Sie sind auf Seite 1von 113

JET Manual 31

Coiled Tubing Units

Version 1.0
JET Manual 31 Coiled Tubing Units
InTouch Content ID# 4221769
Version: 1.0
Release Date: February 22, 2007
Owner: Well Services Training & Development, IPC

Schlumberger private

Document Control

Revision History
Rev Effective Date Description Prepared by

Copyright © 2007 Schlumberger, unpublished work. All rights reserved.


This work contains the confidential and proprietary trade secrets of Schlumberger and may not
be copied or stored in an information retrieval system, transferred, used, distributed, translated
or retransmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, in whole or in part,
without the express written permission of the copyright owner.

Trademarks & service marks


“Schlumberger,” the Schlumberger logotype, and other words or symbols used to identify the
products and services described herein are either trademarks, trade names, or service marks
of Schlumberger and its licensors, or are the property of their respective owners. These marks
may not be copied, imitated or used, in whole or in part, without the express prior written
permission of Schlumberger. In addition, covers, page headers, custom graphics, icons, and
other design elements may be service marks, trademarks, and/or trade dress of Schlumberger,
and may not be copied, imitated, or used, in whole or in part, without the express prior written
permission of Schlumberger.

An asterisk (*) is used throughout this document to designate a mark of Schlumberger.

A complete list of Schlumberger marks may be viewed at the Schlumberger Oilfield


Services Marks page: http://www.hub.slb.com/index.cfm?id=id32083

Other company, product, and service names are the properties of their respective owners.
Table of Contents

1.0  Introduction 9
1.1 Learning objectives 9
2.0  Safety Issues 11
3.0  Types of CTU 13
3.1 Land operations 13
3.2 Offshore operations 14
4.0  Power Pack 15
4.1 Hydraulic control system 15
4.1.1 Engine 15
4.1.2 Hydraulic fluid 15
4.1.3 Hydraulic fluid reservoir 16
4.1.4 Filters and strainers 18
4.1.5 Heat exchanger 18
4.1.6 Accumulator 18
4.1.7 Hydraulic pumps 19
4.1.8 Pressure-control valves 20
4.2 Hydraulic circuits 21
4.2.1 Classification 21
4.2.2 Standard CTU hydraulic circuits 21
4.3 Engine control panel 23
4.4 Hydraulic control panel 24
4.5 Pneumatic system 25
4.6 STEM 1 check on CTU power pack 25
4.6.1 Hydraulic hoses and connections 26
4.6.2 Power train components oil and lubrication 26
4.6.3 Air and fuel systems 26
4.6.4 Cooling system 26
4.6.5 Hydraulic system 27
4.6.6 Pneumatic system 27
4.7 STEM 2 check of CTU power pack 27
5.0  Control Console 29
5.1 Control console components 30
5.2 Control console functional areas 31

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | iii


5.2.1 Well control 31
5.2.2 Drive train traction and tension 32
5.2.3 Injector motion and direction 33
5.2.4 Reel motion and direction 33
5.2.5 Power pack engine remote control 34
5.2.6 System monitoring 35
5.2.7 Haskell and Rucker pumps 36
5.3 Instrument scanning 37
5.3.1 Priority level 1 37
5.3.2 Priority level 2 37
5.3.3 Priority level 3 37
5.4 STEM 1 check for control cabin 37
5.4.1 Power pack controls and instrumentation 37
5.4.2 CTU controls and instrumentation 38
5.5 STEM 2 check for control cabin 38
6.0  CT Reel 39
6.1 Reel drum 39
6.1.1 Calculating reel capacity 40
6.1.2 Drop-in drum reels 41
6.2 Reel drive and brake systems 42
6.2.1 Reel drive system 42
6.2.2 Reel brake 44
6.2.3 Reel control 45
6.3 Levelwind assembly 46
6.4 Depth counter 47
6.5 Lubrication system 49
6.6 Reel swivel and manifold 49
6.6.1 Swivel 50
6.6.2 Manifold 50
6.6.3 Pressure transducer 51
6.7 Crash protection frame 51
6.8 Changing the size of the CT 51
6.9 STEM 1 check for CT reel 52
6.9.1 Hydraulic hoses and connections 52
6.9.2 General lubrication 52
6.9.3 Reel drive and brake systems 52
6.9.4 Swivel and fluid manifold 52

iv | Table of Contents
6.9.5 Levelwind assembly 53
6.9.6 Skid/chassis/crash frame 53
6.10 STEM 2 check for CT reel 53
7.0  Injector Head 55
7.1 Drive and brake system 55
7.2 Drive system 56
7.2.1 Injector pressure adjust 56
7.2.2 Injector slow speed control 56
7.2.3 Injector two-speed 57
7.2.4 Injector motor displacement control 57
7.2.5 Injector control (Monsun Tison valve) 57
7.2.6 Injector displacement control 58
7.3 Traction and tension system 59
7.3.1 Traction 59
7.3.2 Tension 59
7.3.3 Accumulator 60
7.4 Traction and tension system hydraulic circuit 61
7.4.1 Inside traction pressure adjust 62
7.4.2 Top, middle, and bottom traction valves 62
7.4.3 Emergency traction supply 62
7.4.4 Inside traction pressure drain 62
7.4.5 Outside tension pressure and bleed 63
7.4.6 Injector traction hand pump supply 63
7.5 Guide arch 63
7.6 Changing the size of the CT 64
7.7 STEM 1 check for injector head 64
7.7.1 Fall protection equipment 64
7.7.2 Hydraulic hoses and connections 65
7.7.3 General lubrication 65
7.7.4 Injector head drive and brake systems 65
7.7.5 Injector head chains 65
7.7.6 Chain tensioner systems 66
7.7.7 Guide arch 66
7.7.8 Weight indicator system 67
7.7.9 Skid/chassis/crash frame 67
7.8 STEM 2 check for injector head 67
8.0  Pressure Control Equipment. 69
8.1 Stripper 70

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  |


8.1.1 Types of strippers 71
8.1.2 Stripper components 72
8.1.3 Stripper operation 74
8.1.4 Controlling the stripper 75
8.1.5 Changing the size of the CT 76
8.2 BOP 76
8.2.1 BOP rams 76
8.2.2 BOP components 78
8.2.3 Types of BOP 79
8.2.4 BOP operation 80
8.2.5 Changing the size of the CT 81
8.3 STEM for pressure-control equipment 81
9.0  CTU Electronics 83
9.1 Sensors 84
9.1.1 CT weight 85
9.1.2 CT depth encoder 85
9.1.3 Pressures 86
9.1.4 Pump rates and fluid volume 87
9.1.5 CT OD and wall thickness 87
9.2 SIMs 87
9.2.1 Standard SIM 88
9.2.2 Injector SIM 88
9.2.3 UniSIM 88
9.2.4 CTRI 88
9.2.5 DCU 89
9.4 Control cabin components 89
9.4.1 EIM 89
9.4.2 Power supply 89
9.4.3 Critical parameter display 90
9.5 STEM 1 check for electronic components 90
9.5.1 Sensor cables 90
9.5.2 UTLM 90
9.5.3 CT InSpec 90
9.5.4 Weight indicator load cell 90
10.0  Troubleshooting 91
10.1 Power pack 91

vi | Table of Contents
10.1.1 Hydraulic system 91
10.1.2 Engine 92
10.2 Reel 93
10.2.1 Reel drum not rotating 94
10.2.2 Reel drum not rotating as fast as injector feeds tubing 95
10.2.3 Levelwind override motor not rotating 95
10.2.4 Lead screw not turning with reel drum 96
10.3 Injector head issues 96
10.3.1 Inside/outside chain tensioner system malfunctioning 96
10.4 Injector drive/brake systems issues 97
10.4.1 Injector head motors not turning 97
10.4.2 Injector head motors not achieving full speed 98
10.4.3 Injector head only achieving full speed in one direction 98
10.4.4 Operation of the injector head erratic 98
10.4.5 Injector head not stopping when directional control valve centered 98
10.4.6 Hydraulic system running hot 99
10.4.7 Injector running but not engaging in high gear 99
10.4.8 Injector running but will not engage in low gear 99
10.4.9 Injector head brake not releasing 99
10.4.10 Injector head brake not engaging 99
10.5 Stripper 100
10.5.1 BOP blind or pipe rams do not hold well or test pressure is low 103
11.0  Glossary 105
12.0  References 107
13.0  Check Your Understanding 109

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | vii


This page left intentionally blank

viii | Table of Contents


1.0  Introduction

Schlumberger Coiled Tubing Services operates • understand how to perform a standard


more than 200 coiled tubing units (CTUs) in technical equipment maintenance (STEM)
various parts of the world. 1 check on the main pieces of equipment.

Irrespective of its function and/or working


environment, a CTU will include the following
main components:

• CTU prime mover, or power pack


• control console or control cabin
• CT reel
• injector head
• pressure control equipment.
This job execution training (JET) manual offers
a brief overview of the functions of these
components.

1.1 Learning objectives


Upon completing this training, you should be
able to do the following:

• identify the main components of a CT


• demonstrate knowledge of the function
of the prime mover
• demonstrate knowledge of the function
of the control cabin
• demonstrate knowledge of the function
and purpose of the CT reel
• demonstrate knowledge of the function of
the tubing injector head and its components
• demonstrate knowledge of the function
of the pressure-control equipment,
including conventional and high-
pressure configurations

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  |


This page left intentionally blank

10 | Introduction
2.0  Safety Issues

All of the relevant parts of Well Services • being struck by a loose CT string
(WS) Safety Standard 5, Pressure Pumping • exposure of the eyes and skin to acid
and Location Safety, InTouch Content and other chemicals
ID# 3313681, and WS Safety Standard 22,
• falling from a height
Coiled Tubing Operations, InTouch Content
• falling objects.
ID# 4221755, must be applied when rigging
up and performing CT operations.

Standards 5 and 22 can be found in the


Warning:
Death and injury can occur while
Schlumberger Well Services Safety
Standards and the Well Services Field working with CT equipment.
Safety Handbook. They can also be
viewed online through InTouch.
When working with a CTU, check the following:

• An approved permit to work (PTW) is


Warning: in place.
Proper supervision is required
• During the prejob meeting, all personnel
during hands-on training. Request
are made aware of the sequence of the
assistance from your supervisor if
operation and their own role in it.
you are unfamiliar or uncomfortable
with an operation. To prevent • Only necessary personnel are in the area.
hazardous situations during • Work areas are barriered off.
operations, anyone engaged in the • Full personal protective equipment (PPE)
service or repair of equipment must is worn by all personnel.
ensure personnel safety. • All equipment is current on STEM checks.
• Suitable fall arrestors and harnesses are
being used when working above 6 ft.
Caution:
Remember that personal injury Note:
can occur when maintaining If you are unsure of any aspect of
equipment in the yard just as it an operation, or feel that it may
can on the wellsite. be an unsafe situation, STOP
THE JOB!

Potential sources of injury for operators


working with CT equipment are

• getting body part or clothes stuck


in rotating machinery

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 11


This page left intentionally blank

12 | Safety Issues
3.0  Types of
CTU

CTUs are used for a wide range of applications 3.1 Land operations
in many different types of environments. For
some land operations, CTUs are driven to location Schlumberger uses the following
on standard paved roads, while in other locations CTUs specifically designed for land use.
they may be driven through harsh conditions,
• paved road trucks (Fig. 3-1): These trucks
such as the Arctic or the desert.
can legally operate on roads in the operating
Offshore, conditions range from platforms to area. Typically, in paved road trucks, a crane
jack- up rigs to deepwater drilling rigs and supports the injector head.
swamp barges. Different CTU designs have • mobile mast units (Fig. 3-2): These units
evolved to cater for different environments. are equipped with a mast rather than a
crane to support the injector head. The
Furthermore, some CTUs have been mast allows lifting and stabilizing tools,
adapted to meet the needs of specific CT and running pressure-control and other
applications, such as CT drilling. equipment. One type of mast is the
specially developed CTX* CT Express unit
CTUs are often described as either three-piece (Fig. 3-2), which allows highly efficient
or four-piece units, depending on their rig-up times.
configuration. • off-road trucks (Fig. 3-3): These trucks are
smaller and have all-wheel drive. They can
A three-piece unit is made up of work in remote areas such as deserts.

• integrated power pack and control cabin


• CT reel
• injector head.
A four-piece unit is made up of

• power pack
• control cabin
• reel
• injector head.

Figure 3-1. Paved Road Trailer-Based CTU

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 13


of CT and associated equipment, including
chemicals and materials for mixing and
pumping, to be shipped on board. The CT
equipment is typically skid mounted for
flexibility and ease of positioning. Barges
are used in shallow waters. Lift boats are
different from barges in that they can be
lifted off the water to reach elevated
platforms. Lift boats also have more
stability because they are not susceptible
to water tides.

Figure 3-2. Mobile Mast CTU

Figure 3-3. Off-Road Bobtail CTU

3.2 Offshore operations


Schlumberger uses CTUs designed with offshore
use in mind (see Figs. 3-4). The primary
restriction for offshore operations is the ability
to get the equipment on and off the rig or
platform. The equipment weight must fall within
the safe working limit of available cranes. Figure 3-4. Skid-Mounted CTU
Consequently, lightweight units are typically
required. Various versions of the land CTUs
include the following:

• skid-mounted units: A skid is a steel


frame. In skid-mounted units, equipment
such as the reel or control cabin are
mounted on a steel frame to facilitate
handling with cranes or trucks.
• barge-mounted and lift boat units:
Barge-mounted and lift boat units are typically
configured for a complete package

14 | Types of CTU
4.0  Power Pack

The CTU power pack, also called the prime Power packs are classified according to the
mover, is usually a diesel engine (see Fig. 4-1). type of hydraulic circuit powering the injector
The power pack provides hydraulic power head. There are three types of injector
through a system of pumps, valves, and lines, head hydraulic circuits:
to operate the CTU functions and controls. The
system comprises multiple hydraulic circuits. • standard open loop
• high-pressure open loop
• high-pressure closed loop.
You will learn more about these circuits later
in Section 4.3.1.

4.1 Hydraulic control system


Regardless of its design or configuration, the
power pack hydraulic control system usually
includes the major components described in the
following sections.

Figure 4-1. CTU Power Pack 4.1.1 Engine


The engine powers the hydraulic pumps that
The power pack drives several hydraulic force hydraulic fluid through the system to
pumps, which supply each circuit with the
power CTU components.
pressure and flow rate required to power a CTU
component or part of a component. For Depending on the age of the unit, the engine
example, individual hydraulic circuits power the may be a General Motors Detroit series or a
injector head motors, reel motor, and levelwind
Caterpillar engine.
assembly. Current power packs operate
independently of exterior power or air supplies
once they are started, to provide energy 4.1.2 Hydraulic fluid
satisfactorily under varied conditions and for the
The CTU uses hydraulic fluid, which is oil, to
duration of any CT operation. power the CTU components. The hydraulic pumps
draw the hydraulic fluid from the storage
In addition to the hydraulic power supplied when
reservoir. The pumps force the fluid through
running, the power pack incorporates an
the system.
accumulator facility to allow limited operation
of pressure-control equipment following
engine shutdown.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 15


Hydraulic fluid performs several functions:

• power transmission: To transmit power to


the CTU, hydraulic flow must flow easily
through the system. The fluid should flow
with as little friction as possible, since
friction results in a loss of power. Also, the
fluid must be incompressible so that it will
transmit power immediately on startup.
• lubrication: Hydraulic fluid lubricates the
components in the system. The fluid
contains additives to ensure antiwear
properties and thus long component life.
• sealing: Hydraulic fluid and close
mechanical fit provide the only seal
against leakage for most components in the
hydraulic system.
• cooling: Hydraulic fluid dissipates the heat
generated by the components in the
system.

4.1.3 Hydraulic fluid reservoir


The hydraulic fluid reservoir (Fig. 4-2) performs
several functions:

• stores the hydraulic fluid


• allows the fluid to cool
• allows settlement of dirt and metal particles
• allows entrained air to be released.
The reservoir is generally mounted high in
the power pack to provide a positive head of
pressure at the hydraulic pump suction port.

16 | Power Pack
Riser
(option)

Pump
inlet line
(option)
Drain
return
Air breather
and filler
Return line

Sealed flange

Drain
Drain plug
plug Baffle
plate
Strainer

Clea n-out
End plate
plate (both ends) Thermometer
extension
and
sight glass

Figure 4-2. Hydraulic Fluid Reservoir

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 17


4.1.4 Filters and strainers Many filter assemblies incorporate a filter
condition indicator. This device simply indicates
The hydraulic system uses filters and the differential pressure between the two sides of
strainers to clean the hydraulic fluid as it the filter. A filter that is partially plugged will
flows through the circuits. create a larger differential, which is commonly
indicated by the colored indicator. A green
• filter: A filter removes small particles from the
display during operation is normal; a red display
hydraulic fluid (see Fig. 4-3). There is a filter
on the return line to the reservoir. Also, some indicates the filter requires changing.
circuits have inline filters, particularly where
flow is limited. For example, a filter is 4.1.5 Heat exchanger
typically installed on the supply line to the
injector head main control valve. The heat exchanger is located on a main return
line to the reservoir. It cools the hydraulic fluid on
• strainer: A strainer is a coarse filter that
its return to the reservoir to assist with the
removes larger size particles. Typically,
dissipation of heat generated by hydraulic
the strainer is fitted to a suction line inside
system components. Heat exchangers can use
the reservoir.
air or water to cool the fluid.

4.1.6 Accumulator
An accumulator is a storage bottle used to
store energy. CTUs typically use a
hydropneumatic accumulator. These
accumulators have a gas and a hydraulic
compartment. Bladder-type accumulators,
charged with nitrogen gas, are the most
commonly used type of accumulator on CTUs.

The accumulator has two functions:

• energy storage: The accumulator allows


limited operation of the well control
equipment following engine shutdown.
• shock absorption: The accumulator
cushions the pulsation effect in the system.
Figure 4-3. Filter for Hydraulic Fluid

18 | Power Pack
4.1.7 Hydraulic pumps 4.1.7.2 Piston pump
The engine drives the hydraulic pumps, which Piston pumps (Fig. 4-5) are found on newer
draw oil from the reservoir and force it to flow models of power pack, and are more efficient
to the various components of the CTU. than vane pumps, allowing them to generate
Pumps in power packs can differ because of higher pulling forces. A Denison P16 is an
various customer requirements, upgrades, example of a piston pump used in CTU
and improvements. power packs.

The positive displacement hydraulic pumps


used in a CTU power pack may be vane
Set to
pumps or piston pumps. 1,500 psi

4.1.7.1 Vane pumps


Vane pumps (Fig. 4-4) can be found on older
versions of CTU power packs. An example
of a double-vane pump is the Denison T6
series pump.
Figure 4-5. Piston Pump

Inlet Piston pumps are, however, more sensitive to


hydraulic oil contamination and more
expensive than vane pumps.
Outlet Outlet

Inlet

Figure 4-4. Vane Pump

Vane pumps are cheaper than piston pumps


and very dependable. They are less sensitive
to hydraulic oil contamination and run at a
lower temperature.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 19


4.1.8 Pressure-control valves Three types of pressure-control valves
are used in a CT hydraulic system:
A hydraulic system generates considerable
pressure, and this pressure must be controlled • preset relief valves: These valves are
(see Fig. 4-6). Every circuit has pressure manually set to the maximum desired
limits. Pressure -control valves control the pressure within a circuit. Once this
maximum pressure within each hydraulic pressure is reached, the valve lifts,
circuit. The valves protect the system from allowing excess flow to return to the
excessive pressure. If circuit pressure hydraulic reservoir.
increases beyond these limits, the control
valve will direct flow back to the hydraulic
reservoir to reduce pressure.

Accumulator

Pressure
control valve CTU Motor
component

Engine

Filter

Pump

Heat exchanger
Strainer
or filter

Reservoir

Figure 4-6. Hydraulic System Pressure Control in a Simplified Hydraulic Circuit

20 | Power Pack
• pilot-operated relief valves: These valves • outside chain tension.
function like preset relief valves with the Priority circuit pressure will vary between
addition of a pilot control valve and pilot 1,800 and 2,000 psi during normal operation.
control line connected to the relief valve.
The setting of the pilot control valve can The accumulator, precharged with nitrogen at
be remotely varied up to the maximum 1,000 psi, reduces the shocks within the
preset value of the relief valve.
system as functions are activated and stores
• unloader valves: These valves are similar hydraulic power.
to relief valves except that when the preset
maximum pressure is reached, the valve
actuates to isolate the circuit and direct 4.2.2.2 BOP supply circuit
flow back to the reservoir. When circuit The BOP supply is a dedicated supply
pressure is reduced, the valve actuates to
for controlling the BOP functions only.
recharge the circuit.
The circuit pressure will vary between 2,700
4.2 Hydraulic circuits and 3,000 psi during normal operation.
CTUs depend on hydraulic circuits to operate.
The accumulator is precharged with nitrogen to
1,400 psi. This accumulator stores hydraulic
4.2.1 Classification power, allowing limited operation of the BOP
All power packs have similar basic following shutdown of the power pack.
characteristics. The main difference between
them is the injector head drive circuits. 4.2.2.3 Auxiliary circuit
Section 4.2.6 discusses these in detail.
The auxiliary circuit supplies the following
CTU functions:
4.2.2 Standard CTU hydraulic circuits
• injector head hose reel spooling
A standard HydraRig CTU has seven
motor located on power pack
main hydraulic circuits.
• BOP and injector head hose reels
located on control cab
4.2.2.1 Priority circuit • an auxiliary supply facility allowing
The priority circuit supplies the following hydraulically operated equipment, such as
CTU functions: jacking frames, to be connected to the
CTU power pack.
• levelwind raise/lower This circuit operates at 2,500 psi.
• injector head two-speed selector
• injector head directional control (Monsun
Tison valve)
4.2.2.4 Injector head drive circuit
The injector head drive circuit controls the
• reel brake
movement of the injector head as well as
• control cabin raise/lower
the automatic injector brake.
• inside chain tension

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 21


There are three types of injector head pump. The pump actually comprises three
drive circuits: pumps: main pump, charge pump
(charges the main pump), and servo pump
• standard open loop circuit: The maximum (shifts the swash plate).
operating pressure of a standard open Section 4.3.1 provides more information about
loop circuit is 3,000 psi, and the main relief
valve is set at this pressure. In this type of these types of circuit.
circuit, the oil returns through a filter and
heat exchanger back to the tank, after 4.2.2.5 Stripper circuit
passing through the injector motors.
Generally, a double vane hydraulic pump The stripper hydraulic circuit compresses the
is used in this type of circuit, such as a stripper element to form a seal around the CT
Denison T6 series pump. string.
• High-pressure open loop circuit: The The circuit is driven by a Haskell air-over
maximum operating pressure of a
hydraulic pump, controlled from inside the
high-pressure open loop circuit is
5,000 psi, although the main relief valve is control cabin. It has an operating pressure
set at 4,600 psi. In this type of circuit, the oil of 5,000 psi, although generally much lower
exiting the injector motors returns to the pressures are required.
pump inlet (not the tank) after passing Because of the importance of the stripper
through a filter and heat exchanger. A function, the Haskell air-over-hydraulic pump
pressure relief valve in the return line
has two backup systems in case of failure.
ensures that oil not required by the pump is
routed back to the tank. This type of circuit The Haskell pump may be operated manually, or
utilizes a variable displacement piston a separate manual Rucker pump may be used.
pump such as a Denison P16 pump. The Haskell and Rucker pumps can also be
The advantage of this circuit over the used to provide backup hydraulic power to
closed loop circuit is that it generates less control the BOP and injector head traction
heat than a closed loop circuit, and can skates.
be used to power jacking substructures or
cylinders. 4.2.2.6 Levelwind override circuit
• closed loop circuit: The maximum
The levelwind override circuit allows the
operating pressure of a high-pressure open operator to manually override the automatic side-
loop circuit is 5,000 psi and the main relief
to-side movement of the levelwind, to make minor
valve is set at 4,600 psi. In this type of
adjustments while spooling the CT.
circuit, oil returns through a filter and goes
The same circuit is used to raise and lower the
directly back to the pump inlet (not the
tank). The closed loop circuit uses a flush levelwind arm. The circuit operates at 2,500 psi.
circuit to replenish internal leaks and add
cool oil into the low side of the loop to
4.2.2.7 Reel drive circuit
stabilize the oil temperature.
The reel drive hydraulic circuit drives the
The closed loop injector drive circuit uses a reel motors, which control the rotation of the
bidirectional, variable displacement piston CT reel. The circuit operates at 2,500 psi.
pump, such as a Denison P11 or P14

22 | Power Pack
4.3 Engine control panel • The emergency stop button sends air to a
miniature cylinder that trips a latch and shuts
Typically, the engine has controls and off the air intake to the engine. This button
instrumentation mounted on the side of should only be used in emergencies.
the power pack (see Fig. 4-7).
• The engine throttle knob sends
The following describe the components regulated air pressure to the throttle
actuator controlling the fuel rack, which
shown in Fig. 4-7. controls engine speed.
• The check engine light indicates a • The hour meter displays engine run time
abnormal operating condition for in hours. It is used to schedule the unit
the engine. for STEM 2 and 3 checks.
• The engine rpm gauge monitors • The oil pressure gauge monitors engine oil
engine speed. pressure, which will vary greatly from one
• The engine start switch sends an air engine to another depending on its age
signal to the starter. and how well it has been maintained.
• The engine stop/run switch is a switch in • The voltmeter monitors the
battery condition.
the battery circuit. On stop, it acts as an
electrical disconnect. On run, it connects • The water temperature gauge
the battery circuit to the CTU components monitors engine temperature.
that require electrical power.

It also deactivates/activates the cylinder


that closes the fuel rack for normal
engine stop. The fuel rack is a valve,
which shuts off the flow of fuel to the
engine when it is closed.
Engine rpm Oil pressure gauge
Voltmeter
Water temperature

Hourmeter

Engine stop/run

Emergency stop

Engine start Check engine light Engine throttle

Figure 4-7. Engine Control Panel

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 23


4.4 Hydraulic control panel opens or closes the BOP circuit. For
example, turning it clockwise allows
All standard engines have hydraulic controls
hydraulic pressure from the pump into
and instrumentation mounted on the side of the BOP circuit. Turning it
the power pack; see Fig. 4-8. counterclockwise routes the pressure
back to the hydraulic reservoir.
• The charge pressure gauge monitors the
setting of the preset relief valve used to
maintain 80-psi back pressure on the
pump inlet, on units with high-pressure
open loop circuits.

On units with closed loop circuits, this


gauge monitors the pressure on the
flush circuit.
• The injector system pressure gauge
monitors the pressure from the injector
pump into the injector circuit, which
powers the injector motor and brake.
• The levelwind two-way valve and
Figure 4-8. Hydraulic Control Panel
pressure gauge control and monitor the
levelwind circuit, which powers the
The following describe the components of levelwind assembly on the reel.
the control panel. The two-way valve opens and closes
the levelwind circuit. When open, the
• The auxiliary two-way valve, auxiliary
pressure adjust, and pressure gauge valve allows hydraulic pressure from
control and monitor the auxiliary circuit the levelwind pump into the circuit.
that powers the crane, hose reel, and • The priority needle valve and pressure
auxiliary equipment. gauge control and monitor the priority
circuit, which is one of the most important
The auxiliary two-way valve opens and in the hydraulic system. It powers several
closes the auxiliary circuit. When open, components including the following:
the valve allows hydraulic pressure from ○ injector head traction cylinders
the auxiliary pump into the circuit. ○ injector head outside tension cylinders
The auxiliary pressure adjust valve ○ injector motor direction
controls the pressure on the auxiliary ○ injector high-low velocity
circuit. The pressure can be monitored on ○ reel brake
the auxiliary pressure gauge. When actuated, the priority pressure needle
• The BOP needle valve and pressure valve opens or closes the priority hydraulic
gauge control and monitor the BOP circuit, circuit. Turning it clockwise allows hydraulic
which powers the BOP rams. pressure from the pump into the
When actuated, the BOP needle valve

24 | Power Pack
priority circuit. Turning it
counterclockwise routes the pressure Air filter
back to the hydraulic reservoir. Cleans the air
supply.

• The reel two-way valve and pressure gauge The pop (pressure
control and monitor the reel circuit. When relief) valve
Air compressor releases system pressure
open, the valve allows hydraulic pressure Compresses air when the preset level is
from an initial intake
from the reel pump into the circuit. pressure to a higher
reached.

discharge pressure. Pop valve


Compressor Check
valve
Note:
The pressure on the reel circuit is
controlled by the reel pressure
adjust valve, which is not on the
power pack hydraulic control panel.
The reel pressure adjust valve is on Governor Storage tanks
the control console, described Located downstream from the Stores the discharged air-
compressor’s discharge valve or flow. Discharged air flows
in Section 5.0. connected to the tank, the governor through a heat -resistant line
is fed system pressure and set to to a check valve and into the
respond to excess system tank.
pressure. The governor will trigger
a release of compressor pressure
4.5 Pneumatic system when the preset level is reached.

For safety and reliability, current power Figure 4-9. Pneumatic System
pack design requires an air supply for
certain functions such as engine start, engine • The governor, located downstream from
the compressor’s discharge valve or
kill, throttle, and fuel combustion.
connected to the tank, is fed system
To perform these functions satisfactorily, the pressure and set to respond to excess
power pack has its own air system (pneumatic system pressure. The governor will trigger
system; see Fig. 4-9). This system allows the
a release of compressor pressure when
power pack to operate independently of other the preset level is reached.
CTU air systems after the engine is started. • The pop (pressure relief) valve releases
system pressure when the preset level
The following describes the components of the is reached.
control panel.
4.6 STEM 1 check on CTU power pack
• The air compressor compresses air
The guidelines for performing a STEM 1 check
from an initial intake pressure to a
higher discharge pressure. on the CTU power pack are discussed in the
following sections. This procedure should be
• The air filter cleans the air supply.
carried out before and after every CT job, or
• The storage tanks store the discharged at regular intervals during longer operations.
airflow. Discharged air flows through a
heat-resistant line to a check valve and into
the tank.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 25


On completion of the STEM 1 check, the STEM 1 4.6.2 Power train components
report should be signed. The information must be
oil and lubrication
placed in the Fleet Assistant system, which
tracks the maintenance of the equipment fleet at The power train components need to be
each location. well lubricated to operate correctly.

• Check for oil leaks. Check around engine


4.6.1 Hydraulic hoses and connections and gearbox area for evidence of wear,
damage or leaks.
The hydraulic hoses and connections require
• Check engine oil level.
careful inspection and maintenance.
• Check level and observe general condition
of engine oil.
Caution: • Check level and observe general condition
The fluid inside the hydraulic hoses is of gearbox oil.
under great pressure. If a leak
develops or a line bursts, personnel 4.6.3 Air and fuel systems
can be injured or equipment
damaged. Maintain the air and fuel systems as follows.

• Check air filter.


• Inspect hydraulic hoses and hose bundles • Check the condition of the engine intake air
for evidence of wear, damage, or leaks. filter(s) and observe general condition of
air ducting and fittings.
• Ensure hose bundle ties and
securing chains or straps are in good • Where fitted, check the condition
order and appropriately adjusted. of exhaust system flame traps.
• Check hydraulic hose connection seals and • Check and drain water/moisture from
the O-rings securing/latching mechanism. fuel reservoir drain cock.
• Check connection protectors.
4.6.4 Cooling system
○ Ensure connections are clean before
making up a connection and that Maintain the cooling system as follows:
dust caps are fitted after breaking out
a connection. • Check the level and general condition
of engine coolant.
○ Ensure the hose identification tag
(or similar connection coding system) • Observe the condition of key cooling
is clean and clearly visible. system components and check for
evidence of wear, damage, or leaks.

26 | Power Pack
4.6.5 Hydraulic system
Maintain the hydraulic system as follows:

• Check hydraulic fluid level.


○ Check the level and general condition
of the hydraulic fluid.
○ Drain any water from the hydraulic
fluid reservoir.
• Check hydraulic system relief valves.
Visually check that the hydraulic system
relief valve lock nuts are secure.

4.6.6 Pneumatic system


Drain water or emulsion from air receiver and
secure the receiver drain valve.

4.7 STEM 2 check of CTU power pack


A STEM 2 check should be carried out every
750 hours of power pack operations. Guidelines
for STEM 2 checks can be found in the CT
Surface Equipment Maintenance program
(InTouch Content ID# 4196880).

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 27


This page left intentionally blank

28 | Power Pack
5.0  Control Console

This section introduces you to the control console and how it is used to control the operation
of the CTU (Fig. 5-1). The major components of the CTU are driven by several hydraulic
control systems located in the power pack. The hydraulic systems use fluid pressure to drive
the CTU components.

Figure 5-1. Control Console

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 29


The CT operator controls the power pack 5.1 Control console components
hydraulic systems from the control console.
The control console provides the CT operator
Control console design varies by manufacturer,
with the controls to perform the following:
but normally all controls are positioned on one
console. The console includes all the controls
• perform reel and injector head operating
and gauges required by the CT operator functions required to move and hold the
to control and monitor operation of all CT string
CTU components (see Fig. 5-2).
• control pressure control
equipment (stripper, BOP).
The console also provides gauges for
monitoring and recording the principal
operating parameters (Fig. 5-3), including

• wellhead pressure monitored at


the wellhead
• circulating pressure monitored at the reel
• tubing weight at the injector head
• tubing depth.

Figure 5-2. Controls and Gauges to Operate CTU Components

Injector head

CT String
Tubing weight
& depth
Reel
Stripper

BOP
Circulating
pressure
Wellhead
pressure
Figure 5-3. Control Console Gauges for Principal Operating Parameters

30 | Control Console
5.2 Control console functional areas The CT operator can do the following from
The control console comes in a variety of the control console:
configurations depending on the
• 1-monitor the BOP and stripper
manufacturer’s specifications and CTU design
hydraulic pressure
or model. Figure 5-1 shows the layout of a
typical control panel. • 2-open and close the BOP rams
• 3-select and control the hydraulic
Regardless of its configuration, every pressure to the stripper.
console is designed to achieve the following You will learn more about the operation and
basic functions: control of the BOP and stripper in Section 7
of this module. More detailed information on
• well control
well control equipment can be found in JET
• drive chain traction and tension 13, CT Pressure Control Equipment, InTouch
• injector motion and direction Content ID# 4221744.
• reel motion and direction
• engine remote control
• system monitoring.

5.2.1 Well control


The control console contains the controls
for the BOP and stripper (see Fig. 5-4).

2
3

Figure 5-4. BOP and Stripper Controls

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 31


5.2.2 Drive train traction and tension The CT operator can do the following from
The injector traction system uses traction the control console (see Fig. 5-5):
cylinders to apply force to the gripper blocks on
• 4-control and monitor the hydraulic
the injector drive chains. The force holds the
pressure to the tension cylinders
CT string during operations. This is often
referred to as inside traction. • 5-independently control and monitor the
hydraulic pressure to the traction cylinders.
The tension system uses tension cylinders to In an emergency, these allow the full
take slack from the injector drive chains. This system pressure to the cylinders,
is often referred to as outside tension. bypassing the traction adjust.
• 6-isolate and monitor the traction cylinders.
You will learn more about the operation and
5 control of the drive chain traction and
tension systems in Section 6.4.

Figure 5-5. Tension Controls

32 | Control Console
5.2.3 Injector motion and direction 5.2.4 Reel motion and direction
The injector motors control the movement of The controls for the reel are usually on the
the tubing. To ensure correct CT motion and lower right portion of the panel; see Fig. 5-7.
direction, the CT operator must properly set
the injector motors’ controls. Figure 5-6 shows
the controls for the injector motors.
9

10

11 12 13

7 Figure 5-7. Reel Controls

The CT operator can do the following


with these controls:

• 9-turn the reel brake on and off


• 10-adjust the hydraulic pressure at the
reel motor
• 11-monitor reel pressure and reel
brake pressure
8 • 12-control the movement and direction
of the levelwind
Figure 5-6. Injector Motor Controls • 13-control the direction of the reel motor.
You will learn more about the operation
The CT operator can do the following and control of the reel in Section 6.5.
with these controls:

• 7-control and monitor the hydraulic


pressure to the direction control valve
for the injector motors
• 8-control the speed of and pressure at
the injector motors.
You will learn more about the operation and
control of the injector head motors in Section 6.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 33


5.2.5 Power pack engine remote control
The CT operator can remotely control the
power pack engine from the control console
(Fig. 5-8).

14 15

16

17

Figure 5-8. Power Pack Controls

The CT operator can do the following with


these controls:

• 14-monitor engine status


• 15-monitor engine rpm. The gauge also
appears on the engine control panel
• 16-stop the engine
• 17-adjust the throttle to control engine
speed. This control also appears on
the engine control panel.

34 | Control Console
5.2.6 System monitoring
There are several gauges and indicators that
the operator can use to monitor the CTU
system (Fig. 5-9).

The CT operator can monitor the following with


these gauges.

• 18-the weight of the CT string as measured


by a load cell installed at the injector head
• 19-the wellhead pressure (WHP) measured
by a sensor installed on the BOP
• 20-the circulating pressure measured by
a sensor installed at the reel manifold
• 21-the depth of the tubing
• 22-the movement of the CT string
• 23-the pressure in the priority hydraulic
circuit, which is one of the most
important circuits of the CTU (the same
gauge is on the engine control panel)
• 24-the pressure at the charge pump
(the same gauge is on the engine
control panel).

21 22

24

23

18 19 20

Figure 5-9. System Monitoring Gauges and Indicators

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 35


5.2.7 Haskell and Rucker pumps The Haskell and Rucker pumps perform a very
The Haskell and the Rucker pumps are important secondary function in an emergency.
primarily used to supply pressure to the The CT operator can energize the BOP,
stripper. The Haskell is an air-driven pump stripper, and drive chain traction system
that is controlled by the stripper pressure circuits by activating the injector traction and
BOP hand pump supply valves (Fig. 5-10).
adjust valve.
This allows pressure control to be maintained if
The Rucker is a manual pump that is normally a major equipment component fails.
used as a backup in case of an emergency in
which the system air pressure is lost.

Rucker pump Haskell pump

Figure 5-10. Emergency Pump Controls

36 | Control Console
5.3 Instrument scanning and locations in this priority level should
be checked every 4 to 5 minutes.
To detect unusual circumstances as soon as
possible, the operator must constantly scan the • power pack engine gauges
CTU instrument array during a CT operation. ○ oil pressure
All personnel who will operate a CT unit should ○ coolant temperature
become comfortable with running a simulated ○ air supply
CT unit using the CoilSIM simulator. This can be • pressure gauges for
downloaded at InTouch Content # 4067660. ○ priority circuit
○ BOP circuit
5.3.1 Priority level 1 ○ stripper system supply
The following instruments, gauges, and ○ injector motor and direction
locations are priority level 1 because they can
○ outside chain tension
change quickly during an operation. The
operator should scan these at all times, ○ inside chain tension supply
except when checking the priority levels 2 ○ reel back tension.
and 3 instruments and gauges.
5.4 STEM 1 check for control cabin
• weight indicator display A STEM 1 check should be carried out
• wellhead pressure gauge before and after every CT job, or at regular
• circulating pressure gauge. intervals during longer operations.
• injector head/wellhead
On completion of the STEM 1 check, the STEM 1
• CT reel. report form should be signed. The information
must be placed in the Fleet Assistant system,
5.3.2 Priority level 2
which tracks the maintenance of the equipment
The following instruments and gauges are fleet at each location.
less likely to change rapidly and are assigned
a priority level 2. Priority level 2 items should For the most up-to-date STEM guidelines, refer
be checked every 2 to 3 minutes. to the CT Surface Equipment Maintenance
program (InTouch Content ID# 4196880).
• depth measurement system
• stripper pack pressure
5.4.1 Power pack controls
• inside chain tensioner system. and instrumentation
In addition, the flow and auxiliary equipment Perform the following checks.
location is assigned a priority level 2.
• Check remote engine controls.
5.3.3 Priority level 3 ○ Check operation of engine
remote control systems.
The following instruments and gauges are
generally static throughout the operation. They ○ Check operation and response of
do not normally require adjustment and are engine gauges and instrumentation.
assigned a priority level 3. All of the systems

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 37


• Check hydraulic system controls. ○ Check operation and response of
○ Check operation of hydraulic BOP system gauges, including
system controls. standby and emergency systems.
○ Check operation and response of • Check general controls, instrumentation
primary hydraulic system gauges and equipment such as lights, window
and instrumentation. wipers, horn, and heater.

5.4.2 CTU controls and instrumentation 5.5 STEM 2 check for control cabin
A STEM 2 inspection should be carried out
Perform the following checks.
every 750 hours of CTU operations. Guidelines
• Check injector head controls. for STEM 2 checks can be found in the CT
Surface Equipment Maintenance program.
○ Check operation of chain tension
control systems.
○ Check operation and response of
injector head control system.
○ Check operation and response
of gauges and instrumentation.
• Check reel controls.
○ Check operation of reel drive and
control systems.
○ Check operation and response of
reel control system.
○ Check operation and response
of gauges and instrumentation.
• Check stripper controls.
• Check operation of stripper
control systems.
• Function test standby and emergency
stripper control equipment.
• Check operation and response of stripper
system gauges and instrumentation,
including standby and emergency systems.
• Check BOP controls.
○ Check operation of BOP
control systems.
○ Function test stand-by and emergency
stripper control equipment.

38 | Control Console
6.0  CT Reel

This section explains the function and major • provides a mounting for the tubing
parts of the reel and its hydraulic system lubrication, monitoring, and
(Fig. 6-1). It also explains how to control the measuring equipment.
reel from the control console. The reel equipment is grouped into
the following systems or assemblies:

• reel drum
• reel drive and brake system
• levelwind assembly
• depth counter
• lubrication system
• reel swivel and manifold.

6.1 Reel drum


The reel drum assembly generally consists
of the following:

• drum axle
Figure 6-1. CT Reel
• flanged connection on the axle to allow
The primary function of the reel assembly is to the swivel to be connected
store and protect the CT string. The reel • chain sprocket on the axle by which
system uses the reel drum and crash frame to the drum is driven
perform this function. • second chain sprocket on the axle by
which the levelwind lead screw is driven.
The reel also performs several other The reel axle bearings are mounted and
functions including the following: secured on support posts, which form part
• maintains proper tension between the of the reel chassis.
reel and the injector head
• efficiently spools the CT string onto the
reel drum
• circulates fluids through the CT string
with the reel drum rotating
• allows the introduction of balls or darts
into the CT string

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 39


L= (A+C) (A) (B) (K)
Warning:
The reel must not be transported where
with only the hydraulic brake to
secure it against rotation. The reel • L (ft) = tubing capacity
must also be secured against • A (in) = flange rim to
rotation in both directions with chains core distance–freeboard
and binders between the rim of the • B (in) = width between flanges
drum and a point on the reel
• C (in) = reel drum core diameter
chassis. Figure 6-2 shows a reel
chained to the frame on both sides. • K = K-value for different tubing sizes.

Freeboard

Figure 6-2. Reel Chained on Both Sides


B
Reels that have installed wireline require a
modified axle to allow an electrical collector to Figure 6-3. Calculating Tubing Capacity of Drum
be fitted to the axle.
The freeboard is the amount of space between
6.1.1 Calculating reel capacity the top of the external wrap of CT string and
the OD of the reel drum.
The theoretical tubing capacity of any drum can
be calculated using the following equation, The minimum recommended freeboards for
illustrated by Fig. 6-3. This method assumes
different sizes of CT string are given in
perfect spooling across the width of the drum.
Table 6-1.
However, in practice this is difficult to achieve,
therefore an allowance must be made for a
capacity slightly less than calculated.

40 | CT Reel
Table 6-1. Freeboard for CT String

Minimum
Size of CT
Recommended
String (in)
Freeboard (in)
1 1.5
1 1/4 1.5
1 1/2 2.0
1 3/4 2.0
2 3.0 Figure 6-4. DID Reel Drum
2 3/8 3.0
2 7/8 3.5

Each different size of CT string has a K-


value given by Table 6-2:

Table 6-2. K-Values of CT String

Size of CT
K-Value
String (in)

1 0.262
1 1/4 0.168
1 1/2 0.116
1 3/4 0.086
2 0.066
2 3/8 0.0464
2 7/8 0.0317
Figure 6-5. DID Reel Power Stand

6.1.2 Drop-in drum reels


A special type of CT reel has been developed to
allow easier management of CT strings,
especially the larger and heavier strings.
Drop-in drum (DID) reels allow the reel drum to
be easily separated from and reattached to the
power stand. Figures 6-4 through 6-6 show the
DID.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 41


6.2 Reel drive and brake systems
The following sections describe the reel
drive and brake systems.

6.2.1 Reel drive system


Though reel design and control may vary among
manufacturers and reel models, all reel drive and
brake systems are currently controlled
hydraulically. Most reels can be powered in both
the inhole and out-of-hole directions. However,
during normal CT operations, only the out-of-hole
option should be selected. This means that the
reel motor is always trying
to turn the reel drum in the pull-out-of-hole
(POOH) direction, even when the CT string
Figure 6-6. DID Assembled
is been fed to the injector head. This keeps
the CT string in tension.
When separated, the CT reel can be
transported as two separate and lighter lifts, The back pressure within the hydraulic drive
and reassembled on site. This capability system controls the torque output of the
is particularly important in an offshore motor. This control allows the tension on the
environment, where a platform or rig crane CT string between the injector head guide
may not be able to handle the weight of the arch (commonly called the gooseneck) and
entire CT reel. reel to be varied. Generally, only sufficient
tension to keep the tubing straight between
This system also allows increased flexibility in
the reel and injector head should be applied.
changing CT strings. On a standard reel,
changing CT string is quite a lot of work; one Currently, the reel drive motor is either mounted
string has to be spooled off onto another reel on the base of the reel chassis or directly
or transport drum, and the second string is to the reel axle. If mounted to the chassis, the
then spooled onto the empty workreel. reel drive motor is connected by a chain and
sprockets to the reel axle. The brake is
Using the DID system, the first reel is lifted out
incorporated with the motor assembly (Fig. 6-7).
of the power stand, and the new reel of tubing
is simply dropped in to the stand to replace it.

You will learn more about CT spooling in JET


12, Coiled Tubing Handling and Spooling
Equipment, InTouch Content ID# 4221738.

42 | CT Reel
• reel pressure adjust: the reel circuit
hydraulically powers the reel motor and the
CT operator uses the reel pressure
gauge to monitor the hydraulic pressure
at the motor.
• reel pressure: by varying the pressure to
the motor, the operator controls the motors
torque output, which controls the tension
Chassis
on the tubing between the reel and the
mounted
motor/brake injector head. Increasing the pressure
increases the torque and vice versa.
The amount of hydraulic pressure required to
achieve satisfactory tension will depend on the
amount of tubing contained on the reel and the
distance from the guide arch. Another factor
Axle
mounted that affects the required drive pressure is the
motor/brake weight of the tubing. This factor is noticeable
when starting from a static position or when
the reel contains fluids or electric line.

Tension on the tubing should be reduced


Figure 6-7. Examples of Reel Motor Brakes while injecting tubing into the well. This
reduction will allow the injector to smoothly
The CT operator applies and monitors reel drive pull the tubing off the reel.
and brake system hydraulic pressure using the
following controls and instrumentation. Tension on the tubing should be increased
when tubing is removed from the well so that
a tight wrap is maintained on the reel while
6.2.1.1 Reel pressure adjust the injector is pulling at a high rate of speed.
The CT operator controls the reel to maintain
proper tension on the tubing during CT Applying excessive tension may result in
operation using the controls shown in Fig. 6-8. premature failure of the hydraulic and drive
components or damage to the guide arch, CT
string, or wellhead. Overtension combined
with incorrect spooling will almost certainly
result in some tubing damage. Figures 6-9
through 6-11 illustrate the effects of various
levels of tension on the CT string.

Figure 6-8. Reel Controls

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 43


ensures that the reel brake will be applied if
hydraulic pressure is lost, thus immediately
stopping the reel.

Warning:
Never disconnect or otherwise
disable the internal spring that
Figure 6-9. Insufficient Tension on CT String self-actuates the reel brake.

The CT operator sets and releases the


hydraulic brake using the reel brake valve
on the control console; see Fig. 6-12.

Figure 6-10. Excessive Tension on CT String

Figure 6-11. Correct Tension on CT String

For running in hole, a hydraulic pressure in the


region of 400 to 600 psi is required, while a
pressure in the region of 800 to 1,200 psi will Figure 6-12. Reel Brake Controls and Gauges
be necessary for pulling out of hole.

Note:
Be advised that the reel
tension affects the weight
indicator readings.

6.2.2 Reel brake


The reel brake is self-actuating by an internal
spring and requires 300-psi hydraulic pressure
to operate the brake release. This setup

44 | CT Reel
The priority circuit hydraulically powers the During normal operations, the reel should be in
reel brake, which means that the reel brake the out-hole direction, even while running the CT
functions independently of the reel circuit. The string in hole. The action of the motor in this
operator uses the reel brake pressure gauge direction provides the necessary back tension on
to monitor the pressure at the brake and the CT string while running it in and out of
ensure that the pressure is actually applied. hole.

The brake is designed to slip if the CT string is


pulled by the injector head or a runaway occurs.

Note:
Chains and binders must be used
along with the reel brake to stop
the reel from rotating while being
transported.

6.2.3 Reel control


The CT operator uses the reel control
to change the direction of the reel motor
(Fig. 6-13). The reel can be powered in the
inhole and out-of-hole direction.

Figure 6-13. Reel Control

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 45


6.3 Levelwind assembly The automatic movement of the traveling head
needs to occur at different speeds according to
The levelwind assembly (Fig. 6-14) ensures the size of CT string being used, because a
close, even, and efficient spooling of the CT large OD CT fills the reel faster than a small
string back onto the reel drum. The tubing OD CT. The different speeds are achieved by
must be properly spooled so that the reel drum using a different sprocket for each size of CT.
is used to its maximum capacity. This sprocket turns the lead screw at a
different speed for each size of pipe (the larger
Poorly spooled tubing can cause mechanical
the CT OD, the faster it turns), which varies the
damage to the string itself, as well as allowing
speed of the traveling head.
the rate of corrosion to increase because
water can penetrate more easily into the inner
wraps of the spooled pipe.

Depth
counter

Levelwind
traveling
head

Axle -mounted Levelwind Levelwind Grooved shaft


reel drive and arm traveling head (lead screw)
brake system assembly trolley

Figure 6-14. Levelwind Assembly

46 | CT Reel
The operator will sometimes need to correct The levelwind arm controls a piston
the traveling head position during the actual cylinder that raises or lowers the traveling
spooling of the pipe, to ensure efficient head. The level of the levelwind arm will
spooling on the reel drum. Two clutch plates depend on the position of the injector head
are mounted at each side of the sprocket to relative to the reel, and will generally not
allow the operator to override the automatic change during an operation.
turning of the lead screw. This override allows
the levelwind override motor to move the lead Counterbalance valves are mounted on the reel
screw faster in either direction, using the skid to hold the induced load (weight of the
levelwind override controls (Fig 6-15). levelwind and tubing) in case of a hydraulic
power loss. These valves also prevent the
levelwind arm cylinders from creeping down.

6.4 Depth counter


A mechanical depth counter (Fig. 6 -17) can be
mounted on the levelwind traveling head or the
injector head. The counter comprises a friction
wheel and a mechanical counter. It reads the
length of tubing reeled on and off the reel drum.

An encoder can be added to the counter. If it


is added, the system becomes a depth
sensor. Depth encoders are devices that
convert mechanical depth signals to electrical
Lead screw
signals to calculate a depth measurement.
This depth measurement is also used to
calculate the running speed of the tubing.
Figure 6-15. Reel Traveling Head

The operator may make adjustments to


the position of the traveling head using
the levelwind override (Fig. 6-16).

Figure 6-16. Levelwind Override Arm Control

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 47


Depth counter

Universal tubing
length monitor
(UTLM)

Figure 6-17. Reel Depth Counter and UTLM

Normally, the signal from the depth sensor is The levelwind mechanical depth counter also
displayed digitally on a depth and speed serves as a backup to the electronic sensor,
indicator panel. An example of a depth in case of an emergency.
sensor is the universal tubing length monitor
(UTLM) show in Figs. 6-17 and 6-18.

Figure 6-18. UTLM

The CT operator can monitor tubing depth from


the indicator on the control console and from
the mechanical counter that is visible on the
traveling head.

48 | CT Reel
6.5 Lubrication system The CT operator controls the lubrication system
from the control console or from the lubricating
The lubrication system applies an inhibitor or
valve mounted on the lubrication tank.
protective coating to the string. The system is
mounted on the reel chassis; see Fig. 6-19.
6.6 Reel swivel and manifold
The swivel and manifold provide a flow path
through the CT while the reel drum is rotating
(Fig. 6-20). The flow path can be used to pump
fluids as well as solids or to make a connection
to a wireline cable installed inside the CT string.
Lubrication
applicator

Pressure

Reel transducer swivel

Manifold

Lubrication
tank

Figure 6-19. Reel Lubrication System


Figure 6-20. Reel Swivel and Manifold

The design and configuration of the reel


Note: swivel and manifold will vary among
It is important to maintain a coat of manufacturers. However, it will have the basic
oil on the tubing to prevent elements described in the following sections
corrosion. Coating the tubing also to perform its functions.
minimizes friction as the pipe goes
through the stripper. However, too
much oil can cause unnecessary
dripping of oil. It can also cause the
pipe to slip in the injector chains.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 49


6.6.1 Swivel
Note:
The swivel (Fig. 6-21) is also called a rotating
On all CT operations, it is
joint. It provides the ability to pump into the CT
important to have spare face seals
as the reel rotates. and packings for the reel swivel in
case of a leak.

The makeup of the swivel to the reel is critical.


When mounting a swivel, always ensure that

• the correct type, length, and quantity of


studs and nuts are used
• proper tightening sequence and torque
is used when mounting or rechecking the
swivels (see Fig. 6-22 for an example of
what can happen if the wrong torque is
applied).

Figure 6-21. Reel Swivel

Standard reels generally come with a 1 1/4-in


or 1 1/2-in ID swivel, rated to a working
pressure of 10,000 psi.

Note:
High-pressure swivels, rated to a
15,000-psi working pressure, are
mandatory on high-pressure
operations.
Figure 6-22. Damage Caused by Incorrect Torque on Swivel

Check the manufacturer documentation to get


the correct specifications for each type of reel.
Note:
Special CoilFRAC* stimulation
through coiled tubing swivels are 6.6.2 Manifold
mandatory for CoilFRAC operations The treating iron and valves come in two
because of the high rates of abrasive manifolds.
material pumped through the swivel
in these applications. • The internal manifold (Fig. 6-23) connects
the swivel to the tubing on the reel drum. It
includes a 2x2 Hamer valve that can
isolate the CT string if required. It should be
configured with a tee to allow a ball or dart

50 | CT Reel
to be inserted and pumped through the 6.6.3 Pressure transducer
CT string if necessary to activate a
The pressure transducer monitors the
downhole tool.
circulation pressure through the CT string.
The internal manifold will be configured The operator monitors circulating pressure
with a tee to install a pressure bulkhead if at the circulating pressure gauge on the
control console.
an electric cable is inside the CT string.

Coiled Access 6.7 Crash protection frame


tubing bull plug
The crash protection frame for the DID reel
protects the CT string from mechanical damage
during transport (Fig. 6-25). The lifting pad eyes
are generally integral to the crash frame.
Tubing
isolation
valve

Flange connection on reel axle

Figure 6-23. Internal Manifold

• The external manifold (see Fig. 6-24)


connects the swivel to external pumps
through a 2x2 Hamer valve. It also
includes a 4:1 pressure debooster for the
hydraulic circulation.

Pressure
debooster

Reel
swivel

Figure 6-25. Crash Protection Frame for DID


Manifold
valves

6.8 Changing the size of the CT


When the size of the CT string on a reel is
changed, the reel levelwind sprockets that
Figure 6-24. External Manifold
enable automatic spooling of the tubing
must also be changed.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 51


6.9 STEM 1 check for CT reel ○ Check chain lubrication fluid level to
ensure enough is available for the
A STEM 1 check of the CT reel should be duration of the intended operation.
carried out before and after every CT job, or
○ Ensure that reservoir caps are securely
at regular intervals during longer operations. made up before operating the system.
On completion of the STEM 1 checking process, ○ Operate the chain lubrication system
the STEM 1 report should be signed. The and visually confirm controlled
information must be placed in the Fleet Assistant application of lubricant.
system, which tracks the maintenance of the ○ Check/drain drip pans or
equipment fleet at each location. containment devices are operating
effectively. Ensure drip pans are
For the most up-to-date STEM guidelines, refer drained before transportation.
to the CT Surface Equipment Maintenance • Using an appropriate grease (or
program (InTouch Content ID# 4196880). lubricant where appropriate), lubricate
all STEM I lubrication points.
6.9.1 Hydraulic hoses and connections
6.9.3 Reel drive and brake systems
Check the hydraulic hoses and connections
Perform the following checks.
as follows.

• Check hydraulic hoses. • Check drive system main components.

○ Inspect hydraulic hoses and hose ○ Visually inspect the reel drive
bundles for evidence of wear, damage components for evidence of
or leaks. wear, damage or distortion.

○ Ensure hose bundle ties and securing ○ Inspect drive system fixtures, welds and
chains or straps are in good order brackets for damage or wear and
and appropriately adjusted. ensure they are secure.

• Inspect hose connection seals, O-rings,


○ Inspect gearbox/angle-drive housing
for cracks or damage.
and securing/latching mechanisms.
• Check connection protectors. • Observe unusual noise or heat from
the reel main bearings while reel drum
○ Ensure connections are clean before is rotating.
making up a connection and that
dust caps are fitted after breaking
out a connection.
6.9.4 Swivel and fluid manifold
○ Ensure the hose identification tag
(or similar connection coding Warning:
system) is clean and clearly visible. Before entering the reel drum core
or conducting work on the reel
6.9.2 General lubrication drum, ensure that the reel brake is
applied, and that the reel is
Check the lubrication of the unit as follows. chained and secure.
• Check inhibitor/lubrication reservoir.

52 | CT Reel
• Inspect swivel and adjacent fittings for
evidence of wear, damage or leaks.
• Check the reel fluid manifold components
for obvious wear or damage.

6.9.5 Levelwind assembly


Perform the following checks of the levelwind
assembly.

• Check operation of reel levelwind


override clutch and spooling systems.
• Check levelwind drive system.
○ Visually check condition and
operation of reel levelwind drive
chains and lead screw.
○ Lubricate chains and components as
required by operating environment.

6.9.6 Skid/chassis/crash frame


Perform the following checks of the skid,
chassis, or crash frame:

• Check reel drum flanges for splay


or distortion.
• Check condition of CT string measuring
equipment mounting points or fixtures.

6.10 STEM 2 check for CT reel


A STEM 2 check should be carried out every
750 hours of CTU operations or 3 months,
whichever comes first. Guidelines for STEM 2
checks can be found in the CT Surface
Equipment Maintenance program.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 53


This page left intentionally blank

54 | CT Reel
7.0  Injector
Head

This section explains the function and major From the control console, the CT operator can
parts of the injector head and its hydraulic remotely operate the components mounted on
system. It also explains how to control the the injector head using specific hydraulic
injector head from the control console. circuits. The hydraulic circuits allow the
operator to exercise a high degree of control
The injector head (see Fig. 7-1) pulls, over any movement of the CT string.
pushes, holds, and guides the CT string.

7.1 Drive and brake system


The drive and brake system (Fig. 7-2) drives
the chain system so that it can push, pull, and
hold the CT string.

Motor
and
brake
Figure 7-1. Injector Head

The equipment that performs these operations


is grouped into the following systems:

• 1-drive and brake system Figure 7-2. Injector Head Drive and Brake
• 2-chain assembly System and Controls
• 3-traction and tension system
• 4-guide arch system. Hydraulic motors located at the top of the
injector head convert hydraulic pressure
into mechanical energy to drive the
shafts connected to the chain system.

Pressure levels in the drive system control


the brake, which is an integral part of the
motor assembly.
JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 55
The brake is automatically applied when drive The operator applies and monitors drive system
pressure falls below a preset value. The braking hydraulic pressure and injector motor direction
mechanism is an internal spring that exerts using the controls discussed in the following
pressure against the brake pistons, preventing sections.
the drive shafts from rotating.

The brake is released when drive system 7.2.1 Injector pressure adjust
pressure rises above a preset value. The injector pressure adjust is a remote
pressure control valve. The CT operator
In emergency situations, the operator can
controls the actual pressure applied to the
activate the brake using the emergency injector
injector motors by adjusting this valve.
brake button on the control console (see
Fig. 7-2). This button drains the flow of hydraulic The injector motor pressure gauge indicates the
fluid to the motor, causing the pressure to
hydraulic pressure at the injector motors.
fall below the brake’s preset pressure and
triggering it to self-actuate.
7.2.2 Injector slow speed control
The injector slow speed control is a
7.2 Drive system
flow-regulating valve that controls the low
The injector drive circuit and the priority circuit speed of the injector motors. It allows the
supply hydraulic pressure to operate the drive operator to finely tune the flow of hydraulic
system. At all times, the resultant pressure
pressure to the motors.
must be sufficient to overcome all the force that
arises when snubbing (pushing) or retrieving
the CT during a well operation. Figure 7-3 shows
the controls for these circuits.

7.2.2 7.2.4

7.2.3
7.2.5

7.2.1

7.2.3
7.2.4

Figure 7-3. Injector Head Drive Controls

56 | Injector Head
7.2.3 Injector two-speed 7.2.4 Injector motor displacement control
Fixed displacement motors only operate in Variable displacement motors operate in
two displacement positions: high or low gear. various positions within the range of
The CT operator selects the gear using the allowable applied pressure.
injector two-speed valve.
The CT operator uses the injector motor
When the operator selects low gear, also displacement control to control the range of
called low-speed mode, the motors provide applied pressures. The displacement control
maximum torque or pulling force. provides the motors with an internal gear
option capable of varying speed versus load
rating (pull and snubbing load). The injector
Note: motor displacement pressure gauge indicates
Low gear is typically used when a the motor displacement change.
heavy load must be overcome or
where low torque is required, such
as when going through the 7.2.5 Injector control (Monsun
wellhead or a restriction. Using low Tison valve)
gear will help minimize damage to The CT operator uses the Monsun Tison valve
the CT downhole component to control the direction of the injector motors.
if it hits an obstruction. Examples The operator can also use the valve as a
of when low gear would be used method of varying the injector motor speed.
are when pulling a high CT weight
during retrieval, or when snubbing To select the inhole direction, the CT
against a high wellhead pressure. operator pushes the handle forward.
When the operator selects high To select the out-of-hole direction, the
gear, or high-speed mode, the CT operator pulls the handle backward.
motors provide low torque and
high running speed. High gear is The priority circuit supplies hydraulic pressure
usually used when you want to the injector control valve. The injector
speed or you want the injector control pilot pressure gauge indicates the
motor to stall, such as when going amount of hydraulic pressure applied to the
across the wellhead or restrictions. injector control valve.

At engine startup, the operator must have


the injector control valve in neutral.
The injector motor displacement pressure
gauge indicates the motor displacement
change. Use this gauge to confirm that you
have the correct amount of pressure
required to ensure that the motors are
operating in the selected mode.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 57


7.2.6 Injector displacement control
Currently, injector motors come in two models:
fixed or variable motor displacement.

The CT operator uses the injector displacement


control valve (see Fig. 7-4) to select the
displacement mode for the particular model
of injector motor that is installed. The valve
is usually found below the control console,
although the position may vary depending on
the design of the control console.

Figure 7-4. Injector Displacement Control Valve

58 | Injector Head
7.2.7 Chain assembly
The injector head is fitted with two sets of Drive
Motor
opposing endless chains. The injector motors sprocket
drive the chains through the sprockets. Gripper Chains
blocks mounted on the chains hold the tubing
(see Fig. 7-5).

Traction
bar
Motor Drive
sprocket
Idle
Chains sprocket

Traction Figure 7-6. Chain Assemblies


bar
7.3 Traction and tension system
Idle
sprocket The traction system controls the gripping
force on the CT string, and the tension system
controls the tension in the chains.

7.3.1 Traction
Figure 7-5. Chain Assembly on Injector Head
The traction system, also called the inside chain
The two configurations currently available for the traction system, provides the force necessary for
injector head chain assembly are the R- and S- the chains to grip the tubing.
type chains (see Fig. 7-6). On the R-type chains,
the roller and cam is installed on the skate or Three pairs of traction plates are in the
traction bar; therefore, the gripper block of the traction system. Each pair of traction plates is
chains has a flat back. On the S-type chains, the linked to a hydraulic piston. The pistons, when
roller or cams are installed on the back of the energized, provide and transmit to the injector
gripper blocks of the chains; chains the force needed to grip the CT string.
therefore, the traction bars (sometimes
called skates) have a flat surface. 7.3.2 Tension
The outside chain tensioner system takes the
slack from the injector chains. This function
provides smooth chain movement and prevents
damage to the tubing. Hydraulically activated
pistons, connected to the tensioner sprockets,
maintain the proper tension in the chains. The
positioning of the tensioner pistons varies
depending on injector head design.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 59


7.3.3 Accumulator
To reduce vibrations to the traction and
tensioner pistons, shock-absorbing
accumulators are mounted on the injector
head. The number of accumulators mounted
on the injector head varies depending on the
injector head model.

Figure 7-7 shows the action of the tension


and traction system on the HydraRig 400 and
500 Series injector heads. The traction system
is shown in blue, and the yellow arrow shows
how the tension is applied.

HydraRig 400 series

HydraRig 500 series

Figure 7-7. Action of Tension and Traction System

60 | Injector Head
7.4 Traction and tension • 6-outside tension pressure and bleed.

system hydraulic circuit Several configurations of the traction system


controls on the console are possible.
The priority circuit provides the
hydraulic pressure to power the inside
traction and outside tensioner pistons.

The operator applies and monitors hydraulic


pressure on the traction and tension systems
using the controls shown in Figure 7-8.

3
1

4
2

Figure 7-8. Controls for Traction and Tension Systems

• 1-inside traction pressure adjust


• 2-top, middle, and bottom traction
• 3-emergency traction supply
• 4-injector traction hand pump supply
• 5-inside traction pressure drain

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 61


7.4.1 Inside traction pressure adjust In case of emergency or hydraulic leak, the
operator can isolate each piston by closing
In this control console configuration, the CT
it until the problem has been solved.
operator uses the Inside Traction Pressure
Adjust control to adjust the actual pressure The CT operator uses the top, middle, and
applied to the traction pistons (see Fig. 7- 9). bottom traction cylinder gauges to monitor
The pistons apply pressure to the gripper
the pressure to the hydraulic pistons.
blocks via the three pairs of traction bars.

7.4.3 Emergency traction supply


In case of emergency (for example, hydraulic
leak, runaway tubing, etc.) the CT operator
can direct up to the maximum of the priority
circuit hydraulic pressure directly to the
Traction Traction
pistons bars
traction pistons using the emergency traction
supply on/off valve.

The emergency traction supply line


bypasses the inside traction pressure adjust
line that is used during normal operation.

The CT operator uses the top, middle, and


bottom traction cylinder gauges to monitor
the pressure to the hydraulic pistons.
Figure 7-9. Injector Head Traction Pistons and Bars
7.4.4 Inside traction pressure drain
The CT operator uses the inside traction The CT operator can bleed the hydraulic
supply pressure gauge to monitor the pressure pressure from the traction pistons using
applied to the traction system. the inside traction pressure drain valve.

The valve must remain closed at all times


7.4.2 Top, middle, and bottom
during CT operation. If this valve is open,
traction valves you cannot apply any pressure to the
In this control console configuration, the CT traction system.
operator uses the top, middle, and bottom
traction on/off valves to direct hydraulic
pressure, which is controlled by the Inside Note:
traction adjust valve, to the traction pistons. On some injector head designs, a
The pistons apply pressure to the gripper second drain valve may be
blocks via the three pairs of traction plates. located on the injector head itself.
The operator can trap the pressure in
the pistons using the on/off valve.

62 | Injector Head
7.4.5 Outside tension pressure and bleed 7.4.6 Injector traction hand pump supply
The pressure supply to the outside tensioner During an emergency (e.g., power pack
system comes from the priority circuit. failure), the CT operator uses the injector
traction hand pump supply on/off valve (Fig. 7-
The CT operator controls or adjusts the 11) to direct hydraulic pressure from the
pressure in the outside tensioner hydraulic stripper circuit to the traction system.
pistons (Fig. 7-10) using the outside
tension pressure and bleed needle valves.

Outside Figure 7-11. Injector Traction Hand


tensioner Pump Supply Valve
hydraulic
pistons
The supply from the hand pump line ties directly
to the emergency traction line. A pressure
control valve in the system ensures that the
pressure will not exceed the priority system
pressure.

During normal operation, the hand pump supply


Figure 7-10. Outside Tensioner Hydraulic Pistons on/off valve is always off.

7.4.5.1 Pressure valve


7.5 Guide arch
The CT operator applies pressure to the
The guide arch guides the CT string into the
tensioner pistons by opening the pressure
injector head (see Fig. 7-12). It guides the
needle valve. Once the desired pressure
tubing through the angle as the tubing leaves
is attained, the CT operator closes the
the reel. Then, it guides the tubing to the
valve, which holds the applied pressure.
vertical position as the tubing enters the top of
the injector head chains.
7.4.5.2 Bleed valve
Rollers support the tubing as it travels over
To reduce the pressure to the outside
the arc of the guide arch.
tensioner pistons, the CT operator opens the
bleed needle valve. This bleeds the pressure The guide arch can have a radius of
from the pistons. between 48 in and 120 in, depending on the
size of CT string being used.
The CTU operator monitors the pressure in
the outside tension system by monitoring Using a larger guide arch size reduces the
the injector outside tension pressure gauge. fatigue of the CT string. The industry best

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 63


practice recommends a 40:1 ratio for the guide Assistant system, which tracks the maintenance
to CT OD for pipe fatigue management. of the equipment fleet at each location.

The chart in Fig. 7-13 shows the most For the most up-to-date STEM guidelines, refer
commonly used guide arch sizes for to the CT Surface Equipment Maintenance
various sizes of CT string. program (InTouch Content ID# 4196880)

7.7.1 Fall protection equipment


Check fall protection equipment as follows:

• Visually inspect equipment fittings,


API Recommendations
webbing, and stitch patterns for evidence of
Tubing size Guide arch radius
(in) (in) abrasions, cuts, holes, or burns.
1 1/4 48 to 72
1 1/2 48 to 72 • Visually inspect the lanyard for any
1 3/4
2
72 to 96
72 to 96
frayed areas.
2 3/8 90 to 120
2 7/8 90 to 120 • Ensure that a secure anchor point above
3 1/2 90 to 120 the user is used and that any slack in the
lanyard is kept to a minimum.
• Ensure that fall protection appropriate to the
conditions is used. For example, clearance
below the operator should be a minimum of
5.75 m for a 2.00-m energy-absorbing lanyard.
This clearance is required to enable safe
expansion of the device while continuing to
support the user.
Figure 7-12. Guide Arch and Recommended Radii
• Check the general condition of mechanical
fall arrestors. Test the breaking mechanism
7.6 Changing the size of the CT to ensure smooth operation.
• Ensure that all safety equipment has
When the size of the CT is changed, the
been checked by an appropriate third-
gripper blocks in the injector head chain
party inspection service at least once
assembly also must be changed. The guide arch every 12 months.
must also be within the recommended OD
radius range for the new size of CT. • Ensure that equipment is stored in a
dry environment.

7.7 STEM 1 check for injector head


This check should be carried out before and after
every CT job, or at regular intervals during
longer operations.

On completion of the STEM 1 check, the


STEM 1 report should be signed. The
information must be placed in the Fleet

64 | Injector Head
7.7.2 Hydraulic hoses and connections 7.7.4 Injector head drive and
Perform the following checks on the brake systems
hydraulic hoses: Perform the following checks on the
injector head drive and brake systems:
• Visually inspect hoses and hose bundles
for evidence of wear, damage or leaks. • Check the injector head hubometer
• Ensure hose bundle ties and (see Fig. 7-13):
securing chains or straps are in good • Visually check general condition
order and appropriately adjusted. of hubometer.
• Visually inspect hose connection seals and • Record hubometer reading on STEM
securing mechanism (thread or ball latch). I report.
• Check connector protectors
and identification.
○ Ensure connections are clean before
making up a connection and that
dust caps are fitted after breaking
out a connection.
○ Ensure the hose identification tag
(or similar connection coding
system) is clean and clearly visible.

7.7.3 General lubrication


Perform the following checks on the
lubrication system:

• Check chain lubrication reservoir.


Figure 7-13. Location of Injector Head Hubometer
○ Check chain lubrication fluid level and
ensure sufficient is available for the • Check the visual indicator for the condition of
duration of the intended operation (clean
the injector head drive system inline filter.
40 weight oil).
○ Ensure that reservoir caps are securely 7.7.5 Injector head chains
made-up before operating the system.
Visually inspect the injector head chains.
○ Operate the chain lubrication system
and visually confirm controlled • Visually inspect the chain bearings and
application of chain lubricant. gripper blocks for evidence of
○ Check/drain oil drip pans and ensure excessive wear or damage.
that drain plugs are fitted. Ensure drip • Before the CT string is stabbed, run the
pans are drained before transportation. injector head chains slowly and check for
• Using an appropriate grease (or unusual noise or vibration from the chains.
lubricant where appropriate), lubricate
all STEM I lubrication points.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 65


Check guide arch roller bearings for
Warning: smooth operation.
Do not place hands or hand tools
on the chains or inside the Check the guide arch roller profiles for wear
injector head while the CTU or damage and ensure guide arch and
power pack is running. rollers are compatible with CT size for the
intended operation.

7.7.6 Chain tensioner systems


Check the chain tensioner system components:

• Check the chain tensioner system


hydraulic cylinders, hoses, and fittings for
evidence of damage or leaks.
• Check hydraulic system gauges (on injector
head) for normal operation and condition.
• Visually inspect the chain tensioner
mechanical components for evidence of
wear or damage. Include skate bars,
linkages, general sprocket alignment,
and adjustment gaps.
• Visually inspect load/force bearing
components, e.g., injector head side
plates and tie rods.

7.7.7 Guide arch


Perform the following checks on the guide arch:

• Ensure that folding linkages and


securing mechanisms on the guide arch
are operating efficiently and are properly
secured before stabbing the CT string.
• Check guide arch alignment.
○ Ensure that the guide arch alignment
is adjusted to enable smooth insertion
of the CT.
○ Check that the CT string is properly
inserted in the injector head chains.
○ Check condition and operation of
guide arch securing pins/mechanism.
• Check guide arch rollers.

66 | Injector Head
7.7.8 Weight indicator system ○ Where applicable, check access
ladders, handrails and walkways for
Check the weight indicator system for damage. Ensure handrails and such
the following: moveable items are securely stowed
for transportation.
• Check condition, adjustment and
operation of weight indicator jacking and • Check that all guards, shields and
locking system. protection devices are secure. Ensure
all guards are replaced following any
• Check general condition of weight inspection or repair processes.
indicator load cell.
• Ensure that fixed asset number (or
• Inspect cables and connectors for similar unit identification) is posted and
evidence of wear or damage. clearly visible on each component.
• Where applicable, ensure that weight
indicator system travel bolts are in 7.8 STEM 2 check for injector head
place before transportation.
A STEM 2 check should be carried out every
7.7.9 Skid/chassis/crash frame 600,000 running feet (182,870 running
meters). Guidelines for STEM 2 checks can
Perform the following checks. be found in the CT Surface Equipment
Maintenance program.
• Check slings and lifting equipment:
○ Ensure that all slings and shackles are
secure and that applicable inspection
test dates or periods are valid.
○ Where applicable, ensure that tare
weight, payload, and gross weights
are posted and clearly visible.
• Ensure that all cables, mounting
fixtures, and components of the
electronic equipment are secure.
• Check loadbearing components:
○ Check general condition of injector
head frame and skid for evidence of
wear or damage, including distortion or
cracks at key load-bearing locations.
○ Where applicable, ensure that the
crash frame roof is fitted and secured
before transportation.
○ Ensure that crash frame locking pins
are secured and retained (by split pins,
or similar).

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 67


This page left intentionally blank

68 | Injector Head
8.0  Pressure Control Equipment.

Most well intervention operations, including is compromised. It is not applied during


CT, are required to use multiple barriers, or normal operations. In CT operations, the
potential barriers, to control wellbore secondary barrier is the blowout
pressures and fluids (see Fig. 8-1). preventer (BOP).
• tertiary barrier: The tertiary barrier is
operated on a contingency or emergency
basis, being brought into operation as a
last resort. The use of a tertiary barrier
usually depends on several factors,
including wellbore conditions. Typically in
CT operations, this barrier is a shear/seal
BOP fitted directly on the wellhead.
This section will briefly cover the basics
of pressure control equipment.

Pressure control equipment is covered in


greater detail in JET 13, CT Pressure Control
Equipment, InTouch Content ID# 4221744.

Figure 8-1. Pressure Control Equipment for a CT Operation

Generally, these barriers are classified


according to the following three categories (see
also Fig. 8-2):

• primary barrier: The primary barrier is the


one in use during normal operations. In
CT operations, the stripper (including dual
or tandem strippers) is the primary barrier.
• secondary barrier: The secondary barrier is
brought into operation if the primary barrier

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 69


Note:
Elastomers are elastic
materials resembling rubber.
They are typically used as to
manufacture sealing devices.

The stripper ensures that the tubing can be


safely inserted in and extracted from the
wellbore while containing well pressure.

Stripper
(primary barrier)

BOP
(secondary barrier) Stripper
(primary
barrier)
BOP
Shear/seal BOP (secondary barrier)
(tertiary barrier)
Shear/seal BOP
(tertiary barrier)

Wellhead Wellhead

Figure 8-3. Stripper


Figure 8-2. Three Barriers to Control Pressure

8.1 Stripper
The stripper provides a dynamic seal around
the tubing (Fig. 8-3). The seal is achieved by
applying hydraulic pressure that compresses
a set of elastomeric elements, causing them
to push against the CT.

70 | Pressure Control Equipment


8.1.1 Types of strippers
Strippers come in the configurations
described in the following sections.

8.1.1.1 Conventional stripper


Conventional strippers are the oldest type of
stripper. Hydraulic pressure is applied axially
(along the axis) from below. These strippers
are serviced from the top.

Figure 8-4. Sidewinder Stripper Assembly


8.1.1.2 Side-door stripper
The side-door stripper was introduced to
enable easier and safer replacement of 8.1.1.5 Over/under stripper
components while the equipment is rigged up. An over/under stripper serves as two individual
Direct access is achieved through the side strippers in one stripper body. It can be used as
doors. Depending on the model or design, the a replacement for a two-stripper configuration,
stripper element can be energized axially from fulfilling the requirements for a primary and
the top or from the bottom. a tandem stripper packer in higher WHP
applications. It gives a reduction in stack
height of 1.2 m [4 ft] over the two-
8.1.1.3 Tandem stripper stripper configuration.
Tandem strippers are used as backup or
contingency strippers in conjunction with a
side-door or conventional stripper. When
mounted in tandem, only one stripper is
energized at any one time. In general, the top
stripper is used first. Before the lower stripper
is put into operation, the upper one should be
deenergized and the pressure between the
strippers bled off through a special port.

8.1.1.4 Sidewinder stripper


The sidewinder stripper (Fig. 8-4) is energized
from the side, and the elements and bushings
can be completely retracted from the main
bore. This feature allows easy deployment of
large OD components.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 71


generating sparks. The upper bushing is split,
allowing it to be removed when the CT string
is through the assembly, The lower bushing is
not split.

8.1.2.2 Energizer
Generally, the energizer is a urethane sleeve
formed around a steel spring. It is a one-piece
part and cannot be replaced with the CT in
place. Some models of energizer are available
without the internal metal spring and as a
two-piece construction.

Figure 8-5. Over/Under Stripper

8.1.2 Stripper components


The components of a conventional stripper are
listed in the following sections (see Fig. 8-5).

Note:
Different CT sizes can be run
through the same stripper by
changing the size of the packing
inserts, the upper and lower brass
bushings, and the nonextrusion
ring.

8.1.2.1 Bushings
Wear bushings are mounted above and below
the packing insert. The bushings help keep
the CT centralized as it passes through the
packing. Both upper and lower bushings are
manufactured of brass to minimize abrasion
of the CT and to decrease the chance of

72 | Pressure Control Equipment


8.1.2.3 Packing inserts
Packing inserts are split sleeves made of
elastomeric materials. The materials used
depends on the well conditions, for example,
high temperature or presence of H2S or CO2
gas. The inserts are assembled inside the
energizer. The split construction allows the
inserts to be removed and replaced with the
CT string in place.

Retainer and
clip pins

Split cap and


upper bushing

Nonextrusion ring

Packing inserts

Energizer

Lower bushing Interchangeable

Conventional assembly

Interlocking stripper inserts


Figure 8-6. Components of Conventional Stripper

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 73


8.1.2.4 Nonextrusion ring
The nonextrusion ring is placed between the
energizer/inserts and the upper wear bushing.
The ring prevents the stripper elastomers from
extruding from compression when the CT is Packing
run in and out of the well. It can be removed arrangement
with the CT string in place. Radial and side-
door strippers have a lower antiextrusion ring
as well.

8.1.2.5 Interlocking stripper inserts


Interlocking stripper inserts are made of split
elastomeric material with interlocking
features. The split allows the inserts to be
changed with the CT in place. Mounting
flange

8.1.3 Stripper operation


Hydraulic pack
All strippers, regardless of their type, operate and retract
basically the same way, with some differences mechanism
that are beyond the scope of this manual.
Depending on the stripper design and packing
arrangement (Fig. 8-7), hydraulic pressure is
applied to the top, bottom, or side bushing via
Stripper connection
a stripper actuator piston. The piston to tandem stripper
compresses the energizer, which in turn forces BOP or lubricator
the packing insert against the tubing.

Figure 8-7. Stripper Operation

Most actuator pistons are dual acting, which


means they hydraulically pack and retract the
stripper. Packing causes the piston to actuate
the energizer and packing inserts. Retracting
causes the piston to deactuate the energizer
and packing inserts.

74 | Pressure Control Equipment


8.1.4 Controlling the stripper When strippers are run in tandem, the
operator uses this valve to select one of two
The CT operator controls and monitors the
tandem strippers for use during an operation.
stripper’s hydraulic system using the controls
and instrumentation shown in Fig. 8-8.
8.1.4.3 Stripper pack
When this three -way valve is available, the
operator uses it to direct priority circuit
hydraulic pressure to the selected stripper. The
valve is used in situations where volume is
required to quickly actuate a stripper.

8.1.4.4 Stripper pressure adjust


The operator uses this air regulator valve to
control the operation of the Haskell supply
pump. The pump is located on or near the
control console. The pump supplies pressure
to the stripper and other circuits. Pressure
cannot be decreased using this valve.

The operator uses the stripper system pressure


gauge to monitor the discharge pressure of the
Haskell or Rucker supply pump.

8.1.4.5 Retract/neutral/pack stripper


#1 and #2 switches
The CT operator sets these switches to pack
or retract the actuator piston.
Figure 8-8. Stripper Controls When the switch is set to pack, the stripper
seals around the CT string. When the switch is
set to retract, the stripper loosens around the
8.1.4.1 Stripper bleed
CT string. The stripper packing inserts can
The operator uses this needle valve to only be changed in the deenergized position.
bleed the pressure from the stripper circuit.
When set to neutral, the flow of hydraulic
pressure from the Haskell valve is not directed
8.1.4.2 Stripper select to either of the stripper pack or retract ports.
Most CTUs have two pairs of hydraulic lines Any pressure already applied to the stripper will
for operating the strippers. Both strippers #1 be trapped, so effectively it can still be in
and #2 have a pack and retract line. The packed position and operate correctly.
operator uses the stripper select valve to direct
hydraulic flow to either of these pairs of lines.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 75


The operator monitors the pressure to 8.2.1 BOP rams
each stripper packing insert using the
The BOP consists of a stack of one or more
Stripper #1 and #2 pressure gauges.
rams. In Fig. 8-10, the four basic types of
rams are combined into one stack called a
8.1.5 Changing the size of the CT quad BOP.
If the size of the CT string is changed, the
stripper inserts, stripper bushings, and
nonextrusion rings also need to be changed.

Blind rams
8.2 BOP
The BOP (Fig. 8 -9) is the secondary line of Shear rams

defense in a CT well intervention operation. In


some cases, the BOP also provides the Slip rams
tertiary line of defense. Some of the main
functions of the BOP include the following: Pipe rams

• provides a secondary barrier against


wellbore pressure and fluids (pipe
rams and blind rams) Figure 8-10. Quad BOP
• secures and supports the CT string against
the operating weight or snubbing forces Four types of rams can be combined into
(slip rams) a stack:
• provides wellbore access for fluid (kill port) • Blind rams are flat at the mating
and pressure measurement (pressure port) surfaces. The mating surfaces are
• supports the weight of and forces coated with elastomeric material
applied to the CT equipment under the enabling the rams to seal over an open
rated wellbore pressure. wellbore. They are designed to close and
seal the entire wellbore when no tubing
or toolstring is in the BOP body.

Note:
Blind rams hold differential
pressure from below only; they
cannot hold differential
pressure from above.

• Shear rams are fitted with a tool steel-


cutting surface. They close on and
Figure 8-9. BOP completely shear through the tubing
and any installed cables.

76 | Pressure Control Equipment


• Slip rams close on and mechanically hold
the CT string preventing upward and
downward movement. Under normal
operation, the slip rams cause only
minimal damage to the tubing surface.
• Pipe rams close on and seal around
the tubing.

Note:
Like blind rams, pipe rams hold
differential pressure from below
only; they cannot hold differential
pressure from above.

Other combinations of these ram types can be


found in other types of BOPs such as those
discussed in Section 8.2.3, Types of BOP.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 77


8.2.2 BOP components
Figure 8-11 illustrates the components of a
quad BOP. A more detailed description of
BOPs can be found in JET 13, CT Pressure
Control Equipment.

Upper flange/ Pressure


connection adapter
port

Blind rams

Shear rams

Slip rams

Pipe rams

Equalizing Equalizing
valve valve

Lower flange/
connection adapter
Kill port

Equalizing
valve

Figure 8-11. Quad BOP Components

78 | Pressure Control Equipment


The components are as follows: pump through this port to kill a well.
On 3.06 -in and 4.06-in, 10,000-psi, BOP
• equalizing valve: When the blind or pipe models, the kill port is a 2 1/16-in, 10k
rams are used to hold pressure from flange, which is generally provided with an
below, it is important to equalize (balance) adaptor to a 2-in 1502 Weco connector for
the pressure above and below the rams easy rigup of a pumping line.
before reopening the rams. This
equalization is accomplished with the aid In operations up to 7,000 psi wellhead
of an equalizing valve. pressure, the kill port is isolated with two
plug valves during operation. The electronic
pressure sensor for wellhead pressure is
Note: generally rigged up between these valves.
Opening a ram without equalizing
the pressures will cause damage
8.2.3 Types of BOP
to the face of the sealing ram.
Several variations of BOP are used in CT
operations. The most common are listed in
Opening the equalizing valve opens a the following sections.
small pathway between the bore of the
BOP above and below the closed rams.
This opening allows the pressure to slowly 8.2.3.1 Quad BOP
build up above the closed blind or pipe The quad BOP (Fig. 8-12) is primarily used
ram. When the pressures above and below as the secondary well control barrier during
the rams are equal the valve can be closed well intervention. Quad refers to the four sets
again and the rams can be opened safely. of actuators in the stack.
• pressure port/debooster: A pressure port is
located on the BOP body above the blind
rams. This port allows wellhead pressure
to be monitored only when the blind rams Blind rams
are open.
Shear rams
The pressure port is connected by a
small-bore steel tube to a pressure
Slip rams
debooster fitted on the BOP body. The
pressure debooster hydraulically reduces
Pipe rams
the WHP by a factor of 4:1, thus reducing
the pressure within the hydraulic gauge
hose running to the control cabin.
• side port: The side port, often called the kill Figure 8-12. Quad BOP
port, is a flanged connection on the front of
the BOP body that can be used to pump
fluids into the CT/tubing annulus, or through
the cut CT string if the BOP shear rams have
been activated in an emergency.
The name kill port arises because you can

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 79


8.2.3.2 Combi BOP
Note:
The combi BOP is used as a secondary or
Note that the top ram is dressed
tertiary barrier. The combi BOP is so named
to perform the combined functions
because it has two sets of actuators in the
of the blind and shear rams.
stack. Each pair of rams (blind/shear and pipe/
slip) is dressed to perform a dual function.

The most common configuration for a


8.2.3.4 Shear/seal BOP
combi BOP is shown in Fig. 8-13.
The shear/seal BOP is primarily used as a
tertiary barrier (see Fig. 8-15). The most
common configuration of the single set of
Blind and actuators is dressed to perform the blind
shear rams and shear functions.

Slip and
pipe rams
Blind and
shear rams

Figure 8-13. Combi BOP


Figure 8-15. Shear/Seal BOP

8.2.3.3 Triple BOP


The triple BOP is so named because of 8.2.4 BOP operation
the three sets of actuators in the stack. BOP rams are hydraulically actuated. The
rams may also be actuated and locked
The most common configuration for a manually under certain conditions. The tubing
triple BOP is shown in Fig. 8-14. must be stationary before activating the rams.

The BOP actuator pistons are dual acting,


which means they hydraulically pack and
Blind and retract the BOP rams. The rams are attached
shear rams
to an actuator rod and the actuator is in turn
Slip rams
connected to the piston actuator. When
hydraulic pressure is directed to the pack
Pipe rams port, the piston actuators move towards each
other. When hydraulic pressure is directed to
the retract port, the piston actuators move
away from each other.
Figure 8-14. Triple BOP
The CT operator controls and monitors the
BOP hydraulic system using the controls
and instrumentation shown in Fig. 8-16
and described in the following sections.

80 | Pressure Control Equipment


8.2.4.1
8.2.4.4 BOP hand pump supply
The CT operator uses this on/off valve to
direct hydraulic pressure from the stripper
8.2.4.2 circuit to the BOP system during an
8.2.4.4 emergency, such as a power pack failure.

The supply from the hand pump line ties directly


to the BOP main circuit line. The pressure control
valve in the system ensures that the pressure will
not exceed BOP system pressure.
8.2.4.3
During normal operation, the on/off valve
is always set to the OFF position.

8.2.5 Changing the size of the CT


Figure 8-16. BOP Controls When the size of the CT string is changed,
the BOP ram inserts, except for the blind
8.2.4.1 BOP pressure gauge rams, must also be changed. Blind rams are
The CT operator uses this gauge to never used when the CT string is in the BOP,
so they are independent of the CT size.
monitor BOP circuit pressure.

8.2.4.2 BOP supply 8.3 STEM for pressure-


The CT operator uses this valve to allow or control equipment
shut off hydraulic pressure from the BOP main For the most up-to-date STEM guidelines, refer
hydraulic pump (system pressure) to the to the CT Surface Equipment Maintenance
various ram valves. The ram valves direct this program (InTouch Content ID# 4196880)
pressure to the appropriate set of rams.

The BOP system pressure gauge monitors


the pressure in the BOP hydraulic cylinders.

8.2.4.3 Ram valves


The CT operator opens and closes each set
of rams using the ram valves by directing
hydraulic pressure from the BOP circuit to
the pack or retract ports.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 81


This page left intentionally blank

82 | Pressure Control Equipment


9.0  CTU Electronics

CoilCAT* coiled tubing computer-aided


treatment is a PC-based system that is used
to monitor, record, and report CT jobs (see
Fig. 9-1). This acquisition and monitoring
system provides real-time computer-aided
design, execution, and evaluation for CT
applications.

CT InSpec UTLM

CTRI
UniSIM

CPD EIM
Laptop

Flash
memory
module
Servo
Power
DCU
supply

Weight
gauge

Figure 9-1. CoilCAT System in a CTU

The latest version of CoilCAT software runs on a


Depending on the version of CoilCAT that is
Schlumberger standard computer (a laptop in
being run in a specific location, slightly different
the field), using the equipment interface module
equipment configurations may be used, which
(EIM) as the front-end data acquisitions system.
may not include all of the components explained
The CT operator needs to know the basic
physical configuration of the system, as well as in this section. The electronic technician at
how it is used for acquisition and some basic your location can explain in detail the exact
troubleshooting. setup in a location-specific CTU.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 83


9.1 Sensors
Sensors are devices designed to measure a
certain parameter, such as

• fluid pressure/coiled tubing weight


• pump rate
• CT depth.
Sensors measure a parameter and output an
electronic signal. This signal travels through a
SIM (sensor interface module), which converts
the signal into a digital value, according to the
sensor calibration information that is stored in
the SIM. Figure 9-2 shows some of the
sensors that might be found in a CTU.

Sensors are powered from the power supply in


the control cabin.

Proximity switch: pump rate


Load cell: weight

Optical encoders

Depth encoder:
depth
Probes: CT OD

Pressure transducer:
WHP
Pressure transducer:
circulation pressure

Figure 9-2. Sensors in a CTU

84 | CTU Electronics
9.1.1 CT weight 9.1.2 CT depth encoder
The weight of the CT string in the hole is The simplest device to measure the depth and
measured by the load cell (Fig. 9-3). This movement of the CT string is a depth encoder
sensor is mounted on a pivot point at the (Fig. 9- 4). This encoder is typically driven by a
bottom edge of the injector head chassis, and it friction wheel held against the CT string by a spring
senses the change in load applied to the force. As the CT string moves, the wheel rotates.
injector chains. The speed and direction of the rotation is read by
the depth encoder and translated into
CT direction and depth. This information can
also be translated into a reading for CT speed.

Figure 9-3. Load Cell

The load cell is a dual-acting sensor, which


means that it can sense both tension and Figure 9-4. Depth Encoder
compression. To accomplish its dual-acting,
weight- sensing task, the load cell is bolted to Typically, depth encoders are mounted on a
both the inner and outer frame. When friction wheel in one of three positions:
transporting the CTU, the inner frame must be
lifted and secured with bolts so that the • on the front of the injector head, just below
vibration and weight do not damage the the chains
load cell. • on the mechanical counter, on
the levelwind assembly
The load cell is generally one of the sensors
connected to the injector SIM. The unit’s • on the drive shaft of the injector motor or
chain sprocket.
calibration parameters depend on the type
of injector head being used. The output signal of a depth encoder is a
series of square pulses called quadrature (see
In an emergency situation where the electronic Fig. 9-5). This type of signal can only be read by
signal is lost because of a SIM failure, the load an injector SIM, UniSIM™, or ISDCU.
cell can be connected directly to the power
supply with a cable. If the load cell, EIM, or
power supply fails, then the weight checker kit
can be used to reestablish the weight
measurement to safely pull the coiled tubing
out of the well.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 85


Channel A

Channel B

One quadrature pulse

Figure 9-5. Depth Encoder Output


(CTRI) for a CoilCAT 7 or higher version
9.1.2.1 Universal tubing length
data acquisition system.
monitor
The universal tubing length monitor (UTLM) is
Schlumberger’s most accurate surface depth 9.1.3 Pressures
measurement system for CT (see Fig. 9-6). Viatran™ pressure sensors (Fig. 9-7)
measure the wellhead and circulating
pressures on the system.

Figure 9-6. UTLM

It is a dual-wheel assembly that is generally


mounted above the reel levelwind. On
some occasions, it may be mounted just Figure 9-7. Viatran Pressure Sensor
below the guide arch if there is movement
between the reel and injector head, such as The circulating pressure is normally measured
on semi submersible rigs or drill ships. on the external manifold of the CT reel. The
wellhead pressure is normally measured at the
The UTLM has an accuracy of ± 10 ft in 10,000 side port of the BOP. These sensors are
ft. It has minimal errors due to slippage of the generally rated up to 15,000 psi and give
wheel on the CT string because the software an output of 4 to 20 mA, depending on
can recognize if one wheel slips and will read the pressure.
the signal from the other wheel.
Pressure gauges can be connected to any
Like the depth encoder, the output signal of a type of SIM.
depth encoder is a quadrature. The UTLM will
be connected to either the injector SIM or
UniSIM for a CT sensor interface (CTSI) data
acquisition system or to the CT real interface

86 | CTU Electronics
9.1.4 Pump rates and fluid volume 9.1.5 CT OD and wall thickness
Proximity switches are used to measure volume The CT InSpec* coiled tubing real-time wall
and pump rate (Fig. 9-8). They are generally thickness measurement device uses
installed on the shaft of a triplex pump. ultrasonic sensors to measure CT wall
thickness and the OD.

The CT InSpec is mounted around the CT


string above the reel levelwind. It is
connected to the CTRI, which sends signals
back to the EIM.

9.2 SIMs
SIMs are used to digitize the input from the
standard CT sensors and communicate
their value to the EIM.

SIMs have very important functions in the


Figure 9-8. Proximity Switch CoilCAT acquisition system. They give the
system versatility and simplicity in the rig
The proximity switch is mounted on a bracket up, monitoring, and recording of CT jobs.
near the pump drive shaft. Specially fabricated
bolts with extended heads are used to replace The main functions of SIMs are to
the existing bolts previously used on the drive
shaft flange. When the pump is in operation, the • convert the analog signal from the
drive shaft spins. The proximity switch senses sensor into a digital signal
the proximity of these bolts as they rotate past • store calibration data for sensors: this
it, and it sends a pulse each time. information is stored in a flash memory
chip and can be changed via CCAT.
The frequency of the signal is proportional
SIMs can be connected in any order, to any of
to the rotation of the drive shaft, which
the BUS connections on the power supply in
is proportional to the volume pumped. A
the control cabin. New versions of SIMs have a
calibration factor, the K-factor, is programmed
built-in LED to aid with troubleshooting. If a red
into the CoilCAT system to convert the raw
LED lights, either the power supply or the
frequency signal into a pump rate of barrels
communication devices have failed.
per minute or liters per minute.
According to the application (where on the unit
The K-factor depends on the type of triplex
pump (diameter of the plunger and stroke they are placed), different SIMs are available:
length). K-factors are available from the • standard SIM
pump manual or InTouch for all triplex
• injector SIM
pump arrangements.
• uniSIM
• CTRI
• DCU.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 87


9.2.1 Standard SIM The UniSIM has several advantages over
the injector SIM; the main advantages are
Standard SIMs are the most basic SIM
listed below:
available. They are designed to connect one
sensor only, and can accept a current, • higher reliability
voltage or frequency output from the sensor. • more water resistant
• more robust wire connection terminals
9.2.2 Injector SIM • delivered prewired—ready to program
The injector SIM can handle four sensor and use
inputs. Its architecture and functionality is very • LED indicators to assist in troubleshooting.
similar to the standard SIM, but it has a larger Thirteen LED indicators are visible through
circuit board with additional inputs. It can the clear lid that indicate the
handle current, volts, frequency, and communication, programming, and
quadrature output signals from the sensor. encoder signal status of the UniSIM.

9.2.3 UniSIM 9.2.4 CTRI


The UniSIM (Fig. 9-9) can handle
The CTRI replaces the ReelSIM* on
multiple sensors simultaneously.
CoilCAT versions 6.0 and lower.

Figure 9-9. UniSIM

Figure 9-10. CTRI

The CTRI is used to interface to the CT InSpec,


and the UTLM to the EIM. It also contains a
depth connection for a wireline truck, which can
be used in CT logging or perforation operations.

88 | CTU Electronics
The CTRI also stores the string database for a The EIM is located in the CTU control cabin and
string on a particular reel. The string database is replaces the CTSI main unit used in earlier
a record of the CT string history and fatigue versions of CoilCAT hardware.
life. It is discussed in more detail in JET 12, CT
Handling and Spooling.
9.4.2 Power supply
The power supply located in the CTU control
9.2.5 DCU
cabin provides power to the sensors in the
The DCU is a multipurpose acquisition and system. The cables from the SIMs are wired
control device. In acquisition mode, it acts like a into the power supply. A single cable then
SIM to send sensor data to CoilCAT. In connects the power supply to the EIM.
new-generation CTUs, the DCU can also be
used to control pump units, valves, and the The power supply also has connection points
CT reel. for emergency depth and emergency weight
cables. These connections are invaluable if a SIM
failure occurs because they allow a cable to be
9.4 Control cabin components connected from the power supply directly to
The remaining components of the CTU the depth counter and load cell without passing
electronic system can be found inside the through a SIM. This connection gives the
CTU control cabin. operator depth and weight readings, allowing
the CT string to be safely retrieved in an
emergency.
9.4.1 EIM
The EIM is a programmable device (Fig. 9-11),
which provides an interface between the SIMs
and the laptop. The EIM displays the depth,
speed, and weight parameters. It can be used
to enter K-factors for depth and pump rates,
and to zero all pertinent parameters (pressures,
depth, and weight). It also records data to a
solid state flash memory card.

Figure 9-12. Sensor Power Supply

Figure 9-11. EIM

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 89


9.4.3 Critical parameter display • connections
The critical parameter display (CPD) is a display ○ Clean the connections with an
electronic contact cleaner.
panel that shows 12 parameters in real time
(Fig. 9-13). The operator can select which ○ Fit protective caps to all the connections
parameters are displayed through the CoilCAT to keep free of dirt or debris.
software. Typically, the CPD is configured to • cable
display the most important parameters to the ○ Spool cable and store in a
operator (depth, weight, speed, and pressures). dry environment.
○ Check the cable for any kinks or wear.

9.5.2 UTLM
Check operation and security of UTLM wheels,
roller, and scrapers. Check the electrical
fittings for evidence of wear or damage.

9.5.3 CT InSpec
Check packers and tubing guides. Replace
if wear is evident. Packers will have to be
changed every 1 to 2 jobs, whereas the tubing
guides should last for approximately 100,000
running feet.

Check condition of oil tubes. Ensure tubes are


clean and clear of any obstruction.

Check electrical connections and fittings for


Figure 9-13. CPD evidence of wear or damage.

9.5 STEM 1 check for 9.5.4 Weight indicator load cell


electronic components Check that the load cell(s) are secure and
that the injector head mechanical pivots are
Perform the following STEM 1 checks
before and after every job. For the most up- free to operate properly with the load cell.
to-date STEM guidelines, refer to the CT Check electrical connections and fittings
Surface Equipment Maintenance program
for evidence of wear or damage.
(InTouch Content ID# 4196880).

9.5.1 Sensor cables


Perform the following checks of the
sensor cables.

90 | CTU Electronics
10.0  Troubleshooting

Often when a problem arises with a component • Check that all hoses are correctly
or system, there is no immediately clear cause. connected and that no gross leaks are
However, most problems can be identified evident. Incorrectly fitted hoses and
using a logical approach and a good malfunctioning connector check valves
knowledge of the systems involved. are a common source of problems.
• Check components for evidence of
In many cases, following the STEM 1 leaks, binding, or obvious damage.
guidelines will identify the problem before it
• Check the hydraulic oil reservoir to ensure
becomes severe enough to interfere with the that there is sufficient hydraulic oil.
operation of the CTU.
• Check whether the filters are clogged.
• Follow the troubleshooting guidelines
Caution: contained in the appropriate technical
When checking the operation of the manual for the specific piece of equipment.
components and systems, it is Problems associated with the loss or lack
occasionally necessary to remove of hydraulic pressure or flow that cannot be
guards or protection devices. If this identified following the above checks will
occurs, extreme caution must be require a close inspection of the power
exercised when the equipment is pack and external circuitry.
operated. Systems or equipment
must not be operated while Further checks can be done on the
personnel or tools are in contact specific parts of the CTU according to the
with moving machinery or located following sections.
closer than would be normally
allowed with any fitted guard.
10.1 Power pack
The following sections discuss
troubleshooting the power pack components.
Because all main parts of the CTU are
hydraulically driven, the same things need to
be checked regardless of which component 10.1.1 Hydraulic system
has the problem. The main three factors that control and
• Attempt to operate the hydraulic system or transmit power in a hydraulic system are
circuit to ensure that the problem exists.
• flow
• Check that all controls and valves are
• pressure
positioned correctly and that the
corresponding pressure gauges display • direction of flow.
the anticipated system pressures.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 91


It is important to check these factors as part of
the troubleshooting of any hydraulic problem. Note:
Do not disconnect the case drain
Other important aspects that can be
hoses unless a flow check is to be
easily checked are made. Failure to replace the case
• temperature drain hoses may result in serious
damage to motor components.
• noise
• contamination level
• leaks or bypass flow. • With the engine at idle, attempt to
These factors are used as an aid in both activate the system by closing the plug
locating the failed component and valve located by the system relief valve.
determining the reason for failure. ○ If the system pressurizes, troubleshoot
the controls and circuit components
Components such as relief or unloader valves downstream of the power pack.
are particularly sensitive to dirt or particles in
○ If the system does not pressurize, the
the hydraulic system. Often, adjusting such
pump or relief valve may need
components resolves the problem by allowing servicing. The priority and BOP circuits
the particles to pass through. However, care are fitted with accumulators that, if
must be taken to ensure that the discharge improperly charged, may be slow to
pressure of such valves is not allowed to build up pressure.
exceed the normal preset system pressure.

If one of the unit hydraulic systems fails to


10.1.2 Engine
operate and checking the factors listed Diesel engines used to power the CTU are
above fails to resolve the problem, the similar to those used in most of the
following guidelines should be followed to powered equipment found within Well
isolate the problem. Services. However, an important feature of
the CTU power pack is that the drive to the
• Attempt to operate the system to hydraulic pump array cannot, in most
establish if a fault really exists. cases, be disconnected. Consequently,
• Ensure that the system is activated by the each time the power pack engine is started,
needle or plug valve located by the consideration must be made to the effect
system relief valve. on the hydraulic system.
• Observe the pressure on the system A faulty hydraulic system may prevent the
gauge. If pressure exists on the system
engine from starting by providing sufficient
gauge, check that the system control/
pilot lines and valves are connected resistance to overload the starting system.
and operating as intended.
• If no pressure is shown on the system
gauge, check the pump, pump suction
valves, and reservoir conditions. If
normal, disconnect the system hoses
from the power pack.

92 | Troubleshooting
Any diesel engine requires three essential
factors to start or run, and the availability of
these factors should be investigated in this
order:

1. air

2. fuel

3. compression (to provide ignition).

Availability of air and fuel may be investigated


by the CTU operator; however, should the
problem persist, further assistance should be
sought from a mechanic.

10.2 Reel
Some specific problems that can occur with the
CT reel are described below, along with some
methods for investigating the source of the
problem.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 93


10.2.1 Reel drum not rotating
See Figure 10-1 to troubleshoot the reel drum
rotation.

Reel system pressure


gauge responds as
expected.

Yes
Reel brake No
control is off

Yes Check main relief


valve bypass and
hose connections to
Air brake Hydraulic brake
power pack.

Air system Priority system


pressure OK pressure OK
No Yes Yes No

Troubleshoot Check for obstruction on reel drum, Check main


air system. binders still in place, damaged reel bearing relief valve
or drive system, levelwind chains, and sprockets. bypass
Check all hoses and connections.
Troubleshoot
priority circuit/supply
Are brake pads Check hydraulic (see hydraulic system
released? troubleshooting)
pressure at brake.
No Yes

Is there pressure
at the brake actuator? Possible causes

Yes No • Hydraulic pump or main relief valve


malfunction. Troubleshoot the supply
circuit (see power-pack troubleshooting).
Check/service Troubleshoot
brake actuator. control system. • Crossover relief valve located on the reel is
passing. Check for noise and vibration.
• Internal damage to drive motor allowing fluid
Possible causes to pass. Check for noise and vibration.
• Faulty pilot valve. Back off the main relief
• Internal damage to motor preventing valve, disconnect the pilot adjust hose, and
rotation. Check that the chain slack is attempt to increase the pressure at main
taken up when the motor is engaged. relief valve (maximum 2,500 psi).
• Blockage or malfunction of the If pressure increases, the panel pilot valve is faulty. If
console directional control valve.
there is no pressure, the main relief valve is faulty.
Check the control circuit lines.

Figure 10-1. Troubleshooting Process for Reel Drum Not Rotating

94 | Troubleshooting
10.2.2 Reel drum not rotating as fast as
injector feeds tubing
Increasing system pressure will normally
increase the starting and running speed of the
reel drum. The pressure required to drive the
reel will require to be increased as the weight of
tubing on the reel increased, e.g., when POOH.

If an increase in system pressure does not


increase the speed check for mechanical
binding on the drum flanges, drive system, and
levelwind system driven from the reel axle.

If the system pressure cannot be increased,


check the pressure setting of all relief valves. In
addition, it may be necessary to check the level
of wear on the hydraulic pump and pressure
controlling equipment.

10.2.3 Levelwind override motor not


rotating
See Figure 10-2 to troubleshoot the levelwind
override motor not rotating.

System pressure gauge increases to


2,500 psi when override control is neutral.

Yes No

Check hoses and connections System pressure gauge


between control console and increases to 2,500 psi when
power pack. override is selected.
No Yes

Check main relief valve bypass, Override chain slack


hoses and connections to is taken up when
power pack. Check for internal override is selected.
leakage in override motor
(noise and vibration). No Yes

Check hoses and Check for mechanical


Check hydraulic connections to reel. binding or damage to
pump operation.
chains, and sprockets,
(see hydraulic system lead screw, and override
troubleshooting) Troubleshoot
clutch assembly.
control system.

Figure 10-2. Troubleshooting Levelwind Override Motor Not Rotating

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 95


10.2.4 Lead screw not turning with • Inside chain tension pressure adjust
valve on control console may be faulty.
reel drum
See Figure 10-3 to troubleshoot the lead 10.3.1.2 Inside chain tension circuit
screw not turning with the reel drum. not holding pressure
Perform these checks and remediate issues
Lead screw turns as necessary.
with override selected.
No Yes • Check hoses and fitting for external leaks.
Check hoses and Check override clutch • Traction rams may be leaking internally.
connections between adjustment. More Remove the hose fitting from the
reel and control cab. compression may be
Levelwind motor should required.
nonactive end of the ram and check for
be able to idle when continuous flow of fluid.
in neutral and reel is
turning. • Air may be trapped in the rod end (active
end) of the cylinder. Bleed cylinders by
Check for mechanical loosening the fitting until air is expelled.
binding on chains,
sprockets, bearings, • The accumulator may be leaking
lead screw, and pawl. internally. Check the accumulator
precharge pressures with all hydraulic
Figure 10-3. Troubleshooting Lead Screw Not Turning pressure bled off.
10.3 Injector head issues
10.3.1.3Outside chain tension circuit
The following sections discuss various problems
not increasing to 110 psi
that may occur with the injector head.
Perform these checks and remediate issues as
necessary.
10.3.1 Inside/outside chain
• Check that priority system pressure is
tensioner system malfunctioning 2,000 psi. If not, troubleshoot priority
If the inside/outside chain tensioner system is circuit.
malfunctioning, it might have one of several
• System drain valve may be
different causes.
improperly closed or leaking.
• The outside chain tension system
10.3.1.1 Inside chain tension circuit pressure-reducing valve, located beneath
pressure not increasing to 2,000 psi the operator’s console, may require
Perform these checks and remediate issues as servicing.
necessary:

• Check that priority system pressure is


2,000 psi. If not, troubleshoot
priority circuit.
• System drain valve may be
improperly closed or leaking.

96 | Troubleshooting
10.3.1.4 Outside chain tension circuit • Observe pumps for high temperature or
noisy operation. If operation appears
not holding pressure abnormal, check that the supply line
Perform these checks and remediate issues and strainers are clear.
as necessary. • On multiple pump models, check that
the relief valve located on the Husco
• Traction rams may be leaking internally.
valve is closed. This valve must be open
Remove the hose fitting from the
for spooling.
nonactive end of the ram and check for
• Check control pressures. With the Monsun
the continuous flow of fluid.
Tison direction control valve fully shifted,
• Air may be trapped in the rod end (active the direction control valve pilot pressure
end) of the cylinder. Bleed cylinders by must be at least 200 psi to operate the
loosening the fitting until air is expelled. Husco valve.
• The accumulator may be leaking ○ If this pressure is low, check that the
internally. Check the accumulator priority supply is turned on at the
precharge pressures with all hydraulic power pack.
pressure bled off.
○ A small amount of debris in the relief
10.3.1.5 Injector head running noisily valve, located beneath the control
console supplying the direction control
Perform these checks and remediate issues valve, may interfere with the delivered
as necessary. pressure. Fully opening and closing the
adjustment knob may resume
• Outside chain tension may be insufficient. operation of the valve.
Check that the pressure is maintained.
○ Always reset to 600 psi.
• If inside or outside chain tensions ○ If the problem is still not resolved,
pressure gauges are oscillating, the troubleshoot the priority system.
accumulators may require charging.
○ Also, check the condition of the I-line
filter to the directional control valve.
10.4 Injector drive/brake
• Remove the injector drive hoses from
systems issues the power pack connections.
The following sections discuss several causes
• Shift the direction control valve fully in
of injector drive/brake system problems. one direction; the system pressure
should increase to 3,000 psi as the pilot
valve is adjusted.
10.4.1 Injector head motors not turning
• If the pressure does not increase, back
For the following symptoms, perform the out the knob on the drive system main
indicated checks and remediate any relief valve. This is located between the
problems as necessary. pump check valves and the Husco valve
on the power pack.
• Hydraulic pressure appears abnormal.
If CTU is equipped with a multiple • Disconnect the hydraulic connector for
pump option, check that at least one the injector pilot pressure adjust, thereby
pump is selected. isolating the pilot valve from the supply.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 97


• Shift the directional control valve fully • The Husco valve may be faulty.
in one direction and attempt to adjust
the system pressure using the main 10.4.3 Injector head only achieving
relief valve on the power pack. If the
full speed in one direction
pressure increases, the panel-mounted
pressure relief valve is faulty. Do not The following problems may be present.
exceed 3,000 psi. Remediate any problems as necessary.
• Ensure that the injector head drive
• The Husco valve may be malfunctioning
hose connections are fully made up.
because of debris or wear.
• Hydraulic pressure appears normal.
• The hydraulic connections between the
• Check that the manual brake is directional control valve and the Husco
released (where fitted). valve may be improperly assembled.
• Check that 1 1/2-in hose couplings are
fully assembled. 10.4.4 Operation of the injector
• Observe the weight indicator. If weight head erratic
moves with attempts to move, the tubing
The following problems may be present.
may be stuck or held by BOP rams.
Remediate any problems as necessary.
• Check pressure to automatic brake
components. Ensure that the brake • The needle valves on the
pilot line needle valve, located on the counterbalance pilot lines may be
injector head, is open. improperly adjusted. Normal setting is
• Check counterbalance pilot needle two full turns open from closed position.
valves are open. Normal setting is two • Air is in one or both of the
full turns open from closed position. counterbalance valve pilot lines.
• Check for mechanical locking or binding, • One or both of the injector head motors
generally indicated by severe noise. may be damaged, causing intermittent
loss of hydraulic flow and pressure.
10.4.2 Injector head motors not • One of the bearings in the injector
achieving full speed drive train has failed.
The following problems may be present.
Remediate any problems as necessary. 10.4.5 Injector head not stopping when
directional control valve centered
• Engine rpm may be too low.
The following problems may be present.
• Hydraulic brakes may be dragging. Remediate any problems as necessary.
• System relief valves may be incorrectly set.
• Injector motors or pumps may be worn. • The directional control valve may require
servicing. Fit a gauge to both Husco pilot
• Injector counterbalance valve is not
control lines and check that pressure is
fully open.
zero when the valve is centered. Also,
• The direction control valve is not check that the centering springs on the
fully shifting the Husco valve. directional control valve are effective.

98 | Troubleshooting
• The counterbalance valves may be worn and fitting between the injector head and
or affected by debris, allowing the motors the console.
to creep.
○ If no pressure exists, the pressure
• The injector motors may be worn or reducing valve may require servicing.
damaged internally and the hydraulic
brake may also be worn or damaged. 10.4.8 Injector running but will
not engage in low gear
10.4.6 Hydraulic system running hot
Install a pressure gauge at the motor end of
The following problems may be present. the high/low shift control hose. With the low
Remediate any problems as necessary. gear selected on the high/low shift valve, if the
pressure is zero, the internal shift mechanism
• The fluid level may be low or pump may be suspect.
suction is restricted.
• The heat exchanger and thermostatic valve If the pressure is above 145 psi,
operation may be faulty.
• A hydraulic system may be dumping • the system hose connections may
continuously over a relief valve. This result be defective
may be caused by improper connection of • the control valve on the operator’s
hoses or poor operating technique. console may require servicing
• the free-flow check valve around the
10.4.7 Injector running but not pressure-reducing valve may be blocked
engaging in high gear or defective.
The following problems may be present.
10.4.9 Injector head brake not releasing
Remediate any problems as necessary.
The following problems may be present.
• Priority system pressure may be abnormal. Remediate any problems as necessary.
• The levelwind raise/lower valve may not
be centered. Both valves have a • The needle valve, located on the injector
common supply; improper operation of head brake release line, may not be open.
one may affect the other. • The gauge should display 600 psi when
• The pressure may be incorrect. The the brake release is activated. If it does
pressure gauge under operators console, not, the priority valve (Marco valve) may
located downstream of the require servicing.
pressure-reducing valve, should indicate a
maximum of 600 psi. 10.4.10 Injector head brake not engaging
○ If pressure exists, install a pressure gauge The following problems may be present.
at the motor end of the high/low shift Remediate any problems as necessary.
control hose. With the high gear selected
on the high/low shift valve, if the pressure • The needle valve, located on the injector
is above 145 psi, the internal shift head brake release line, may not be open.
mechanism may be suspect. If the
pressure is below 145 psi, check hoses

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 99


• The internal check valve in the 10.5 Stripper
pressure-reducing valve may not be
allowing reverse flow. To simplify the stripper troubleshooting
procedure, two flowcharts are shown. Figure 10-4
• The priority valve spool spring centering
outlines the recommended procedures to locate
mechanism may not be effective.
and rectify a leak on the stripper assembly.
• With the pressure at the motor brake port Figure 10-5 outlines the procedure that will
at or near to zero, close the brake-line assist in identifying problems in the stripper
needle valve. Shift the direction control
hydraulic system.
valve fully in either direction and slowly
increase the drive system hydraulic
pressure. Monitor the hydraulic system
pressure on the gauges mounted on the
injector head counterbalance valves. The
injector head brakes should not slip at less
that 2,375-psi differential pressure. If the
pressure is less, it is likely that the friction
discs in the hydraulic brake assembly
require replacement.

Leaking stripper assembly

Leaking hydraulic oil from Leaking at


upper housing/flange CB-34 Union

Leaking well fluid Replace O-ring at Leaking from weep holes Replace O-ring
from split caps bottom of upper or seal and inspect
housing. seal faces for
Check system pressure. damage.

Pressure OK Pressure low Upper weep hole Lower weep hole


or
Increase system bottom sub thread
pressure.

Still leaking Well fluid Well fluid


Replace stripper
packer or inserts. Hydraulic oil Hydraulic oil
Check part selection.
System pressure
will not increase or
Still leaking behaves abnormally. Replace upper seal/ Replace upper seal/
O-ring on upper O-ring on lower
Replace energizer Check hydraulic cylinder ring. cylinder ring.
and nonextrusion system.
ring.
Replace lower seal/ Replace lower seal/
Still leaking T-seal on upper T-seal on lower
cylinder ring. cylinder ring.
Check hydraulic
system.

Figure 10-4. Locating and Rectifying Leak on Stripper Assembly

100 | Troubleshooting
Stripper will not Stripper system will not pressurize or pressure blend off.
pack-off/operate
efficiently. Manual Air-operated
pump fitted pump fitted

Hydraulic pump Hydraulic pump Air-operated Air-operated


operation operation pump operaties pump not
appears abnormal. appears abnormal. normally. operating

Check air supply,


Check that stripper condition of inline air
function valves on filter operation of stripper
Analyze problem main console are in the
using stripper leakage pressure adjust regulator.
correct position.
troubleshooting guide.
Service pump.
Check that emergency
Check stripper retract
function valves on the pump Use manual override
line to ensure that it is
console are in the correct position or manual backup
fully open to flow when the
and system bleed valve is closed. pump.
pack function is selected.

Check hydraulic
If stripper operation is hoses connectors and
sluggish or slow to react components for correct
check system for air and connection and leaks.
purge if necessary.

Loosen discharge line on pump to check for flow and pressure. Fit a gauge and bleedoff valve to check
discharge pressure and efficiency of pump valves.

Poor flow Good flow

Check supply of Select alternative stripper


hydraulic fluid and using stripper select valve on
inline filter. main console (if fitted).
Service pump.
System System
does not pressurizes
pressurize.
Disconnect stripper
Check hydraulic system operating hoses on faulty
pressure relief valve for stripper circuit and attempt
passing fluid. to pressurize.

If the system pressurizes, If the system does not


a fault may exist on the pressurizes, a fault may
stripper piston T-seal exist in the selected
allowing fluid to bypass. stripper function valve.

Figure 10-5. Identifying Problems in Stripper Hydraulic System

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  |101


Some additional points that may contribute to a • Dry rusted or scaled tubing is the most
fault or condition are listed below. common cause of premature stripper
packer failure. Appropriate treatment to
• Tubing that has been damaged or is oval prevent tubing rust, together with tubing
may not allow the stripper to seal properly. lubrication while running in the hole, will
Check surface condition and shape of minimize the risk of excessive wear.
tubing when sealing problems occur.
• Poor stripper/injector head alignment can
lead to sealing difficulties. Always inspect
bushings for abnormal wear when
servicing the stripper assembly.
• Whenever seals or O-rings are changed,
the corresponding seal face area must be
checked for damage or excessive wear.
• The number of interchangeable packing
arrangements available from various
manufacturers and suppliers, together with
the similarity in sizes, allows sizing errors to
be made easily if care and attention are not
exercised in their selection. Double-check
packer insert sizes to ensure they are
suitable for use with the energizer in place.
This is especially applicable to the spare
inserts which are carried with the unit.
• Internal O-rings and seals in the stripper
assembly should, if possible and
practical, be changed as a set.
• Never attempt to strip through the pipe
rams if a stripper fails. The pipe rams exert
a considerable force to the tubing wall,
which will almost certainly result in the
distortion of the rams or tubing. The pipe
rams are an important well control barrier
and should only be used for the purpose
for which they are intended.
• In common with all hydraulic systems, the
operation of the stripper will be impaired if
air is allowed to enter the control system.
Every effort should be made to prevent
excessive loss of oil and corresponding
influx of air while rigging up, operating, or
maintaining the stripper system.

102 | Troubleshooting
10.5.1 BOP blind or pipe rams do not
hold
well or test pressure is low
See Figure 10-6 for troubleshooting
procedures.

Blind or pipe rams


do not hold well/test
pressure.

Check system
hydraulic pressure.

Check ram position


indicators.
BOP rams will BOP hydraulic system
not function. will not pressurize.
Check that the
Possible causes: equalizing valve
is fully closed. Ensure that the BOP hydraulic
• Flow to, or return from, the system bleed needle system pressure
actuator is restricted by Check condition valve is fully closed. fluctuates.
incorrect connection of hoses
of the ram seals.
or malfunctioning component. Ensure that all BOP function Check hydraulic accumulator
valves are in the open or precharge pressure.
• The manual lock
mechanism is preventing
close position, intermediate
positioning of the valves may
the ram from opening.
If pressure is normal, but
• Sand or similar solids are
cause internal leakage. bleeds off immediately
packed off in the ram bore,
following engine shutdown,
check the condition/
restricting ram movement. Possible causes:
operation of the hydraulic
• The internal seals in the ram • Needle valve is passing fluid. system Denison check
actuator may be passing. valve.
• Unloader valve is passing field.
• The internal seals in the BOP
control valves may be passing. • Hydraulic pump is malfunctioning.

• The ram position indicator may • Hydraulic pump suction is obstructed.


be damaged and is not indicating
the true ram position.

Figure 10-6. Troubleshooting Blind or Pipe Rams Not Holding Pressure

Note:
Further training on hydraulic
systems is available from the ITZ
(Industrial Training Zone) online
Basic Hydraulics 4.2 course, at
http://training.itz.net. A user name
and password can be obtained
from the training centers.

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  |103


This page left intentionally blank

104 | Troubleshooting
11.0  Glossary

BHA bottomhole assembly

BOP blowout preventer

CT coiled tubing

CTRI CT real interface

CTSI CT sensor interface

CTU coiled tubing unit

DCU distributed control unit

EIM equipment interface module

H2S hydrogen sulfide

POOH pull out of hole

RIH run in hole

SIM sensory interface monitor

UTIM universal tubing integrity monitor

UTLM universal tubing length

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 105


This page left intentionally blank

106 | Glossary
12.0  References

Refer to the following references for more


information.

• Well Services Safety Standard 5:


Pressure Pumping and Location Safety,
InTouch Content ID# 3313681
• Well Services Safety Standard 22, Coiled
Tubing Operations, InTouch Content
ID# 4221755
• CT Surface Equipment Maintenance
program, InTouch Content ID# 4196880
• JET 12, Coiled Tubing Handling and
Spooling Equipment, InTouch Content
ID# 4221738
• JET 13, CT Pressure Control Equipment,
InTouch Content ID# 4221744

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units  | 107


This page left intentionally blank

108 | References
13.0  Check Your Understanding

1. Which two components of a CTU are 5. Which of the following functions is not
integrated in a three-piece CTU? performed by the hydraulic fluid reservoir?
a. power pack A. allows entrained air to be released
B. control cabin B. allows settlement of dirt and
C. reel metal particles
D. injector head C. stores the hydraulic fluid
D. allows the fluid to be warmed
2. The CTU power pack usually runs on
_________ . 6. In a CTU, accumulators are used for
A. gasoline which two reasons?
B. electricity A. cooling the hydraulic fluid
C. diesel B. shock absorption
D. methane C. energy storage
D. clean debris from the hydraulic fluid
3. Power packs are generally classified
according to the type of hydraulic circuit 7. Which type of hydraulic pump allows
powering the injector head. What are higher pulling forces, but is more sensitive
the three types of injector head to hydraulic fluid contamination?
hydraulic circuits? A. centrifugal pump
a. standard open loop B. vane pump
B. standard closed loop C. piston pump
C. high-pressure open loop D. triplex pump
D. high-pressure closed loop
8. In which type of injector head circuit does
4. Which of the following functions the hydraulic oil return to the reservoir after
does hydraulic fluid perform? passing through the injector head motors?
a. transmits power to the CTU A. standard open loop
components B. high-pressure open loop
B. lubrication of system components
c. high-pressure closed loop
C. sealing
D. cooling
E. all of the above

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units |109


9. Which type of injector head circuit is a 13. When scanning the instruments and
flush circuit used to replenish internal gauges on the control console, which
leaks and add cool oil into the circuit? group is the most important to keep under
A. standard open loop constant observation?
B. high-pressure open loop A. depth measurement, stripper pack
pressure, inside chain tension
C. high-pressure closed loop
B. weight indicator, wellhead pressure,
circulating pressure
10. Which two CTU circuits C. power pack engine gauges, hydraulic
contain accumulators? gauges
A. priority and BOP
B. injector head and auxiliary 14. How should a reel be secured
C. high-pressure and stripper from rotation during transportation?
D. BOP and stripper A. chains and binders securing in each
direction
11. How often should a STEM 1 check be B. the hydraulic brake is applied
carried out on a power pack? C. all of the above
A. every 750 working hours
B. every 750 working hours or 3 months, 15. Which of the following sentences is correct
whichever comes first about the reel drive system?
C. before and after every CT job, or A. The reel drive should be set in the
at regular intervals during longer out-of-hole direction during POOH, and
operations
in the inhole direction during RIH.
B. The reel drive should be set in the out-
12. Which two of the following sentences is of-hole direction during POOH and
true? RIH.
A. The tension system applies force to the C. The reel drive should be set in the
gripper blocks to grip the CT string. inhole direction during POOH and RIH.
B. The traction system applies force to the
gripper blocks to grip the CT string. 16. The reel pressure should be _________ .
C. The traction system applies force
A. higher during RIH than during POOH
to take slack from the injector drive
chains. B. kept at approximately the same
D. The tension system applies force value during RIH and POOH
to take slack from the injector drive C. higher during POOH than during RIH
chains.

110 | Check Your Understanding


17. Which two of the following sentences 21. What is the purpose of the accumulators
is true about the reel brake? fitted to the injector head?
A. 300-psi pressure required to A. store energy to allow the activation
release the reel brake of the traction cylinders in case of
B. 300-psi pressure required to a hydraulic failure
activate the reel brake B. reduce vibrations to the traction
C. the reel brake powered by the and tensioner pistons
priority circuit C. no accumulators on the injector head
D. the reel brake powered by the reel
drive circuit 22. Guide arches are manufactured with a
radius between 48 in and 120 in. How is
18. The levelwind system allows accurate the size chosen for a particular CT
and efficient spooling of the CT string string size?
onto the reel drum. Which of the following A. The radius should be a minimum
are disadvantages of a poorly spooled of 40 times the OD of the CT
CT string? string to minimize CT fatigue.
A. increased chance of mechanical B. The radius should be a maximum
damage to the CT string of 25 times the OD of the CT string
B. increased corrosion to minimize CT fatigue.
C. CT string may not fit on reel drum C. The radius should be the same as
D. all of the above the radius of the reel drum.
D. CT string size is not important; the right
radius of the guide arch depends on
19. Which component of the reel makes it the type of injector head.
possible to pump through the CT string
even during rotation for the reel drum?
23. What is the primary hydraulic supply
A. external manifold
for the stripper?
B. swivel
A. Haskell air-over-hydraulic
C. Chiksan
B. Rucker manual pump
D. axle
C. priority circuit
D. Haskell manual pump
20. Which hydraulic system on the injector
head uses three hydraulic pistons?
24. Slip rams prevent movement in
A. inside chain traction
which direction?
B. outside chain tension
A. upward
C. accumulator
B. downward
C. upward and downward

JET 31 - Coiled Tubing Units | 111


25. When changing the size of CT, which 30. The UTLM should be connected to
BOP rams do not need to be changed in a standard SIM.
a quad BOP? A. true
A. blind rams B. false
B. shear rams
C. slip rams
D. pipe rams
E. no rams

26. In the CTU acquisition system, what is


a SIM?
A. sensor integrity monitor
B. sensor interface module
C. system interface module
D. setup interface manual

27. What does the CT InSpec


monitor? A. CT depth and speed
B. CT weight
C. CT wall thickness and
OD measurements
D. pump rate

28. Proximity switched are used to


measure what type of signal?
A. CT weight
B. pressure
C. volume and pump
rate D. depth

29. What is the common name for the


calibration factor for a sensor on a pump?
A. C-factor
B. K-factor
C. G-factor

112 | Check Your Understanding