23%ms 17% guj7% AP 6% TN&UP 8%
N.E states only 1%
INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
CRITERIA FOR IDENTIFYING INDUSTRIAL REGIONS
1.number of industrial units
2. Number of industrial workers
3. Quantity of power used
4.output
5.value added by manufacturing
MUMBAI PUNE REGION
1. Extended from Mumbai to Sholapur
2. Connect Kolaba Ahmednagar, Satara Sangle Jalgaon
FAVOURABLE FACTORS
1. Cotton hinterland
2. Moist climate
3. Opening of Suez canal
4. Mumbai port facility
5. Hydel power from western Ghats
6. Opening of Mumbai high
7. Nuclear power plant at Tarapur
8. Industries:
Engineering goods, oil refineries, petrochemicals, leather goods, synthetic,
plastic, drugs, fertilizers
Page 69 of 165

HUGLI INDUTRIAL REGION


ADVANTAGES

1.extend from Bansberia to Birlanagar


2. Opening of Hugli port
3.well connected with railways
4. Development of tea plantation, jute cultivation
5.presence of coal fields, iron mines DVC
6. Cheap labour from up &Bihar
7. industries: jute , paper, textiles, electrical, fertilizers Hindustan motors, diesel
locomotives at Chttaranjan . Oil refinery at Haldia
BANGALORE –CHENNAI REGION
1. Extend from Bangalore to Madurai
2. Power from Pykara Hydel power
3. Industries: cotton textile, eng. goods, HAL , HMT, at Bangalore , rubber
industry, petroleum oil refinery at Mumbai
GUJARAT INDUSTRIAL REGION

1. Extend from Ahmedabad to Surat


2. Large cotton growing area
3. Nearness to market
4. Oil fields at Ankaleswar Vadodar Jamnagar
5. Kandla port facility
6. Koyali oil refinery
7. Kakrapara nuclear plant
CHOTANAGAPUR INDUSTRIAL REGION
1. Extend from Jharkhand To Orissa
2. Heavy metallurgical industries
3. Coal at DVC
4. Iron ore, limestone coal fields
5. Steel plants at Jamshed Pur , Burnpur Kulti Durgapur ,Bokaro ,Rourkela
6. Hydel. Thermal power from DVC
7. Labor from Bihar, Bengal
8. Industries: engineering, machine tools, fertilizers, cement paper locomotives
9. Places are Ranchi, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh Jamshedpur
VIZAK GUNTUR INDUSTRIAL REGION
1 extend from Vizak To Kurnool
3. Port facility from Vizak, Machilipatnam
4. Dev. Agriculture, hinterland mineral
5. Godavari coal fields, shipbuilding at Vizak. Petroleum oil refinery . Lead zinc
steel industry at Vizak
Page 70 of 165

GURGAON-DELHI MEERUT REGION


1.fast growth ,

2. Away from minerals

3.light industries

4. Electrical, woolen textiles, hosiery goods, sugar mills, cycle agriculture implements

Software, glass leather goods

KOLLAM –THIRUVANANTHA PURAM

1. Extend from Trivandrum to Alappuzha


2. Plantation agriculture,
3. Hydel power
4. No minerals
5. Ag. Product processing
6. Cotton textiles, sugar , rubber, match box glass fish based industries food
processing
7. Oil refinery at cochin

CHAPTER-9
PALNNING AND SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
PLANNING IS THE PROCESS OF THINKING FORMULATION OF A
SCHEME OF PROGRAMME AND IMPLEMNTAATION OF A SET OF
ACTIONS TO ACHIEVE SOME GOAL
THERE ARE TWO APPROACHES
1. Sectorial planning
2. Regional planning
3. INDIA STARTED FIVE YEAR PLANS AND ANNUAL PLANS
TARGET AREA PLANNING
1. THIS PLAN TAKE CARE OF ECONOMICALLY BACK WARD AREAS,
BASED ON RESORUCES
2. GOVT. INTRODUCED THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMMES UNDER
TARGET AREA PLANNING
1. COMMAND AREA DEV. PROGRAMMD
2. DROUGHT PRONE AREA DEV. PRO
3. DESERT.DEV. PRO.
4. HILL AREA DEV. PRO
Page 71 of 165

5. THE SMALL FARMERS DEV. AGENCY


6. MARGINAL FARMERS DEV. AGENCY

HILL AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME


1. Started during 5th plan
2. covered 15 district of UTTAN,. WB & TN
3. National committee on the development of backward area in 1981 recommended
this programme
4. Selected the area above 600 mts.
5. Covered tribal regions
6. Objectives are: horticulture, plantation, animal husbandry, poultry forestry small
scale and village industries
DROUGHT PRONE AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
1. Started during 4thplan
2. Objectives: employment, creating productive assets, starting labor intensive
works, irrigation projects, land development. Programme. Afforestation,
grassland dev. Electricity ,road, market, credit facility.
3. Integrated water shed dev. Pro
4. restoration of ecological balance between water, soil, plants and animals
5. Covered 67 districts
CASE STUDY TRIBAL DEV.PRO
1. Bhaurmur Tribal region located in chambray district. of HP
2. Inhabited by Gaddi tribes
3. They practice transhumance
4. Total area is 1818 sq.km 1500 to 3700 mts altitude
5. Ravi and its tributaries drain this region
6. There are 4 physiographic regions1. Holi 2. Khani 3. Kugti 4. Tundah
7. Harsh climate, low resource base, fragile environment
8. 20/sq km density
9. Most economically backward
10. Socio economic deprivation
11. Objectives: transport and communication Agriculture. Allied activities. Socio
eco. Services, education, health, potable water, electricity
12. EFFECTS OF ITDP
1. In crease literacy rate ,2. Sex ratio , 3.female literacy 4.reduce gender
inequality 5.shipt to cash crops
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT THAT NEEDS OF PRESENT WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE


AVILITY OF FUTUTE GENERATIONS T OKMEET THEIR OWN NEEDS. IT
TAKE CARE OF ECONOGICAL, SOCIAL ECONOMIC, ASPECTS OF PRESENT
AND PLEADS FOR CONSERVATION OF RESORUCE FOR FUTURE
Page 72 of 165

CASE STUDY
INDIRAGANDHI CANAL COMMAND AREA – RAJASTHAN CANAL
1. , one of the largest canal system in India
2. Started in 1948 launched on 31/3/1958
3. started from Harike barrage in Punjab run parallel to the Pakistan border
4. The total length is 9060 km 19.63 lakh hectare irrigation 70% flow 30% lift
system
5. Started in two stages
6. cover Ganganagar, Hanuman Garh, Bikanir, Jaisalme, Barmer, Jodhpur,
Nagaur, Churu Districts
7. Left side lift system and right side flow system
8. Stage one -1960 and stage ii 1980
9. Objectives achieved : irrigation, pasture development, afforestation reduce wind
erosion, reduce siltation. Development of per-capita income , increase in food
production, increase cultivated area, change in cropping system
10. problems: siltation, water logging
11. STEPS TAKE TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS
1. Strict implementation of water management policy
2. Protective irrigation
3. Extensive irrigation of crops and pasturelands
4. No water intensive crops
5. lining of water courses
6. Leveling of wara bandhi
7. Reclamation of water logging areas
8. Afforestation, shelterbelts,
9. adequate financial support

CHAPTER-10
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
LAND
1. ROAD 2. RAILWAY 3. PIPE LINES
WATER
1. INLAND 2. OCEANIC
AIR
1. DOMESTIC 2. INTERNATIONAL
LAND TRANSPORT
ROAD TRANSPORT
1. Total road length is 33.1 lakh km
2. 80% passengers, and 70% of freight are carried by roads
3. Shai road connect Indus valley to Sone valley
4. It is renamed as grad trunk road
Page 73 of 165

5. At present it connects Amritsar, Kolkata( nh1 nh2)


CLASSIFAICATION OF RAODS
I NATIONAL HIGH WAYS
1. Constructed and maintained by central govt.
2. Meant for interstate transport
3. Movement of defense men and material
4. Connect state capitals
5. Total length is 65769 km
6. Accounts 2% of road length
7. Carry 40% of traffic
8. Golden quadrilateral
5846 km , 4/6/lane. High density traffic, connect metro cities, time distance and
cost distance decreased n-s corridor connect Srinagar to Kanya kumari (4076
km)
east west corridor connect Porbandar to Silchar ( 3640)
STATE HIGH WAYS
1. Constructed and maintained by state CPWD
2. Connect state capitals with Dist. Hqs.
3. account for 4% of road length
DISTRICT ROADS
1. Connect Dist,. Hq with other towns
2. account for 14% of road length
RURAL ROADS
1. Connect rural areas
2. accounts 80% of road length
3. Regional variation in road density
4. Influenced by terrain and climate

OTHER ROADS
BORDER ROADS AND INTERNATIONAL HIGHWAYS
1. Bro was started in 1960
2. help to develop economy
3. strengthen the defense
4. improvement of strategic points
5. it is a premier multifaceted ted construction agency
6. Highest road way connects Manali –Leh with4270 mts. altitude
7. Maintain harmonious relation with neighboring countries

HIGHEST ROAD DENSITY IS 387.24 /100SQ.KM INKERALA


LOWEST ROAD DENSITY IS 10.48 /100 SQ KM IN J&K
I T IS HIGH IN NORTHERN PLAINS AND LOW IN MOUNTAIN
AREAS
FACTORS INCLUENCIN ROAD WAYS
Page 74 of 165

1. Terrain 2. Climate, 3. Economic development. 4. Industries 5. Cities and towns


RAILWAYS
1. The first railway line started in 1853 between Bombay and thane
2. It is the largest govt. Sector with the length of 63221 km
3. IT IS DIVIDED INTO 16 ZONES
1. NORTHERN – NEW DELHI 2. NORTH EASTERN – GORKPUR 3.
NE FRONTIER –MALIGOAN 4. N.WESTERN- JAIPUR, 5.
N.CENTRAL- ALLAHABAD 6.WESTERN CHURHC GATE
MUKBAI 7. W. CENTRAL – JABAL PUR 8. CENTRAL CST
MUMBAI 9. E.CENTRAL –HAJIPUR 10. EASTERN-KOL 11.
S.WESTERN –HUBLI 12. S.CENTRAL- SECEUDERABAD 13. SE
CENTRAL-BILASPUR 14. SEASTERN-KOLKOTA 15.SOUTHERN-
CHENNAI 16. EAST COAST- BBSR
2. HIGHEST COAL IS CARRIED BY RAILWAYS
3. RAILWAY GAUGES : broad gauge :1.676 mts. 46807 km 74.145
meter gauge: 1.ooo mts. 13290 km 21.02%
narrow gauge
0.672mts & 0.610 mts. 4.94% 3124 km
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN RAILWAYS
1. Conversion of meter and narrow gauges in to broad gauge
2. Stem engines are replaced by diesel and electrical engines
3. Introduction of metro railways
4. Use of CNG
5. Introduction of internet
6. Computer reservation
7. container services

WATER TRANSPORT
ADVANTAGES

1. Cheapest means of transport


2. Least consumption of energy
3. Suitable for heavy bulky goods
4. No friction
5. Eco friendly
6. There are two types
Inland water ways
1. Cheapest mode of transport
2. Competition from road ways and railways
3. Water diversion from the rivers cause less navigable
4. Total 14500 km of navigable water
5. Account 1% of transport
6. It consists of rivers, canals , backwaters creeks
Page 75 of 165

7. 3700 km of navigable rivers are available


8. 2000 km actually used
9. Canals are controlled by inland water way authority
10. There are three inland waterways in India
1.nw.1 Allahabad to Haldia – 1620 km most important waterway , up to
Patna mechanized boats and up to Hardwar manual boats
It is divided in to three segments 1. Haldia to Farakka 560 km 2. Farakka to
Patna 460 km 3. Patna to Allahabad 600 km
2.NW-2 Sadiya to Dubri 891 km steamers can travel up to Dibrugarh
3. NW -3 Kottapuram to Kollam 205 km it includes 168 km west coast canal
and Udyogamandal canal
Back waters of Kerala also important waterways
OCEAN ROUTES
India has coastline about 7517 km there are 12 major ports and 185 minor
ports
95 % of India foreign trade and 70 % of value is trade takes place through
sea ways
AIR TRNSPORT
ADVANTAGES
1. Fastest means of transport
2. Connect remote areas
3. no need to maintain routs and construct
4. Suitable for emergency times
5. All continents are connected by air ways
6. Suitable for difficult terrain
7. Reduce travel time
8. Maintained by airport authority
9. It maintains 126 minor airports 11 international air ports and 86 domestic
airports
10. 29 civil defense enclaves in defense service also maintained by the
authority
There are three divisions
1. Air India: provide international air services
2. Connects all continents
3. Delhi and Mumbai air ports accounts for 52% of air service
Indian airlines connect Indian subcontinent
I t is the part of air India
Pawan Hans helicopter services
serves in north eastern states
Page 76 of 165

PIPELINES

ADVANTAGES

1. Most convenient and efficient mode of transporting liquids and gases over long
distance
2. least consumption of energy
3. Suitable for mountain areas and sea bottom
4. Asia‟s cross country pipe line is constructed between Naharkatia oil field and
Barauni oil refinery with the length of 1157 km, it was extended up to Kanpur in
1966
5. Other pipe lines Are Ankaleswar to Koyali , Mumbai High To Koyali Hazira
Vijaipur Jagdishpur
6. Salaiya to Mathura – 1256 km
7. Numaligarh to Siliguri 660km
COMMUNICATION
It is divided into personal- mobile mass radio, tv
Personal communication has become most important at present
User can contact with the customer directly
Fastest means of communication
Communication revolution came into world through internet
Mass communication consists of radio, tv and satellite communication
Satellite communication is the recent development most useful at the time of
emergency. When all other communications are failed it is the only
communication which can be used.

CHAPTER-11

INTERNATIONAL TRADE
CHANGES IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE
1 there is a change in volume that is increased but the value of import is more
than export
2. increase in trade deficit
3. it is due to rise of petroleum price
CHANGES IN COMPOSITION
1. The share of agriculture and allied products has declined
2. the share of petroleum has increased
3. The share of ore-minerals and manufactured goods have largely
remained constant
4. Increasing in India‟s refining capacity also responsible for importing
petroleum
Page 77 of 165

5. Declining in traditional goods is due to tough international competition


6. there is a great decline in coffee, spices, pulses, tea
7. Increase in Floriculture products, marine products, sugar and fresh fruits
8. Manufacturing alone accounted for 75.96%
9. Engineering goods have show growth in export
10. China and east Asian countries are our competitors
11. gems and jewellery contributed a large share in foreign trade

CHANGING PATTERN OF INDIA‟S IMPORT


1.earlier our import was food grains, capital goods, machinery
2.after 1970 import of food grains discontinued
3.fertilizers and petroleum took major part
4. Machine, edible oil and chemicals also present
5.capital goods has steadily increasing
6. Food products reduced
7. Pearls and precious stones gold and silver take major part

DIRECTION OF TRADE
EXPORT: 47.41%= ASIA AND OCEANIA
23.80% WEST EUROPE
20.42% AMEIRCA
IMPORT 35.40% ASIA OCEANIA
22.60% WEST EUROPE
8.36% AMERICA
THE USA IS THE LARGEST TRADING PARTNER OF INDIA
INDIA‟S EXPORT IS UK, BELGIUM, GERMANY, JAPAN,
SWITZERLAND HONGKONG THE UAE, CHINA SINGPORE.

SEA PORTS ARE CALLED INTERNATIONAL GATE WAYS OF


INTRNATIONAL TRADE
1. India is covered by three side with water
2. Longest coast line (7516,5 km)
3. water is the cheapest transport
4. West coast has more sea ports than east coast
5. Most of the international trade takes place through sea routes
6. Major ports are controlled by central govt. Minor ports are under
different state governments
7. There are 12 major and 185 minor ports
8. Most of the ports are equipped with modern facilities
INDIAN SEA PORTS
1. KANDLA: located at gulf of Kutch,
Developed to decrease pressure on Mumbai port,
Special facilities are available for petroleum
Page 78 of 165

The offshore Vadinar is developed to reduce pressure on this port


2. MUMBAI: natural harbor, biggest port, suitable to import goods
from middle east countries, 20km long and 10 km width country‟s
largest oil terminal

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU PORT:


 Located at Nhava Seva,
 Largest after completion,
 Developed to decrease burden on Mumbai port
MARMAGOA PORT:
 Located at the estuary of Zuari river
 Natural harbor
 Iron ore is exported to Japan
 Konkan railway brought large hinter land
NEW MANGALORE PORT
 Located in Karnataka coast
 Specialized to expert of iron ore
 Also exports fertilizers , tea , wood pulp yarn
KOCHIN
 Located at the Vembanad kayal
 Queen of Arabian sea
 Natural harbor
 Close to Suez canal
KOLKATA
 Located on the Hugli river bank
 Located 128 km away from sea coast
 Developed by British
 Paradip and Haldia decreased the pressure
 Silt accumulation is the problem
 Large hinter land
 Extend port facilities to other countries
HALDIA PORT
 Located 105 down stream of Hugli
 Developed to burden on Kolkata
 Handles iron ore , cargo fertilizers, jute products
PARADIP PORT
 Located on Mahanadi delta
 100 km from Cuttack
 Deepest harbor
 Handle large vessels
 Developed to iron ore
VISHAKAPATNAMPORT
 Land locked harbor
Page 79 of 165

 Connected to the sea through channel


 An outer harbor is developed to help this port
 It handles iron ore, petroleum cargo
CHENNAI
 Oldest port developed by British
 Artificial harbor
 Not suitable for large ships
ENNORE
 Newly developed port in Tamil Nadu
 Located 25 km north of Chennai
 Developed to decrease burden on Chennai port
TUTICORIN PORT
 Newly developed port in Chennai
 It handles variety of cargo: coal, salt, edible oils, petroleum & food grains
 Developed to decrease pressure on Chennai port
AIR PORTS
1. Fastest
2. Connect remote areas
3. Suitable for long distance
4. Help at the time of disasters
5. 12 INTRNATIONAL AND 112 DOMESTIC PORTS
AHMEDABAD, AMRITSAR, BANGLORE, CHENNAI, DELHI, GOA,
GUWATI, HYDERABAD, KOCHCHI, KOLKATA, MUMBAI,
TRIVENDRUM
CHAPTER-12
GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE ON SELECTED
ISSUES AND PROBLEMS
POLLUTION
It is the unwanted matter and energy in the environment which harms to the man
Types of pollution:
1. Air pollution 2. Water pollution 3.land pollution 4.noise pollution

POLLUTION CAUSES POLLUTENTS EFFECTS SOLUTION


AIR Combustion of Oxides of Causes various Plantation, use of
POLLUTION coal diesel, sulphur, diseases, filters in industries,
industrial nitrogen, carbon respiratory , use of non-
processes solid monoxide, nervous and conventional energy
waste disposal ammonia, lead, circulatory resources
sewage disposal aldehydes systems use of public transport
asbestos cause smog in
&beryllium cities, acid rain,
Page 80 of 165

in return cause
damage to the
buildings
WATER Sewage disposal, Odor, suspended Water borne Controlled use of
POLLUTION urban runoff, solids, ammonia, diseases diarrhea, fertilizers, pesticides,
toxic effluents , urea, chloride, intestinal worms, treat the waste before
runoff from Ag. grease, hepatitis, ¼ release to the streams
lands insecticide, diseases are from industries
heavy metals caused by water
pollution
LAND Improper human Human and Exhaustion of Educate the farmers
POLLUTION activities animal excreta , land about the importance
disposal of virus and land pollution , of land utility and
untreated waste bacteria garbage, heavy metals are consequences of
vectors therein, transferred to the pollution
radio active Ag. Products
subsistence Cause water
pollution
NOISE Air crafts, High level of cause neural and Locate industries away
POLLUTION automobiles noise heart disease from living areas
trains, industrial
processing
advertising

SOURCES OF POLLUTION IN THE GANGA AND YAMUNA


RIVERS
RIVER &STATE POLLUTED NATURE OF POLLUTENTS
STRECHES POLLUTION
GANNGA- UP, 1. Down stream Industries in Kanpur, Allahabad,
BI, WB of Kanpur Kanpur Varanasi, Patna ,
2. Down stream Kolkata
of Varanasi Domestic and urban
3. Farrakka waste
barrage
Carcasses of man
YAMUNA – 1. Delhi to Diverse of water to Urban waste from
DELHI,UP confluence HR,UP Delhi
with Chambal
2. Mathura and Ag. Runoff,
Agra industrial waste
Page 81 of 165

CASE STUDY- DHARVI THE ASIA‟S LARGEST SLUM


FEATURES
 There is only one road about 90 feet
 Narrow streets, one toilet for every 1440 people
 Two/three stored buildings with rusty iron gates
 Single room for 12 people
 Tree less sunlight uncollected garbage
 Stagnant pools, fowl water,
 Zari work ,pottery, wood carving , scheduled caste people
 Poor Muslims, treatment of hides and tanning
URBAN WASTE DISPOSAL
Overcrowding , congestion, inadequate facilities, poor sanitary conditions, significant
quantity of solid waste Pieces of metals, polythene bags , broken glass ware plastic
containers ashes garbage and CDs make solid waste
SOURCES OF URBAN WASTE
1. House hold establishments : thrown in public lands, private contractors sites
2. Industrial establishments : thrown in low lying public grounds
EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE

1. Health hazard due to obnoxious smell, flies and rodents


2. Disease like typhoid, diphtheria diarrhea malaria cholera
3. they are spitted through rain water
4. industrial waste dumping in the rivers cause water pollution ex. Ganga ,
Yamuna

CASE STUDY- DAURALA


1. Meerut based NGO developed a model for ecological restoration
2. The ground water was contaminated with industrial waste
3. Ngo collected the data about the health conditions of the locality
STEPS TAKEN
1.overhaead tank capacity was increased
2.ponds were cleaned
3.silt was removed
4. Rain water harvesting structures were made
5.1000 trees have been planted
RURAL –URBAN MIGRATION

REASONS

1. Demand for labour in urban areas


2. Low job opportunities in rural areas
3. Un development of rural areas
4. People migrate to bigger cities
PROBLEMS OF SLUM AREAS
Page 82 of 165

1. Least choice
2. Dilapidated houses
3. Poor hygienic conditions
4. poor ventilation
5. Lack of drinking water, light , toilet facilities
6. over crowded , narrow streets, low paid workers
7. Prone to diseases, alcoholism, vandalism ,apathy, social exclusion
LAND DEGRADATION

CAUSES

5. Pressure on agriculture 2. Increase in population density 3. Faulty methods of


agriculture 4. Excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides 5.Indiscriminate cutting of
trees, 6. Heavy rains , 7. Floods

CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE LAND BY NRSA USING REMOTE SENSING


TECHNIQUES
1. CAUSED BYNATURAL AGENTS
Gullies, ravenous land, deserted , coastal sands, barren rocky areas, steep sloping
land, glacial areas

2. CAUSED BY NATURAL ASWELL AS HUMAN FACTORS


Waterlogged and marshy areas, land affected by salinity and alkalinity , land
with or without scrub
3. CAUSED BY HUMAN ACTIONS
Degraded shifting cultivated areas, degraded land under plantation crops,
degraded forests, degraded pastures, mining and industrial waste lands
CASE STUDY- ECOLOGICAL BALANCE
REASONS
1. Westernmost climatic zone in MP.
2. One of the five backward districts of the country
3. High concentration of Bhills
4. suffer from poverty
5. Most degraded land
OBJECTIVES

1. Start watershed development programme


2. Link of water , land, vegetation
3. Natural resource management
4. Increase common property resources
5. Each family should plant one tree at least
6. Planted fodder grass
7. Social fencing
8. Stop open grazing land
Page 83 of 165

9. Stopping the common property resources by govt.


CLASSIFICATION OF WASTELAND BY PROCESS
1. Barren and uncultivated wasteland 2.18%
2. Natural degraded common waste land 2.4%
3. Natural man made common waste land 7.51%
4. Man made degraded common waste land 5.88%
5. Total degraded land 15.8%

MAP WORK
Page 84 of 165

POPULATION DENSITY

LOWEST AND HIGHEST GROWTH RATE OF POPULATION


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INDUSTRIAL REGIONS

TRANS CONTINENTAL RAILWAYS


Page 89 of 165

INLAND WATER WAYS


Page 90 of 165

INLAND WATERWAYS
Page 91 of 165

MEGA CITIES OF THE WORLD


Page 92 of 165
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METRO POLITAN CITIES


Page 94 of 165

LEADING STATES PRODUCING DIFFERENT CROPS


Page 95 of 165

MINERALS- IRON ORE-MANGANESE


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RLY ZONES AND THEIR HQS


Page 105 of 165

SEAPORTS
Page 106 of 165
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CBSE MARKING SCHEME


Page 108 of 165
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Page 114 of 165

MODEL QUESTIONS

MODEL QUESTIONS

GEOGRAPHY (THEORY)

Time allowed : 3 hours ] [ Maximum Marks : 70


General Instructions :
(i) There are 22 general questions.
(ii) Question numbers 1-7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark
each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
(iii) Question numbers 8-13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answer
to each of these questions should not exceed 80-100 words.
(iv) Question numbers 14-20 are long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each.
Answer
to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
(v) Question numbers 21-22 are related to identification or locating and labelling
of
geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.
(vi) Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached
within your
answer-book.
(vii) Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
(viii) All questions are compulsory.

1. Why is tourism called the world‟s single largest tertiary activity ? 1

2. Name the terminal stations of National Waterway No. 1 of India. ½+½=1

3 Why was „Open Sky Policy‟ introduced by the government of India ? 1

4. Why has food gathering little chance of becoming important at the global level
? 1

5 Why did most of the Indian ancient towns develop as religious and cultural
centres ? 1

6. What is the meaning of „transport‟ ? 1 7 1/2+ 1/2= 1

7.Mention any two major sources of air pollution in India.


Page 115 of 165

8. Modern manufacturing needs technological innovations. What values can


accelerate
technological innovations ? Explain. 3

9.Why has the WTO been criticized and opposed by some countries ? Explain
any three
reasons. 3 1 = 3

10 How does technology play an important role in interaction with nature ?


Explain with
examples. 3 1 = 3

11 How has noise pollution become a serious problem in recent years in India ?
Explain
3
.
12. Why have a large number of medium and small towns developed all over the
country after independence ? Explain 3
.
13 What is a port ? Mention any four types of ports on the basis of their
specialized
functions.1 + 2 = 3

14 Describe the changing nature of the international trade of India. 5

15 What is development ? Explain the four pillars of human development. 1 + 4


=5

16 Explain any five major problems of Indian agriculture. 5 1 = 5

17 How are „pull factors‟ responsible for migration of people from one place to
another in India ? Explain with examples 5 1 = 5

.
18. Explain any five major problems of urban settlements in the developing
countries of
the world. 5 1 = 5

19.Why is dairy farming known as the most advanced and efficient type of
farming in the world ? Explain any five reasons. 5 1 = 5

20.How have geographical and economic factors contributed to the


development of „Hugli Industrial Region‟ ? Explain with examples. 5X1 = 5
Page 116 of 165

21 In the given political outline map of the WORLD, five features A, B, C, D and
E are
marked. Identify these features with the help of the information given below and
write
their correct names on the lines drawn near them :5X1=5
A. The country having the highest population growth rate.
B. The area of commercial livestock rearing.
C. The terminal station of trans-continental railway.
D. Mega City
E. Sea Port
22 On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with
appropriate symbols :
(i) The State having the lowest percentage of population below the poverty line.
(ii) The State leading in tea production.
(iii) The software technology park in Punjab.
(iv) An oil-refinery in Karnataka.
(v) The metropolitan city of Rajasthan.

GEOGRAPHY (Theory)
Time allowed : 3 hours ] [ Maximum Marks : 70
General Instructions :
(i) There are 22 general questions.
(ii) Question numbers 1-7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark
each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
(iii) Question numbers 8-13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answer
to each of these questions should not exceed 80-100 words.
(iv) Question numbers 14-20 are long- answer questions carrying 5 marks each.
Answer
Page 117 of 165

to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.


(v) Question numbers 21-22 are related to identification or locating and labelling
of
geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.
(vi) Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached
within your
answer-book.
(vii) Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
(viii) All questions are compulsory.

1. Mention any two major sources of air pollution in India 1/2+ ½ = 1

2. Name the headquarter of Eastern and South-Eastern Indian Railway zones 1


.
3. Why is tourism called the world‟s single largest tertiary activity ?1

4 Why were the earliest human beings dependent on their immediate


environment for
their sustenance ? 1

5. Why was „Open Sky Policy‟ introduced by the government of India ? 1

6. Why did most of the Indian ancient towns develop as religious and cultural
centres ?1

7 What is the meaning of „transport‟ ? 1

8Why have a large number of medium and small towns developed all over the
country
after independence ? Explain3
.
9 Why is road transport more economical and convenient mode of transportation
for
short distances in comparison to railways across the world ? Explain. 3

10. How does physical environment affect human lives ? Explain with suitable
examples. 3 1 = 3

11 How are human activities mainly responsible for water pollution in India ?
Explain
with examples 3 1 = 3
.
12. What is a port ? Mention any four types of ports on the basis of their
specialized
Functions 1 + 2 = 3
.
Page 118 of 165

13. Modern manufacturing needs technological innovations. What values can


accelerate
technological innovations ? Explain 3
.
14 Describe the changing pattern of the composition of India‟s import with
suitable
examples 5 1 = 5
.
15. “The criteria for differentiating rural and urban population varies from country
to
country.” Support the statement with suitable examples 5 1 = 5
.
16. Why is dairy farming known as the most advanced and efficient type of
farming in the world ? Explain any five reasons 5 1 = 5
.
17 How have geographical and economic factors contributed to the
development of „Hugli Industrial Region‟ ? Explain with examples. 5 1 = 5

18. How are „pull factors‟ responsible for migration of people from one place to
another in India ? Explain with examples 5 1 = 5
.
19. Explain any five major problems of Indian agriculture 5 1 = 5
.
20. Explain any five major problems of urban settlements in the developing
countries of the world. 5 1 = 5

21. In the given political outline map of the WORLD, five features A, B, C, D and
E are
marked. Identify these features with the help of the information given below and
write
their correct names on the lines drawn near them : 5 1 = 5

A. The country having the highest population growth rate.


B. The area of commercial livestock rearing.
C. The terminal station of trans-continental railway.
D. Mega City
E. Sea Port

22. On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with
appropriate symbols :
(i) The State having the lowest percentage of population below the poverty line.
(ii) The State leading in tea production.
(iii) The software technology park in Punjab.
(iv) An oil-refinery in Karnataka.
Page 119 of 165

(v) The metropolitan city of Rajasthan.

GEOGRAPHY (Theory)
Time allowed : 3 hours ] [ Maximum Marks : 70
General Instructions :
(i) There are 22 general questions.
(ii) Question numbers 1-7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark
each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
(iii) Question numbers 8-13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answer
to each of these questions should not exceed 80-100 words.
(iv) Question numbers 14-20 are long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each.
Answer
to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
(v) Question numbers 21-22 are related to identification or locating and labelling
of
geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.
(vi) Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached
within your
answer-book.
(vii) Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
(viii) All questions are compulsory.
1. What is the meaning of „transport‟ ? 1

2. Write the names of terminal stations of the East-West Corridor of India.


1/2+1/2 = 1
Page 120 of 165

.
3. Mention any two major sources of air pollution in India ½ + ½ = 1
.
4. Why are the hill slopes used for tea plantations ? 1

5. Why is tourism called the world‟s single largest tertiary activity ? 1

6. Why was „Open Sky Policy‟ introduced by the government of India ? 1

7. Why did most of the Indian ancient towns develop as religious and cultural centres ?
1

8.What is a port ? Mention any four types of ports on the basis of their
specialized
functions. 1 + 2 = 3

9. How are the high living standards and quality of life dependent on efficient
transportation, communications and trade ? Explain.3

10. How do humans influence the physical environment ? Explain with suitable
examples 3
.
11. Why there is a great need to check land degradation in India ? Explain 3
.
12 Modern manufacturing needs technological innovations. What values can
accelerate
technological innovations ? Explain 3
.
13 Why have a large number of medium and small towns developed all over the
country
after independence ? Explain3
.
14 Describe the changing pattern of the composition of India‟s exports with
suitable
examples . 5 1 = 5
.
15. “Many Places where people are few and a few places where people are very
many in the world.” Support the statement with suitable examples 5 1 = 5
.
16 Explain any five major problems of urban settlements in the developing
countries of the world 5 1 = 5
.
17. Why is dairy farming known as the most advanced and efficient type of
farming in the world ? Explain any five reasons. 5 1 = 5
Page 121 of 165

18. How have geographical and economic factors contributed to the


development of „Hugli Industrial Region‟ ? Explain with examples. 5 1 = 5

19. How are „pull factors‟ responsible for migration of people from one place to
another in India ? Explain with examples 5X1 = 5
.
20. Explain any five major problems of Indian agriculture 5X1 = 5
.
21 In the given political outline map of the WORLD, five features A, B, C, D and
E are
marked. Identify these features with the help of the information given below and
write
their correct names on the lines drawn near them :5X1=5
A. The country having the highest population growth rate.
B. The area of commercial livestock rearing.
C. The terminal station of trans-continental railway.
D. Mega City
E. Sea Port

22. On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with
appropriate symbols :
(i) The State having the lowest percentage of population below the poverty line.
(ii) The State leading in tea production.
(iii) The software technology park in Punjab.
(iv) An oil-refinery in Karnataka.
(v) The metropolitan city of Rajasthan.
Page 122 of 165

GEOGRAPHY (Theory)
Time allowed : 3 hours ] [ Maximum Marks : 70
General Instructions :
(i) There are 22 general questions.
(ii) Question No. 1 – 7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark each.
Answer to
each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
(iii) Question No. 8 – 13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answer to
each of these questions should not exceed 80-100 words.
(iv) Question No. 14 – 20 are long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each.
Answer to
each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
(v) Question No. 21 – 22 are related to identification or locating and labelling of
geographical features on given maps, carrying 5 marks each.
(vi) Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached
within your
answer-book.
(vii) Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
(viii) All questions are compulsory.

1.Write the names of terminal stations of Trans-Canadian Railways. ½+½=1

2.Why is there a regional variation in the density of rural roads in India ? 1

3 Why has the quality of water decreased considerably in India ? Give one
reason. 1

4. What is dryland farming ? 1

5. Define the term „Metropolitan City‟ 1


.
6Name the terminal stations of „North-South Corridor‟ of India½ + ½ = 1
.
7 Why is about 32 per cent of the available surface water can be utilized in
India ? 1

8. Write any three features each of rural and urban settlements of India. 1½ +
1½ = 3

9. Why are the harbours and ports called the chief gateways of international
trade in the
world ? Explain. 3
Page 123 of 165

10. Suggest any three measures to control water pollution in India 3 1 = 3

11. How does the „Suez Canal‟ serve as a gateway of commerce for both the
eastern and western worlds ? Explain with suitable examples. 3 1 = 3

12. “There is an urgent need to conserve our mineral resources.” Explain the
values
needed to achieve this goal. 3 1 = 3

13 “Nature provides opportunities and humans make use of these and slowly
nature gets humanized and starts bearing imprints of human endeavour”.
Analyse the statement with examples.3 1 = 3

14 How has the „New Industrial Policy‟ been able to maintain a sustainable
growth in
productivity and gainful employment ? Explain 5
.
15. How is the high technology industry latest generation in manufacturing
activities ? Explain with examples. 5 × 1 = 5

16. Explain any five factors responsible for the spatial variations in the levels of
Human
Development among the major states of India. 5 X1 = 5

17. How did the Europeans introduce important plantation crops in the colonies
situated in different parts of the tropics ? Explain. 5X1=5

18. “Transportation plays a very important role in linking the various parts of
India and
brings unity in diversity.” Support the statement with examples. 5X1 = 5

19. What is the meaning of density of population ? Describe the four


geographical factors that influence the distribution of population in the world. 1 +
4=5

20. How are rural settlements facing different types of problems in the
developing
countries ? Explain any five major problems. 5 1 = 5

21. In the given political outline map of the world, five features A, B, C, D and E
are
marked. Identify these features with the help of the following information and
write
their correct names on its lines drawn near them :5X1=5

(A) The country having the lowest population growth rate.


Page 124 of 165

(B) The area of nomadic herding.


(C) The terminal station of trans-continental railway
(D) Mega City
(E) Sea Port

22 On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following with
appropriate symbols :5X1=5
(i) The state having the highest percentage of population below the poverty line.
(ii) The software technology park in Uttarakhand.
(iii) The State leading in coffee production.
(iv) An oil refinery in Bihar.
(v) The largest metropolitan city of India (2001)
Page 125 of 165

SOLVED QUESTION PAPERS WITH VALUE POINTS

GEOGRAPHY (Theory)

Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70


General Instructions :

(i) There are 22 general questions.


(ii) Questions No. 1 – 7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
(iii) Questions No. 8 – 13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 80 – 100 words.
(iv) Questions No. 14 – 20 are long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
(v) Questions No. 21 – 22 are related to identification or locating and
labelling of geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.
(vi) Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached
within your answer-book.
(vii) Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
(viii) All questions are compulsory.

1 What is the meaning of „ageing population‟ ? 1

2 Name any two regions where gathering is practiced in the world1/2+1/2=1


.
3. What are highways in the world context ? 1
1
4. Mention any two characteristics of urban settlements as per the census of
India 2001.1/2+1/2=1

5 Explain the prime motive force in the development of Modinagar as a


town.1

6. How can the satellite images be used ? 1

7. How does urban population grow ?1

8. „„The imprints of human activities are created everywhere.‟‟ Justify this


statement by giving any three examples. 3X1=3

9 Explain a „„Healthy City‟‟ in the light of suggestions made by World


Health Organisation. 3

10.Explain the evolution of towns in India by giving examples. 31=3


Page 126 of 165

11. Which are the three cropping seasons in India ? Explain one
characteristic of each. 31=3

12. „„The concept of development cannot be restricted to the economic sphere


alone.‟‟ What values can convert this concept of development into
sustainable development ? Explain. 3

13 Explain any five factors that influence the distribution of population in


the world. 5X1=5
15 What is tourism ? Explain any four tourist attractions in the world with
examples. 1+4=5

16 Explain the digital divide with special reference to India.5

17 Name the shipping canal that connects Mediterranean Sea and Red Sea.
Describe its any four features. 1+4=5
18„„An important aspect of population growth in India is the growth of its
adolescents.‟‟ Support this statement with suitable arguments. 5X1=5

19. Explain any five common problems of Indian agriculture. 5X1=5


20. Distinguish between ports and harbours. Why are sea ports known as
gateways of international trade ? Explain. 2+3=5

21. In the given political outline map (on page 9) of the World, five features
have been shown by A, B, C, D and E. Identify these features with the
help of the information given below and write their correct names on the
lines drawn near them :5X1=5
A. An industrial region
B. A terminal station of railway
C. A major airport
D. A major sea port
E. A mega city

22. On the given political outline map (on page 11) of India, locate and label
the following with appropriate symbols :5X1=5
(i) The state having the highest density of population (2001)
(ii) The leading groundnut producer state
(iii) An oil refinery in Uttar Pradesh
(iv) A software technology park in Rajasthan
(v) A major coal mine in Tamil Nadu
Page 127 of 165

MAP FOR Q.NO21


Page 128 of 165

ANSER KEY

Q.NO VALUE POINTS/ EXPECTED ANSWER DISTRIBUTION


OF MARKS
1 Population ageing is the process by which the 1
share of the older population becomes
proportionally larger.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-1 Page - 19

2 Northern Canada, Northern Eurasia, Southern ½+½=1


Chile, Amazon basin, Tropical Africa, Northern
fringe Australia, interior parts of South-East Asia.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-1 Page - 32

3 Metalled roads connecting distant places are 1


called highways in the world context which are
constructed in a manner for unobstructed
vehicular movement.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-1 Page - 67

4 (i) All places which have municipality, ½+½=1


corporation,
cantonment board or notified town area
committee and
minimum population of 5000 persons.
(ii) 75 percent male workers engaged in non-
agricultural pursuits.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-1 Page - 92

5 Industries are the prime motive force in the 1


development of Modinagar.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-2 Page - 37

6 Satellite images can be used for the weather 1


forecast,
monitoring of natural calamities, surveillance of
border areas etc.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-2 Page – 123
Page 129 of 165

7 7 Three ways. 1
(i) Natural increase.
(ii) Migration of population from rural to urban and
urban to urban areas.
(iii) Reclassification of urban areas.
Any other relevant point.
(Any one point)
T.B.-2 Page - 140
8 8 Example of human imprints are:- 3×1=3
(i) Health resorts on highlands,
(ii) Fields, orchards and pastures in plains and
rolling
hills.
(iii) Ports on the coasts.
Any other relevant example.
(Any three points to be explained).
T.B.-1 Page - 3
9 9 According to WHO a healthy city must have 3×1=3
(i) A clean & safe environment.
(ii) Meets the „Basic Needs‟ of „All‟ its inhabitants.
(iii) Involves the community in local government.
(iv) Provides easily accessible „Health‟ service.
Any other relevant point.
(Explain any three points)
T.B.-1 Page – 100
10 10 (i) Towns flourished since pre Historic times in 3×1=3
India.
(ii) Indus valley civilization – Harappa and
Mohenjo-
Daro.
(iii) Ancient Towns – Varanasi, Prayag, Patliputra
Medieval Towns – Delhi, Hyderabad, Jaipur,
Agra.
Modern Towns – Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata.
Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 34
11 11 The three cropping session in the India are the 3×½=1½ +
following 3×½=1½=3
(i) Rabi
(ii) Kharif
(iii) Zaid
Rabi – duration is from Oct. to March., main crop
is wheat
Kharif- duration is from June to Sep., main crop is
rice.
Page 130 of 165

Zaid – duration is from April to June, various


vegetables and fodder crops.
Any other relevant point.
(½ mark each for giving names only & ½ mark
each for the characteristics)
T.B.-2 Page - 44

12 Values for sustainable development other than 3×1=3


the economic
sphere : -
(i) Improvement in the well-being and living
standard
of the people.
(ii) Availability of health care for all.
(iii) Education for all.
(iv) Equality of opportunity for all.
(v) Ensuring political and civil rights.
(vi) Development of human values like,
collaboration,
commitment, compassion etc.
(vii) Awareness and concern for environment.
Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 108
13 Problems – 3×1=3
(i) Inadequate facilities to support the fast growing
population.
(ii) Enormous quantity of urban waste.
(iii) Proper landfill areas are becoming scarce.
Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 138 & 139
14 Factors- 5×1=5
(i) Availability of water
(ii) Landforms
(iii) Climate
(iv) Soil
(v) Minerals
(vi) Urbanization
(vii) Industrialization
(viii) Social and cultural factors
Any other relevant point.
(Explanation of any five points)
T.B.-1 Page – 9 & 10
15 Tourism is travel undertaken for purpose of 1+4=5
recreation rather than business.
Page 131 of 165

Attractions –
(i) Climate – Mediterranean regions
(ii) Landscape – Mountains, lakes
(iii) History and art – Forts and palaces
(iv) Culture and economy – Heritage houses of
Goa
Any other relevant point.
(Any four points to be explained)
T.B.-1 Page – 60

16 (i) ICT is unevenly distributed 5X1=5


(ii) Wide ranging economic, political and social
differences among countries.
(iii) Developed countries have surged forward
(iv) Developing countries have lagged behind
(v) Indian metros have better connectivity while
rural
areas have no such facility.
(vi) Digital divide exists within the countries.
Any other relevant point.
(Any five points to be explained)
T.B.-1 Page – 63
17 Name-Suez Canal 1+4=5
Features –
(i) Runs between Port Said and Port Suez
(ii) Gives new gateway to Europe from the Indian
ocean
(iii) Reduces sea route distances
(iv) It is a sea-level canal without locks
(v) It is about 160 km long and 11 m to 15 m deep
Any other relevant point.
(Any four points to be explained)
T.B.-1 Page – 74
18 18 (i) It is an age group between 10-19 years 5×1=5
(ii) 22 percent (2001)
(iii) Male adolescent - 53%, Female adolescent -
47
%
(iv) Youthful population with high potential
(v) Challenges for the society
(vi) High rate of Maternal Mortality of adolescent
mothers
Any other relevant point.
(Any five points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page - 8
Page 132 of 165

19 19 Problems of Indian Agriculture 5×1=5


(i) Dependence on Erratic Monsoon
(ii) Low productivity
(iii) Lack of land Reforms
(iv) Small Farm size and Fragmentation of
Landholdings
(v) Lack of commercialization
(vi) Constraints of Financial Resources and
Indebtedness
(vii) Vast under – Employment
(viii) Degradation of Cultivable land
Any other relevant point.
(Any five points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 56 & 57
20 20 Port- Is the entire area on the sea coast with 2+3=5
dock facility for loading and unloading of cargo. It
includes administrative blocks, ware houses,
custom office and transport facilities etc.
Harbor- is partially enclosed part of the sea coast
providing shelter to the ships. It can be natural or
manmade e.g. creek, estuary, or sea inlet.
Port as gateways of international Trade:
(i) Ports handle cargo and passenger traffic
(ii) Ports are handling large volumes of domestic
as
well as overseas trade.
(iii) Port provides a corridor between its hinterland
and
the rest of the world for international trade.
(iv) As the port grows, area of influence also
expands.
Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 129
21 21 Map of the World 5X1=5
(A) Appalachian Region
(B) St. Petersburg
(C) Brasilia
(D) Cape Town
(E) Jakarta
22 22 Map of India 5X1=5
(i) West Bengal
(ii) Gujarat
(iii) Mathura
(iv) Jaipur
(v) Neyveli
5×1=5
Page 133 of 165
Page 134 of 165

QUESTION PAPER -2

GEOGRAPHY
Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70
General Instructions :
(i) There are 22 general questions.
(ii) Questions No. 1 – 7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
(iii) Questions No. 8 – 13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 80 – 100 words.
(iv) Questions No. 14 – 20 are long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
(v) Questions No. 21 – 22 are related to identification or locating and
labelling of geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.
(vi) Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached
within your answer-book.
(vii) Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
(viii) All questions are compulsory.

1.Mention any two sources of water pollutants created by humans.1

2.Explain the term „Golden Quadrilateral‟.1

3.What two factors mostly helped in the development of ancient towns in

India ?1/2+1/2=1

4.Who are called red collar workers ?1

5.In which country are motorways called „autobahns‟ ?1

6 Mention any two characteristics of sub-urbanisation.1/2+1/2=1

7 How is density of population of a region calculated ?1

8.Explain with examples the „population size‟ criteria used by most


countries to define urban areas. 3X1=3

9. „„The knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop


technology.‟‟ Support this statement by giving three examples. 3X1=3

10 Explain any three features of semi-clustered rural settlements of India. 3

11.Electricity is one of the greatest inventions of all times. It is mostly


generated by using coal, natural gas and petroleum, which are
Page 135 of 165

exhaustible resources. Can you imagine the human society without


electricity ? This may happen in future, when all energy resources will be
exhausted. Explain the values that can change this possible dark
scenario.3X1=3

12. Differentiate between protective irrigation and productive irrigation. 3X1=3

13. Explain any three consequences of air pollution. 31=3

14. Explain three economic and two social and cultural factors influencing
the distribution of population in the world. 3+2=5

15 What is medical tourism ? Explain the scope of medical services for


overseas patients in India. 1+4=5

16. Define the term „commercial livestock rearing‟. Explain its any four
characteristics. 1+4=5

17 What is the importance of railways as a mode of land transport ? Explain


any four main features of the railway network in Europe.1+4=5

18. What is population doubling time ? Explain the characteristics of the


growth of population in India in Phase „I‟ and Phase „II‟. 1+2+2=5

19 „„Indian railways brought people of diverse cultures together.‟‟ Support


this statement with suitable examples. 51=5

20. Explain the importance of foodgrains in the Indian agricultural economy.


Describe any three characteristics of rice cultivation. 2+3=5

21.
In the given political outline map (on page 9) of the World, five features
A, B, C, D and E have been shown. Identify these features, with the help
of the information given below and write their correct names on the lines
drawn near them :5X1=5
A. A country having the lowest rank in Human Development Index
2003
B. A railway terminal station
C. A major sea-port
D. A major airport
E. A mega city
22. On the given political outline map (on page 11) of India, locate and label
the following with appropriate symbols :5X1=5
(22.1) The State having the largest area
(22.2) The leading tea producing State
(22.3) An oil refinery in Karnataka
Page 136 of 165

(22.4) An integrated Iron and Steel Plant in Odisha


(22.5) The international airport in Punjab

Q.NO;21
Page 137 of 165

QUESTION PAPER-2 ANSWER KEY


Q.NO VALUE POINTS MARKS
1 Sources of water Pollutants created by humans – ½+½=1
(i) Sewage disposal
(ii) Urban run – off
(iii) Toxic effluents from industries
(iv) Run - off over cultivated lands and nuclear power plants
(v) Any other relevant point
(Any two points ) Page - 136 T.B. 2
2 Golden Quadrilateral :- ½+1/2=1
It comprises construction of 5,846 km long 4/6 lane, high
density traffic corridor to
connect India‟s four big metro cities of Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai & Kolkata . With the
construction of Golden Quadrilateral, the time - distance
and cost of movement among
the mega cities of India will be considerably minimized .
Page – 115 T.B. 2 1
3 Factors mostly helped in the development of ancient towns ½+½=1
in India –
(i) Religion
(ii) Culture
Page -34 T.B. 2
4 People engaged in primary activities are called Red Collar 1
Workers .
Page –31 T.B. 1
5 GERMANY 1
Page – 79 T.B. 1

6 Characteristics of sub-urbanisation - ½+½=1


(i) People move away from congested urban areas to
cleaner areas outside the city
(ii) Everyday thousands of people commute from their
homes in the suburbs to
their workplaces in the city .
Page – 91 T.B. 1
7 Density of population is the ratio between the numbers of 1
people to the size of land
OR Density of Population = Population
Area
Page – 9 T.B. 1
Page 138 of 165

8 Population size criteria used by most countries to define 3x1=3


urban areas -
The lower limit of the population size for the settlement to
be designated as urban is :
(i) 1,500 in Colombia.(ii) 2,000 in Argentina and Portugal
(iii) 2,500 in USA and Thailand
(iv) 5000 in India
(v) 30,000 in Japan.
(vi) In Denmark, Sweden and Finland all places with a
population size of 250 persons
are called urban.
(vii) The minimum population for a city is 300 in Iceland,
where as in
Canada and Venezuela, it is 1,000 persons.
(viii) Any other relevant point
(Any three Points to be explained ) Page – 95,96 T.B. 1

9 Knowledge about nature is extremely important to develop 3x1=3


technology-
(i) Understanding of concepts of friction and heat helped us
discover fire.
(ii) Understanding of the secrets of DNA and genetics
enabled us to conquer many
diseases.
(iii) The laws of aerodynamics are used to develop faster
planes.
(iv)Any other relevant point .
(Any three points to be explained) Page – 2 T.B. 1
10 Feat Features of semi clustered rural settlements of Indiai) 3x1=3
May result from tendency of clustering in a restricted area of
dispersed settlement.
ii) May also result from segregation or fragmentation of a
large compact village.
iii) Some people of the village society choose or is forced to
live a little away from the
main cluster or village.
iv) Such settlements are widespread in the Gujarat plain
and some parts of Rajasthan.
v) Any other relevant point
(Any three points to be explained) Page 33 T.B. 2
11 Values that can change the possible dark scenario of 3x1=3
electricity –
(i) Sustainable development of energy resources .
(ii) The vast capacity ingenuity , innovativeness &
revolutionary spirit
(iii) Maximum use of renewable energy sources such as
Page 139 of 165

Solar, Wind, hydro


geothermal and biomass.
(iv) Optimum use of energy resources and minimum
wastage .
(v) Creating awareness
(vi) Any other relevant point .
(Any three points to be explained) Page – 80,82,83 T.B. 2
It is a value based question, so answers may vary. Hence
answers should be assessed
on the basis of relevant views expressed by the candidates
.
12 Differentiation between protective irrigation and productive 3x1=3
irrigation -
Protective irrigation
i)It protects the crops from adverse
effects of soil moisture deficiency.
ii)Irrigation acts as a supplementary
source of water over and above
rainfall.
Productive irrigation
i)It provides sufficient soil
moisture in the cropping season
to achieve high productivity.
ii)In this irrigation the water input
per unit area of cultivated land is
higher than protective irrigation.iii)Productivity is low.
iv)Any other relevant point.
(Any three points of differentiation)
iii)Productivity is high.
iv)Any other relevant point.
Page-44 & 45 T.B.2

13 Consequences of Air Pollution – 3x1=3


(i) Air Pollution causes various diseases related to
respiratory , nervous and
circulatory systems.
(ii) Smog in urban areas is caused by atmospheric pollution.
It proves very harmful
to human health.
(iii) Air pollution can also cause acid rains.
(iv) Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained) Page 137 T.B. 2

14 Factors influencing the distribution of population-


Economic Factors :
i) Minerals
Page 140 of 165

ii) Urbanisation
iii) Industrialisation
iv) Agriculture
v) Any other relevant point . 3x1
( Any three points to be explained)
Social and Cultural factors:
i) Religious or cultural significance
ii) Social and political unrest
iii) Government offer incentive to people to live in sparsely
populated areas.
iv) Any other relevant point. 2x1
(Any two points to be explained) Page 10 T.B. 1
3+2=5

15 Medical tourism- 1+4=5


When medical treatment is combined with international
tourism activity, It is known as
medical tourism. 1
Scope of Medical Services for overseas patients in India -
(i) About 55,000 patients from U.S.A visited India in 2005 for
treatment.
(ii) India has emerged as the leading country of medical
tourism in the
world.
(iii) World class hospitals located in metropolitan cities of
India .
(iv)Medical tourism brings abundant benefits to developing
countries like
India.
(v)Any other relevant point. 4x1
(Any four points to be explained.) Page – 63 T.B. 1

16 Commercial livestock rearing – 1+4=5


Organized and capital intensive is called commercial live
stock rearing.Characteristics –
(i) Associated with western cultures.
(ii) Ranches cover large areas. (iii) The number of animals
in the pastures is kept according to the carrying capacity of
the pasture.
ranching is organized on a scientific basis
(vi) Any other relevant po
(iv) Only one type of animal is reared
(v) Rearing of animals in int 4x1
(Any four points to be explained) Page - 33 &34 T.B. 1
Page 141 of 165

17 Importance of railways- 1+4=5


Railways are a mode of land transport for bulky goods and
passengers over long
distances. 1
Features of the railway network in Europe:
i) Europe has one of the most dense rail networks in the
world.
ii) There are more than four lakh kilometer of railways, most
of which is double and
multiple tracks.
iii) Belgium has the highest density of railway .
iv) Highest densities in industrial regions .
v) Any other relevant point. 4x1
(Any four points to be explained) Page 68 & 69 T.B. 1
18 Population doubling time : 1+2+2
Population doubling time is the time taken by any population =5
to double itself at its
current annual growth rate. 1
Characteristics of the growth of population in India in phase
I:
i) The period from 1901 to 1921 is referred to as phase I.
ii) Population remained stagnant.
iii) Both birth rate and death rate were high keeping the rate
of increase low.
iv) Any other relevant point.
(Any two points to be explained) 2x1
Phase II:
i) The decades 1921 to 1951 are referred to as phase II.
ii) Steady population growth.
iii) Lower death rate due to better medical facilities.
iv) Any other relevant point. 2x1
(Any two points to be explained ) Page 5 & 7 T.B. 2
19 Indian Railways brought people of diverse cultures together 5x1=5

(i) Indian Railway was introduced in 1853.
(ii) Indian Railways network is more than 64,000 kms.
(iii) It connects people of different regions through its
sixteen (16) zones(iv) Mahatma Gandhi said “ Indian
Railways brought people of diverse cultures together
to contribute to India‟s freedom struggle “.
(v) People from different languages with different customs
and food habits could
connect with each other using Indian Railways .
(vi)Any other relevant point.
(Any five points to be explained with suitable examples)
Page – 118 T.B. 2
Page 142 of 165

20 Importance of Food grains in Indian agricultural economy – 2+3=5


(i) These crops occupy about two-third of total cropped area
in the country.
(ii) Food grains are dominant crops in all parts of the
country .
(iii)Food grains are classified as cereals and pulses.
(iv)Any other relevant point.
(Any two points to be explained) 2x1
Characteristics of Rice Cultivation :-
(i) Rice is a staple food .
(ii) It is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas.
(iii) It has about 3,000 varieties which are grown in different
agro-climatic regions.
(iv) India is the second largest rice producer in the world .
(v)Any other relevant point. 3x1
(Any three points to be described) Page – 45 T.B. 2
21 21 Refer to the attached political outline map of the World .
Note : The following Questions are for the Visually Impaired
Candidates-
(21.1) Nigeria / Niger
(21.2) Perth and Sydney
(21.3) Valparaiso
(21.4) Auckland
(21.5) New York, Los Angles, Mexico City (any one)
Page –72,73,78,99 T.B. 1
5x1=5

22 22 Refer to the attached political outline map of India .


Note : The following Questions are for the Visually Impaired
Candidates-
(22.1) Rajasthan
(22.2) Assam
(22.3) Mangalore / Mangaluru
(22.4) Rourkela
(22.5) Amritsar
Page – 152, 54, 81, 88, 132 T.B.-2
5x1=5
Page 143 of 165
Page 144 of 165

QUESTION PAPER -3

GEOGRAPHY (Theory)

Time allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70

General Instructions :
(i) There are 22 general questions.
(ii) Questions No. 1 – 7 are very short-answer questions carrying 1 mark each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 40 words.
(iii) Questions No. 8 – 13 are short-answer questions carrying 3 marks each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 80 – 100 words.
(iv) Questions No. 14 – 20 are long-answer questions carrying 5 marks each.
Answer to each of these questions should not exceed 150 words.
(v) Questions No. 21 – 22 are related to identification or locating and
labelling of geographical features on maps, carrying 5 marks each.
(vi) Outline maps of the World and India provided to you must be attached
within your answer-book.
(vii) Use of templates or stencils for drawing outline maps is allowed.
(viii) All questions are compulsory.

1 Mention any two characteristics of urban settlements as per the census of


India 2001. 1/2+1/2=1

2 Explain the prime motive force in the development of Modinagar as a


town.1

3.How can the satellite images be used ?1

4.How does urban population grow ?1

5. What is the meaning of „ageing population‟ ?1

6. Name any two regions where gathering is practised in the world.1/2+1/2=1

7 What are highways in the world context ?1

8. Explain a „„Healthy City‟‟ in the light of suggestions made by World


Health Organisation.3

9„„The imprints of human activities are created everywhere.‟‟ Justify this


statement by giving any three examples. 3X1=3

10Explain the conditions that make an urban agglomeration in India.3X1=3


Page 145 of 165

11„„The concept of development cannot be restricted to the economic sphere


alone.‟‟ What values can convert this concept of development into
sustainable development ? Explain.3X1=3

12Which are the three cropping seasons in India ? Explain one


characteristic of each.3X1=3

13What is land degradation ? Explain the two processes with examples that
degrade land in India.1+2=3

14Define the term „„Human Development‟‟ according to Dr. Mahbub-ul-Haq.


Explain the four approaches to „Human Development‟. 1+4=5

15. Explain the digital divide with special reference to India.5

16 What is tourism ? Explain any four tourist attractions in the world with
examples. 1+4=5

17. Explain all the five major bases of international trade in the world.

18. Explain indicators of „healthy life‟ related to human development in


India. 5X1=5

19. Distinguish between ports and harbours. Why are sea ports known as
gateways of international trade ? Explain. 2+3=5

20 Explain any five common problems of Indian agriculture. . 5X1=5

21 In the given political outline map (on page 9) of the World, five features
have been shown by A, B, C, D and E. Identify these features with the
help of the information given below and write their correct names on the
lines drawn near them : 5X1=5

A. An industrial region
B. A terminal station of railway
C. A major airport
D. A major sea port
E. A mega city
22. On the given political outline map (on page 11) of India, locate and label
the following with appropriate symbols :5X1=5
(i) The state having the highest density of population (2001)
(ii) The leading groundnut producer state
(iii) An oil refinery in Uttar Pradesh
(iv) A software technology park in Rajasthan
(v) A major coal mine in Tamil Nadu
Page 146 of 165
Page 147 of 165

ANSWER KEY
Q.NO VALUE POINTS MARKS
1 (i) All places which have municipality, corporation, ½+½=1
cantonment board or notified town area committee and
minimum population of 5000 persons.
(ii) 75 percent male workers engaged in non-agricultural
pursuits.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-1 Page - 92
2 Industries are the prime motive force in the development 1
of
Modinagar.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-2 Page - 37
3 Satellite images can be used for the weather forecast, 1
monitoring of natural calamities, surveillance of border
areas
etc.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-2 Page - 123
4 Three ways. 1
(i) Natural increase.
(ii) Migration of population from rural to urban and
urban to urban areas.
(iii) Reclassification of urban areas.
Any other relevant point.
(Any one point)
T.B.-2 Page - 140
5 5 Population ageing is the process by which the share of 1
the
older population becomes proportionally larger.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-1 Page – 19
6 6 Northern Canada, Northern Eurasia, Southern Chile, ½+½=1
Amazon
basin, Tropical Africa, Northern fringe Australia, interior
parts
of South-East Asia.
Any other relevant point.
T.B.-1 Page - 32
7 Metalled roads connecting distant places are called 1
highways
in the world context. Which are constructed in a manner
for
unobstructed vehicular movement.
Any other relevant point.
Page 148 of 165

T.B.-1 Page - 67
8 8 According to WHO a healthy city must have 3×1=3
(i) A clean & safe environment.
(ii) Meets the „Basic Needs‟ of „All‟ its inhabitants.
(iii) Involves the community in local government.
(iv) Provides easily accessible „Health‟ service.
Any other relevant point.
(Explain any three points)
T.B.-1 Page – 100
9 Example of human imprints are:- 3×1=3
(i) Health resorts on highlands,
(ii) Fields, orchards and pastures in plains and rolling
hills.
(iii) Ports on the coasts.
Any other relevant example.
(Any three points to be explain).
T.B.-1 Page - 3
10 Three Conditions: 3X1=3
(i) A town and its adjoining urban outgrowths
(ii) Two or more contiguous towns with or without their
out growths
(iii) A city and one or more adjoining towns with their
outgrowth together forming a contiguous spread.
Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 37
11 Values for sustainable development other than the 3×1=3
economic
sphere : -
(i) Improvement in the well-being and living standard
of the people.
(ii) Availability of health care for all.
(iii) Education for all.
(iv) Equality of opportunity for all.
(v) Ensuring political and civil rights.
(vi) Development of human values like, collaboration,
commitment, compassion etc.
(vii) Awareness and concern for environment.
Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 108
12 The three cropping session in the India are the following 3×½=1½
(i) Rabi +
(ii) Kharif 3×½=1½
(iii) Zaid =3
Rabi – duration is from Oct. to March., main crop is
Page 149 of 165

wheat
Kharif- duration is from June to Sep., main crop is rice.
Zaid – duration is from April to June, various vegetables
and
fodder crops.
Any other relevant point.
(½ mark each for giving names only & ½ mark each for
the
characteristic)
T.B.-2 Page - 44
13 Land degradation is generally understood either as a 1+2=3
temporary or a permanent decline in productive capacity
of
land.
Two Processes –
(i) Natural
(ii) Created by human being
Any other relevant point.
(Any two points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 143
14 The development that enlarges people‟s choices and 1+4=5
improves their lives, is called human development.
Four approaches:
(i) Income approach
(ii) Welfare approach
(iii) Basic needs approach
(iv) Capability approach
Any other relevant point.
(Explanation of any four points)
T.B.-1 Page – 23 & 26
15 (i) ICT is unevenly distributed 5X1=5
(ii) Wide ranging economic, political and social
differences among countries.
(iii) Developed countries have surged forward
(iv) Developing countries have lagged behind
(v) Indian metros have better connectivity while rural
areas have no such facility.
(vi) Digital divide exists within the countries.
Any other relevant point.
(Any five points to be explained)
T.B.-1 Page – 63
16 Tourism is travel undertaken for purpose of recreation 5X1=5
rather
than business.
Attractions –
(i) Climate – Mediterranean regions
Page 150 of 165

(ii) Landscape – Mountains, lakes


(iii) History and art – Forts and palaces
(iv) Culture and economy – Heritage houses of Goa
Any other relevant point.
(Any four points to be explained)
T.B.-1 Page – 60
17 Bases of international trade 5×1=5
(i) Difference in national resources
(a) Geological Structure
(b) Mineral Resources
(c) Climate
(ii) Population factor
(a) Cultural factor
(b) Size of population
(iii) Stage of economic development
(iv) Extent of foreign investment
(v) Transport
Any other relevant point.
(Any five points to be explained T.B.-1 Page – 83
18 Indicators of healthy life: 5×1=5
(i) Life free from illness & ailment
(ii) Availability of pre and post natal healthcare
facilities
(iii) Decline in death rate and mortality rate
(iv) Decline in infant mortality rate
(v) Increase in life expectancy
(vi) Decrease in birth rate
(vii) Adequate nutrition and safety of individual
Any other relevant point.
(Any five indicators to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page - 27
19 Port- Is the entire area on the sea coast with dock facility 5X1=5
for
loading and unloading of cargo. It includes administrative
blocks, ware houses, custom office and transport
facilities
etc.
Harbor- is partially enclosed part of the sea coast
providing
shelter to the ships. It can be natural or man made e.g.
creek,
estuary, or sea inlet.
Port as gateways of international Trade:
(i) Port handle cargo and passenger traffic
(ii) Ports are handling large volumes of domestic as
well as overseas trade.
Page 151 of 165

(iii) Port provides a corridor between its hinterland and


the rest of the world for international trade.
(iv) As the port grows, area of influence also expands.
Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 129
20 Problems of Indian Agriculture 5×1=5
(i) Dependence on Erratic Monsoon
(ii) Low productivity
(iii) Lack of land Reforms
(iv) Small Farm size and Fragmentation of
Landholdings
(v) Lack of commercialization
(vi) Constraints of Financial Resources and
Indebtedness
(vii) Vast under – Employment
(viii) Degradation of Cultivable land
Any other relevant point.
(Any five points to be explained)
T.B.-2 Page – 56 & 57
21 21 Map of the World 5X1=5
(A) Appalachian Region
(B) St. Petersburg
(C) Brasilia
(D) Cape Town
(E) Jakarta
22 Map of India 5X1=5
(i) West Bengal
(ii) Gujarat
(iii) Mathura
(iv) Jaipur
(v) Neyveli
Page 152 of 165
Page 153 of 165

TIPS FOR SCORING WELL IN EXAMS

STUDY & EXAM


TECHNIQUES
collected by
M.REDDENNA
FACULTY ZIET
MYS

An Effective student
• Has a regular study schedule
Usually works at the same time
each day
Works mostly in a regular study
place
Works for short periods with
frequent rest breaks
3
Page 154 of 165

An effective student
Reviews notes soon after a lecture
Does not leave work until the last
minute
Does not get easily distracted
Does not need exams for
motivation
4

PERSONAL WEAKNESSES
• LACK OF UNDERSTANDING
– LIFE OBJECTIVES
– GOAL SETTING
• LACK OF SELF DISCIPLINE
• LACK OF PLANNING
• OVER SOCIALIZATION

PERSONAL WEAKNESSES
• LACK OF PROPER PRIORITIES
• SPREADING TOO THIN
• FAILURE TO LISTEN
• PROCRASTINATION
• POOR COMMUNICATION

SURVIVAL DEMANDS

• UNCEASING VIGILANCE
• CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE
• TECHNICAL COMPETENCE
• ENORMOUS HARD WORK

7
Page 155 of 165

Students to do

Students to do
Imagine what you want to be
after ------years.
Assess your assets and liabilities.
(Good and bad things.)
Set your goals.

10

Students to do
Determine your priorities.
Plan yourself.
Schedule your activities.

11
Page 156 of 165

PLANNING

• EXAM TREND
• BOOKS SELECTION
• HOURS ALLOCATION
13

PLANNING

• Weekly review
• Notes Making
• Study cards
14

IF YOU FAIL TO
PLAN
YOU ARE
PLANNING TO
FAIL
15

•This not
the debt.
This is
load of
books and
syllabus.

16
Page 157 of 165

S T U D Y

17

WHEN TO STUDY

• PLAN THE WEEKS STUDY AHEAD


• PLAN A STUDY SESSION FOR EACH
OF FIVE OR SIX DAYS A WEEK
• SESSIONS SHOULD BE FROM ONE TO
THREE HOURS
18

WHEN TO STUDY
• HAVE A DEFINITE BREAK EVERY
HOUR
• AVOID LATE HOURS
• PLAN RECREATION AND
RELAXATION INTO YOUR TIME
TABLE

19

WHERE TO STUDY
• ALWAYS IN THE SAME PLACE
• CHOOSE A WARM, LIGHT, WELL
VENTILATED ROOM
• AWAY FROM OTHER DISTRACTIONS
• PROPERLY FURNISHED

20
Page 158 of 165

ATTENTION and INTEREST


• REMOVE IRRELEVANT AND UNWANTED
STIMULI, e.g. NOISE, HUNGER, COLD
• PUT ASIDE OTHER PRESSING MATTERS BY
LISTING OR TIMETABLE THEM
• SUPPRESS UNWANTED THOUGHTS BY
QUICKLY SWITCHING TO TOPICS UNDER
STUDY

21

ATTENTION & INTEREST


• UNDERSTAND WHAT YOU ARE
STUDYING
• TAKE A LIVELY INTEREST IN THE
SUBJECT OUTSIDE YOUR STUDY
HOURS

22

PRINCIPLES OF
MEMORIZING
• NEVER MEMORISE SOMETHING THAT YOU
DON‟T UNDERSTAND
• ALWAYS TRY TO LINK NEW MATERIAL
WITH WHAT YOU HAVE PREVIOUSLY
LEARNT
• SELECT THE IMPORTANT ITEMS TO
REMEMBER
• ORGANISE THE MATERIAL INTO A
MEANINGFUL SYSTEM

23

PRINCIPLES OF
MEMORIZING
• ACTIVE REPETITION OR RECALL SUCH AS
RECITATION OR WRITING OUT AIDS
MEMORISING
• THE SEQUENCE OF MEMORISING SHOULD
BE THE SAME AS THE LOGICAL SEQUENCE
OF THE MATERIAL
• LONG PIECES SHOULD BE MEMORISED IN
SHORTER CHUNKS

24
Page 159 of 165

MEMORY & LEARNING


• NEVER TRY TO MEMORISE WHAT YOU
DON‟T UNDERSTAND
• GO OVER NOTES, READING etc. WITHIN 12
HOURS OR WRITING, READING etc.
• MASTER EACH TOPIC BEFORE LEAVING IT
• START EACH SESSION WITH A REVIEW OF
THE PREVIOUS SESSION

25

MEMORY & LEARNING


• OVER LEARN. DON‟T STOP WHEN
YOU HAVE ONLY JUST LEARNT
SOMETHING
• SELECT IMPORTANT POINTS TO
LEARN
• ORGANISE SELECTED ITEMS
• USE ACTIVE RECALL (RECITATION
OR WRITING) TO AID MEMORY
26

MEMORY & LEARNING


• KEEP YOUR MATERIAL IN A
LOGICAL SEQUENCE
• BREAK UP LONG PIECES INTO
MANAGEABLE CHUNKS
• USE RHYTHM WHEN LEARNING BY
HEART

27

MOTIVATION
• KEEP YOUR VOCATIONAL AIM IN
MIND
• HAVE CLEAR AND REALISTIC GOALS
FOR EVERY STUDY SESSION
• CHECK YOUR PROGRESS AT EVERY
SESSION
• READ AROUND YOUR SUBJECT

28
Page 160 of 165

UNDERSTANDING
• TRY TO REORGANISE THE MATERIAL IN
THE WAY WHICH IS BEST FOR YOU
• LINK THE NEW MATERIAL WITH YOUR
PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE
• LOOK FOR EXAMPLES TO ILLUSTRATE
THE TOPIC AND OTHER THINGS
• ASK: DOES THIS NEW KNOWLEDGE
CHANGE MY OLD IDEAS

29

UNDERSTANDING
• ASK: WHERE COULD THIS NEW
KNOWLEDGE LEAD? WHAT
CONSEQUENCES DOES IT HAVE?

30

UNDERSTANDING-
SUMMARISED
• ALWAYS AIM FOR UNDERSTANDING
• PROMOTE UNDERSTANDING BY
REARRANGING MATERIAL,
QUESTIONING THE IDEAS AND
LOOKING FOR LINKS WITH OLD
IDEAS

31

WAYS TO BETTER
THINKING
• UNDERSTAND ALL THE EVIDENCE
AND THEORIES
• LOOK FOR STATEMENT WITHOUT
EVIDENCE
• CONSIDER ALTERNATIVE EVIDENCE
• LOOK AT YOUR EXAMPLES - ARE
THEY TYPICAL?

32

WAYS TO BETTER
THINKING
• TAKE YOUR ARGUMENT TO ITS
EXTREMES
• AVOID EMOTIONAL WORDS AND
PHRASES
• CONSIDER YOUR TOPIC FROM ALL
POSSIBLE ANGLES

33
Page 161 of 165

REVIEW
THE REVIEW STAGE IS THE
CHECKING WHICH FOLLOWS
RECALL. LOOK BACK OVER THE
CHAPTER AND CHECK THAT YOUR
RECALL WAS CORRECT. MAKE A
SPECIAL NOTE OF ANY IMPORTANT
POINTS WHICH YOU FAILED TO
RECALL, OR WHICH YOU WRONGLY
RECALLED.
34

PREPARATION
38

BEFORE THE EXAM


• PREPARATION PRESUPPOSES GOOD
STUDY TECHNIQUES AND HAVING
PLANS WITH:
– OBJECTIVES
– TIMETABLES
– REVISION SCHEDULES
• IN THE EXAM HAVE PROPER
EQUIPMENT WITH YOU

39

PLAN YOUR ANSWER


• STUDENTS WHO TAKE THE TIME TO
STOP AND THINK DO
CONSIDERABLY BETTER
• FOUR TO FIVE MINUTES THINKING
THROUGH THE KEY POINTS (ABOUT
EIGHT) WILL SUFFICE

40
Page 162 of 165

PLAN YOUR ANSWER


• MINI MINDMAP IS GOOD METHOD OF
BRAIN STORMING AND PLANNING
YOUR ANSWER
• A PLAN GIVES RISE TO A
LOGICALLY, WELL STRUCTURED
AND CONCISE ANSWER

41

READ THE QUESTION


• READ THE QUESTION CAREFULLY A
FEW TIMES UNTIL YOU KNOW
EXACTLY WHAT IS REQUIRED
• NOTE ANY SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
e.g. LIST, DETAIL, ADVISE, EXPLAIN,
REPORT etc.

42

PRESENTATION
• WATCH YOUR GRAMMAR,
PUNCTUATION, HANDWRITING AND
SPELLING
• IN THE NUMERATE SUBJECTS YOU
WILL GET MARKS FOR THE CORRECT
METHODOLOGY EVEN IF THE
ANSWER IS WRONG

44
Page 163 of 165

PRESENTATION
• PRESENT THE EXAMINER WITH
PARAGRAPHED MATERIAL WITH
HEADINGS UNDERLINED FOR
EMPHASIS
• FOR QUESTIONS REQUIRING
DISCUSSION HAVE AN
INTRODUCTION, A MIDDLE AND
PROPER CONCLUSION
43

PRESENTATION
• USE A LISTING TECHNIQUE WITH
NUMBERED POINTS
• USE LABELED DIAGRAMS AS
APPROPRIATE

45

RELATE THEORY TO
PRACTICE
• USE PRACTICAL EXAMPLES TO
ILLUSTRATE THE POINTS MADE
• DO TAKE AN INTEREST IN WHAT IS
GOING ON ABOUT YOU IN GENERAL

47

ANSWER ALL THE


QUESTIONS/PARTS
• ANSWERING ALL QUESTIONS SHOW
THE FULL COVERAGE OF THE
SYLLABUS
• MORE QUESTIONS/PARTS YOU
ANSWER THE GREATER THE CHANCE
OF PASSING

48
Page 164 of 165

ANSWER ALL THE


QUESTIONS/PARTS
• LEAVE SPACE AT THE END OF THE
ANSWERS TO CATER FOR IDEAS
• START EACH ANSWER ON FRESH
SHEET

49

IRRELEVANCE
• AVOID IRRELEVANCE AT ALL COST
• EXAMINERS WANT PERTINENT
FACTS AND THEORY RELATED TO
THE QUESTION
• DON‟T USE TAUTOLOGICAL
STATEMENTS
– e.g. ACCRUED EXPENSES ARE
EXPENSES WHICH ARE ACCRUED

50

OVER-LEARN KEY
DEFINITIONS
• IDENTIFY THE IMPORTANT
DEFINITIONS FOR EACH SUBJECT
AND LEARN THESE BY HEART

51

LOOK CRITICALLY AND


NOTE THE FOLLOWING
POINTS
• THE ARRANGEMENT IS PLEASING TO THE
EYE
• THE INK IS BLACK AND SHARPLY
PRINTED
• THE TYPE IS LARGE ENOUGH TO READ
• APT SUB-HEADINGS ATTRACT YOUR
ATTENTION TO THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF
THE CHAPTER
56
Page 165 of 165

HEED THESE HINTS


• GOOD FIRST IMPRESSION WITH A NEAT
AND BOLDLY WRITTEN COVER PAGE
• FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS EXACTLY
• WRITE ANSWER NUMBERS IN MARGIN,
BOLDLY AND ACCURATELY
• DON‟T USE COLORED INK FOR THESE
NUMBERS

59

HEED THESE HINTS


• BE LEGIBLE
• USE A DARK INK AND MEDIUM
POINTED NIB
• DRAW NEAT AND LABELED
SKETCHES WHERE REQUIRED
• LEAVE SPACE BETWEEN
SUBSECTIONS OF ANSWERS

60

HEED THESE HINTS


• START EACH NEW ANSWER ON A
NEW PAGE
• STICK TO THE POINT, DON‟T ADD
IRRELEVANT MATTER, POINTLESS
JOKES AND LONG ANECDOTES etc.
• BEFORE ANSWERING SPEND SOME
TIME PLANNING OUT THE POINTS

61

HEED THESE HINTS


• USE SHORT SENTENCES AND SMALL
PARAGRAPHS
• WATCH YOUR SPELLING
• GOOD PUNCTUATION HELPS QUICK
READING AND PREVENT
MISUNDERSTANDING
• NEVER APPEAL TO THE EXAMINER

62

THE END