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Abort verb 1. to stop something taking place _ They had to abort the landing because of a
violent storm 2. To end something before it has finished.
Absolute value noun the size or value of a number regardless of its sign _ The absolute value
of –64.32 is 64.32.
Accelerate verb to increase speed _ After start-up, the engine accelerates up to idling speed. _
The aircraft accelerated down the runway and took off. Opposite decelerate.
Accept verb 1. To be able to take or receive _ Some units accept electrical inputs from the
autopilot. 2. To take or receive something when it is given to you _ She accepted the award on
behalf of the whole crew.
Acceptable adjective allowed or approved of, although it may not be perfect _ acceptable level
of safety a good enough standard of safety _ acceptable limits the limits generally regarded
as correct.
Acceptance / noun 1. Willingness to believe something or agree to something _ There is a
growing acceptance that safety is the main priority. 2. Willingness to do or use something _
acceptance of new technology willingness to use new technology.
According to preposition 1. As determined by or in relation to _ The force exerted by the pilot
on the control column will vary according to a number of factors. 2. As written or said by
somebody else _ According to the copilot, engine vibration was detected in engine number one.
3. In agreement with something, e.g. instructions, etc. _ according to instructions exactly as
said in the instructions _ according to requirements as required.
Acronym noun a word which is made up of the initial letters of a name, and is pronounced as a
word _ NASA is the acronym for National Aeronautics and Space Administration. _ VASI is the
acronym for visual approach slope indicator.
Active runway noun a runway that is being used ‘…never cross an active runway without
permission from the tower: there may be more than one active runway’
Aerodrome noun any area of land or water designed for the taking off and landing of aircraft _
Airports and military air bases or stations are types of aerodrome. _ All aerodromes are marked
on charts.
Agreed adjective generally accepted _ The millibar is an agreed unit of pressure.
Airborne adjective lifted and kept in the air by aerodynamic forces _ Shortly after the aircraft
becomes airborne, the undercarriage is retracted.
Air corridor noun a route that aircraft must take through an area in which flying is restricted.
Aircraft configuration noun a particular combination of moveable parts such as flaps and
landing gear that affects the aerodynamics of the aircraft.
Aircrew noun the pilot, navigator and other crew members of an aircraft.
Airfield noun an area of land given over to runways, taxiways and aprons _ When the pressure
setting on the altimeter is set to 1013.25 millibars, the pressure altitude of the airfield is known
as QNE.
Airliner noun an aeroplane designed to carry large numbers of passengers _ Concorde is the
world’s fastest airliner.
Airport noun a civil aerodrome designed for the take-off and landing of passenger-carrying
aircraft for the general public and/or cargo aircraft_ London Heathrow is one of the busiest
airports in the world.
Airspace noun the part of the atmosphere that is above a particular geographical area and is
subject to the laws of a particular country or controlling authority _ The Korean 747 flew into
Soviet airspace and was shot down.
Air traffic controller noun a person who works in air traffic control and whose main task is to
ensure correct separation of aircraft in all phases of flight _ The air traffic controller approved
the emergency landing. Abbreviation ATC.
Allowance consideration for possibilities or changing circumstances _ to make allowances
for to take into account _ When estimating flight duration, make allowances for taxiing time.
Alter verb to change, modify or adjust _ If there is a risk of collision, alter course to the right. _ If
the rate of descent is too low, alter the throttle setting accordingly. _ The rudder linkage was
altered to comply with certification requirements.
Approach noun 1. A path towards something _ The approach to the terminal was blocked by
an overturned lorry. 2. The descent of an aircraft towards the place where it intends to land.
Abbreviation APP

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Apron noun an area of tarmac, concrete, etc., outside a hangar for parking aircraft (NOTE: The
US term is ramp.)
Ascend verb to rise, to go or move upwards _ Hot air ascends. _. Opposite descend
Attempt noun a try _ Any attempt to increase range by applying more power is of little or no
benefit. _ Verb to try _ He attempted to land despite the poor visibility but then decided to divert
to another airfield where he landed safely.
Avoid verb 1. To prevent something from happening _ She just managed to avoid an accident.
2. To keep away from something _ Avoid flying close to any person or vessel. _ Cumulonimbus
clouds and thunderstorms should be avoided by as great a distance as possible.
Avoidance noun an act of avoiding something _ avoidance of thunderstorms is
recommended it is recommended to keep away from thunderstorms.

Baggage handling noun the process by which passengers’ baggage is loaded onto an aircraft,
or unloaded and moved to the airport terminal.
Beacon noun a light or radio signal for navigational purposes _ If the aircraft turns towards the
beacon, signal strength will increase.
Bearing noun 1. The angle, measured in a clockwise direction, of a distant point, relative to a
reference direction _ To plot a position line from the non-directional radio beacon, it is first
necessary to convert the relative bearing to a true bearing and then calculate the reciprocal. 2.
A device containing steel balls or needles which allows free rotation of one component around
Boarding gate noun the door through which passengers leave the terminal building to get on to
an aircraft _ Boarding gates 1 – 10 are on the left.

Capable adjective competent, having an ability _ Aircraft used in aerobatics must be capable of
withstanding the extra loads imposed on the airframe by the manoeuvres. _ In most modern
multi-engine jet transport aircraft, each fuel tank is capable of feeding any engine.
Clearance noun 1. A space made to allow for the movement of hardware relative to other
hardware _ clearance between rocker arm and valve tip 2. Official permission _ Obtain
clearance for IFR flight. 3. The disappearance of something unwanted, often rain, fog or snow _
Low temperatures caused a delay in the clearance of fog.
Clearance limit the point to which an aircraft is allowed to proceed when granted an air traffic
control clearance.
Clear to land noun air traffic control permission to land.
Climb / noun the act of increasing altitude by use of power _ Fine pitch enables full engine
speed to be used during take-off and climb. Opposite descent _ verb to increase altitude by
use of power _ After take-off, the aircraft climbed to 5,000 ft. Opposite descend.
Collision noun a crash between two objects, two vehicles, etc. _ If there is a risk of collision,
alter course to the right. _ collision avoidance the prevention of collisions by taking measures
beforehand to ensure that they do not happen.
Comply verb to be or do what is required by an instruction or law _ Equipment and furnishings
of modern jet transports must comply with safety regulations. _ Passengers must comply with
the no-smoking signs.
Contact noun 1. Touch _ in contact with touching _ The air in contact with the Earth’s surface
cools. 2. _ to be in contact with to communicate with e.g. by telephone or radio _ to be in
visual contact to see _ to make contact to communicate _ to lose contact to stop
communicating _ ATC lost contact with the aircraft. 3. a person who can be contacted in order
to get something done _ I have a contact in Madrid who can help I know somebody in Madrid
who can help 4. An electrical connection _ Dirty contacts were the cause of the problem. _ Verb
to get in touch with somebody e.g. by radio or telephone _ The captain couldn’t contact ATC.
Control tower noun a tall building on an airfield from which air-traffic controllers organise
incoming and outgoing aircraft by speaking to their pilots by radio.
Converge verb to come together at a particular point _ Meridians converge towards the poles. _
aircraft on converging courses aircraft on courses which may eventually be too close to each
other if no corrective action is taken. Opposite diverge.
Course noun 1. An imaginary line across the surface of the Earth which must be followed in
order to arrive at the destination _ to alter course to change direction or to follow a different
route 2. A formal period of study _ a meteorology course 3. Continuing time _ in the course of
the briefing during the briefing.

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Delay noun a period after the expected time that you have to wait before something happens,
he length of time by which something is late _ By day, the presence of cloud can cause a delay
in clearance of fog. _ verb 1. To make late, to cause to be late _ Take-off was delayed because
of fog. 2. To put something off until later _ He delayed telling her the news until they had landed.
Departure noun 1. The act of leaving _ departure time the time when an aircraft becomes
airborne 2. The distance between two meridians at any given latitude.
Descent noun a planned loss of altitude _ The descent from cruise altitude took 40 minutes. _
in the descent during planned loss of altitude, usually in preparation for landing.
Deviate verb to move away from the normal position or path _ If the aircraft deviates beyond
the normal ILS glide slope, the flight crew are alerted.
Distress signal noun a signal transmitted by an aircraft in danger.
Divert verb to turn away from a course or a destination _ An automatic cut-out valve is fitted to
divert pump output to the reservoir when pressure has built up to normal operating pressure. _
The aircraft was diverted to Manchester airport because of fog.
Domestic adjective referring or belonging to inside a country _ Domestic flights usually leave
from Terminal 1.
Drift noun movement away from the desired course, created by wind blowing at an angle to the
intended direction of flight _ If the wind direction is not the same as the aircraft track or its
reciprocal, then the aircraft will experience drift. _ Verb to move away from the desired course _
When landing, a cross-wind from the right will cause the aircraft to drift to the left.
Drone noun an aircraft whose flight is controlled from the ground.
Due adjective 1. Expected to arrive _ the flight is due at 10 o’clock the flight should arrive at
10 o’clock 2. _ due to because of _ Due to daytime heating, the stability decreases and the
wind speed increases. _ adverb exactly and directly _ The aircraft flew due east.

En route adverb, adjective on or along the way _ en route from New York to London on the
way from New York to London _ en route alternate an airfield where it is possible to land if
there is an in-flight problem _ en route weather conditions a description of the weather along
the path of flight.
Ensure verb to make certain, to make sure _ The generator cut-out ensures that the battery
cannot discharge. _ Before the engine is stopped, it should normally be allowed to run for
a short period at idling speed, to ensure gradual cooling.
Estimate verb 1. to calculate approximately the cost, value or size of something _ I estimate
that it will take about two hours for us to reach our destination. _ Cloud heights may be
measured or estimated. 2. to form a judgement about _ to estimate the chances of
something to weigh the possibilities and form an opinion estimated take-off time
Estimated take-off time noun the time when an aircraft is expected to take off. Abbreviation
Estimated time of arrival noun the time when an aircraft is expected to arrive. Abbreviation
Estimated time of departure noun the time when an aircraft is expected to take off.
Abbreviation ETD
Evacuate verb 1. To remove all the people from somewhere in the event of an emergency _ to
evacuate all passengers from the airport 2. to empty somewhere of all people in it because of
an emergency _ to evacuate the aircraft.
Expected adjective being thought or hoped to be taking place _ the expected number of
Expected approach time the time at which air traffic control expects an arriving aircraft to
complete its approach for landing, following a delay. Abbreviation EAT

Facility noun 1. ability or ease in moving, acting, or doing something _ a facility in learning to
fly a good natural ability for flying 2. An installation or building which provides specific operating
Field of vision noun the area in which something can be seen without moving the head or the
Final approach noun 1. a flight path in a direction along the extended centre line of the runway
on which a plane is about to land _ The aspect of the runway on final approach helps the pilot
to judge height and progress. 2. the last stage of an aircraft’s descent before landing, from when
it turns into line with the runway to the procedures immediately before it lands.

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Flight attendant noun a member of the flight crew who looks after passengers, serves food,
etc. _ If you need something, press the call button and a flight attendant will respond within a
few minutes. Also called cabin attendant.

Forced landing noun an unexpected landing that a pilot of an aircraft has to make because of
an emergency situation.
Freight noun anything other than people transported by a vessel or vehicle, especially by a
commercial carrier _ Freight holds are usually located beneath the passenger cabins.
Freighter noun an aircraft designed to carry freight.

Glidepath noun a path followed by the aircraft down the glide slope.
Glider noun a fixed wing aeroplane, normally with no power plant propulsion _ Nowadays,
gliders are often made of composite materials.
Go-around noun a climb into the circuit and manoeuvring into position for a new approach and
landing _ Because the plane was too high on the approach, the pilot executed a go-around.
Greenwich Mean Time noun local time on the Greenwich Meridian. Abbreviation GMT

COMMENT: GMT is now called Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)

and is also known as Zulu time. UTC is expressed in 24-hour format; for
example, 7:00 P.M. is 1900 hours (say: nineteen hundred hours).

Hand luggage noun small bags that passengers can take with them into the cabin of an aircraft
_ The amount of hand luggage is limited to one bag.
Hard landing noun an uncontrolled landing by an aircraft that results in its being damaged or
Heading noun the direction in which the longitudinal axis of the aircraft is pointing, expressed in
degrees from north.
Heavy landing noun a routine landing in which the aircraft makes contact with the surface with
more force than usual, thereby possibly causing damage to the undercarriage _ The pilot
reported a heavy landing.
Hijacking noun the act of taking over control of an aircraft by one or several unauthorised
person or persons with the intention of forcing the crew to fly it to a different destination _
The crew must be alert at all times to the possibility of hijacking, bombs and stowaways.
Holding pattern noun a race-track shaped flight pattern with two parallel sides and two turns,
flown usually while an aircraft is waiting for clearance to land.
Holding point noun 1. a particular location, in the air or on the ground where aircraft spend
time, waiting for further clearance from air traffic control 2. a place, often designated Alpha,
Bravo, Charlie, etc., where aircraft wait before entering the runway, as instructed by air traffic

ILS abbreviation instrument landing system

ILS glideslope noun a radio beam in an ILS which gives vertical guidance _ The angle of the
glide slope is usually about three degrees to the horizontal.
Inbound adverb, adjective towards a destination _ The aircraft flies outbound from the beacon
along the airway and inbound to the facility at the other end of the leg. _ inbound traffic aircraft
flying towards an airfield.
Instrument flight rules plural noun regulations which must be followed when weather
conditions do not meet the minima for visual flight _ The flight from Manchester to Prestwick
was conducted under instrument flight rules. Abbreviation IFR
Instrument landing system noun aids for an instrument landing approach to an airfield,
consisting of a localiser, glide slope, marker beacons and approach lights _ The instrument
landing system provides both horizontal and vertical guidance to aircraft approaching a runway.
Abbreviation ILS

Jetliner noun a large passenger aircraft powered by jet engines.

Landmark noun something on the ground which enables the pilot to know where he/she is, e.g.
a noticeable building, bridge, coastal feature, etc. _ Railway lines are usually useful landmarks.
Line up verb to move aircraft into position ready for departure _ Line up with the nosewheel on
the runway centre line.

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Long-haul adjective travelling over a long distance _ Crew flying long-haul routes have to adapt
to time changes. Opposite short-haul.

Maiden flight noun the first flight of a new aircraft _ The maiden flight of the A340 was in
October 1991.

Mandatory adjective compulsory, required or ordered by an official organisation or authority _

Fire detection systems in toilets are mandatory.
Microwave landing system noun an extremely accurate guidance system for landing aircraft
that uses microwaves. Abbreviation MLS
Mid-air adjective _ mid-air collision collision between aircraft in the air rather than on the

Obey verb 1. to carry out or comply with a command _ Pilots must obey landing instructions. 2.
to follow a physical law _ Winds obey Buys Ballot’s Law.
Operate verb 1. to control the working of _ The control column operates the ailerons and
elevators. _ The flaps are operated by a switch. 2. To use or manage _ The airline operates a
fleet of Boeing aircraft. 3. to perform or function _ Jet transports operate at high altitudes.
Overrun noun a cleared level area at the end of a runway, available in case a plane does not
stop quickly enough.

Payload noun the money-earning load carried by the aircraft including the passengers,
baggage and freight _ The shape of an aircraft is determined by the requirement to provide an
aerodynamic lift force great enough to support the weight of the aircraft and payload whilst in

Rate noun a quantity measured in relation to another measured quantity _ rate of climb speed
of ascent measured in feet per minute _ rate of descent speed of descent measured in feet per
Readback noun the action of repeating an ATC message to the controller to enable him or her
to check that it was correctly received.
Request noun a polite demand, or what is asked for _ ATC (air traffic control) received a
request from the pilot for departure clearance. _ on request when asked for _ A personal flying
log book must be retained for production on request by an authorized person. _ verb to ask for
something _ The pilot requested vectors to enable him to locate the airfield.
Runway noun a strip of level, usually paved ground on which aircraft take off and land _
Heathrow airport has four terminals and two main runways. _ To achieve a safe landing, an
aircraft has to be controlled so that its wheels make contact with the runway smoothly. _ The
aircraft lined up perfectly on the runway extended centre line. Abbreviation R/W

Sea level noun the average level of the surface of the sea, used for measuring barometric
Sight noun 1. view _ The fog cleared and the mountain came into sight. 2. _ with the airfield in
sight a transmission to air traffic control to confirm that the pilot can see the landing airfield.
Slot noun 1. a groove or channel into which something can be fitted _ The float engages with a
slot cut in the tube, so that, as the fuel level changes, the float moves up and down. 2. the
particular time at which an aircraft is scheduled to depart _ Flight GF 506 missed its slot and will
have to wait 45 minutes for another.
Sortie noun an operational flight by one aircraft _ The test programme has accumulated 1,146
Squawk noun an identification code. _ transponder _ verb to activate specific modes, codes or
functions on a transponder _ Garbling occurs when two signals are received simultaneously
and can be resolved either technically or by making one of the aircraft squawk.
Stall noun 1. a loss of lift caused by the breakdown of airflow over the wing when the angle of
attack passes a critical point _ In some configurations it is possible for the buffet speed to be
less than the required 7% margin ahead of the stall. 2. a situation in which an engine or
machine stops suddenly because an opposing force overcomes its driving power _ Compressor
stall can be caused by ice formation in the air intake. _ verb to lose lift by the breakdown of
airflow over the wing when the angle of attack passes a critical point _ Many light aircraft stall
when the angle of attack exceeds 15°.

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Taxi verb to move an aircraft along the ground under its own power before take-off or after
landing _ Light aircraft can be steered while taxiing via a direct link from rudder pedals to the
nose wheel. (NOTE: taxies – taxiing – taxied; the US English is taxying.)
Taxiway noun a tarmac surface connecting the ramp or apron with the runway _ an airfield, i.e.
An area given over to runways, taxiways and aprons.

Terminal adjective referring to a limit or to a final point _ noun 1. the departure and/or arrival
building at an airport _ The flight leaves from terminal three at Heathrow airport. 2. An electrical
connection point _ The negative terminal of the battery is marked -.
Terrain noun land, especially in relation to its physical geography _ Special attention should be
paid to wind flow when flights are made over hills or mountainous terrain.
Threshold noun the beginning of the part of the runway, usable for landing _ Runway visual
range is obtained by an observer standing at the side of the runway in the vicinity of the
threshold counting the number of markers or lights visible along the side of the runway.

COMMENT: The threshold is marked with a single white line on visual

runways or by eight parallel white lines arranged longitudinally in two groups
of four each side of the runway centreline for runways with instrument
approach/landing facilities.

Traffic pattern noun 1. the shape marked out on the ground of an aircraft track in the
aerodrome circuit 2. the pattern of routes that an aircraft must keep to when approaching or
circling an airport.
Transponder noun a device in an aircraft for receiving a radio signal and automatically
transmitting a different signal so that an air traffic control station can identify the aircraft _ The
transponder in the aircraft comprises a transmitter and a receiver.

COMMENT: The pilot sets an identification code, or ‘squawk’,

assigned by ATC, on the transponder in the aircraft.

Trim wheel ,trimmer noun a wheel-shaped device, sometimes situated between the front seats
of light aircraft, to trim the aircraft by hand _ The trimmer is used to ease the loads imposed on
the flying controls during flight.
Turbulence noun an irregular motion of the atmosphere.

Vector noun 1. a quantity with magnitude and direction indicated by a line of a given length,
representing magnitude and specific direction _ The triangle of velocities is a vector solution of
what happens to an aircraft when wind causes drift. 2. a heading given to a pilot to provide

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navigational guidance by radar _ Wind velocity is indicated by a vector, identified by a single
arrow, pointing in the direction the wind is blowing towards.
Veer verb 1. To change in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere _ Winds veer and
increase with height ahead of a warm front. Opposite back 2. to change direction, especially as
in an uncontrolled movement _ The aircraft veered off the runway into the grass.
Vicinity noun the area nearby _ After an emergency evacuation, passengers should be directed
to move away from the vicinity of the aircraft quickly. _ in the vicinity of the airport near the
VOR noun a navigational aid based on the ground, to help the pilot establish the bearings of the
aircraft. Full form very high frequency omni-directional radio range.

COMMENT: The VOR projects 360 radials which can be followed to fly a
particular path over the ground.

Waypoint noun a predetermined position on a route, used for monitoring flight progress or for
navigating around controlled airspace. Abbreviation WP
Windsock noun a pole at the top of which is a fabric tube through which the wind blows,
showing the wind direction.

Standard words and phrases

Word/Phrase Meaning

Acknowledge Let me know that you have received and understood this message.
Affirm Yes
Approved I give you permission for what you asked for/requested.
Cancel Cancel the last clearance I gave to you.
Check Examine a system or procedure.
Cleared I give permission for you to continue, bearing in mind the conditions already given.
Confirm Have I correctly received the following … ? or Did you correctly receive this message ?
Contact Contact by radio …
Correct That is correct.
Correction An error was made in the last transmission. What follows is correct.
Disregard Assume that the last transmission was not sent.
How do you read? Tell me how good this transmission is on a 1 to 5 scale where 1 =
unreadable (cannot understand) to 5 = excellent reception (no difficulty in understanding).
I say again I am repeating in order to make my meaning very clear.
Over My transmission is finished and I want a response from you.
Out This exchange of transmissions is finished. I do not want a response from you.
Pass your message Proceed with your message.
Read back Repeat all, or the specified part of this message back to me exactly as received.
Request I want to know or I want to have.
Roger I have received all of your last transmission.
Say again Repeat all, or the following part of your last transmission.
Speak slower Speak more slowly.
Standby Wait and I will call you.
Verify Check and confirm with me.
Wilco I understand your message and will comply with it.
Words Twice (as a request) Communication is difficult. Please send every word or group of
words twice. (as information) Because communication is difficult, every word or group of words
in this message will be sent twice.

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EX. 1 Walker Flight 312, a Boeing 767, has started engines and is ready
to taxi. Listen and choose the best answer. (AUDIO 1)

1. What is Walker Flight 312 requesting? 4. What flight level must Walker Flight
312 maintain?
A. Information.
B. Clearance. A. FL 230.
C. Taxi and clearance. B. FL320.
C. FL 2331.
2. What holding point does the ATC
indicate Walker Flight 312 to taxi? 5. Walker Flight 312 must set its
transponder to…
A. Runway 312.
B. Runway 21 right. A. 3321.
C. Run away right now. B. 2311
C. 2331
3. What runway is Walker Flight 312
cleared to depart from? 6. To what frequency does Walker Flight
312 have to tune its radio to contact the
A. 320.Left TWR?
B. 2331.
C. 10 Left. A. 111.8
B. 118.3
C. 181.3


** San Francisco Ground, Walker 312 heavy, with information bravo.

Request taxi and clearance.
- Walker 312, taxi to holding point runway 21 right.
** Holding point runway 21 right, Walker 312.
-Walker 312, your clearance.
**Walker 312 Go ahead.
-Walker 312 cleared Caracas Simon Bolivar Airport, departure runway 10
Left, 1 B SID, via LIMAL then flight planned route. Maintain FL 320, squawk
2331. QNH 1012.
* *Cleared to Caracas Airport via LIMAL then flight planned route. Departure
runway 10 left, 1 B SID. Climb to and maintain FL 320. Squawk 2331, QNH
1012, Walker3l2.
- Correct, Contact Tower 118.3.
* *Tower 118.3, Walker 312.

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EX. 2 Runway incursion: Listen and choose the best answer. (AUDIO 2)

1. Why does the TWR request Express 4. What frequency is Ground using?
Air 105 to stop immediately?
A. 121.58
A. There is another plane on the B. 128.51
runway. C. 121.85
B. There are unauthorized vehicles on
the runway. 5. Express Air 105 is told to taxi back to…
C. The runway is under construction.
A. Holding point 24 Right.
2. What does the TWR tell Express Air B. Holding point 24 Left.
105 to do FIRST? C. Runway A

A. To go on with its take off. 6. Express Air 105 must use taxiways….
B. To exit the taxi area.
C. To hold position. A. A,Q and G
B. I,K and J
3. Where does Express Air 105 have to C. A,K and J
turn right?
7. What frequency must Express Air 105
A. At next section. contact TWR?
B. At last intersection.
C. At next intersection. A. 180.2
B. 118.2
C. 112.8


***Express Air 105, stop immediately. I say again:  Express Air 105, stop 
+++Stopping, Express Air 105.  
***Express Air 105, unauthorized construction vehicles have entered the 
runway at Taxiway F Hold position. 
+++ Holding, Express Air 105.  
***Express Air 105, turn right at next intersection and contact Ground 
+++Right at next, Ground 121.85.  Express Air 105.  
Ground, Express Air 105,  runway vacated on F.  
^^^Express Air 105, taxi back to holding point runway 24 right via taxiways 
A. K and J.  
+++Holding Point runway 24 right via A, K and J. For your information we 
shall file an incident report on arrival at Bangor, Express Air 105.  
^^^Roger, contact Tower 118.2 when ready.  
+++Tower 118.2 when ready, Express Air 105. 

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EX. 3 Cambrian 301 is on a holding fix at MAMBO used for initial entry
into the terminal area. He is being descended in the stack by ATC when
altitudes are vacated by other aircraft as they are metered into the
approach sequence.

Listen and choose the best answer. (AUDIO 3)

1. What altitude is Cambrian 301,at the 5. The ATC gives clearance for:
very beginning?
A. An ILS approach taxiway 16 Right.
A. 6000 ft B. An ILS approach runway 60 Right.
B. 7000 ft C. An ILS approach runway 16 Right.
C. 60000 ft
6. What frequency is TWR using?
2. When reaching 5000 ft, what number
does Cambrian 301 have in the approach A. 118.50
queue? B. 118.25
C. 180.25
A. One.
B. Two. 7. After landing, what taxiway will
C. Three. Cambrian 301 exit the runway?

3. What heading must Cambrian 301 A. X-ray

follow on leaving MANBO? B. Lima
C. Hotel
A. 180
B. 018 8. To contact Ground, what frequency will
C. 080 Cambrian 301 use?

4. To intercept the localizer,  Cambrian A. 129.1

301 must turn right… B. 121.9
C. 192.9
A. Heading 120.
B. Heading 210.
C. Heading 012

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*** Cambrian 301, descend to 6000 feet.  
+++ Leaving 7000 for 6000 feet. Cambrian 301.  
A few minutes later 
***Cambrian 301, descend to 5000 feet. You are number two on approach.  
+++Roger. Leaving 6000 for 5000 feet, Cambrian 301.  
A few minutes later  
***Cambrian 301, descend to 4000 feet. Leave MAMBO heading 080.  
+++Leaving 5000 for 4000 feet, 080 from MAMBO, Cambrian 301.  
***Cambrian 301. Squawk ident.  
+++Squawking ident. Cambrian  301.  
***Cambrian 301 identified. Turn right heading 120 to intercept the localizer. Cleared for 
an ILS approach runway 16 right. Report established.  
+++Turning right heading 120.  Cleared for an ILS approach 16 right. Wilco. Cambrian 301.  
Cambrian 301 established.  
*** Cambrian 301, you are seven and a half miles from touch down. Contact Tower 
+++Tower 118.25, Cambrian 301. Fignon Tower, Cambrian 301. Rhone inbound.  
***Cambrian 301, number two, report outer marker.  
+++Wilco, Cambrian 301.  
A minute later  
+++Cambrian 301, outer marker.  
***Cambrian 301, runway 16 right, cleared to land. Wind light and variable.  
   +++Cleared to land runway 16 right, Cambrian 301.  
A few minutes later  
*** Cambrian 301, vacate runway via hotel. Contact Ground  121.9.  
   +++ Exit on hotel. Ground 121.9. Cambrian 301.  

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EX.1 Discuss the questions below and try to analyze how

miscommunication can be avoided among pilots, maintenance personnel,
ground staff and ATCs

Scenario one:

o A maintenance truck radios the TWR.”GO AHEAD” says the ATC waiting for the driver
to make his request. The truck driver, thinking he has received his clearance, drives
onto the runway.

Scenario two:

o Holding short of the runway, the captain asks “may we cross?” The ATC gives the
response “HOLD SHORT”. The captain understands “Oh sure” , and crosses the

Scenario three:

o A pilot reads back the message “HE WILL TURN RIGHT” as “WE WILL TURN RIGHT”.
Because of his strong accent, nobody realizes the mistake until the plane has gone the
wrong way.

EX. 2 What is a runway incursion? What can cause a runway incursion?

What can be done to reduce the number of runway incursions?


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  EX. 3 Using the expressions given, explain to a partner what the different
planes are doing.

No movement
Face-----I´m facing……
Approach-----We are approaching…….
Push back
Moving around
Roll for take off--------There is somebody taking off
Touch down


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EX. 1 Read the text and answer the questions, then complete the flight

A. Who did the pilot work for?

B. What navigational equipment did he have on board?

C. Why did he leave Pago Pago at 0300?

D. Why did he fly on his compass from Ono-l-Lau to Norfolk Island?

E. When did the pilot realize there was a problem?

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Now complete the flight plan.

EX. 2 Read the text and decide it the sentences are true or false.

The federal aviation administration (FAA) reported that two planes preparing to land at
O’Hare International airport aborted their landings after a pilot spotted coyotes near the
runway. The flights, operated by United and American airlines, needed to go around,
but landed safely on their second attempts. The pilots were about a quarter-mile from
O’Hare with their landing gear down when they were warned. The pilot of a flight
landing ahead of them saw the coyotes on the grass margins and alerted the controller.

It is not unusual for coyotes to end up on runways — they’re seen at O’Hare once or
twice a week. Coyotes, which can weigh as much as 50 lb, can cause significant
damage to aircraft. In October 2005, a 19-passenger Beechcraft 1900 turboprop hit a
coyote on take-off at the Ogdensburg airport. The nose gear collapsed, and the plane
skidded to a stop. It was declared a total loss, according to FAA records. The FAA said
reports of planes hitting wildlife went up four times from 1,744 in 1990 to 7,136 in 2005
because there are more flights, more wildlife near airports and more reports from
pilots. In the same period, 172 people were injured and nine died in such incidents,
which resulted in $233 million in losses. Coyotes know how to live in the urban
environment, and while fewer coyotes are trapped, more are coming closer to cities to
hunt rabbits and birds. The coyotes can be detected by sensors and CCTV and then
often need scaring away by airport security workers in cars. But the best way to keep
coyotes away is to make sure that the airport’s perimeter fences are secure so they
can´t dig under them.

Airplanes struck wildlife 66,392 times in the USA from 1990 to 2005. More than 97% of
those incidents involved birds. Strikes involving other animals were:
Deer — 652; coyotes — 198; alligators — 14; house cats — 11.

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A. Pilots were warned about the animals 15 minutes before landing at O’Hare.

B. A Beechcraft 1900 arriving at Ogdensburg airport collided with a coyote

C. Wildlife strikes went up 80% between 1990 and 2005.

D. Airport workers drive at coyotes to scare them away.

E. Wildlife strikes in the USA included some pets.

Scan the report to find what the following figures refer to.

A. ¼ mile

B. 50lb

C. 172

D. $233, 000,000

E. 97%

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EX. 3 Read and answer the questions.

Pan Am 1736 and KLM 4805 27 March 1977 Tenerife, Canary Islands

After a bomb explosion at Las Palmas, Pan Am 1736 and KLM 4S05 (both B747s) were
diverted to Los Rodeos Airport in Tenerife, a regional airport with only one runway and one
major taxiway. Los Rodeos had difficulty accommodating the number of large aircraft that had
been diverted there. The diverted aircraft were parked on the major taxiway, making it
unavailable. When Las Palmas re-opened, the KLM aircraft was instructed to taxi to the end of
the runway and to turn around. The Pan Am was instructed to taxi along the same runway to
exit onto a taxiway, and then to enter a parallel taxiway. During this time visibility was limited to
1000 feet by low clouds and fog. The KLM flight received its departure clearance, but possibly
mistaking it for a take-off clearance, began its take-off run. The Pan Am flight. in the meantime,
had missed its turnoff, and was still on the runway. Just as it was lifting off, the KLM flight struck
the Pan Am aircraft. Both planes burst into flames, killing all 248 people aboard the KLM and
335 of the 396 people aboard the Pan Am.

1. What plane was diverted to Los 4. The KLM aircraft was instructed to
Rodeos? taxi…

A. Pan Am 1736 A. When the taxiway was free of fog.

B. None of them. B. When Los Rodeos airport was
C. KLM 4S05 reopened.
D. Both of them. C. When Las Palmas airport returned
to its normal activity.
2. Why were the planes diverted? D. When the ATC was out for lunch.
A. Because Tenerife had only one 5. What did the KLM probably mistake?
major taxiway.
B. One of them had a bomb on board. A. Its Runway.
C. To avoid a bomb threat. B. Its departure clearance.
D. There was a bomb explosion in their C. Its take-off run.
original destination. D. Its taxiway.

3. Where were the diverted aircrafts 6. What did the PAN-AM miss?
A. Its departure clearance.
A. On the major taxiway. B. Its take-off run.
B. Along the same runway. C. Its turnoff.
C. On the apron. D. Its Runway.
D. On the parking lot.


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EX-1 Complete this report with the words from the box.

EX-2 Write a short report to your boss relating to an incident with a security
car crossing the taxiway while your plane was about to start the take-off

o The ATC warned you about the situation.

o The pilot managed to stop the plane and avoid the accident.
o Nobody was hurt, but you informed the Security Deputy that you were going to
fill in this Incident Report.


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Listen to the clearances and check whether the read-backs below are correct.

A. Cleared Montreal via ALBIX 2G departure, climb to 8000 ft. Cross METRO 5000 or
below, TransAir 901.

B. Cleared Málaga ROBIN 2 departure. Flight level 280. Request level change en route.
Squawk 4311, Interflight 752.

C. Saran Air 224 cleared to London Heathrow via BIGGIN 3M, then as filed. Maintain
300C, expect 6000 ten minutes after departure. Squawk 2642. Slot time 1112.

D. Cleared Bangor via MONTY 1R departure and flight planned route. Climb to flight level
180, squawk 2235, TransAir 105.


A JetBlue Airways airliner that blew out its main landing gear tyres after making a hard
landing at Sacramento International Airport on Aug. 26 had its parking brake on,
according to the National Transportation Safety Board in a preliminary finding. The
airplane’s Flight Data Recorder indicated that the parking brake became engaged
during the landing and remained engaged throughout the landing. The NTSB said
neither pilot recalled any abnormal indications or warnings associated with the braking
system prior to landing.
The first officer was flying the plane during the landing and the captain took over when
the problem occurred. The airplane began a rapid deceleration and the first officer told
the captain it felt like a main landing gear tyre blew out. Around the same time, air
traffic control tower personnel reported observing sparks and smoke around the main
landing gear.
Eighty six passengers and five crew members were evacuated. According to the report
seven passengers received minor injuries. Neither of the two pilots nor the three flight
attendants were hurt.
Besides blowing out the main landing gear tyres, a minor tyre-related fire erupted.
A Federal Aviation Administration inspection revealed that damage was limited to four
deflated main landing gear tyres and the wheel rims, which were ground down.
Damage to the tyres showed evidence of being locked on touchdown.
Damage to the runway was limited to “minor grazing” of its surface.

A. Which airline was involved in the incident?

B. Where did it happen?
C. What does the NTSB think caused the incident?
D. How did the pilots discover there was a problem?
E. How did the ATCs become aware of the problem?
F. What other damage was caused and how did it happen?

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A- JetBlue Airways.
B- Sacramento International Airport
C- The parking brake.
D-The airplane began a rapid deceleration and the first officer told the
captain it felt like a main landing gear tyre blew out.
E- They observed sparks and smoke around the main landing gear.
F. Damage to the runway, limited to “minor grazing” of its surface.


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