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Communication Systems, 5e

Chapter 7: Analog Communication Systems

A. Bruce Carlson Paul B. Crilly

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies

Chapter 7:

Analog Communication Systems

• Receiver block diagram design

• Image frequency bands that may cause spurious responses (more filter requirements)

• Signal Multiplexing

– Frequency division (FDM) and – Time division (TDM)

• Phase-Lock Loops (PLL)

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies

Multiplexing

• Combining multiple signals into a wider bandwidth system for transmission

– Typically multiplex in time or frequency

• TDM time division multiplexing • FDM frequency division multiplexing

– For time multiplexing, “PAM sampling”, bandwidth based on PAM pulse periods

– For frequency multiplexing, bandwidth is the sum of all the multiplexed elements plus their guard bands

Multiplexing Methods

• Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) • Time division multiplexing (TDM)

• Quadrature-carrier multiplexing or quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) – complex signals • Code division multiplexing (see Chap. 15) • Spatial multiplexing

– Antenna direction – Signal polarization

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies

Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)

• Interleaved signals in times that occupy assigned time slots

Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) • Interleaved signals in times that occupy assigned time slots – 6 time

– 6 time slots shown; therefore, 6-TDM

Stallings, Wireless Communications & Networks, Second Edition, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 0-13-191835-4

5

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)

Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM) • Signal frequency bands stacked together, but transmitted as one wider bandwidth signal

• Signal frequency bands stacked together, but transmitted as one wider bandwidth signal

– 6 frequency bands shown

– Similar to 6 adjacent radio stations using one transmitter

Stallings, Wireless Communications & Networks, Second Edition, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 0-13-191835-4

6

FDM transmitter

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 7.2-1

• Transmitter • Receiver
• Transmitter
• Receiver

Stacked Frequency Bands

Guard Bands: allow for individual frequency band filter transition bands

FDM receiver

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 7.2-2

FDM receiver Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7.2-2

Guard Bands: allow for receiver filter transition bands

FDM receiver Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7.2-2

Cross Talk: unwanted energy from adjacent FDM channels

FDM receiver Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Figure 7.2-2

Post-De-FDM Baseband Bandwidths:

FDM MATLAB Example

• FDM Example

– FM Modulate the chirp, gong and train – FDM of the three FM signals

Sequenctial FFTs of the TDM-FM Modulated Waveform

0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Frequency (Hz)
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Frequency (Hz)
x 10 5
Power (dB)

9

FDMA satellite repeater system

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 7.2-3

FDMA satellite repeater system Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Nominal 36 MHz BW Links

1200 Voice Channels or

400 channels of 64 kbps or

16 channels of 1.544 Mbps each or • One 50 Mbps data stream

10

FM stereo multiplexing

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

(a) transmitter (b) baseband spectrum

Figure 7.2-4

88 MHz f   108 MHz C
88
MHz f
 108
MHz
C

FDM-FM

• FM Signal

FDM baseband

B

RF 250

kHz

11

FM stereo multiplex receiver

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

B

Figure 7.2-5 IF  250 kHz See problems 6.1-4 & 6.1-5
Figure 7.2-5
IF  250 kHz
See problems 6.1-4 & 6.1-5
FM stereo multiplex receiver Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

12

Quadrature-Carrier Multiplexing

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Figure 7.2-6

s t   A  x t   cos 2    f
s
t 
A
x t 
 cos 2  
f t
x
t
 sin 2   f 
t 
c
1
c
2
c

A special case of FDM “Orthogonal” Signals at the same frequency

13

Quadrature Carrier Math

x

c

t

A x

1

t

cos 2  

f t

c

A x

2

t

sin 2   f t

c

y

I

t

A x cos 2

1

t

  f t A x

c

2

t

sin 2

  f t

c

cos

2   f t

c

 

y

Q

t

A

x

1

t

cos 2

  f t A x

c

2

t

sin 2

  f t

c

sin

2   f t

c

 

y

ILPF

 

t

A

2



x t

1

cos

 

A

2



x t

2

sin

A

2

 

x t

1

  0

y

QLPF

 

t

A

2



x t

1

sin

 

A

2



x t

2

cos

 

A

2

 

x t

2

  0

Two signals multiplexed on the same frequency.

What happens if the receiver carrier is not perfectly synchronized or, for example, 90 deg off?

14

Quadrature FDM Channels

• Each of the frequency bands or channels may have signal that are in quadrature.

– Doubling the channel capacity

– Phase synchronization of the receiver with the received waveform is required!

– A precursor to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)

Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)

• Interleaved signals in times that occupy assigned time slots

Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) • Interleaved signals in times that occupy assigned time slots – 6 time

– 6 time slots shown; therefore, 6-TDM

Stallings, Wireless Communications & Networks, Second Edition, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 0-13-191835-4

16

TDM – Insert more signals!

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Analog signal and corresponding PAM signal: Figure 6.2-1

Signal #1

Signal #2

TDM – Insert more signals! Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

TDM system

(a) block diagram (b) waveforms

Figure 7.2-7

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. TDM system (a) block

PAM outputs for reconstruction

PAM inputs multiplexed in time

18

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

TDM synchronization markers

Figure 7.2-9

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. TDM synchronization markers Figure

One time slot used for a marker/synchronization

19

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

TDM Continuous Transmitter

(a) TDM transmitter with baseband filtering (b) baseband waveform

Figure 7.2-10

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. TDM Continuous Transmitter (a)

20

TDM MATLAB Example

• Time Multiplex Time-sampled Waveforms

– Chirp, Gong, Train – One “sawtooth” extra channel

– Note: This did not start with true “PAM”; therefore, a BPF should not be used before demultiplexing.

Time Sequnece of the TDM Waveform

1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 0.4515 0.452 0.4525 0.453 0.4535
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
0.4515
0.452
0.4525
0.453
0.4535
0.454
Amplitude

Time

Sequenctial FFTs of the Initial TDM Modulated Waveform

0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 -140 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Frequency
0
-20
-40
-60
-80
-100
-120
-140
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Frequency (Hz)
x 10 5
Power (dB)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cross talk in TDM

   A  A  A  exp  2   B 
 A
A  A  exp  2   B  T
k
 10  log
ct
 
54.5 B T in dB 
ct
g
ct
10
A
g
B = 3dB Bandwidth
Guard time
Figure 7.2-12

Sufficient time must be available for the receiver to transition from one PAM level to the next. Otherwise adjacent signals effect each other – defined as cross talk.

TDM/PPM with guard time

• Time-division-multiplexing multiple pulse- position-modulated signals.

– Pulse center +/- t 0

t 0
t
0

T T g g   2 2 t t t 0 0 0
T
T
g
g
 
2
2
t
t
t
0
0
0
T s M
T s
M

time

TDM/PPM with guard time

  • 4 th ed. Figure 7.2-13 is wrong: Fix - Tg is between the signal pulses

    • 5 th ed. Figure 7.2-13 is wrong: t o is on opposite side of pulses

 2
2
T g t t 0 0
T
g
t
t
0
0
 2
2
T s M
T s
M

Forward and backward maximum locations, t 0

T

s

M

2

t

0

T

g

t

0

2

t

0

1

2

T

s

M

   T

g

24

Comparing TDM and FDM

• TDM based on time slots

– Overlap in frequency domain – Bandwidth of total signal defines cross talk – Well supported by digital circuitry, multiple mux rates – Synchronization concerns – Time based receiver; therefore, less dependent upon filter performance or ripple

• FDM based on frequency slots

– Overlap in time domain – Guard bands and filtering determine cross talk – Simple frequency assignments

TDM, FDM, TDD and FDD

TDM:

Time division multiplex

FDM:

Frequency division multiples

For Two-way Communications

• TDD:

Time division duplex

– One side talks and then the other side talks

– Note that only one transmission can happen at a time on the signal frequency being used

FDD:

Frequency division duplex

– Two different frequencies are used so both sides can talk simultaneously

26

Frequency Synthesis

All wireless designs require de fined reference frequencies for

transmitting and receiving waveforms. Local Oscillators are used to provide the reference frequencies

 

Fixed tuned LOs may use RC, SAW or crystals Synthesized LOs typically use frequency and/or phase-lock loops

– Carrier/Phase Synchronous LOs are required for synchronous signal demodulation

1  et   dt R f  out 1 N
1
et   dt
R
f
out
1
N
Frequency Synthesis • All wireless designs require de fined reference frequencies for • – transmitting and

N

f

ref

R

27

The Phase Locked Loop

• If the phases of two analog or digital signals that are approximately the same in frequency are compared, it can be determined which one leads or lags.

• A difference signal can be generated and a feedback loop can cause one signal to lock onto the other …

et    dt f  f out ref    out ref
et 
 dt
f  f
out
ref
 
out
ref

Analog Phase Comparator

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Phase comparators (a) analog Figure 7.3-1

Analog Phase Comparator Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Phase
   e  t  A  cos    t  A
 
e

t
A
cos

t
A
cos
 
t
A
A
cos
 
t
cos
 
t
  
t
phase
c
c
v
v
c
v
c
c
2
A
A
A
A
A
A
e
 
c
v
t
cos
  
 
c
v
c
t
sin
 
v
t
 
t 
phase
2
2
2
2
Performance depends on the small angle approximation
A “linear” capture range (linearize sine about zero)
29

Digital Phase Comparator

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Phase comparators (b) digital Figure 7.3-1

Digital Phase Comparator Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Phase

The operation tracks leading and lagging edge comparisons of two digital, 50% duty cycle, square-wave inputs

– Typically, bipolar current pulses are output that represent which signal leads and how much time mismatch there is.

Phase Lock Loop Model

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Phase-lock loop

Figure 7.3-2

Phase Lock Loop Model Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Phase Comparator

Loop Filter

Loop Gain

VCO

A linearized system model in phase is used

31

Phase Lock Loop Math (1)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Phase-lock loop: Figure 7.3-2

  t    2 f    t t   t
t
  
2
f
  
t
t

t
 
 
t
 
t
      
2
f
t
t
 
t
c
c
c
v
v
2
t

t
  
2
f
    
f
t

t

t
  
2
K
y
 
d
v
c
v
v
v
2

Phase Equivalents in Boxes

32

Phase Lock Loop Math (2)

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Steady State Operation Derivation

A non-linear differential equation

Phase-lock loop Figure 7.3-2

d    t d    t      2
d
 
t
d
 
t
    
2
f
  
2
K
y t 
v
dt
dt
d
 
t
d
 
t
    
2
f
2
 
K
K
sin
v
a
dt
dt
K  K
 K
v
a
d
 
t
d
 t 
 
t
  
2
K
sin
  
t
    
2
f
dt
dt

33

Phase Lock Loop Math (3)

• For a stable input frequency reference

1

d

 

t

2

 

K

dt

sin

  

t

f

K

d

 

t

dt

0

• At steady state

sin

  

t

f

K

d

 

t

dt

0

ss

  f

K

arcsin

for

1

 f
 f

K

• Resulting in

v
v

ss



t

y

ss

K

a

cos 2

 

sin

ss

K

a

f

f

K

K

v

f t

c

    

0

ss

 

2

34

Phase Lock Loop Math (4)

• Other steady state inferences: The transient response

d

 

t

dt

2

  

K

sin

 t 

0

• with the transient error solution of

 

t   t

0

exp 2   K



t t

0

• From before, we can define a frequency “capture” range for “locking-the-loop” as

1

 f
 f

K

K

f

f

v

K

f

 

f

v

K

Linearized PLL Models

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

• Using a loop model that defines the phases offsets of the sine or cosine waveforms

Linearized PLL Models Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. •

Linearized PLL models (a) time domain (b) phase domain

Figure 7.3-8

36

PLL Phase Models

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Linearized PLL models (b) phase domain (c) Laplace domain Figure 7.3-8 K  H s 
Linearized PLL models
(b) phase domain
(c) Laplace domain
Figure 7.3-8
K
H s
 
Y s
 
a
 
s 
c
K
v
1
K
H s
 
a
s
Y s
 
s
K
H s
 
a
 
s
s
K
K
H s 
c
a
v
37

PLL Model Frequency Response

• Frequency Response for

 

 

H s

K

H

 

 

Y s

s

K

a

K

H

  • c  

s

s

K

a

K

v

K

H

• Frequency Response for

 

Y s

s

 

 

H s

K

a

H s
H
s

p

p

H

p

H

  • c  

s

s

  • 2

p

H

s

K

a

K

v

p

H

Y s      s c
Y s
 
 
s
c

s

K

a

 

H s

s

K

a

K

v

H s

38

PLL Model Steady State Error

Error



  

s

c



s

K

v

s

 

Y s

1

K

v

s

s

K

a

 

H s

s

K

a

K

v

 

H s

 

s

s

s

K

a

K

v

 

H s

 

c

s

 

ss

lim

s 0

s

s

s

K

a

K

v

 

H s

  s

c

  s   c  s 
 
s 
c
 s 

For

 

H s

K

H

For

 

H s

H s
H
s

p

p

H

ss

lim

s

0

s

  • 2

 

  • c 0

K

a

K

v

K

H

0

ss

lim

s 0

s

  • 2

s

p

H

s

2

p

H

s K

a

K

v

p

H

 

  • c 0

0

PLL Integrated Circuits

• Analog Devices: ADF4001 200 MHz Clock Generator PLL 40 http://www.analog.com/en/prod/0,,770_850_ADF4001%2C00.html
Analog Devices: ADF4001 200 MHz Clock Generator PLL
40
http://www.analog.com/en/prod/0,,770_850_ADF4001%2C00.html

Applications of PLL

• Frequency Synthesis

– With tuning steps for radios

• Synchronous Signal Regeneration

– FM Pilot, TV color burst, etc. – Coherent AM and DSB demodulator/detector

• Clock generation for digital electronics • FM demodulator/detector

… and much more

Frequency Synthesis

Synthesizing higher frequencies with known step sizes

1  et   dt R f ref f  N  out R 1
1
et   dt
R
f
ref
f
N
out
R
1
N
f
ref
Divide f ref to provide a reference (or smaller) step size
 f
step
R
f
f
Divide f out for input at the phase comparator
ref
out
N
R
Resulting in
f
out
   N    f
R
ref
42

ADF4360-7:

Integrated Synthesizer and VCO

FEATURES

Output frequency range: 350 MHz to 1800 MHz

3.0 V to 3.6 V power supply

1.8 V logic compatibility

Integer-N synthesizer

3-wire serial interface

Analog and digital lock detect

APPLICATIONS

Wireless handsets (DECT, GSM, PCS, DCS, WCDMA)

Wireless LANs

CATV equipment

ADF4360-7: Integrated Synthesizer and VCO FEATURES • Output frequency range: 350 MHz to 1800 MHz •
43
43

http://www.analog.com/en/prod/0,,770_850_ADF4360%252D7%2C00.html

PLL References

• Analog Devices Technical Articles

http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/cd/vol33n1.pdf

Phase Locked Loops for High-Frequency Receivers and Transmitters – Part 1

http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/cd/vol33n1.pdf#page=11

Phase-Locked Loops for High-Frequency Receivers and Transmitters - Part 2

http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/cd/vol33n1.pdf#page=15

– Phase Locked Loops for High-Frequency Receivers and Transmitters – Part 3

http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/cd/vol33n1.pdf#page=20

Synchronous Detection Frequency Synthesis

• The PLL provides a way to “adapt” to the incoming frequency and lock to the phase

• This is required for a “synchronous receiver” for any of the modulation forms previously described!

Providing a Synchronous LO

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

PLL pilot filter with two phase discriminators: Figure 7.3-3

Providing a Synchronous LO Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

For systems where a carrier can be isolated, such as AM, FM Stereo, NTSC-TV, etc.

46

Costas PLL

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Costas PLL system for synchronous detection: Figure 7.3-4

t 1 y  sin 2        x t 
t
1
y
 sin 2  
x t

2
 dt  sin 2  
 S
ss
ss
ss
xx
T
t
T

For systems where a carrier is not isolated, such as DSB.

47

FM Demodulation with a PLL

PLL Phase

FM Phase

 

Let H s K

H

1

j

f

K

 

H f

 

 

f

 

K

v

 

j

f

K

 

H f

c

   

2     X f

f

 

 

f

 

 

c

   

j

2  

f

1

j

f

K

 

H f

 

f

X f

K

v

f

j

f

K

K

 

H f

 

H f

 

j

f

X f

K

v

f

 

j

f

K

K

 

H f

K

H

 

X f

 

K

v

j

f

 

K

K

H

 

 

 

FM Demodulation with a PLL PLL Phase FM Phase   Let H s  K

Y s

 

Y s

 

Y s

 

Y s

LPF of Message