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ASME B31.

3
Para. Description
328.2.2 WPS qualification by others
328.2.3 Welder performance qualification by others
328.3.2 Weld backing material
328.3.3 Consumable inserts
328.4.2 End preparation
328.4.3 Alignment
328.5.2 Fillet and socket welds
328.5.4 Welded branch connection
330 Preheating
– Table 330.1.1 Preheat temperature

331.1.3 PWHT governing thickness for thickness branch connection


Table 331.1.1 PWHT requirement
Table 331.1.3 Exemption to mandatory PWHT (P1 Material are
exempted PWHT)

335.2.3 Bolt length (flange joints)


Table Acceptance criteria for welds
341.3.2

341.3.4 Progressive sampling for examination


Fig. 314.3.2 Typical weld imperfections
345.4.2 Hydrostatic leak test (test pressure 1.5 x design pressure)
345.5.4 Pneumatic leak test (test pressure 110% of design pressure)
345.9 Alternative leak test
ASME IX
Para. Description
QW-142 Special Examination for Welders
– RT or UT may be substituted for mechanical test

QW-153 WPS Tension Test acceptance criteria


– if the specimen breaks in the base metal outside the weld or weld interface, the test shall be
accepted as meeting the requirement, provide the strength is not more the 5% below the minimum
specified tensile strength of the base metal

QW 202.3 Weld repair and buildup


– WPS qualified on groove weld shall be applicable for weld
repair to groove the fillet weld and for buildup (no limit thickness for fillet weld)

QW-250 Welding variables


– essential. Supplementary essential and non-essential
QW 253 WPS variables
QW 254 – SMAW
QW 255 – SAW
QW 256 – GMAW & FCAW
– GTAW

QW 302.2 WQT qualified by RT


– the min of coupon to be examined shall be 150mm

QW 304.1 Examination for WQT on production weld


QW 304.2 WQT on production weld if failure to meet RT, the entire
production weld made by the welder shall be repair by qualified welder

QW 353 Welding variables for welders


QW 354 – SMAW
QW 355 – SAW
QW 356 – FCAW
– GTAW

QW 406 WPS Qualification Pre-Heat & PWHT


QW 416 Welding variables welder performance
QW-420 Material groupings P and S number
QW/QB 422 Ferrous / non-ferrous P & S grouping of base metals
QW 423 Alternate base material for WQT
QW 424 Base metals for WPS
Table QW Grouping of electrode and welding rod F-number
432

QW 433 Alternate F-number for welder performance qualification


QW 442 A-Numbers classification of ferrous weld metal
QW 451 WPS qualification thickness limit and test specimens
QW 452.1 WQT thickness range
(b)

QW 452.3 WQT diameter range


QW-461.9 WQT position and diameter limitation
AWS D1.1
Para. Description
Table 3.1 Base metal grouping
Table 3.2 Filler metal for matching strength to table 3.1
Table 3.3 Minimum preheat and interpass temperature requirement
Table 3.6 Pre-qualified WPS requirement
4.9.1.1 WPS Visual Inspection of groove weld
4.9.1.2 WPS Visual Inspection of fillet weld
4.22.3.1 WQT RT test
Table 4.1 WPS Plate Qualification – Production welding qualified position
Table 4.2 WPS Plate Qualification – CJP groove weld thickness & diameter
qualified range

Table 4.4 WPS Plate Qualification fillet weld qualified range


Fig 4.15 WPS Qualification fillet weld soundness test
Table 4.5 PQR essential variables for SMAW, SAW, GMAW, FCAW & GTAW

Table 4.6 PQR essential variables for CVN testing (SMAW, SAW, GMAW,
FCAW & GTAW)

Table 4.8 Material group qualify in PQR and unlisted material


Table 4.9 Code-Approved Base Material & Filler Metals

Table 4.10 Welder and welding operator plate position range


Table 4.11 Welder and welding operator thickness and diameter range
Table 4.12 Welder performance essential variables
Table 4.13 Electrode classification group
Table 4.14 CVN test requirements
Table 4.15 CVN test temperature reduction
Fig 4.1 Position of groove weld
5.21.1 Maximum root gap
5.21.3 Butt joint alignment
5.8 PWHT
Table 5.2 PWHT Minimum holding time
Table 5.3 Alternate PWHT
Table 5.7 Minimum fillet weld sizes
5.21.4.2 Correction of root opening
9.24 Tolerance of joint dimensions - Tubular splice joint
– No two girth welds shall be located closer than one pipe diameter or 1m whichever is less. There
shall be no more than 2 girth welds in any 3m

Table 6.1 Visual inspection acceptance criteria


Table 9.16 Visual inspection acceptance criteria for tubular
9.11.2 Tubular TKY connection
Fig 9.16 TKY improved weld profile
Table 9.8 Pre-qualified joint and groove weld in Tubular TYK
Table 9.9 WPS tubular qualification – position qualified at site
Table 9.10 WPS tubular qualification – CJP groove Welds, thickness &
diameter qualified range

Table 9.11 WPS tubular qualification – PJP groove welds, thickness qualified
range

Table 9.12 WPS tubular qualified – fillet welds, thickness qualified range

Table 9.13 WQT tubular qualification – position qualified range


Table 9.14 WQT tubular qualification – thickness & diameter qualified range

Table 9.15 Tubular root opening tolerance butt joints without backing
Table 4.6 WPS qualification 3G with CVN test not qualified for all position

C-4.8 Essential Variables


PTS 31.38.01.31 October 2011
Para. Description

Cutting and bevelling.


• For Carbon Steel/Flame(or arc) - shall be reasonably smooth and all oxides shall be removed
from the surface by grinding to bright metal
Section 2.2.1 • For low-alloy steel, after flame cutting a minimum of 2mm of material shall be removed from the
cut surface by grinding.
• For stainless steel, flame cutting shall not be used but plasma or water cutting may be used. The
surface shall be ground to bright metal after plasma cutting.
Weld bevels for butt welds of pipes and fittings shall be in accordance with ASME
Supplement to PTS B16.25. Shop-bevelling of field welds is not required if a make-up length (extra length
31.38.01.31 for field cutting to size) is provided. In these cases, bevels shall be prepared after
Section 2.2.1 cutting the relevant pipe spool to the required length. Cutting oil shall be removed.
Pipes for socket weld joints shall be cut square and burrs removed.

WELDING
In addition to the welding requirements of ASME B31.3, the following shall apply:
• The Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process shall be employed for root welds
of all pipes and for welds of pipes, branch fittings and flanges in sizes DN 50 and
Section 2.4.1 smaller.
• For stainless steel piping without back welding of the internal side, the root pass shall
be carried out by the GTAW process with an inert gas purge which shall be maintained
until completion of the second pass.
• Weld connections for welded valves and steam traps shall be in accordance with
(Appendix 3).

Welding of duplex stainless steel


The quality of duplex stainless steel welds very much depends on heat-input control.
The following shall be adhered to so as to ensure that the duplex welds meet the
intended quality requirements:
1. All configurations of weld geometry to be encountered shall have a Procedure Quality
Record (PQR) test performed – including fillet, attachment, and longitudinal and
circumferential welds.
2. Back welding to repair any mismatch (Hi/Low) is not permitted, unless the
backwelding
Section 2.4.5.6 procedure is covered by a qualified PQR.
3. Repair weld procedures for half wall thickness and cap repairs also require a PQR.
4. For the qualification of fillet and attachment welds, only metallurgical and hardness
testing is required, provided they are welded with the same consumables as qualified in
a butt weld PQR.
5. Full mechanical tests and metallurgical tests should be performed on half wall
thickness repair welds.
6. Weld cap repairs shall be subject to the same requirements as for fillet welds.
7. Attachment welds in a vibrating environment shall be designed as sweepolet.
8. In addition to the mechanical tests for PQR validation, metallurgical tests also are
required on an intermetallic phase count, whereby more than 3 % intermetallic phase is
not permitted and the PQR is rejected.
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT
Post weld heat treatment (PWHT) methodology and procedure shall be in compliance
with the requirements of PTS 30.10.60.18.
Section 2.4.5.6 Prior to the start of fabrication, PWHT Procedure shall be submitted for review by
OWNER. PWHT procedure shall include information on heating and cooling rates,
maximum thermal gradients, and calibration of thermocouples, thermocouple locations
and method of their attachment.

WELDING
Welding repair and remedial procedures:
All repairs shall be executed by qualified welders according to approved welding
Section 2.4.6 procedures and all requirements of this specification shall be met. Weld defects shall
be repaired in accordance with the requirements of relevant design code.
(Super) Duplex stainless steels shall only be subject to 1 weld repair unless otherwise
agreed with OWNER.

INJURIOUS SURFACE DEFECTS


Injurious surface defects shall be completely removed by grinding. The ground out area
shall be repaired by welding if defect removal results in reduction of pipe wall below
Section 2.4.6 minimum thickness. The repaired area shall be ground smooth to the pipe contour.
Fabricator or manufacturer shall not repair any repeated injurious defect without
OWNER's written approval.
Unless otherwise specified, surface defects are considered injurious if the defect
extends below the specified minimum wall thickness or is more than 1.6mm in depth.
ocal repairs shall normally be inspected 100% by the method prescribed for the
Section 2.4.6 original weld with due regard to confirming that the original defect has been removed.
Every possible care shall be taken with repairs to minimize welding stresses.
Hardness Testing shall be performed at weld metal and heat affected zone (HAZ) for
Section 2.4.6 each weld repair attempt for production weld required to be hardness tested as
specified in Appendix 4.”

POSITIVE MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION (PMI)


If (3.5) is not completely adhered to, PMI tests shall be performed on completed
equipment or assembled parts of equipment at such time as to ensure that no material
and construction/fabrication changes are made.
PTS 31.38.01.31 An approved third party contracted by the Vendor shall carry out PMI. An action plan for
Section 3.6 PMI testing shall be submitted by the Vendor for the approval of the Principal.
Supplement to PTS
31.38.01.31 All alloy steel pipes shall be PMI tested prior to issuance for fabrication.
Section 3.6

All inspection and testing is the responsibility of the Vendor. All dimensions shall be
checked to ensure that the fabrication meets the requirements of the isometric drawings
within the specified tolerances. Inspection shall be carried out before any paint, coating,
or lining is applied.
Section 4.1 Inspection of welds shall be carried out after final heat treatment in accordance with
(Appendix 4). The methods to be employed for inspection, the acceptance criteria for
welds, and the progressive examination shall all be in accordance with ASME B31.3.
For Positive Material Identification (PMI), see (3.6).
PRESSURE TESTING
PTS 31.38.01.31 A piping system in category D fluid service may be subjected to an initial service leak
Section 4.2 test in accordance with ASME B31.3 requirement with OWNER approval, in lieu of the
hydrostatic leak test.
Test pressures shall be as stated on the isometric drawings, see (2.1).
Pressure testing may be performed on fully painted piping spools (including welds)
provided that:
- the welds consist of at least two layers (root and fill run) for stainless steels, and three
layers for all other materials, in accordance with a Welding Procedure Specification
qualified for the application;
- the test is not considered to be a sensitive leak test in accordance with ASME B31.3;
- the piping spool has been fully inspected (visual examination, non-destructive
PTS 31.38.01.31 examination and positive material identification, where specified) and released
Section 4.2 for pressure test.

The first 10 production welds made by each welder shall be examined before that
welder performs any further welding. If progressive examination of a welder's work is
required on the basis of ASME B31.3, the follow up examinations shall first of all be
made on welds made by the same welding procedure as used to make the defective
weld.
PTS 31.38.01.31 The above "first 10 welds" and any progressive examinations shall be in addition to the
Section 4.3.1 10 % examination requirement.

Suplement to PTS
31.38.01.31
Section 4.3.1 General Examination shall be performed in accordance with ASME BPV Code, Section V.
VISUAL EXAMINATION (VT) of Branch Connections
Appendix 4 specifies that all welds shall be visually examined.
Examination requirements for branch connections not specified in the piping classes
Section 4.3.2 shall be approved by the Contractor.

FERRITE NUMBER (FN) MEASUREMENT


Appendix 4 specifies the percentage of production welds to have their Ferrite Number
measured.
Section 4.3.6 The Ferrite Number of the deposited weld metal of all austenitic stainless steel shop
and field welds shall be in the range 3 FN to 8 FN. For duplex stainless steels, the
Ferrite Number for the deposited weld metal shall be in the range 35 FN to 70 FN.
Ferrite Numbers shall be measured in accordance with ISO 8249.

GENERAL
Each welding procedure qualification shall include hardness tests (see 4.4.2).
Appendix 4 specifies the percentage of production welds to be hardness tested. Those
welds shall be hardness tested as follows:
• At least one reading per weld shall be taken on piping of size DN 100
Section 4.4.1 and smaller;
• At least two readings per weld shall be taken on piping of size DN 150
through DN 300;
• at least one reading every 400 mm of weld length shall be taken on piping
over size DN 300,.
The highest hardness for each weld shall be recorded on the spool sheets for the
Principal's review and record.

DOCUMENTATION / SHOP DETAIL DRAWINGS


The EPCC CONTRACTOR shall make shop drawings for all the piping fabricated. Shop
detail drawings shall show the spool number, materials, dimensions fabrication details
and the applicable code and procedures
Supplement to PTS A number, consisting of the plant or unit number, commodity symbol, line number and
31.38.01.31 spool piece number, shall identify each pipe spool. Each spool shall be detailed on a
Section 6.1 separate sheet.
The EPCC CONTRACTOR shall prepare a complete index of all piping spool drawings,
referencing each piping spool drawing to the piping drawings from which it was
prepared.
Location of field welds between shop fabricated spool pieces shall be shown on the
piping Isometric Drawings
SPOOL IDENTIFICATION
Spools shall be identified by a detail number comprising of the piping system line
number and spool suffix which must be waterproof and painted or stencilled in
Supplement to PTS characters at least 50mm high.
31.38.01.31 For piping systems size DN40 and below shall be identified with stainless steel
Section 6.2 weatherand tear resistant tags.

RECORDS AND REPORTS


The following records, fully identified with the specific material or part of the piping
presented, shall be made available by EPCC Contractor as a minimum for reference or
examination by OWNER.
- Certificates attesting that all quality control requirements of the applicable
Supplement to PTS code and of the engineering design have been met.
31.38.01.31 - Pyrometer charts and records of heat treatment.
Section 6.3 - Radiographic films, material test reports (MTR’s) and radiograph examination
reports / logs.
- Results of magnetic particle and liquid penetrant examinations.
- Results of any other records of hydrostatic, pneumatic and Brinnel hardness
tests.
- Results of any other supplemental types of examination test or analysis
specified.

- Welding related documents


• Welding Procedure Specifications ( WPS)
• Applicable Procedure Qualification Records (PQR)
Supplement to PTS
• Operator welding qualifications test results
31.38.01.31
- Weld repair procedure
Section 6.3
- Weld maps
- Log of identification symbols of the welders or welding operators
- Shop detail drawings
- Positive Material Identification records
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TYPE PRESSURE VESSELS
OF ASME SEC VIII, DIVISION 1: 2001 EDITION
DISCONTINUITY FULL RADIOGRAPHY SPOT RADIOGRAPH

CRACKS NONE ALLOWED UW-51 NONE ALLOWED UW-

INCOMPLETE
PENETRATION: NONE ALLOWED UW-51 NONE ALLOWED UW-
ROOT PASS

INCOMPLETE
PENETRATION:
DUE TO HI/LO FIT-UP
NONE ALLOWED UW-51 NONE ALLOWED UW-
OR CROSS PENETRATION

(IDP) OR (ICP)

INCOMPLETE FUSION:
NONE ALLOWED UW-51 NONE ALLOWED UW-
ROOT PASS OR SURFACE
(IF)

INCOMPLETE FUSION:
SIDEWALL OR BETWEEN NONE ALLOWED UW-51 NONE ALLOWED UW-
BEADS(COLD LAP) (IF)

NOT SPECIFICALLY COVERED NOT SPECIFICALLY COV


BURN THROUGH (BT) (See Elongated or Rounded (See Elongated or Roun
Indications Below) Indications Below)

UW-51 UW-51

VT VT
Smoothly contoured concavity permitted if equal Smoothly contoured concavity
INTERNAL CONCAVITY weld reinforcement is provided. if equal weld reinforcement is
(IC) UW-35, d UW-35, d
RT RT
See Elongated or Rounded indications below See Elongated or Rounded indicat
UW-51 UW-52
VT (UW-35) VT (UW-35)
The weld must be free of ripples, grooves, over- The weld must be free of ripples, gr
UNDERCUT: lap, abrupt ridges or valleys. Reduction in the abrupt ridges or valleys. Reduction
ROOT OR CAP PASS (UC) thickness from welding shall not exceed 1/32" thickness from welding shall not exc
or 10%t. RT or 10%t. RT
(See Elongated or Rounded Indications Below) (See Elongated or Rounded Indications Belo
UW-51 UW-52
Nominal Thickness Max Length Maximum lengh of 2/3t,with 3/4" Ma
GENERAL ELONGATED < 3/4" 1/4" total length is t in a length of 6t with

INDICATIONS AND/OR 3/4" to 2 1/4" 1/3t maximum. If indications are aligne


SLAG INCLUSIONS: (SI) >2 1/4" 3/4" of the longest dimensions of all indic
Elongated Slag Inclusions(ESI) Aligned indications shall not exceed t in a length not exceed t in a length of 6t and th
Isolated Slag Inclusions(ISI) of 12t, unless the distance between successive indications are separated by at leas
indications exceeds 6L. Any indication less than 1/4 " is acc

UW-51 UW-52

(See Note 4) (See Note 6) (See Note 4) (Se


Max. size of any indication shall be the Rounded indications are not a facto
smaller of 1/4" or 5/32". Isolated indications acceptability of welds not required
seperated from adjacent indications by 1" or fully radiographed.
more, may be the smaller of 1/3 t of 1/4".
POROSITY OR For thicknesses greater than 2" the max.
ROUNDED INDICATIONS permissible size of isolated indications is 3/8".
(P), (CP) & (HB) Aligned indications shall not exceed t in a
length of 12 t. Clusters shall not exceed the
lesser of 1" or 2t. If more than one cluster, the
sum of lengths shall not exceed 1" in a 6"
length weld.
UW-51 UW-52
(See Note 3) (See Note 4)

Cat. B & C
NOM. THICKNESS Other Welds NOM. THICKNESS
butt welds

less than 3/32" 3/32" 1/32" less than 3/32"


WELD REINFORCEMENT 3/32" to 3/16" incl. 1/8" 1/16" 3/32" to 3/16" incl.
(VT CRITERIA) Over 3/16" to 1/2" incl. 5/32" 3/32" Over 3/16" to 1/2" incl.
Over 1/2" to 1" incl. 3/16" 3/32" Over 1/2" to 1" incl.
Over 1" to 2" incl. 1/4" 1/8" Over 1" to 2" incl.
Over 2" to 3" incl. 1/4" 5/32" Over 2" to 3" incl.
Over 3" to 4" incl. 1/4" 7/32" Over 3" to 4" incl.
Over 4" to 5" incl. 1/4" 1/4" Over 4" to 5" incl.
Over 5" 5/16" 5/16" Over 5"

NOM. THICKNESS CIRCUM. JOINT LONG. JOINT NOM. THICKNESS


≤1/2" 1/4t 1/4t ≤1/2"
>1/2" to 3/4" 1/4t 1/8" >1/2" to 3/4"
>3/4" to1 1/2" 3/16" 1/8" >3/4" to1 1/2"
MISALIGNMENT >1 1/2" to 2" 1/8t 1/8" >1 1/2" to 2"
(VT CRITERIA) over 2" lesser of 1/8t lesser of 1/16t over 2"
or 3/4" or 3/8"
(note 8) (note 8)
ACCUMULATIONS OF
NOT COVERED NOT COVERED
DISCONTINUITIES
For UT: See code case 2235-2, Appendix 12, For UT: See code case 2235-2, Appe
GENERAL NOTES AND UW-11(a) and UW-51(b). UW-11(a) and UW-51(b).
OTHER NDE

Note 1: Tw is the nominal wall thickness of the thinner of two components being joined by a butt weld.
Note 2: The height of reinforcement or internal protrusion in any plane through the weld shall be within the limits shown.
Note 3: Reference ASME Section VIII, Division 1 (Appendix 4).
Note 4: "t" is the thickness of the weld, excluding reinforcement. For butt welds, joining two members of different thickn
the weld, (t) is the thinner of the two thicknesses.
ELS PROCESS PIPING
001 EDITION ASME B31.3, 1999 EDITION (See Note 7)
SPOT RADIOGRAPHY SEVERE CYCLIC CONDITIONS(100% RADIOGRAPHY)

NONE ALLOWED UW-52 NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

NONE ALLOWED UW-52 NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

NONE ALLOWED UW-52 NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

NONE ALLOWED UW-52 NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

NONE ALLOWED UW-52 NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

NOT SPECIFICALLY COVERED NOT SPECIFICALLY COVERED


(See Elongated or Rounded (See Elongated or Rounded
Indications Below) Indications Below)

UW-51 Table 341.3.2

VT Internal concavity shall not reduce the total


oothly contoured concavity permitted thickness of the joint, including allowable
equal weld reinforcement is provided reinforcement, to less than the thickness of the
UW-35, d thinner of the components being joined.
RT
ee Elongated or Rounded indications below Table 341.3.2
UW-52
VT (UW-35)
d must be free of ripples, grooves, overlap,
dges or valleys. Reduction in the
s from welding shall not exceed 1/32" NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2
NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2
RT
ated or Rounded Indications Below)
UW-52
m lengh of 2/3t,with 3/4" Max. Maximun Maximum individual length: 1/3Tw
gth is t in a length of 6t with 3/4" Maximum width: ≤ 1/3 Tw and 3/32"

m. If indications are aligned, the sum Maximum Cumulative length: ≤ Tw in any 12 Tw of


ngest dimensions of all indications shall weld length
eed t in a length of 6t and the longest
ns are separated by at least 3L. Table 341.3.2
cation less than 1/4 " is acceptable. (See note 1)

UW-52

(See Note 4) (See Note 6)


indications are not a factor in the
bility of welds not required to be
ographed.

(See ASME Section VIII, Div. 1, App4)

Table 341.3.2

UW-52

Cat. B & C butt Tw Max. Height


Other Welds
welds ≤ 1/4" 1/16"
3/32" 1/32" >1/4" to 1/2" 1/8"
1/8" 1/16" >1/2" to 1" 5/32"
5/32" 3/32" Over 1" 3/16"
3/16" 3/32"
1/4" 1/8" (See note 1 & 2)
1/4" 5/32"
1/4" 7/32"
1/4" 1/4"
5/16" 5/16"

CIRCUM. JOINT LONG. JOINT The inside diameter of components at ends to be


1/4t 1/4t joined must be aligned within the engineering design
1/4t 1/8" and weld proceedure. If external surfaces of the two
3/16" 1/8" components are not aligned, the weld shall be tapered
1/8t 1/8" between the two surfaces.
lesser of 1/8t lesser of 1/16t 320.4.3
or 3/4" or 3/8"

NOT COVERED NOT COVERED

See code case 2235-2, Appendix 12, Ultrasonicacceptance criteria is given in


) and UW-51(b). para. 344.6.2

utt weld. Note 6: "L" is the length of the longest indication under consideration.
be within the limits shown. Note 7: B31.3 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA- Where two limiting values are separated by "and", t
Where the two sets of values are separated by "or", the lager of the values is accept
members of different thicknesses at Note 8: Any misalignment within these tolerances shall be faired at a 3:1 taper or re-aligne
Note 9: (for B31.1) tm = whichever is applicable: 1) as defined in Para. 104.1.2(A) 2) the m
(or the thinner of the two) when the joint is between two compoments.
PROCESS PIPING
1.3, 1999 EDITION (See Note 7)
NORMAL FLUID SERVICE(5% RADIOGRAPHY)

NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

Maximum depth of 1/32" and 20% of wall thickness


Maximum length of 1.5" in 6" of weld
NONE ALLOWED IN LONGITUDINAL WELDS
Table 341.3.2

Maximum depth of 1/32" and 20% of wall thickness


Maximum length of 1.5" in 6" of weld
NONE ALLOWED IN LONGITUDINAL WELDS

Table 341.3.2

NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

NONE ALLOWED Table 341.3.2

NOT SPECIFICALLY COVERED


(See Elongated or Rounded
Indications Below)

Table 341.3.2

Internal concavity shall not reduce the total


thickness of the joint, including allowable
reinforcement, to less than the thickness of the
thinner of the components being joined.

Table 341.3.2

VT ONLY: Maximum depth of 1/32" and 25%


of wall thickness.
NONE ALLOWED IN LONGITUDINAL WELDS
Table 341.3.2

Maximum individual length: 2Tw


Maximum width: ≤ 1/2 Tw and 1/8"

Maximum Cumulative length: ≤ 4Tw in any 6" of


weld length

Table 341.3.2
(See note 1)

For thickness ≤ 1/4" see ASME Section VIII, Div 1:


UW-51 (Appendix 4.
For thickness >1/4", all dimensions in Appendix 4
are multiplied by 1.5(i.e. Maximum size of indications
shall be .375t or .234".

Table 341.3.2
(See Note 3) (See Note 4)
Tw Max. Height
≤ 1/4" 1/16"
>1/4" to 1/2" 1/8"
>1/2" to 1" 5/32"
Over 1" 3/16"

(See note 1 & 2)

The inside diameter of components at ends to be


joined must be aligned within the engineering design
and weld proceedure. If external surfaces of the two
components are not aligned, the weld shall be tapered
between the two surfaces.
320.4.3

NOT COVERED

Ultrasonicacceptance criteria is given in


para. 344.6.2
For Category M service this column applies but
the coverage is 20% RT.
ation under consideration.
e two limiting values are separated by "and", the lesser of the values determines acceptance.
arated by "or", the lager of the values is acceptable.
rances shall be faired at a 3:1 taper or re-aligned.
able: 1) as defined in Para. 104.1.2(A) 2) the min. wall thicknessof the component or fitting
joint is between two compoments.
PIPELINES
API STD. 1104, 19th EDITION

Linear Cracks NOT ALLOWED.


Shallow crater/star cracks ≤ 5/32" long are
acceptable (9.3.10)
Maximum of 1" length for individual
indication; Combined total of indications
maximum of 1" length in any continuous
12" of weld, or 8% of the weld length if less
than 12". (9.3.1)
IPD - Maximum individual length of 2".
Maximum aggregate length of 3" in12" of
continuous weld. ICP - Max. individual
length 2". Max. aggtregate lingth of 2" in
and 12" of continuous weld.
(9.3.2 and 9.3.3)
Maximum of 1" length for individual
indication; Combined total of indications
maximum of 1" length in any continuous
12" of weld, or 8% of the weld length if less
than 12". (9.3.2)
Maximum of 2" length for individual
indication; Combined total of indications
maximum of 2" length in any continuous
12" of weld, or 8% of the weld length if less
than 12". (9.3.5)
Maximum dimension shall not exceed1/4" or the
thinnest of the pipewall thicknesses being joined.
The sum of the maximum dimensions of separate
burn-thoughs shall not exceed 1/2" in any continuous
12" of weld, or the total weld length, whichever is
less. The density of any oportion or it's image
shall not exceed that of the thinnest adjacent
base metal. (9.3.7)
For an area exceeding the density of the
thinnest base metal, wee the criteria for
Burn-Through.

(9.3.6)

The total length of internal and external


undercut shall not exceed 2" in 12" of weld.
The total accumulative shall not exceed 1/6
of the weld length.
(9.3.11)

Max. width of ESI is 1/16". Max. combined length of


ISI indications shall not exceed 8% of weld length.

FOR PIPE OF <2.375"


Length of ESI indications shall not exceed 3 Tw.
Combined length of ISI indications shall not exceed
2 Tw and the width not to exceed 1/2 Tw.
FOR PIPE OF ≥2.375"
Length of ESI indications shall not exceed 2" in any
continuous 12" of weld. Combined length of ISI
indications shall not exceed 1/2" in any continuous
12" weld. Max. width of ISI is 1/8". Max. of 4 ISI
indications with 1/8" width in any 12" of weld.
(9.3.8)
Spherical:
Max. dimension 1/8" or 25% Tw (9.3.9.2)
Cluster:
Max. 1/2" diameter with max. individual pore
dimension of 1/16". Max. combined length 1/2" in
any 12" of weld. (9.3.9.3)
Hollow Bead
Max length is 1/2". Combined length of indications
shall not exceed 2"in any continuous 12" of weld.
Individual indication greater than 1/4" in length shall
be separated by ≥ 2". Max. combined length of
indications ≤ 8% of weld length.
(9.3.9.4)

NOT COVERED

Maximum of 1/8". Greater offset caused by


dimensional variations shall be equally distributed
arounr the circumference of the pipe.
(7.2)

Maximum of 2"in any 12" or 8% of weld length


excluding high-lo condition.
The company may reject any weld that appears to
meet these standards, if in it's opinion, the flaw
could be detrimental.
For UT: Acceptance Criteria 9.6.1

of the values determines acceptance.

hicknessof the component or fitting


STORAGE TANKS BOILERS
API STD. 650, TENTH EDITION ASME Section I, 2001 EDITION

NONE ALLOWED NONE ALLOWED


(See ASME Section VIII, Div 1, UW-51) PW-51

NONE ALLOWED NONE ALLOWED


(5.3.2.1) PW-51

NONE ALLOWED NONE ALLOWED


(5.3.2.1) PW-51

NONE ALLOWED NONE ALLOWED


(5.3.2.1) PW-51

NONE ALLOWED NONE ALLOWED


(5.3.2.1) PW-51

NOT SPECIFICALLY COVERED NOT SPECIFICALLY COVERED


(See elongated or rounded indications below) (See elongated or rounded indications below)

Smoothly contoured concavity permitted if


(See ASME Section VIII, Div 1, UW-51) equal weld reinforcement is provided.

PW-35.1

VT VT (PW-35)
Verticle Butt Joints: 1/64" Maximum The weld must be free of ripples, groves, overlaps,
Horizontal Butt Joints: 1/32" Maximum abrupt ridges or valleys. Reduction in the thickness
Attachment welds: 1/64" Maximum from welding shall not exceed 1/32" or 10%t.
RT
RT (See elongated or rounded indications below)
(See ASME Section VIII, Div 1, UW-51) PW-51
Nominal Thickness Max Length
< 3/4" 1/4"

3/4" to 2 1/4" 1/3t


>2 1/4" 3/4"
Aligned indications shall not exceed t in a length
(See ASME Section VIII, Div 1, UW-51) of 12t, unless the distance between successive
indications exceeds 6L.

PW-51

(See Note 4) (See Note 6)


Max. size of any indication shall be the
smaller of 1/4" or 5/32". Isolated indications
seperated from adjacent indications by 1" or
more, may be the smaller of 1/3 t of 1/4".
For thicknesses greater than 2" the max.
(See ASME Section VIII, Div 1, UW-51) permissible size of isolated indications is 3/8".
Aligned indications shall not exceed t in a
length of 12 t. Clusters shall not exceed the
lesser of 1" or 2t. If more than one cluster, the
sum of lengths shall not exceed 1" in a 6"
length weld.
PW-51
(See Note 3) (See Note 4)
Maximum Reinforcement, in.
Plate thickness Max Reinforcement
NOM. THICKNESS CIRCUM. JOINT OTHER WELDS
<1/8" 3/32" 3/32"
≤1/2" 1/16" >1/8 TO 3/16" 1/8" 3/32"
>1/2" to 1" 3/32" >3/16" TO 1/2" 5/32" 3/32"
>1" 1/8" >1/2" TO 1" 3/16" 3/32"
>1" TO 2" 1/8"
>2" TO 3" The greater of 5/32"
Note: These parameters are from the RT criteria in >3" TO 4" 1/4" or 1/8 times 7/32"
Para. 6.1.3.4. For general requirements see >4" TO 5" the width of the 1/4"
Para. 5.2.1.5. Over 5" weld, in inches. 5/16"

VERT. MISALIGNMENT HORIZ. MISALIGNMENT NOM. THICKNESS CIRCUM. JOINT LONG. JOINT
Thickness Maximum Thickness Maximum ≤1/2" 1/4t 1/4t
≤5/8" 1/16" ≤5/16" max. 1/16" >1/2" to 3/4" 1/4t 1/8"
>3/4" to1 1/2" 3/16" 1/8"
> 5/8" lesser of > 5/16" 20% of >1 1/2" to 2" 1/8t 1/8"
10%t or upper over 2" lesser of 1/8t lesser of 1/16t
1/8" plate. Max or 3/4" or 3/8"
1/8" (note 8)

NOT COVERED NOT COVERED

For UT: The acceptance criteria shall be agreed upon For UT: See PW-52
by the purchaser and manufacturer. RT
Para. 6.3 Geometric Unsharpness may not exceed
.07"
POWER PIPING
ASME B31.1, 2001 EDITION

NONE ALLOWED
136.4.5

NONE ALLOWED
136.4.5

NONE ALLOWED
136.4.5

NONE ALLOWED
136.4.5

NONE ALLOWED
136.4.5

(Same as ASME Section 1)


136.4.5

Root concacvity not allowed


when there is an abrupt
density change

(Same as ASME Section 1)


136.4.5
(Same as ASME Section 1)
136.4.5

(Same as ASME Section 1)


136.4.5

The greater of (tm + 0.15") or 1.15tm


when ordered on a minimum wall basis.

The greater of (tm + 0.15") or 1.10t


when ordered on a nominal wall basis.

127.4.2

(See Note 9)

1/16"
127.3

NOT COVERED

For UT: See PW-52


1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 5
1.1 SCOPE ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 DISTRIBUTION, INTENDED USE AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS ......... 5
1.3 DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................... 5
1.4 ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................................... 6
1.5 CROSS-REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 6
1.6 CHANGES FROM THE PREVIOUS EDITION .......................................................... 6
2. MATERIAL CERTIFICATION, COLOUR CODING AND TRACEABILITY ............ 10
2.1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 10
2.2 RESPONSIBILITY .................................................................................................. 10
2.3 MATERIAL SPECIFICATION ................................................................................. 10
2.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION ............................................ 10
2.5 COLOUR CODING OF PIPING BULK MATERIALS ............................................... 11
2.6 MATERIAL TRACEABILITY ................................................................................... 14
2.7 POSITIVE MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION (PMI) ..................................................... 15
2.8 PROCEDURE FOR CONCESSION REQUEST / MATERIAL SUBSTITUTION ..... 15
3. PIPE FABRICATION .............................................................................................. 16
3.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 16
3.2 PREPARATION ...................................................................................................... 16
3.3 BENDING ............................................................................................................... 17
3.4 WELDING ............................................................................................................... 21
3.5 MARKING OF PIPE SPOOLS ................................................................................ 33
3.6 SHIPPING AND PRESERVATION ......................................................................... 33
3.7 ERECTION ............................................................................................................. 34
3.8 FINAL CORRECTIONS .......................................................................................... 34
3.9 TOLERANCES ....................................................................................................... 35
3.10 CLEANING ............................................................................................................. 36
3.11 ASSEMBLY OF FLANGED JOINTS ....................................................................... 36
4. INSPECTION .......................................................................................................... 40
4.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 40
4.2 INSPECTION PERSONNEL ................................................................................... 40
4.3 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION .................................................................... 40
4.4 HARDNESS TESTING ........................................................................................... 43
4.2 PRESSURE TESTING ........................................................................................... 44
5. DOCUMENTATION ................................................................................................ 45
5.1 SHOP DETAIL DRAWINGS ................................................................................... 45
5.2 SPOOL IDENTIFICATION ...................................................................................... 45
5.3 RECORDS AND REPORTS ................................................