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I. B.

Ardhana Putra
Teknik Fisika ITB
Waves every where……..
OCEAN WAVE : is a wind generated
wave – a surface wave occurs on free
surface of the ocean – a mechanical
wave that propagates along the interface
between water and air
 Pressure and friction forces perturb
the equilibrium of the water surface
 The water movement reflects the fluid
dynamics of the wind wave
 The wave motion vary along depth of
the water
 The restoring force is provided by
gravity
Wind Generated Waves
Wind direction WaveThrough
Wave Crest
Stoke’s Drift

Circular Elliptical
movement movement

Shallow water

Depth water
Stoke’s Drift in Shallow Water
Stoke’s drift is the difference in end positions of wave particles as derived
from a description in the Lagranian and Eulerian coordinates

Author Kraaiennest

 Elliptical form of surface waves


 Depth of water  ½ 
Stoke’s Drift in Deep Water

 Circular form of
surface waves
 Depth of water 
2

Author Kraaiennest
Ocean Waves in Laboratory
Wave Crest

WaveThrough

Wave Paddle

Edinburgh Designs Limited


THE BRIEF HISTORY
OF WAVE
EQUATIONS
Types of Waves
 sound waves,
 water waves, Mechanical waves
 earthquake (seismic)
waves,
 light waves,
 radio waves, Electromagnetic waves
 microwaves,
 Gravitation Gravitational waves
Wave Equation Simple
Harmonic
Motion

Surface Waves
= amplitude

= wave length

In mathematics and science, a wave is a disturbance that travels through


space and time, usually by transference of energy.

The wave equation is the prototypical example of a hyperbolic partial


differential equation of a scalar function  u : wave velocity

is the Laplacian
c is a fixed constant equal to the propagation speed of the wave u
WHAT IS …..

PARTICLES ? WAVES ?
Since 1600 – the competing theories of light were proposed by Christian Huygens and
Isaac Newton : light was thought either to consist of waves  Wave Theory of Light
(Huygens) or of corpuscles – particles  Corpuscles Theory of Light (Newton).
Double Slit Experiment – (Thomas Young – 1803)

SINGLE SLIT : The brighter pattern is sum of ‘particles’ (photon) arrive on the screen 
particle-like phenomenon.  light is particle

Dark-bright pattern

DOUBLE SLIT : If ‘particles’  the dark-bright pattern will not exist – only wave
phenomenon can explain it  called interference wave phenomenon.  light is wave
Wave--Particle Duality
Wave
Wave–particle duality is the concept that all matter exhibits
both wave-like and particle-like properties  explains inadequacy of
classical concepts like "particle" and "wave" in fully describing the
behavior of quantum-scale objects

Matter is a Wave Structure of Space - the Spherical


Wave Center creates the 'particle' effect.

Light is a Wave Phenomena - however, spherical standing


waves (matter) act as spherical resonators and only interact (resonantly
couple) at discrete frequencies/energies which gives the effect of
discrete light 'quanta'.

Matter -- not only light -- propogates as waves and exchanges


energy as particles
Photoelectric Effects : Electron Scattering :
de Broglie experiment Davisson-Germer experiment

Electron
source

Light rays
Electron
sensor
Ejected
Electrons Electron
scattering

Sodium metal Nickel crystal

Particle properties of light Wave properties of light

De Broglie
wave length
  hc p   k Bragg’s Law
c
for n = 1, θ = 50°, and d = 0.091 nm - the spacing of the crystalline
p is momentum of a photon is proportional to its
planes of nickel  creates x-ray scattering with  = 0.165 nm or equal
wavenumber k. The reduced Plank Constant is  to de Broglie wave length in the sodium metal experiment
Wave--Particle Duality
Wave
Phenomenon Wave-like Particle-like

Reflection

Refraction

Interference

Diffraction

Polarizaton

Photo-electric Effects
The Schrödinger Equation
Schrödinger Equation is an equation that describes how the quantum
( Erwin Schrödinger – 1926) state of a physical system changes in time 
time dependent equation

Quantum State also called wave function or state vector, is the


most complete description that can be given to
a physical system
The general form of
Schrödinger
equation
Ψ is the wave function; the probability amplitude for different
configuration of the system at different times,
 is reduced Planck constant

is the energy operator

is the Hamiltonian operator – the operator that corresponds to


the total energy of the system
Comparing Classical and Quantum Mechanics
Classical mechanics Quantum mechanics
 CS is used for describing the motion  QM is used for describing the fast
of macroscopic objects motion of microscopic objects (sub-
 CS models real-world objects as atomic particles)
point particles  QM models real-world objects as as
 The motion of a point particle is both particle and wave thus
characterized by its position, mass, interactions of energy and matter
and the forces applied to it  Its mathematical formulations are
 De Broglie wave length is the abstract and the implications are
approximation of classical often non-intuitive.
mechanics to quantum phenomena  Similarity with classical mechanics
is the Schrodinger equation – 1-dim
independent time
Comparing Classical and Quantum Mechanics
SPEED
SIZE
MECHANICAL WAVES : Sound Waves
A mechanical wave is a wave that propagates through a medium due to
restoring forces produced upon its deformation  the medium is considered
elastic medium

Simple Acoustic
Waves  pure tone

Music
Speech 0.3
Sinyal Audio Cello Suite No.1 (Bach) - Kanal Kanan

0.2

Complex
Amplitudo (Normalisasi)
0.1

Acoustic 0

-0.1

Waves -0.2

-0.3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Waktu (detik)
Abrupt change of the air
MECHANICAL WAVES : Shock Waves medium (rapid
condensation of water
vapor)

SONIC BOOM

Shock waves are characterized by an abrupt, nearly discontinuous change in


the characteristics of the medium  Prandtl–Glauert singularity or P.G.
singularity
New Applications of Acoustic
Waves
Cancer Detector
New Applications of Acoustic
Waves
Acoustic Levitation
New Applications of Acoustic
Waves
Acoustic Levitation
Method for Future
Train Transportation
System

Monorail Train-Concept
MECHANICAL WAVES :
Seismic Waves

Rayleigh Waves
Surface Waves

Fault
Scrap
Love Waves

Wave
Faul
Front P-waves
t
Body Waves

S-waves
SEISMIC WAVE DETECTION : Seismic To Acoustic Waves
SOFAR : Sound Fixing And Ranging

cracks
Ocean Waves :
Tsunami

Tsunami Research Group-ITB


The Aceh Tsunami – December 26, 2004
The Boxing Day of Tsunami
Tsunami Research Group-ITB
Tsunami 26 December 2004
In Banda Aceh In Pataya
ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES : Light Waves
Light is an electromagnetic wave  it
is created by interaction of both
electrical and magnetic waves
Visible Light me ji ku hi bi ni u

Sun rays

Visible Light
Cosmic Rays
Cosmic Rays
Solar Wind

View of the 4 telescopes of HHESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System) in Namibia


Light Wave Application in Communication Technology
Light Wave Filter

Bacteria Killer Ionic Air Purifier

Healthy Skin
Radio Waves
Radio Wave Propagation

Ionosphere
Layers
Radio Wave Propagation

Daytime Night time


Wave Phenomena
All waves have common behavior under a number of standard situations. All
waves can experience the following:
 Reflection - wave direction change from hitting a reflective surface
 Refraction - wave direction change from entering a new medium
 Diffraction - bending of waves as they interact with obstacles in their path,
most pronounced for wavelengts on the order of the diffracting object size
 Interference – superposition of two waves that come into contact with each
other (collide)
 Dispersion - wave splitting up by frequency
 Rectilinear Propagation - the movement of light waves in a straight line
Wave Reflection
Reflection on hard boundary Light wave reflection

hard boundary

Sound wave reflection that


creates standing wave
Wave Refraction

Refraction on the boundary of


two media densities Refraction due to headland
Wave Diffraction
Wave Interference

Basic
concept of
wave
interference
Standing Wave Wave Dispersion

Wave Refraction Wave Packet