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Ardhana Putra

Teknik Fisika ITB

Waves every where……..

OCEAN WAVE : is a wind generated

wave – a surface wave occurs on free

surface of the ocean – a mechanical

wave that propagates along the interface

between water and air

Pressure and friction forces perturb

the equilibrium of the water surface

The water movement reflects the fluid

dynamics of the wind wave

The wave motion vary along depth of

the water

The restoring force is provided by

gravity

Wind Generated Waves

Wind direction WaveThrough

Wave Crest

Stoke’s Drift

Circular Elliptical

movement movement

Shallow water

Depth water

Stoke’s Drift in Shallow Water

Stoke’s drift is the difference in end positions of wave particles as derived

from a description in the Lagranian and Eulerian coordinates

Author Kraaiennest

Depth of water ½

Stoke’s Drift in Deep Water

Circular form of

surface waves

Depth of water

2

Author Kraaiennest

Ocean Waves in Laboratory

Wave Crest

WaveThrough

Wave Paddle

THE BRIEF HISTORY

OF WAVE

EQUATIONS

Types of Waves

sound waves,

water waves, Mechanical waves

earthquake (seismic)

waves,

light waves,

radio waves, Electromagnetic waves

microwaves,

Gravitation Gravitational waves

Wave Equation Simple

Harmonic

Motion

Surface Waves

= amplitude

= wave length

space and time, usually by transference of energy.

differential equation of a scalar function u : wave velocity

is the Laplacian

c is a fixed constant equal to the propagation speed of the wave u

WHAT IS …..

PARTICLES ? WAVES ?

Since 1600 – the competing theories of light were proposed by Christian Huygens and

Isaac Newton : light was thought either to consist of waves Wave Theory of Light

(Huygens) or of corpuscles – particles Corpuscles Theory of Light (Newton).

Double Slit Experiment – (Thomas Young – 1803)

SINGLE SLIT : The brighter pattern is sum of ‘particles’ (photon) arrive on the screen

particle-like phenomenon. light is particle

Dark-bright pattern

DOUBLE SLIT : If ‘particles’ the dark-bright pattern will not exist – only wave

phenomenon can explain it called interference wave phenomenon. light is wave

Wave--Particle Duality

Wave

Wave–particle duality is the concept that all matter exhibits

both wave-like and particle-like properties explains inadequacy of

classical concepts like "particle" and "wave" in fully describing the

behavior of quantum-scale objects

Wave Center creates the 'particle' effect.

waves (matter) act as spherical resonators and only interact (resonantly

couple) at discrete frequencies/energies which gives the effect of

discrete light 'quanta'.

energy as particles

Photoelectric Effects : Electron Scattering :

de Broglie experiment Davisson-Germer experiment

Electron

source

Light rays

Electron

sensor

Ejected

Electrons Electron

scattering

De Broglie

wave length

hc p k Bragg’s Law

c

for n = 1, θ = 50°, and d = 0.091 nm - the spacing of the crystalline

p is momentum of a photon is proportional to its

planes of nickel creates x-ray scattering with = 0.165 nm or equal

wavenumber k. The reduced Plank Constant is to de Broglie wave length in the sodium metal experiment

Wave--Particle Duality

Wave

Phenomenon Wave-like Particle-like

Reflection

Refraction

Interference

Diffraction

Polarizaton

Photo-electric Effects

The Schrödinger Equation

Schrödinger Equation is an equation that describes how the quantum

( Erwin Schrödinger – 1926) state of a physical system changes in time

time dependent equation

most complete description that can be given to

a physical system

The general form of

Schrödinger

equation

Ψ is the wave function; the probability amplitude for different

configuration of the system at different times,

is reduced Planck constant

the total energy of the system

Comparing Classical and Quantum Mechanics

Classical mechanics Quantum mechanics

CS is used for describing the motion QM is used for describing the fast

of macroscopic objects motion of microscopic objects (sub-

CS models real-world objects as atomic particles)

point particles QM models real-world objects as as

The motion of a point particle is both particle and wave thus

characterized by its position, mass, interactions of energy and matter

and the forces applied to it Its mathematical formulations are

De Broglie wave length is the abstract and the implications are

approximation of classical often non-intuitive.

mechanics to quantum phenomena Similarity with classical mechanics

is the Schrodinger equation – 1-dim

independent time

Comparing Classical and Quantum Mechanics

SPEED

SIZE

MECHANICAL WAVES : Sound Waves

A mechanical wave is a wave that propagates through a medium due to

restoring forces produced upon its deformation the medium is considered

elastic medium

Simple Acoustic

Waves pure tone

Music

Speech 0.3

Sinyal Audio Cello Suite No.1 (Bach) - Kanal Kanan

0.2

Complex

Amplitudo (Normalisasi)

0.1

Acoustic 0

-0.1

Waves -0.2

-0.3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Waktu (detik)

Abrupt change of the air

MECHANICAL WAVES : Shock Waves medium (rapid

condensation of water

vapor)

SONIC BOOM

the characteristics of the medium Prandtl–Glauert singularity or P.G.

singularity

New Applications of Acoustic

Waves

Cancer Detector

New Applications of Acoustic

Waves

Acoustic Levitation

New Applications of Acoustic

Waves

Acoustic Levitation

Method for Future

Train Transportation

System

Monorail Train-Concept

MECHANICAL WAVES :

Seismic Waves

Rayleigh Waves

Surface Waves

Fault

Scrap

Love Waves

Wave

Faul

Front P-waves

t

Body Waves

S-waves

SEISMIC WAVE DETECTION : Seismic To Acoustic Waves

SOFAR : Sound Fixing And Ranging

cracks

Ocean Waves :

Tsunami

The Aceh Tsunami – December 26, 2004

The Boxing Day of Tsunami

Tsunami Research Group-ITB

Tsunami 26 December 2004

In Banda Aceh In Pataya

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES : Light Waves

Light is an electromagnetic wave it

is created by interaction of both

electrical and magnetic waves

Visible Light me ji ku hi bi ni u

Sun rays

Visible Light

Cosmic Rays

Cosmic Rays

Solar Wind

Light Wave Application in Communication Technology

Light Wave Filter

Healthy Skin

Radio Waves

Radio Wave Propagation

Ionosphere

Layers

Radio Wave Propagation

Wave Phenomena

All waves have common behavior under a number of standard situations. All

waves can experience the following:

Reflection - wave direction change from hitting a reflective surface

Refraction - wave direction change from entering a new medium

Diffraction - bending of waves as they interact with obstacles in their path,

most pronounced for wavelengts on the order of the diffracting object size

Interference – superposition of two waves that come into contact with each

other (collide)

Dispersion - wave splitting up by frequency

Rectilinear Propagation - the movement of light waves in a straight line

Wave Reflection

Reflection on hard boundary Light wave reflection

hard boundary

creates standing wave

Wave Refraction

two media densities Refraction due to headland

Wave Diffraction

Wave Interference

Basic

concept of

wave

interference

Standing Wave Wave Dispersion

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