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Grammar

M iA a T t/ib C T B o
У/l К м11.1(i 1.1 '.Ч74.Н22
liliK «1.2l'yc-2 CONTENTS
MI.O
.........................................................................................................................................................g
Classes of N ouns................................................................................................................................ 7
Ммлонанона И.С. Common and Proper Nouns........................................................................................................
Concrete and Abstract Nouns......................................................................................................g
M«(> I yt <кая I рамматика: На английском языке/Перевод с рус. Collective Nouns.........................................................................................................................g
Полищук L.B. 2-с и.чд. - М.: Живой язык, 2015. - 224 с. Substantial Nouns....................................................................................................................... g
Animate and Inanimate N ouns..................................................................................................g
Milovanova I.S. ( lender of Nouns.............................................................................................................................. 7
Russian Grammar/Translated by Polishchuk E.V. - 2nd edition. - Moscow- Number of N ouns.............................................................................................................................^
Living Language Ltd., 2015. - 224 p. ( 'uses of Nouns................................................................................................................................. 23
Main Meanings of Russian Cases................................................................................................... ^
Nominative Case......................................................................................................................... 24
ISBN 978-5-8033-1017-4 Genitive Case.............................................................................................................................. 25
Данный справочник содержит основные систематизированные сведения Dative C ase................................................................................................................................ 25
о грамматике русского языка. Accusative Case........................................................................................................................... 27
Instrumental Case...................................................................................................................... 2g
В книге описаны лексико-грамматические категории всех русских частей речи, Prepositional C ase.....................................................................................................................2g
особенности их образования и употребления. Word-formation of Nouns...............................................................................................................
Издание предназначено для изучающих русский язык самостоятельно или 33
с преподавателем. ............................................................................................................................37
Classes of Adjectives....................................................................................................................... g7

This reference book is a manual containing the essential systematized data on


the Russian grammar. Transition of Relative Adjectives into Qualitative and of Qualitative into Relative............. 4U
The book describes the lexical and grammatical categories of all Russian parts Possessive Adjectives.................................................................................................................. ^
of speech, as well as the peculiarities of their formation and usage. Degrees of Comparison of Adjectives.............................................................................................^
The reference book would be of great help to those who study the Russian Comparative Degree..................................................................................................................
language with the teacher or on their own. Superlative Degree....................................................................................................................
Degrees of Q uality......................................................................................................................... 47
Full and Short Forms of Adjectives............................................................................................... 52
Declension of Adjectives................................................................................................................ g7
УДК 811.161.Г374.822 Word-formation of Adjectives........................................................................................................
ББК 81.2Pyc-2 Transition of Adjectives into Nouns (Substantivization).............................................................
...................65
¡Pronoun.................................................................................................... gg
Reference Edition Classes of Pronouns....................................................................................................................... g7
Personal Pronouns................................................................................................................... gg
Milovanova Irina Stepanovna Reflexive Pronoun с е б я ...................................................................... *•*...............................
m m m Russian Grammar Reciprocal Reflexive Pronoun друг друга.................................................................................' ^
Possessive Pronouns....................................................................................................................7g
! f,! далась Demonstrative Pronouns........................................................................................................ 7g
L __ rQfw>b XMueci 40 .< Interrogative Pronouns............................................................................................................gl
* .... "*~ -— Polishchuk Elena Vatslavovna (translation) Relative Pronouns.................................................................................. ^
Definitive Pronouns................................................................................................................. gg
Negative Pronouns...................................................................................................................gg
Подписано в печать 25.04.14. Формат 60x90/16. Бумага офсетная.
Печать офсетная. Уел. печ. л. 14. Classification of Pronouns According to Their Correlation with Other Parts of Speech . . . . 91
transition of Other Parts of Speech into Pronouns (Pronominalization)...................................
Pronouns as Parts of Modal Phraseological Expressions..............................................................
Living Language Ltd.
(/ 1 Category of state Numeral........................................................................ 97
2а, Sharikopodshipnikovskaya st., Moscow, Russia
Adverb................................................................................................................................................... gg
Mailing adress: P.O. box 53, Moscow, 115088 Russia Classes of Adverbs............................................................................................................................ gg
www.lll.ru Adverbial Modifiers................................................................................................................... gg
e-mail: 111@111.ru Attributive Adverbs.................................................................................................................. jqq
Formation of Adverbs.................................................................................................................... .g^
Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs...............................................................................................
Printed in India. Comparative Degree..................................................................................................................^
Reproducing (copying) of this book by any means without permission will be prosecuted. Superlative Degree.................................................................................................................... jgg
Degrees of Q uality............................. ,„7
ISBN 978-5-8033-1017-4 © Living Language Ltd., 2015 Transition of Adverbs into Other Parts of Speech......................................................................
Category of State.................................................................................................................... 108
Impersonal Predicate Words in - o ................................................................................................ 109
Indeclinable Words Formed from Nouns......................................................................................110
Numeral................................................................................................................................................110
Classification of Numerals.............................................................................................................. I l l
Cardinal Numerals....................................................................................................................I l l
Ordinal Numerals..................................................................................................................... 112
Collective Numerals..................................................................................................................113
Formation of Numerals..................................................................................................................113
Declension and Syntactic Usage of Cardinal Numerals...............................................................116
Declension and Usage of Ordinal Numerals.................................................................................. 123
Declension of Fractional Numerals................................................................................................ 126
Declension and Usage of Collective Numerals.............................................................................126
V erb..................................................................................................................................................... 129
Infinitive. Indefinite Form of the V erb......................................................................................... 130
Two Verbal Stems...........................................................................................................................131
Two Verbal Conjugations .............................................................................................................132
Classes of Verbs.............................................................................................................................. 132
Category of Person.........................................................................................................................138
Verbal Aspect..................................................................................................................................141
General Meanings of Aspects....................................................................................................141
Particular Meanings of Aspects................................................................................................ 142
NOUN
Uniaspectual and Biaspectual Verbs....................................................................................... 145
Formation of Aspectual P a irs..................................................................................................147
Verb (c o n tin u a tio n )....................................................................................................................... 161
Category of Tense...........................................................................................................................162
The Present T ense....................................................................................................................162
The Past T ense.........................................................................................................................163
The Future Tense..................................................................................................................... 166
Category of Mood...........................................................................................................................166
Imperative Mood....................................................................................................................... 167
Conditional Mood..................................................................................................................... 171
Word-formation of the V erbs....................................................................................................... 172
Voice................................................................................................................................................174
Reflexive Verbs.............................................................................................................................. 176
Participle.........................................................................................................................................180
Formation of Participles...........................................................................................................181
Declension of Participles...........................................................................................................182
Short-form Participles.............................................................................................................. 182
Usage of Tense and Aspectual Forms of Participles...............................................................183
Transition of Participles into Adjectives and Nouns...............................................................184
Relative Clauses and Participles.............................................................................................. 185
Verbal Adverb................................................................................................................................ 186
Formation of Verbal Adverbs from Imperfective Verbs......................................................... 186
Formation of Verbal Adverbs from Perfective V erbs............................................................. 187
Usage of Imperfective Verbal Adverbs....................................................................................188
Usage of Perfective Verbal Adverbs......................................................................................... 188
Transition of Verbal Adverbs into Other Parts of Speech...................................................... 189
Infinitive.........................................................................................................................................189
S e c o n d a ry p a rts o f s p e e c h ....................................................................................................... 193
Preposition.......................................................................................................................................... 194
Conjunction........................................................................................................................................ 209
Coordinate Conjunctions.............................................................................................................. 210
Subordinate Conjunctions............................................................................................................ 211
Particles............................................................................................................................................... 212
Modal W ords.......................................................................................................................................218
Sound-imitating Words.......................................................................................................................222
N NOUN it substantial nouns;
О 11 animate and inanimate nouns.
U I .a h class has certain lexical and grammatical indices.
N The noun is an independent part of speech that indicates a person, thing or phe­
nomenon and answers the question кто? who? or что? what?
The peculiarities of Russian nouns: Common and Proper Nouns
• nouns take special gender endings;
• nouns have number and case; i ommon nouns are generalized names of people (мать mother, отец father,
дитя child), animals and birds (слон elephant, кошка cat, соловей nightin­
• some indeclinable nouns have no gender, number or case.
gale), various natural phenomena (гром thunder, дождь rain), or social events
In the sentence the noun can be;
i таб о р ы elections, революция revolution).
• a subject, placed at the beginning or end of a sentence:
Proper nouns (always spelled with a capital letter) name concrete persons, ani­
Мой от ец работает в институте. Му father works at an institute.
mals, etc. These are:
На столе лежйт книга. The book is on the table. I) people’s first names, patronymics and last names: Александр Сергеевич
• an object: Пушкин, Анна Петровна Иванова;
Нина читает журнал. Nina is reading a magazine. ') animals’nicknames: Мурка, Каштанка;
Я знаю Виктора. I know Victor. I) toponyms: Россия Russia, Франция France, Москва Moscow, Нева Neva
• the nominal part of a predicate: (river);
Мой брат - студент. My brother is a student. I) any proper names: «Новости» (news agency), «Аргументы и факты»
Москва - столица. Moscow is a capital. (newspaper), «Алёнка»* (chocolatebrand), «Живой язык» (publishinghouse).
• an adverbial modifier of place or time: Some nouns are both common and proper: Палех - a village in Ivanovo region,
Вчера мы были на выст авке. Yesterday we went to an exhibition. пйлех - Russian lacquer miniature.
Лётом мы поёдем на море. In summer we will go to the sea. Common and proper nouns differ both in meaning and morphologically
• an attribute: proper nouns are basically used either in the sing. (Кавказ the Caucasus, Урал
Вот здание университ ёт а. That is the University building. llic Urals, Лермонтов Lermontov) or in the pi. (А льпы the Alps, Карпаты
Зто словарь сестры. This is my sister’s dictionary. (lie Carpathians).

Nouns correlate with adjectives, pronouns and participles in gender, number and
case. They are also able to subordinate a verb as well as to correlate with it.
Concrete and Abstract Nouns
( loncrete nouns name separate things, phenomena, living creatures, etc. (костюм
Classes of Nouns suit, дядя uncle, дерево tree, стол table). Concrete nouns combine with collec-
I ive numerals, i. e. they are countable and can take a sing, or pi. form.
Russian nouns are divided into the following classes: Abstract nouns denote different abstract notions - qualities or processes: бег
1 ) common and proper nouns; running, дружба friendship, смех laughter. They do not combine with collective
2 ) concrete and abstract nouns; numerals but can go with words like много a lot of, мало a little bit:
6 3) collective nouns; ' The stress mark is not given in words with e vowel, which is always accented.
m h 6 to r6pn a lot o f grief N
i<i,, |л (be word труп corpse) grammatically refer to animate nouns; and those
Mbno paflocTM a little bit o f joy и,dli ,ii ing entities of people or animals (толпа crowd, семья family) - refer to О
I hey arc usually used only in the sing. ........ .. ones. In Russian, the category of animateness/inanimateness has its U
Н» n grammar indices (see Russian cases). N
Animate nouns are generally masculine and feminine ones. Very rarely it refers to
Collective Nouns l,niter nouns - like дитя child, baby, животное animal, существо living crea-
luir and some others.
Collective nouns name lots of human beings or things forming an inseparable
unity: человёчество mankind, молодёжь youth, мёбель furniture.
Collective nouns are used only in the sing, and do not combine with collective
numerals.
Gender of Nouns
( u nder is one of the most important grammar characteristics of nouns. All nouns
In the sing, have a masculine (masc.), feminine (fern.) or neuter (neut.) gender.
Substantial Nouns Nouns used only in the pi. are not distinguished by gender.
One can tell gender by:
Substantial nouns name indivisible substances. This class of nouns includes I) t he ending of Nominative case sing.;
food (молоко milk, cáxap sugar, соль salt), chemical elements (желёзо iron, ) lhe meaning of noun.
серебро silver), agricultural products (лук onions, картофель potatoes), vari­ ( lender distinctions are typical of all adjectives, ordinal numerals, pronouns,
ous materials (кожа leather, песок sand). Some substantial nouns are used only verbs in the Past tense and Subjunctive mood. Other parts of speech subordi­
in the sing, (водё water, кровь blood), others only in the pi. (слйвки cream). nate their gender to that of a noun with which they correlate.
They do not go with collective numerals.

Ending as Gender Indication


Animate and Inanimate Nouns
Nouns ending in -а/-я belong to the fern, group: сестра sister, земля earth,
Only concrete nouns can be animate or inanimate. семья family. The -a ending occurs in hard-stem nouns and the -я ending —
Animate nouns name living creatures - people, animals, birds, fish: сестра sister, in nouns with a soft stem. Nouns ending in -o (hard stem) or -e (soft stem) belong
студёнт student, слон elephant, дельф и н dolphin, соловёй nightingale. lo the neut. gender: письмо letter, платье dress, море sea, здание building.
Inanimate nouns name non-living subjects or phenomena - город town, снег Nouns that have a zero ending after a hard consonant or -Й are masc.: студёнт
snow, трава grass, etc. student, стол table, музёй museum.
Animate nouns answer the question кто? who? and inanimate - the question Inceptions:
что? what? But the division of nouns into animate and inanimate does not fully 1) the nouns мужчйна man, дяд я uncle, юноша youth, Саша (diminutive
coincide with the real-life division between the living and non-living things. In of Александр) and some others are masc.
grammar, the names of plants, microorganisms (дуб oak-tree, вирус virus) are 2 ) the word дитя baby, infant and all nouns with the -мя ending are neut.: ймя
inanimate nouns, but science considers them to be living organisms. On the other name, врёмя time, знамя banner, пламя flame, плёмя tribe, сёмя seed, тёмя
hand, nouns that name dead objects (мертвёц dead man, убйтый killed man, top o f the head, стрёмя stirrup, брёмя burden, вы мя udder. 9
Nouns ending in -ь may be either masculine or feminine. Words of Common Gender
The fern, nouns are as follows:
1 ) nouns ending in -ж, -ш, -ч, -щ: ночь night, вещь thing, мышь mouse-, i nmmon gender nouns are those reflecting a characteristic feature or habit
2 ) nouns with the suffix -ость: гордость pride, новость news. n| ,i person; usually they have a pejorative meaning: плакса cry-baby, жадина
The masc. nouns are as follows: weedy-guts, невежда ignoramus.
1 ) nouns ending in -арь or -тель: словарь dictionary, писатель writer, I Ills group also includes several nouns that have other meanings, such as: умница
2) month names: январь January, ф евр ал ь February, апрель April, июнь know-all, коллега colleague, сирота orphan. These nouns can be either mascu­
June, июль /w/y, сентябрь September, октябрь October, ноябрь November, line or feminine depending on a context:
декабрь December. Он был (masc.) сиротой./ He/she was an orphan.
The letter -ь indicates the softness of a stem. Онё была (fem.) сиротой.
Feminine nouns and the pronoun она she, masculine nouns and the pronoun он Он (masc.) умница./ He/she is smart.
he, neuter nouns and the pronoun oho it are interchangeable: сестра sister, книга Она (fem.) умница.
book, вещь thing - она; брат brother, журнал magazine, словарь dictionary -
он; письмо letter, море sea, здание building, дитя baby, infant - oho.
Gender of Proper Names

Meaning as Gender Indication I'lie gender of proper names depends on the sex of a person they name: Михайл
(Миша), Александр (Саша) - are masc., Елена (Лена), Ольга (Оля) - are fem.
The names of male humans or animals and those of people whose sex cannot be Surnames with suffixes -ов, -ин, -ский can refer to both men and women:
identified (eg., occupation) belong to the masculine gender irrespective of their Иванов (masc.) - Иванова (fem.), Серёгин (masc.) - Серёгина (fem.).
endings: дедушка grandfather, дядя uncle, врач physician, м едведь bear, etc. Some surnames have no special fem. forms: Наташа Карпенко (fem.) —Иван
1 he masc. nouns denoting people or animals with no clear sex identity are: Карпенко (masc.).
1 ) the names of various occupations having parallel suffix forms for female per­ In official situations and for reasons of politeness the use of patronymics is oblig­
sons: atory. They are formed by adding masc. suffixes -ович/-евич or fem. suffixes
студент - студентка student овна/ евна to the first name: Сергей Иванович, Елена Дмйтриевна.
актёр - актрйса actor - actress
л ёт ч и к -л ёт ч и ц а pilot
журналйст - журналйстка journalist Gender of Indeclinable Nouns
волк - волчйца wolf
кот-кош ка cat Indeclinable nouns are words borrowed from other languages, which end in the
2) the names of various occupations for which there are no correlative fem. words: vowels у, и, e, о or the accented vowel а: пальто coat, кафё café, метро metro,
врач physician, проф ессор professor, секретарь secretary, директор direc­ таксй taxi, интервью interview, foreign toponyms and proper names ending in
tor, etc. Although equally used for naming men and women, they belong to masc. a vowel: Токио Tokio, Гюго Hugo, Гёте Goethe, abbreviations - МГУ Moscow
nouns. If such a noun names a woman, its attribute will be in the masc. and the Slate University.
predicate - in the fem.: The gender of indeclinable nouns that name people or animals depends on their
Вчера у нас бы ла (fem.) наш Our new doctor visited us yesterday, sex identity: мсье monsieur, дёнди dandy, the same refers to fem. nouns: мадём
новы й (masc.) врач. madame, лёди lady.
N Indeclinable nouns naming inanimate objects belong to the neuter gender: Neuter nouns form plurals by adding -al-n to the hard/soft stem of the sing,
О пальтб coat, какёо cacao, метро metro, такси taxi (exception: кофе form.
U coffee - masc.).
N I lie gender of abbreviations depends on the gender of their keywords:
ir n c b M O letter - niicbM-a letters Mop-e sea - Mop-n seas
МГУ (Московский государственный Moscow State University
университет) (masc.) okh -6 window - OKH-a windows nnaTb-e dress - nnaTb a dresses
(because университет university is masc.)
РФ (Российская Федерация) (fern.) Russian Federation
(because федерация federation is fern.)
Special Cases of Plural

Some masc. nouns have the stressed ending -а/-я in the pi.:
Number of Nouns глаз eye глаза eyes
Nearly all Russian nouns can form the sing, or pi. number. Nouns are divided паспорт passport паспорта passports
into two groups - those that can form both numbers and those that are used only гброд city города cities
in the sing, or only in the plural. дом house дома houses
The plurals of some masc. nouns ending in a consonant or neut. nouns ending
in о have (ь)я at the end:
Formation of Plural Nouns брат brother братья brothers
муж husband мужья husbands
Masc. and fern, nouns form plurals by adding the -bi (hard stem) or - m (soft stem)
СЫН son сы новья sons
endings to the stem of the sing. form.
лист leaf лйстья leaves
Masc. Fern. ДРУГfriend ДРУЗЬЯ friends
студент student - студент ы комнат a room - ком наты rooms дерево tree д еревья trees
students In nouns denoting people of a certain nationality, religion or social group, the end­
словарь dictionary - словар-й тёт-я aunt - тёт-и aunts ing -анин/ янин in the sing, changes to -ане/-яне in the pi.:
dictionaries англичанин Englishman англичане
христианйн Christian христиане
музё-й museum - музё-и museums площадь square - площад и squares
армянйн Armenian армяне
Nouns ending in к, г, x, ж, ш, ч, щ take the -и ending. крестьянин peasant крестьяне
Neut. nouns ending in -мя in the sing, take the suffix -ен- in the pi.:
Masc. Fern.
время time времена times
мальчик boy - мальчик и boys ручк-а pen —ручк и pens ймя name имена names
луч ray - луч-й rays кнйг-а book - кнйг-и books Some nouns completely change in the pi.:
человек man люди people
плащ raincoat - плащ-й raincoats луж-а puddle луж-и puddles дети children
ребёнок child
N Singularia and Pluralia Tantum Nouns I Ini' peculiarity to remember: one case can have several endings, while one ending
О , ,ui express several cases. Each case has its own meaning and forms.
u Some' nouns arc used either only in the sing, (singularia tantum) or only in the pi.
Nominative case именйтельный падёж (И. n.) answers the questions кто?
N (pluralia tantum).
и•ho? что? what?
Singularia tantum nouns are:
1 (lenitive case родйтельный падёж (P. п.) - кого? o f whom? чего?
1) proper nouns: Амур Amur, Вйктор Victor, Урал the Urals, Москва Moscow,
и/ what?
2 ) collective nouns: студенчество students, молодёжь young people,
I Dative case дательны й падёж (Д. п.) - кому? to whom? чему?
3) substantial nouns: золото gold, молоко milk,
4) abstract nouns: ходьба walking, радость joy. lo what?
The pi. form of some nouns can acquire a different lexical meaning: i Accusative case ви нйтельны й падёж (В. п.) - кого? whom? что?
(I'hat?
Смирнов (last name) Смирновы (members o f one
I Instrumental case творйтельный падёж (T. п.) - кем? by whom? чем?
family)
by what?
вода (water) минеральные воды (different
(i Prepositional case предложный падёж (П. п.) - о ком? about whom?
types o f substance)
Pluralia tantum nouns are: о чём? about what?
( uses are used with or without prepositions. The latter are always placed in front
1 ) concrete nouns that name objects consisting of two or more parts: брюки
nf nouns or pronouns. Nominative case requires no preposition, while Preposi-
trousers, шахматы chess, часы watch, овощи vegetables, сани sleigh)
lional always requires a preposition. All other cases can have both patterns. All
2 ) nouns denoting substances or materials: обои wall-paper, духи perfumes',
3) nouns denoting action or process: переговоры talks, именины name- cases except Nom. are indirect.
day,
4) nouns denoting time: сутки twenty four hours, каникулы vacations',
5) toponyms: Альпы the Alps, Карпаты the Carpathians, Сокольники Sokol- Expression
niky (park in Moscow). of Animateness/lnanimateness
Concrete pluralia tantum nouns can name one object or a multitude of objects:
by Means of Cases
Где мой новые брюки? Where are my new trousers?
В нашем магазйне вы можете In our store you can see trousers In Russian, the choice of endings for masc. sing, nouns in Acc. (except those
увйдеть брюки разных цветов o f different colours and sizes. ending in -a/-H and all nouns in the pi.) depends on whether they name animate
и размеров.
or inanimate objects. In animate nouns Acc. coincides with Gen., in inanimate
Abstract, collective, proper and substantial nouns of the pluralia tantum group
Acc. is equal to Nom.
cannot express the meaning of multitude.

Nominative Case
Case of Nouns
Case is a grammar category which expresses the position and role of a noun in Unlike the other cases, Nom. (direct case) is an independent one because it does
a word -combination or sentence. The Russian language has 6 cases and 4 mai n types not express relations between words. All nouns in dictionaries are given in Nom.
14 of declension: 3 declensions for the sing, and one declension for the pi. (the initial form of a noun).
budines of nouns in Nom.
IhsI i ой/ей сестр ой ручк ой крыш ей дяд ей туч ей лйни ей
I'lcp. -е/-и о сестр -ё о ручк е о крыш е о дяд-е о туч-е олйни-и
-0 -a -0 -Ы -ы -а It г marks:
магазин ком ната окн-ó магазйн-ы ком наты о к н а I Nouns whose stem ends in -г, -к, -x, -ж, -ш take the -и ending (not -ы) in
shop room window shops rooms windows
журнал школ-a <ion.
письм о журнал-ы ш колы пйсьм-а
magazine school letter magazines 1 Nouns with a hard stem take the -e ending in Dat. and Prep, and nouns ending
schools letters
-о(ь) -Я -e -и I" (и)я take the -и ending respectively.
-и -я
словарь дерёвн-я море I For nouns whose stem ends in -ж, -ш, -ц, -ч, -щ, the choice of ending in Instr.
словар-й дерёвн-и м о р я
dictionary village sea dictionaries villages seas depends on the stress: -ей ending is always unstressed, -ой - always stressed:
писатель стан ц и я здёни-е п и сател и стёнци-и здёни-я
writer station building тучей by a cloud свечой by a candle
writers stations buildings
-й 0 (b ) -МЯ
крышей by a roof лапшой by noodles
-и -и -ен(а)
музё-й новость врё-мя музё-и
museum news time
н о в о сти времен-ё КММУ К1ТАПХАНАСЫ1
museums news times
солярий площ адь Й-МЯ со л я р и и
The Second Declension 100008, Караганды цаласы
solarium п л о щ ад и имен-ё Гоголь Komocl, 40 Щ
square name solariums squares names
The second declension comprises masc. nouns ending in a consonant (zero end­
Remarks: sign 0 means zero ending.
ing) or -ii in Nom. as well as neut. nouns ending in -o/-e in Nom.

Types of Declension
of Singularia Tantum Nouns Nom. -0/-Й ДРУГ конь врач гер о й солярий
-o/-e friend horse doctor hero solarium
письм о море здёни-е
The First Declension letter sea building
Gen. -а/-я д р у га кон-я врач-á герб-я солярия
All masc., fern., neut. nouns ending in -aI n belong to the first declension, irre­ письм-á MÓp-Я здёни-я
spective of their gender.
Dat. -у/-ю д р у гу кон ю врач-у гер о ю со л я р и ю
Hard stem письм у морю здёни-ю
Soft stem
hard Acc. Animate nouns as Gen., inanimate nouns as Nom.
soft
conconant Г’ K’ ~x ж’ "ш’ "Ч consonant Ч’ щ (и)я Instr. OM/- д р у го м кон ём врачом гер о ем сол яри ем
ем п и сьм ом м о р ем здёни-ем
Tÿ4-a л и н и я
sister pen roof uncle cloud line Prep. -е/-и о друг е о кон-ё о врач-ё о repó-e о соляри и
Gen. -ы/-и сестр ы ручк и крыш и д яд и о письм-ё о мор е о здёни-и
туч-и лини и
Dat. -е/-и сестр-é ручк е крыш е дяд-е туч-е линии Remarks:
Асе. у/-ю сестр у ручк у крыш у дяд-ю 1. Nouns of the second declension take the -e ending in Prep, and those ending
туч-у линию
in -(m)h, (n)e take -m. 17
in, ц, ч, Щ, (lie choice of ending in Prep, I'hese forms express the meaning of part of the whole:
cl <11м*n <IN un I lie ni io n pa) i n n i he
ом eliding is always unstressed, while ом »¿йте мне чаю. Give me some tea.
is ulwtiys si lessee I: (i. e. a bit of)
с плащ 0м with a raincoat с товарищем with a friend Дайте мне чай. Give me the tea.
с отцом with father с солнцем with sun (the whole amount)
In modern Russian, the -у/-ю endings in Gen. occur much less frequently as com- j
The Third Declension pared to -а/ я, but are still kept in phraseological units:
наделать шуму to make much noise
The third declension comprises fem. nouns with a zero ending or nouns ending тблку нет worthless
in a soft or hushing consonant. Both of the above endings are used when the preposition is accented:
Cases Endings Fem вышел из дома, but выш ел йз дому he came out o f a house
.... ‘-'I liMTT..... .. ....................... ......... or in word-combinations expressing quantity:
Nom. -0(ь) площ адь square, ночь night, вещь thing, мать mother
мало свету not muc^
Gen. -и площад и, ноч-и, вёщ-и, матер и много дыму much smoke
Dat. -И площад и, ноч-и, вёщ-и, матер-и
P repositional of M asculine N ouns
Acc. -0(b) площадь, ночь, вещь, мать of S econd D eclension
Instr. (ь)ю площадь ю, ночь ю, вёщь-ю, матерь ю Some inanimate nouns take the stressed -у/-ю ending in Prep., instead of -e, after
Prep. -и о площад и, о ноч-и, о вёщ-и, о матер и the prepositions в, на. These are the nouns год year, мост bridge, сад garden,
Remarks: шкаф closet, лес forest, снег snow, аэропорт airport, угол comer, берег shore
1. Nouns of the third declension take the -и ending in Gen., Dat. and Prep. and some others. The -у/-ю ending in Prep, usually denotes place {where?) жить
2. 1 he fem. nouns мать mother and дочь daughter change their stem to матер-, в лесу live in the forest, time (when?) в прошлом году last year, or quality
дочер- in Gen., Dat, Instr. and Prep. sing, and in all cases pi. пальто на меху a fu r coat.
3' The nouns л ю б о в ь love and ц ер ко вь church change to лю бовью ,
Instrum ental C ase of Fem ale N ouns
церковью in Instr.; the other case forms, except Norn, are лю бвй, церкви.
of First D eclension
The proper name Л ю бовь (Люба) keeps -о- in all cases: л ю б о в ь -
л ю б овью - о лю бвй; Л ю бовь - Л ю бовью - о Лю бови. The Instr. ending -ой/-ей in fem. sing, nouns of the first declension can change to
ою/-ею. The latter is used mainly in poetic speech:
Peculiarities of Case Forms стеной - стеною try the wall
in Singularia Tantum Nouns с тётей - с тётею with aunt
The -ою (-ею) ending is not archaic but stylistically marked.
G enetive C ase of M asculine N ouns
of S eco n d D eclension
In substantial, collective and abstract nouns, the main ending -а/-я can change Declension of Pluralia Tantum Nouns
to -у/-ю:
кусок сы ра - кусок сыру piece o f cheese The declension of pi. nouns is much simpler as compared to that of sing.
много шума - много шуму much noise nouns:
' ’ *......... irr, spt'ctivc w . in the sing, have (he same ending
in l)at., Instr. and Prep.; N
I Nouns in Dat., Instr. and Prep. pi. take the -ам, -ами, -ax endings (after
2) all pi. nouns express animateness/inanimateness; 111.ird consonant) and -ям, -ями, -ях (after a soft consonant).

Z с
3) in two cases - Nom. and Gen. - the endings can differ depending „„ a 1 The nouns двери doors, дочери daughters, лбшади horses take the -ми
declension type in the sing. t nding in Instr. pi: дверями (col.) - дверьмй, дочерями (col.) - дочерьми,
лошадями (col.) - лошадьми; but: лю дьми by people, детьми by children,
Cases Endings I declension [ III declension костьми by bones, плетьми with whips.
fern. Pluralia tantum nouns have some peculiarities of case forms.
Nom. ы /-и ламп-ы lamps, зёмл-и ноч и nights, дочер и
lands, лйни-и lines daughters Nominative Plural
Gen. -0, -ей, (и)й ламп (а), земель,
ноч-ёй, дочер ёй 1. -ы/-и ending.
линий
The -ы ending is typical for all sing, nouns of the first declension and all masc. sing,
Dat. -ам/ ям ламп ам, земл ям,
ноч ам, дочер ям nouns of the second declension whose stems end in a hard consonant: комната
линиям mom - комнаты, стол table - столы.
Асе. as Nom. or Gen. The -и ending goes for all nouns of the first declension as well as masc. nouns
of the second declension and all sing, nouns of the third declension whose stem
Instr. -ами/ ями ламп ами, зёмл ями,
ноч ами, дочер ями ends in a soft consonant and -й: тётя aunt - тёти, музей museum - музеи,
линиями
конь horse - кони, ночь night - ночи.
Prep. -ах/ ях о ламп ах, о зёмл ях, I declension nouns and masc. II declension nouns with stem in -г, -к, -x, -ж, -ш
о ноч ах, о дочер ях
о лини ях also have -и ending: нож knife - ножи, подруга girlfriend - подруги.
2. The -e ending is typical for a limited group of masc. sing nouns of the se­
Cases Endings ------ II declension cond declension ending in -анин/-янин: крестьянин peasant - крестьяне,
masc. англичанин Englishman - англичане.
п neut.
3. The -al-я ending goes for:
Ы/-И
Noin. студенты students, кон и слов а words, мор я seas
-al-я horses, музе и museums зд ани я buildings a) all neut. sing, nouns of the second declension: окно window - окна, море
-0 sea - моря;
Gen. -ей/-(и)й стУДе н т °в. кон-ёй, музё- слов (о), мор-ёй, b) all masc. sing, nouns of the second declension with the suffix -ёнок; in pi. stem
-ов/-ев ев здании changes into -ат/-ят: котёнок kitten - котята, тигрёнок tiger cub - тигрята.
c) the following masc. nouns of the second declension (the -al-я ending in these
Dat. -ам/ ям стУДёнт ам, кон ям, слов ам, мор ям,
музё-ям words is stressed): адрес address - адреса; берег shore - берега; бок side -
зд а н и я м
бока; век century - века; вечер evening - вечера; глаз eye - глаза; голос
Асе. as Nom. or Gen.
voice - голоса; город city - города; доктор physician - доктора; дом
house - дома; край edge - края; лес forest - леса; луг meadow - луга;
Instr. -ами/-ями стУДёнт-ами, кон-ями, слов-ёми, мор ями,
музе-я ми зданиями номер number - номера; остров island - острова; паспорт passport -
паспорта; поезд train - поезда; рог hom - рога; снег snow - снега; том
Ргер. -ах/-ях ° стУДёнт-ах, о кон ях, о слов-áx, о мор ях,
о музе ях о здёни-ях
volume - тома; учйтель teacher учителя; хлеб bread - хлеба; холод
cold - холода; цвет colour - цвета. 21
,)то мой ботйнок. (Nom. sing.) This is my shoe.
N In contemporary Russian, the -а/-я ending is widely used for masc. nouns inNom
V меня нет ботйнок. (Gen. pi.) I have no shoes.
О But these forms are not always normative. For the above nouns, that ending i

Z C
U both normative and the only one possible.
In some masc. nouns of the second declension, the -а/-я and -ы/-и endings in pi Declension of Neuter Nouns Ending
N
express different meanings: in -мя and Noun путь
цветы flowers цвета colows IVn neut. nouns ending in -мя deserve fall out of the main declension types,
счёты relationships; counter счета financial documents these arc время time, бремя load, вымя udder, знамя banner, стремя stirrup,
сёмя seed, темя top o f head, ймя name, пламя flame and also the masc. noun
Genitive Case of Pluralia Tantum путь road and the neut. noun дитя baby, infant.
The choice of endings in Gen. pi. depends on the type of declension and gender путь
of a noun. sing. ! pi
1. The -OB, -ёв, -ев endings are typical for the majority of masc. nouns of the Nom. о путь -и пут-й -мя врёмя а времен а
second declension whose stem ends in a hard consonant or -й: студент student-
Оеп. -и пут й ей пут-ёй -и врёмен-и 0 времён
студёнты - студентов, брат brother- братья - братьев, музей museum -
музеи - музеев. Dat. -и пут-й -ям п у тя м -и врёмен-и ам вр ем ен ам
Exceptions: сын son - сы новья - сыновей, друг friend - друзья - друзей. as as врем ен-á
as as пут-й врёмя
2. All nouns of the third declension, masc. sing, nouns of the second declension Лее. хт путь Nom. ,,jr‘ " Nom. .... Nom.
Nom.
whose stem ends in a soft consonant or -ж, -щ, -ч, -щ as well as neut. sing, nouns Instr. -ём пут ём -ями пут ями -ем врёмен ем -ами времен ами
ending in -e take the -ей ending: тетрадь note-book - тетради - тетрадей,
Prep, -и о пут-й ях о пут ях -и о врёмен и ах о времен ах
нож knife - ножй - ножей, поле fie ld - поля - полей.
3. Fern, nouns of the first declension with (и)я at the end and neut. nouns of the Remarks: ,
second declension with -(и)е at the end take the -(и)й ending: станция station - 1. Neut. nouns with -мя change their stem ending to -ен in Gen., Dat., Instr. am
станции - станций, задание task - задания - заданий. Prep. sing, and to -ен or -ён in the pi: имён, времен.
4. The maj ority of sing, nouns of the first declension and neut. nouns of the second 2. The nouns сёмя and стрёмя change to семян, стремян in Gen. pi. The
declension with -o at the end have a zero ending in Gen.: стена wall - стены - nouns тёмя, пламя, вымя are not used in the plural.
стен, комната room - комнаты - комнат, слово word - слова - слов. 3. The endings of the word путь in all cases sing, or pi. (except Instr. sing.)
Some nouns take the additional vowels o, e in Gen. pi.: ручка pen - ручки - coincide with those of the third declension.
ручек, девочка girl - девочки - девочек, окно window - окна - окон, 4. The word дитя adds -t to its stem in Gen., Dat., Instr. and Prep, (дитят-):
письмо letter- письма - пйсем. дитя - дитяти - дитяти - дитятей - о дитяти. But in modern Russian, these
Zero ending in Gen pi. is typical for masc. sing, nouns of the second declension. Those case forms are very rare - дитя is normally used only in Nom. and Acc. In all other
carrying the ending -анин/-янин change it to -ат/-ят in Gen. pi.: крестьянин cases we use ребёнок.
peasant - крестьяне - крестьян, котёнок kitten - котята - котят.
Some nouns have zero ending in Nom sing, and Gen pi.: цыган gypsy - цыгане -
цыган; солдат soldier- солдаты - солдат; глаз eye - глаза - глаз; ботйнок Main Meanings of Russian Cases
shoe - ботйнки - ботйнок.
The meanings of cases indicate the relationships between objects, features or pro­
Nom. sing, and Gen. pi. of such nouns are expressed with the help of different
cesses expressed by nouns.
22 syntactic means:
All Russian cases are characterized by polysemy and each of them has its own ( .eu. used with verbs expresses:
system of meanings. I ) ,i negated object after transitive verbs:
u Он не читал этой кнйги. He did not read this book.
N Nominative Case 1.п1 Он читал эту кнйгу. He read this book.
V меня нет брата. I have no brother.
Of the six Russian cases, only Nom. is independent, i. e. it not expressing the rela­
tionships between words. 1ш1: У меня есть брат. I have a brother.
The syntactic function of Nom. is manifested: When used with prepositions, Gen. indicates the absence of an object: жить без
1 ) as subject of a sentence: друзей to live without friends.
Ребёнок спит. Baby is sleeping. ') departure from a place or the loss of an object (with or without prepositions):
День холодный. The day is cold. нишйться денег to lose money, уехать из города to leave the city;
Nom. nouns can express a grammatical (not semantic) object in constructions
1) partial meaning (the so-called Genitivus partitivus): купйть молока to buy
with the passive form of verbs: •,ome milk, выпить чая to drink some tea;
1) reason (only with prepositions): не работать из-за болезни to take sick-
Зто здёние построено This building was designed
leave, покраснеть от гнева to blush o f anger;
извёстным архитёктором. by a famous architect.
.) a desired, wanted or required object: требовать ответа to demand an an­
or an object affecting a person’s emotional or physical state: swer, ждать решения to wait for a decision;
Зта новость eró обрёдовала. This news made him feel happy. (i) comparison:
or an object of involuntary perception: Он выше Кати. He is taller than Kate.
Ему приснйлся сон. He saw a dream. Она добрее брата. She is kinder than her brother.
2 ) as the nominal part of a predicate:
Моя дочь - студентка. My daughter is a student. Dative Case
3) as an object compared to another object: l)at. used with verbs denotes:
Нина выше, чем Анна. Nina is taller than Ann. 1 ) the recipient of action:
4) as an order or request: дать (кому?) другу кнйгу to give a book to a friend
Наташа, подойдй ко мне! Natasha, come up to me please! позвонйть брату to call brother
помогать бабушке to help grandmother
Genitive Case 2) the subject of action in impersonal sentences:
Gen. used with adjectives: мне холодно I am cold
1 ) carries various attributive meanings: ему надо пойтй в магазйн he has to go to the store
• possessiveness: дом отца father’s house, друзья сына son’s friends-, with the ей не спйтся she doesn’t feel like sleeping
preposition у: у друга есть машйна ту friend has a car; 3) direction (after verbs of motion; used with the preposition к or no, no
• quality: человек большого ума a very smart person; направлению к, по путй к):
2 ) denotes an object of action: чтение газеты reading o f newspaper, идтй к лесу to go to the forest
3) indicates measure or quantity: немного соли a bit o f salt, два брата two ехать по направлению к дому to move towards the house
brothers; The preposition no shows the surface where the action is committed:
4) or part of a whole: крыша дома house’s roof, гражданйн Россйи citizen ходйть по городу to go around the city
24 o f Russia, центр города city’s center. ударить по столу to punch a table
N 4) reason (used with the preposition no): f») word-combinations with the preposition на can express: N
О бросить курйть по болезни to quit smoking because o f illness и 11 line after the moment of speech:
U 5) the age of a person or thing: in *| >ну гься на другой день to come back on the next day
N Моему брату 20 лет. My brother is 20 years old. l>l ir.ison provoking a certain reaction:
Москве более 860 лет. Moscow is more than 860 years old. жЛповаться на боль to complain o f pain
Dat. used with adjectives denotes:
i.) word-combinations with the preposition c express an approximate amount
1 ) an indirect object:
el distance or time:
помощь друзьям helping friends иройтй с километр to cover about one kilometer
2) attributive relationships:
ждать с час to wait for about an hour
памятник героям monument to heroes
7 ) a protracted period of time during which something takes place:
справочник по грамматике grammar reference book
жить в Москве целую неделю to live in Moscow for a whole week
читать кнйгу два часа to read a book for two hours
Accusative Case
(no preposition is required)
Acc. expresses:
8) position or location (after verbs of motion):
1 ) a direct object with transitive verbs without prepositions:
л) with the prefixes пере-, про-, об-:
рисовать (что?) картину to draw a picture
переходйть улицу to cross a street
видеть (кого?) друга to see a friend
пройтй лес to go through woods
2) the direction of action (Acc. is used with prepositions expressing direction):
обойтй весь город to walk around the city
идти (куда?) в школу to go to school
I)) with the prepositions через, сквозь:
положить кнйгу (куда?) на стол to put a book on the table
переходйть через улицу to cross the street
зайтй (куда?) за угол to tum round the comer
3) word-combinations with the preposition в have the following meanings:
a) time:
Instrumental Case
Он приехал в субботу. He came on Saturday. Instr. expresses:
Это случйлось в годы воины. It happened in war-time. 1 ) an instrument of action or a means of transportation:
b) the transformation of one object into another: писать (чем?) ручкой to write with a pen
Дружба превратйлась в лю бовь. Friendship changed to love. ехать поездом to go by train
c) resemblance or likeness: резать ножом to cut with a knife
сын весь в отца son takes after his father 2) a subject of action in passive structures:
4) word-combinations with the preposition 3a have the following meanings: Роман напйсан известным Novel is written by a famous writer.
a) time before the moment of speech: писателем.
за полчаса до начала half an hour before 3) an object of action:
b) a period of time: гордйться сыном to be proud o f a son
прочитать кнйгу за неделю to have read a book fo r one week интересоваться математикой to be interested in math
c) reason: 4) predicative meaning in the nominal part of a predicate:
благодарность за помощь thankfulness for help стать врачом to become a physician
уважать за ум to respect fo r smartness работать учйтелем to work as a teacher 27
5) time: N
Иpci iod of time:
уехать осенью to ieave in autumn ни 4той недёле this week О
встать утром t0 тту up ¡n mornjng un канйкулах on vacations U
6) location (with or without prepositions над, перед, за, между, с, под): ,| ) при + Prep, indicates time or reason: N
находиться под кроватью to be under the bed при странных обстоятельствах under strange circumstances
бы ть между домами to be between the houses при Петрё I under Peter l
сидеть рядом с другом to sit next to a friend
7) togetherness (requires the preposition c): Word-formation of Nouns
поговорить с другом to talk to a friend Suffix Method
8) the mode of action:
I he suffix is the most widespread means of noun formation. Suffixes help derive
говорйть шёпотом to whisper
„ew nouns from verbs, adjectives, other nouns, or, less frequently, from numerals
дыш ать полной грудью to breathe with one’s full breezing
hiadverbs.
Noun suffixes can be subdivided into the following groups.
Prepositional Case
I Suffixes denoting persons (animate objects):
Prep, is used with 5 prepositions: о/об, в, на, при, по. тел ь/и тел ь: писатель writer, спасатель rescuer,
1) Word-combinations о/об + Prep, show what a speech, dialogue or thought is about: чик/ щик: лётчик pilot, танцовщик dancer,
говорйть (о чём?) о погоде to talk about weather ист: артйст actor, индуйст Hindu-,
думать (о ком?) об отце to think about father ик: фйзик physicist, академик academician-,
мечтать (о чём?) о канйкулах to dream about vacations ец: певец singer, немец German-,
2 ) Word-combinations no + Prep, indicate the completeness of an action in rela­ ник: ученйк pupil, защйтник defender,
tion to a certain moment:
анин/янин: англичанин Englishman, крестьянин peasant,
вернуться домой (когда?) to come back home after graduating тор: директор director,
по окончании университета from the university
арь: слесарь plumber.
позвонйть (когда?) по приезду to call after coming back Nouns naming female persons are derived from masc. nouns by adding special
3) Word-combinations with the prepositions в, на, при show:
female suffixes:
a) location or position:
к(а): журналйст - журналйстка journalist;
быть в комнате го be in the room ниц(а): преподаватель —преподавательница professor,
лежать на кровати to lay on bed чиц(а)/-щиц(а): продавец - продавщйца salesperson, лётчик - лётчица pilot;
при доме есть сад there’s a garden by the house иц(а): кормйлец - кормйлица bread earner.
b) time (в + Prep.): 2. Suffixes denoting things (inanimate objects):
в январе inJanuary тель: двйгатель motor, выклю чатель switch,
в прошлом году last yeai- льник: холодйльник refrigerator, кипятйльник self-boiler;
c) на + Prep, expresses:
ок: подарок gift, спйсок list;
means of transportation: -ик: грузовйк truck; субботник Saturday volunteer work,
ехать на машйне to go by car к(а): открытка post-card; расчёска comb;
an instrument:
ин(а): говядина beef свинйна pork;
играть на гитаре to play guitar -ник: памятник monument; проводнйк conductor. 29
I Suffixes denoting place: I Suffixes having a pej orative meaning:
ник: цветник flower-bed, ишк(а): мальчишка boy; ворйшка thief;
-арий: розарий rosary] дельф инарий dolphinarium; nnjK(o): домйшко house; письмишко little letter;
-дром: космодром space launch center, оик(а): избёнка peasant’s house.
-к(а): выставка exhibition-, стоянка parking place; Suffixes of this group do not make new nouns but only give them new shades
-ниц(а): пудреница powder box-, сахарница sugar-bowl; и! meaning.
-льн(я): спальня bedroom; читальня reading room;
-ище: жилйще dwelling; учйлииде college. Prefix Method
4. Suffixes carrying the meaning of collectiveness: l lie following prefixes are used to form new nouns:
-ат: пролетариат proletariat; деканат dean’s office; анти-: антитеза antithesis; антифашйст anti-fascist;
-ств(о): студенчество students, человечество mankind; до /дез-: дезинформация disinformation; дезорганизация disorganization;
-н(я): родня relatives; малышня little kids. мротиво-: противоречие contradiction;
5. Suffixes denoting abstract characteristics or action: контр-: контрреволюция counterrevolution; контрразведка secret service;
a) suffixes expressing abstract action: со : соавтор coauthor, сотрудник colleague;
-ок: прыжок jump; глоток sip; супер-: суперзвезда superstar, суперматч supermatch; супермен superman;
-к(а): уборка, чистка cleaning; Экстра-: экстра класс superior quality;
-ние: заседание meeting; приземление landing; сверх-: сверхзадача supertask;
-ация: деградация degradation; пролонгация prolongation; гйпер-: гипермаркет hypermarket;
b) suffixes expressing abstract characteristics: ультра-: ультразвук ultrasound;
-о сть/есть: свежесть freshness; жирность fatness; под-: подзаголовок subtitle; подсистема subsystem;
-ство: мужество courage; отцовство parenthood; суб-: субординация subordination.
-изн(а): белизна whiteness; укорйзна reproach;
c) suffixes denoting branches of science, technology, sports, philosophic notions, etc: Combined (Suffix + Prefix) Method
-изм: феодалйзм feudalism; социализм socialism;
-ик(а): лингвйстика linguistics; гимнастика gymnastics; Nouns formed this way can denote:
people: сотрудник colleague, напарник coworker;
-ия: биология biology; социология sociology.
things: выклю чатель switch;
6. Suffixes expressing emotional assessment:
place: Подмосковье Moscow region;
a) diminutive suffixes:
abstract notions: безработица unemployment.
-ик: садик small garden; мостик small bridge;
-чик: костюмчик suit o f small size; зайчик little hare;
-ок/-ек: сынок sonny, дружок buddy; Abbreviation
-очк(а): вазочка little vase; баночка small bowl; Abbreviations are used with nouns only.
-к(а): ручка small hand; ножка small leg; Depending on the type of abbreviated stems, abbreviations are divided into the
-ичк(а): водичка water; сестричка dear little sister; following groups:
b) suffixes meaning enlargement: 1) abbreviations formed from the initial letters of words: РФ (pronounced
-ищ(е): домище very big house; котйще big fa t cat; [эрэф]) - Российская Федерация Russian Federation, МГУ [эмгэу] -
-ищ(а): ручища big strong hand; ножйща big strong leg. Московский Государственный университет Moscow State University, ЦДХ 31

i
N (цэдэха] Центральный дом художников Central House o f Artists', ГУМ
О (гум] Государственный универсальный магазин State Department Star
и 2 ) abbreviations formed from the initial parts of words: специальный
N корреспондент - special correspondent спецкор, главный режиссёр
главреж chief director;
3) abbreviations consisting of the initial part of a word and a whole word
заместитель министра - замминистра deputy minister, заместитель
декана - замдекана deputy dean.

Nouns with Composite Stems


These are the following ways of forming composite-stem nouns:
1 ) by means of the copulative vowels о and e:
ADJECTIVE
• noun + noun: лесопарк wild park; коневод horse-breeder;
adjective + noun: первооткры ватель inventor; сухофрукты dried fruits;
• pronoun + noun: саморегуляция self-regulation.
О is used after hard stems (except stems ending in -ж, -ш, -ц), while e goes with
soft stems and those ending in -й, -ж, -ш, -ц (пешеход pedestrian, птицелов
fowler);
2 ) without copulative vowels: штаб-квартира headquarters, премьер-
министр prime-minister, крем-сода cream-soda. While declining only second
part of the word changes (премьер-министру to prime-minister).

Substantivization
The transformation of masc., fern, or neut. adjectives or participles into nouns is
called substantivization.
Substantivized masc. nouns usually name people: больной sick person, умный
smart man, отдыхающий person on vacation, учащийся student (pupil).
Substantivized fem. nouns name places: столовая dining room, ванная bath­
room, учительская teachers’ room.
Substantivized neut. nouns name:
a) abstract notions: прошлое past, будущ ее future;
b) food: мороженое ice-cream;
c) medical prescriptions: наружное for external use.
Substantivized pi. nouns denote money or payment: премиальные bonuses,
авторские royalties, отпускные vacations’ money.
32
Л ADJECTIVE

o >
стары й стёр-ая стёр-ое
D old
J Tin adjective is an independent part of speech that specifies characteristic fra J
молодой молод-ёя молодое
E Un es or properties of objects and answers the question как6 й?/какая?/как 6е?/ »dives E
young
С какие? what kind of?: C
T ейн-ий ейн-яя ейн-ее T
хороший день nice day blue
I I
V красное пальто red coat Mi murks: V
E маленькие дёти little children i ый (-ий)/-ой endings depend on the stress pattern: adjectives with the ac- E
новая библиотёка new library ........ I stem have the -ый (-ий) endings (старый old, синий dark blue) and ad-
|h i ives whose stem is not stressed have the -ой ending (большой big, золотой
In a sentence, the syntactic role of an adjective is to modify a noun or a pronoun.
golden). In dictionaries are given masc. sing, forms.
It is usually placed in front of the word it defines:
ыи, -ой (masc.), -ая (fern.), -oe (neut.) endings are typical for adjectives
Мне нравится московское метро. I like Moscow metro. u и li .1 liard stem and -ий, -яя, -ее - for adjectives with a soft stem.
Санкт-Петербург - красивый Saint-Petersburg is a beautiful city. i The interrogative word какой? what kind of? can change gender, number
город. ... I or case.
An adjective can be a nominal part of the compound predicate: I Adjectives with г, к, x, ж, ш, ч, щ, ц have mixed endings.
Погода плохая. The weather is bad. Stem mase. fern. neut.
Утро чудёсное. The morning is wonderful. русский р усская русское
Фильм интерёсный. The movie is interesting. Russian

Russian adjectives have gender, number and case and their grammatical forms тйх-ий тйх-ая тйх-ое
г, К, -X
depend on and agree with the forms of the nouns they modify: quiet

новый стол (masc.) new table п лохой плох ёя плохое


bad
новая книга (fern.) new book
горячий го р я ч ая го р я ч ее
новое здание (neut.) new building
hot
свёж-ий свёж-ая свёж-ее
ж, -ш ,-ц,-ч, fresh
Endings of Adjectives Щ хорош ий хорош ая хорош ее
in the Singular good
больш-ой б о л ьш ёя б о л ьш о е
masc.
big
fern. neut.
Question какой? какёя? Remarks: neutral adjectives whose stems end in -ж, -ш, -ц, -ч, -ujhave the stressed
какое?
oe ending (плохое, больш ое) or the non-stressed -ее ending (хорошее,
Endings -ЫЙ, -ОЙ/-ИЙ -ая/-яя -о е/-ее
свёжее, горячее).
А The Plural of Adjectives Indeclinable Adjectives
0
J J
Яи и I*, a mii.ill group of adjectives borrowed from other languages that do not
Е Sing. PI. E
* gender, number or case and are used as attributes after nouns:
С С
mase. fern. neut. for all gendn | Пирнико: стиль барокко baroque style;
Т
I «Ани мнет хаки khaki color,
1 Question какой? какёя? какое? какйе? I m Ahi и / м й н и : юбка мёкси/мйни maxi skirt/mini skirt:,
V i ампир; стиль ампйр Empire style;
Е Endings -ЫЙ, -ОЙ/-ИЙ -ая/-яя -о е/-ее -ые/-ие » i i i o k i . товар люкс luxury goods]
i I mi: i pa: чай экстра top quality tea;
HÓB-ЫЙ нов-ая нов-ое нов-ые • mAito : вес нетто net weight;
new
i модбрн: мебель модерн furniture in Art Nouveau style, etc.
ЗОЛОТ-0Й золот-ёя золот-óe золот-ые DllHie nl I licse words can be both adjectives and/or indeclinable nouns:
golden имшрйть на хинди speak Hindi
опш.тб из джерси jersey coat
послёдн-ий послёдн-яя послёдн-ее послёдн-ие
last

громк-ий гром кая громк-ое гром кие


loud Classes of Adjectives
ТЙХ-ИЙ тйх-ая тйх-ое тйх-ие
Adjectives ill adjectives are divided into 3 main classes: qualitative, relative and possessive.
quiet

сух-ой сух-ёя cyx-óe сух-йе


dry
Qualitative Adjectives
горяч-ий горяч-ая горяч-ее горяч-ие
hot <tnalitative adjectives denote characteristic qualities or properties of things
(persons, phenomena), which manifest themselves to a larger or smaller extent -
свёж-ий свёж-ая свёж-ее свёж-ие i падкий sweet, нйзкий low, умный smart, смелый brave, зелёный green, etc.
fresh
Qualitative adjectives vary in lexical meaning. They can denote:
больш-ой больш-ёя б о л ьш о е б о л ьш и е 1) colour:
big
бёлый white
Remarks: чёрный black
1. Adjectives with a hard stem have the -bie ending in the pi. and adjectives with оранжевый orange
a soft stem have the n e ending. 2 ) shape, size, position:
2. The plurals of adjectives whose stems end in -r, - k , - x , ->k , - lu, - h , -ig have the ДЛЙННЫЙ long
-ne ending. прямой straight
А корбткий short 11 I .щ make adverbs by changing their endings to -о, -e, -и:

О >
D ширбкий wide нрлсйвый beautiful красйво
J 3) time duration: *|постящий shining блестяще J
E мёдленный slow шорский brutal зверски E
C быстрый quick •i сап make abstract nouns with suffixes -ин(а), -изн(а), -от(а), -ость, -есть: C
T 4) qualities that can be sensed or felt: ( I Арый old старина old times T
I горячий hot нбиый new новизна novelty I
V сладкий sweet дббрый kind доброта kindness V
E холодный cold смблый brave смелость courage E
острый spicy сиёжий fresh свёжесть freshness
5) spiritual or mental abilities:
ti) can go with adverbs of measure and degree:
добрый kind
ёчень красйвый very beautiful
умный smart
чрезвычайно слабый very weak
глупый silly
7) can make antonymic pairs:
смелый brave
смёлый brave труслйвый cowardly
6) physical abilities of people or animals:
умный smart глупый silly
слабый weak Nol ¡ill qualitative adjectives have the above-mentioned features. For example,
слепой blind .iich adjectives as мёртвый dead, слепой blind, босой bare-foot and some
толстый fa t nl hers do not have degrees of comparison, and such words as дружеский friend­
ly, деловой business and others do not have short forms.
Qualitative adjective possess the following grammar characteristics:
1 ) degrees of comparison :
красивый beautiful
красивее, более красивый more beautiful Relative Adjectives
красйвейший, самый красйвый, the most beautiful
наиболее красйвый, красйвее Relative adjectives express a certain characteristic feature indirectly, by means
всех of showing its relationship with time, place, material, etc.
2 ) degrees of quality: lor example, the adjectives серёбряный silver, молочный milky refer to the
красйвый beautiful красйвенький a bit beautiful substance an object is made of, московский Moscow, деревёнский village refer
большбй big большущий, пребольшбй Iо a certain area, научный scientific, философский philosophical - to a certain
very big notion or branch of science, двойной double, тройной triple - to number, and
3) full and short forms: so on.
красйвый beautiful красйв Relative adjectives do not have degrees of comparison; they do not make short
красйвая красйва forms, adverbs or abstract nouns. But nevertheless, these adjectives can form syn­
красивое красйво onymic nominal (sometimes with a noun) structures. For example, the structure -
38 красивые красивы noun in Gen. after another noun: 39
университетское здание/здание University building •>1ц6в дом), сын Наташи (instead оЖатАшинсын). Possessiveadject im
университета pill I . of loponyms - are considered to be stylistically neutral:
морской запах/запах моря sea smell Пирингов пролив Bering Strait
Some relative adjectives can be replaced with synonymic structures containing (трпнцево море Barents Sea
nouns in Gen. and the prepositions из, для: \i||ecl ives ending in -ин(ый) or -ий normally express a feature that characterizes
шёлковый платок/платок из шёлка silk scarf (lie whole class of animals:
сигаретная коробка/коробка cigarette box куриное яйцо hen’s egg
д л я сигарет «обАчий нос dog’s nose, etc.
or nouns in Асе. And the preposition на: Hrlalive adjectives derived from proper names and ending in -ский (пушкин-
месячный план/план на месяц monthly schedule • кии Pushkin’s, лёрмонтовский Lermontov’s, гоголевский Gogol’s) convey
Ilie meaning of possession when they show that something belongs to a certain
person:
Transition of Relative Adjectives into Qualitative пушкинская квартйра/квартйра Pushkin’s apartment
and of Qualitative into Relative Пушкина
Possessive adjectives (like relative ones) have no degrees of comparison or short
Besides the main meaning (typical for the given object), a relative adjective may lonns, do not form adverbs, adjectives or nouns, and differ from qualitative and
acquire additional qualitative shades of meaning which are not direct but figura­ relative adjectives in special forms of declension.
tive. Eg.:
ж елезная д вер ь door made o f iron
ж елезная воля strict will, firm character
In certain cases (especially in terminology), some qualitative nouns acquire a rela­
Degrees of Comparison
tive meaning and lose the features typical of qualitative adjectives. Eg.: of Adjectives
глухой человек deaf person глухой звук indistinct/quiet sound
звонкий голос clear voice звонкий согласный voiced The degrees of comparison are formed from the initial positive full form of qua­
consonant litative adjectives. There are two degrees of comparison - comparative and
superlative.

Possessive Adjectives
Comparative Degree
Possessive adjectives show that something (things, features, abilities, etc.) be­
longs to a person or animal - in this case they are formed with the help of the suf­ Meaning and Formation
fixes -OB (-ев), -ин (-ын) and a zero ending in Norn. sing, masc.:
The comparative degree shows a greater extent of quality or quantity a person
д ёд о в дом grandfather’s house
(object) has as compared to another person (object); it has two forms - simple
мамин платок mother’s scarf
Hэташин сын Natasha’s son and compound.
These adjectives are mainly used in colloquial speech. In scientific and offi­ The simple degree is formed from an adjective’s stem with the help of the follow­
cial style, they are replaced by the Genitive of Possession: дом отца (instead ing suffixes:
<ч> ( пи) красивый nice красивее nicer, сильный strong - сильное мин adjectives do not make simple comparative forms such as adjectives with A
si lunger, ) lie Ini lowing suffixes: D
• о: тихий quiet тише quieter, молодой young - моложе younger, i и дружеский friendly, комический comical; J
• ше: тонкий thin тоньше thinner. и нагорелый sun burnt', E
The majority of qualitative adjectives form the comparative degree with the help и ручной handy, ранний early; C
of the suffix -ee (-eii - in colloquial speech). пн деловой business. T
The suffix -e goes with adjectives whose stem ends in -r, - k, - x and some adjec­ I In prefix no- can be added to comparative forms to enhance the domination I
tives whose stem ends in consonants or clusters of consonants fl, -ct, -t , - ck. In ill a feature or quality in an object as compared to other objects of the same V
that case, the stem consonant changes - k/ h , r/>K, fl/>K, x/w, t/ h, ct/ ih, ck/ llp i hiss: E
n Ищи помоложе younger people
дорогой expensive дороже
ибмната побольше bigger room
молодой young моложе
I lie usual syntactical position of such forms is after the noun.
толстый fa t толще
I lie compound form of the comparative degree consists of the word более more
богатый rich богаче
niиI l he full form of an adjective:
тихий quiet тише
красивый beautiful более красивый
чистый clean чище
ейльный strong более сильный
The stem consonant - k (- ok) is omitted as in the following adjectives: мыебкий tall более высокий
близкий close ближе Its antonym is a combination of the word м енее less and the full form
узкий narrow уже nl an adjective:
сладкий sweet слаще бблее красивый менее красивый
корбткий short короче бблее высокий менее высокий
высокий tall выше И has different forms of gender, case and number and is mainly used in written
нйзкий low ниже speech.
широкий wide шире
глубокий deep глубже Syntactic Usage of Comparative Degree
Some adjectives use the suffix -ше to form the comparative degree:
In Russian, simple comparative forms of adjectives are normally used as the nomi­
долгий long дольш е nal part of the predicate and go with nouns in Gen. or Nom. (after the conjunc-
далёкий fa r дальш е l ion чем than)'.
тонкий thin тоньше Сестра умнее брата./Сестра умнее, Sister is smarter than her brother.
The adjectives маленький little, хороший good, плохой bad, поздний late, чем брат.
have suppletive comparative forms: Compound comparative forms are used as the nominal part of the predicate but
маленький меньше can also be the attribute:
хороший лучше Сегодня ветер более холодный, Today the wind is colder than
плохой хуже чем вчера, (predicate) yesterday.
поздний позже Более холодный ветер дует Colder wind blows all day long.
Simple comparative forms do not possess gender, case or number. весь день, (attribute) 43
А Nouns in Gen. are not used after compound comparative forms, only nouns in impli superlative forms are declined for number, gender and case (as l he adjee
D Nom. with the conjunction чем: h xipôLUM M ): cn rib H é iiu JM M the strongest - c n n b H é iiu ja n c n n b H é M U je e

J Зти цветы более красивые, These flowers are more beautiful lUMi.HÔHWMe.
E чем садбвы е. than those from the garden. Mil l adjectives in the simple superlative degree form set expressions (phraseo-
C As the predicate, the compound form can be used either in its full or short form (ligli al units):
T Сестра более прилежна/ Sister is more diligent than her МММИИШИЙ человёк the nicest person
I прилежная, чем брат. brother. и. а итишая душа the kindest soul
V The second part of the compound form subordinates its gender and numlici и|ц||*|.1иший срок the shortest term
to those of the predicate: момьчёйшие подробности the smallest details
E
Сегодняшний урок более Today’s lesson is more interesting I In prefix Han- intensifies the superlative degree to the highest extent:
интересный, чем вчерашний. than yesterday’s. мпипысшая цель utmost goal
Сегодняшняя лекция более Today’s lecture is more interesting нпилегчёйший вес the lightest weight
интересная, чем вчерашняя. than yesterday’s. нпилучший результат the best result
\ Ini of qualitative adjectives do not form the superlative degree:
Superlative Degree • adjectives with the suffixes:
он : дружеский friendly, брётский brotherly, комйческий comical,
The superlative degree indicates the greatest extent of quality or quantity in
on , -ев-: деловой business, боевой military,
a person (thing) as compared to a group of similar objects. In Russian, there are
к : узкий narrow, робкий shy, жуткий horrible,
two forms of the superlative degree - simple and compound. Both possess gender,
. adjectives сухой dry, гордый proud, молодой young, больш ой big,
number and case.
дорогой expensive.
1 he simple superlative form is formed by adding the suffix -ейш(ий) to an adjec­
tive’s stem: I hcoretically, all other qualitative adjectives can make simple forms of the
superlative degree but in practice only few of them have it (about 50-60 ad-
красивый - красивейший beautiful - the most beautiful
сильный - сильнёйший strong - the strongest |ecl;ives).
I lie compound superlative form is made with the help of:
умный - умнёйший smart - the smartest
• the word самый the most and the full form of an adjective:
The superlative suffix -айш(ий) is used with adjectives whose stem ends in -r, - k,
трудный - самый трудный difficult - the most difficult
-x, -ж, -ш, -4, -щ (the stem consonant c:hanges: k/ h , r/xr, x/ uj):
красивый - самый красивый beautiful - the most beautiful
высокий - высочайший tall - the tallest
тихий тишайший quiet - the quietest • the word наиболее the most and the full form of an adjective:
свёжий - свежайший fresh - the freshest умный - наиболее умный smart - the smartest
After -айший the suffix -к is omitted as in the following adjectives: интерёсный - наиболее интерёсный interesting the most interesting
низкий - нижайший low - the lowest • the comparative form of an adjective and the word всех (for animate nouns)
блйзкий - ближайший close - the closest and всего (for inanimate nouns):
Pay special attention to: Спортсмён пробежал дистанцию The sportsman was the fastest one
мёлкий - мельчайший small - the smallest бы стрёе всех. at the competition.
короткий - кратчайший short - the shortest Больш е всего на свёте она Darkness scared her most o f all.
44 тяжкий - тягчайший hard - the hardest боялась темноты.
I lie word самый in compound superlative forms agrees with the given nd|ei ||)нн'М1мин6й рассказ extremely funny story

О >
live in gender, number and ease: сёмый умный !he smart est - самая умном ЦМдёПрый человёк very-very kind person, etc.
J самое умное сам ы е умные. ■Ml . ин i оват- (-еват-) expresses quality insufficiency:
Е Наимёнее the least is the antonym of наиболее the most in compound forms: беловаты й whitish
С наимёнее важный the least наиболее важный the most ими ныи красноватый reddish
important important Нн'уоёи голубоватый bluish
The compound superlative form “самый + full adjective” is the most product ive I In -mills оньк- (-еньк-) has the meaning of qualitative or quantitative enlarge-
and is used in all styles of speech. iih ni diminishing:
Е On the contrary, the form “наиболее + full adjective” is used in scientific texts 16Й easy
i i | h ii простенький
and newspapers. диорый kind добренький
The form “comparative degree + всех/всего” is typical for colloquial speech. Ирясйвый beautiful краейвенький
In a sentence, superlative forms are the nominal part of the predicate or the attribute I In suffix -енн- also adds the meaning of enlargement to an adjective:
Байкал - глубочайшее/самое глубокое Baikal is the deepest lake нысёкий высочённый very tall
озеро в мире, (predicate) in the world. н'шетый толстённый extremely fa t
Учитель рассказал нам о глубочайшем/ The teacher told us about the world's ширёкий широчённый very-very wide
самом глубоком озере мира, (attribute) deepest lake. I he augmentative suffix -ущ-/-ющ- expresses greater intensity (very, extremely)-.
The structure of sentences with superlative adjectives can be as follows: ||10И злющий extremely angry
• with Gen. of nouns without preposition: Иуд5 й худющий extremely thin
Он сильнёйший/самый сильный He is the best chess player ии, рый хитрющий extremely sly
шахматист мира. ш the world. I lie repetition of adjectives expresses the augmentation of meaning and is syno­
• with the preposition в + Prep, of nouns: nymic of the adverb очень:
Он сил ьнёйший шахматйст в мйре. Не is the best chessplayer in the хитрый-хйтрый/очень хйтрый very sly
world. дббрый-добрый/очень добры й very kind
• with the prepositions из, средй + Gen. pi. of nouns: I lie augmentative prefix npe- can be added too:
Байкал - самое глубокое/глубочайшее Baikal is the deepest lake ейльный ейльный-преейльный very-
из (средй) озёр мйра. in the world. very strong
умный умный-преумный very-very
smart
Degrees of Quality
Adjectives can express various degrees of quality or quantity using other means.
These are:
Full and Short Forms
• adjectives with the prefixes: предобрый exceptionally kind;
• adjectives with the suffixes: красноватый reddish;
of Adjectives
• the repetition of adjectives: дббры й-добры й very-very kind.
The prefixes пре-, все-, раз-, архи-, сверх-, ультра- are added to the full Most qualitative adjectives have two forms - full and short:
form of adjectives, giving them the meaning of a maximum quality extent. Forms молодой young молод
with npe- are ones of the most productive in modern Russian: краейвый beautiful краейв 47
slum i<
•rms possess the categories of gender and number but are not decline 'd Ini flie exceptions are:
неприкосновенный inviolable неприко< и«.пенен Я ______

О
Short forms откровенный sincere, open-hearted откровёнон
Tull form sing. обыкновенный ordinary, usual обыкновении
pi.
современный modem современен
__________ masc. (0 ) 1 neut. (-o /-e ) fem.
почтённый respectable, honorable почтенен
молод-ой молод молод-о молод-а
Special cases:
young
большой big велик, велика, великб, велики
свёж-ий свеж маленький small мал, мала, мало, малы
fresh солёный salty солон, солона, солоно, сблоны
Many qualitative adjectives have no short forms:
1) the names of colours (including that of horses):
пурпурный purple
корйчневый brown
Some short adjectives have running vowels о and e
розовый pink
больной sick
сирёневый lilac
краткий short
вороной black
сильный strong гнедой chestnut, etc.
полный full 2) words with the suffixes -ск- (-ическ-, -енск-), -ов, -н-:
горький bitter братский friendly
комйческий comical
смешной funny
боевой military
ДЛЙННЫЙ long
длинен старйнный ancient, etc.
злой evil ,'}) adjectivized verbal forms:
зол
ценный precious бывший former
ценен
хитрый shrewd блёклый faded
хитёр
горёлый burnt
светлы й light
светел Some qualitative adjectives have no full forms; in case they have it, the full form
острый sharp carries a different meaning. The adjectives рад happy, виноват sorry, обязан
остёр
долгий long must, have to, люб dear, pleasant, надобен necessary do not possess a full form:
долог
Most adjectives ending in -енный have -ен for the short form masc.: Я рад подарку. I ’m happy to get your gift.
бессмысленны й senseless
бессм ы слен Вы обязаны сдёлать эту работу. You have to do this work.
медленный slow
медлен Кто виноват в том, что случйлось? Who is to blame for this?
мужественный courageous
мужествен Such adjectives as готов ready, согласен agree, должен must, have to, прав
торжественный solemn
торжествен right, волен free, нужен necessary, способен capable and some others differ
естественный natural
естествен in meaning from the correlating full forms:
I..... lot ins can express relative quality (a greater degree of quality as com pared
Full form Short form
....... . inal levels) and full forms - irrelative quality (just existing). For example,
Зто нужная работа. Ему нужна работа. inni.ii длинна skirt is too long (for her)
This work is necessary. He needs a job. iMUui длинная skirt is long (has this particular
length)
Он вйдный учёный. Дом отсюда хорошо вйден.
He is a prominent scholar. The house is clearly seen from here hotiiei lines, short forms express temporary quality, while full forms express per-
IIiиiк1Mt quality. For instance,
Он способный студент. Он способен это сделать. СиОйнок болен. The baby is sick now.
He is a talented student. He can (is able to) do this. E
(•«iftttHOK больной. The baby has weak health.
У него болит правая рука. Он прав. \\ lirii full forms are accompanied by adverbs or adverbial modifiers of time, they
His right hand hurts. He is right. i ни express temporary quality:
Мот, я вообще не храбрый, lam not brave at all, but today
In contemporary Russian, the short forms of adjectives are used only as nominal >10 я сегодня храбрый. I have courage.
part of predicates. This fact explains their closeness in meaning to verbal forms.
Short forms of adjectives can express both grammatical and stylistic differences.
Many short adjectives have a limited number of case forms as compared to full S|ylislic differences between full and short forms refer to those adjectives whose
forms:
hol t form coincides with their full form in lexical meaning. For example, in the
хорош (чем?) собой (T. п.) good-looking ■iditence
слаб (чем?) здоровьем (Т. п.) with delicate health Сложна, богата, мирол юбйва, The Slavic soul is so complicated,
благодарен (чему?) судьбе (Д. п.) thankful to one’s lucky stars !алантлива славянская душа. diverse, peaceful, talented.
неравнодушен (к кому?) к ней (Д. п.) attracted to her i lie forms сложная and сложна, богатая and богата, миролю бйвая and
Like verbs, short forms are used in combination with the polite pronoun Вы in the миролюбйва, etc. differ stylistically: the full forms are neutral and the short
pi., while full forms (like nouns) in similar cases are used only in the sing.: limns are stylistically coloured (bookish).

Будьте добры! so kind! Hut in a great majority of cases, the full and short forms are interchangeable:
Он умный./Он умён. He is smart.
but: Извинйте меня. Excuse me!
Вчера она бы ла краейва./ Yesterday she was beautiful.
Вы сердйты на меня. You are cross with me.
Вчера она бы ла краейвая.
but: Вы сегодня сердйтый. You are angry today.
Full forms are normally used in sentences expressing the meaning of location or
Often short forms express the meaning of a person’s inner state (physical, men­
comparison:
tal) and therefore are analogous to corresponding verbs:
Вода там прозрачная, как стекло. Water there is transparent like
Он болен./Он болеет. He is sick. glass.
Отец горд свойм сы н ом ./ Father is proud o f his son. Дома в городе высокие. The houses in the city are tall.
Отец гордйтся свойм сыном. The following are syntactic constructions in which only short forms are used:
Short adjectives may be more categorical in their meaning: 1) adjectives go after adverbs так, как:
Она глупая. She is silly. Она глупа. Как прелестна, как обаятельна She was so beautiful, so charming.
Она умная. She is smart. Она умна. бы ла она. 51

I
А

< a
.’) verb in the nominal predicate is in Imperative mood: D e c le n s io n o f S o ft-s te m A d je c tiv e s
D Будьте добры! Be so kind!
J Будь здоров! God bless you! Р1. J
Sing.
E 3) short adjectives are parts of set expressions, proverbs or sayings: ( uses E
masc. neut. fern. for all genders
C моя совесть чиста C
I am honest
T Ntun. СЙН-ИЙ сйн-ее сйн-яя сйн-ие T
дорог каждый час every moment is precious
I руки коротки blue I
unable to do any harm
V насильно мил не будешь сйн-его сйн-ей сйн-их V
one cannot make smb love I ii'ii,
E E
him/her
p я сйн-ему сйн-ей сйн-им

Лее. as Gen. or Nom. сйн-юю as Gen. or Nom.


Declension of Adjectives сйн-ей сйн-ими
Ins! Г. сйн-им
Depending on the stem type, there are three declensions: I’rep. (о) сйн-ем (о) сйн-ей (о)сйн-их
1) hard: тёплый warm, родной native, dear,
2) soft: зимний winter, последний last, Remarks:
3) mixed - with stems ending in -г, -к, -x (маленький little, сухой dry), -ж, I That type of declension comprises masc. adjectives with stems ending
-ш with the stressed ending -ой (больш ой big, чужой alien) and ц (куцый in (н)ий, -ч, -щ, -ж, -ш and with unstressed endings (зимний winter, ранний
scanty) in which case the ending can be either hard or soft. , ,nly, горячий hot, нищий pauper, хороший good, свёжий fresh).
:> The Gen masc. ending -его is pronounced as [ева].
Declension of Hard-stem Adjectives Helow are adjectives whose stem ends in soft -н(ий):
I ) adjectives expressing location or position:
нбрхний upper
Sing. PI. last
последний
masc. neut. fern. for all genders соседний neighbouring
HÓB-ЫЙ HÓB-oe нбв-ая нов-ые нижний low
Nom. extreme, utmost
new крайний
щёшний local
Gen. HÓB-OTO HÓB-ОЙ HÓB-ЫХ
передний front
Dat. нов-ому HÓB-ОЙ HÓB-ЫМ внутренний internal
Acc. as Gen. or Norn. нбв-ую as Gen. or Norn. домашний homely
средний middle
Instr. HÓB-ЫМ HÓB-ОЙ HÓB-ЫМИ
внешний external
Prep. (o) HÓB-OM (о) HÓB-ОЙ (o) HÓB-ЫХ
иногородний from another city
Remarks: (hut: международный international)
1. The Gen. pi. ending -oro is pronounced as (-OBa). задний back
52 2. Fem. adjectives have the -oii ending in Gen., Dat., Instr. and Prep. alien
посторонний
2) adjectives expressing time:

D >
ранний тйх-ому тйх-ой тйх-им
early I)at.
утренний больш-ому больш-ой больш-йм
morning
весенний spring тйх-ую
нынешний today Асе. as Gen. or Nom. as Gen. or Nom.
больш-ую
поздний late
вечерний evening тйх-им тйх-ой тйх-ими
Instr.
летний summer больш-йм больш-ой больш-йми
прошлогодний last year
о тйх-ом о тйх-ой о тйх-их
вчерашний yesterday Prep.
о больш ом о больш ой о больш-йх
прежний former
зимний winter Remarks:
субботний Saturday 1. The mixed type comprises adjectives with stems ending in -г, -к, -x, -ж, -ш
сегодняшний today and the accented -ой ending (чужой alien).
давний old ancient 2. Adjectives with stems ending in -ц (куцый scanty) take soft-stem declension
осенний autumn endings in Gen., Dat. and Prep. sing. masc. and neut. (куцего, куцему, куцем)
будничный everyday and in Gen., Dat. and Prep. sing. fem. (куцей, (о) куцей).
завтрашний tomorrow
новогодний New Year’s
тогдашний of that time
Declension
двухлетний two-year’s old
of Possessive Adjectives

Declension of Adjectives Declension of possessive adjectives ending in -ий


of the Mixed Type Р1.
Sing.
Cases
Sing. PI. masc. neut. fern. for all genders

masc. neut. fern. for all genders ЛЙС-ИЙ лйсь-е лйсь-я лйсь-и
Nom.
Nom. fox’s, fox­
ТЙХ-ИЙ тйх-ое тйх-ая тйх-ие
silent like

больш-ой больш -óe б о л ьш ая больш-йе Gen. лйсь-его лйсь-ей лйсь-их


big 5

Dat. лйсь-ему лйсь-ей лйсь-им


ТЙХ-ОГО тйх-ой тйх-их
Gen. as Gen. or Nom. лйсь-ю as Gen. or Nom.
больш-ого больш-ой больш-йх Асе.

54 55
о >
Remarks:

>
Sing. PL
Cases 1. Possessive adjectives with -ов/-ев have mixed case endings: adjectival end­

о
J masc. neut. fem. for all genders ings and/or noun endings (Norn. sing, and pi. and also Gen., Dat. sing masc. and J
Е neut.; Acc. fem.). E
Instr. лйсь-им лйсь-ей лйсь-ими
С 2. The number of adjectives referring to the above type of declension is com­ C
Т Prep. о лйсь-ем о лйсь-ей о лйсь-их paratively small: отцов father’s, царёв tsar’s, д ёд ов grandfather’s), and all sur­ T
I names ending in -ов/-ев (Иванов, Конев) and -ин (Костин) with one peculiar­ I
V Remarks: ly - in Prep. masc. they tale -e ending (о Костине, о Коневе). V
Е 1. Possessive adjectives ending in -ий have the soft sign ь before the endings in E
all cases except Nom. and Acc. masc. sing (лисьего, лисьим...).
2. Possessive adjectives ending in -ий can take either short or full case endings: Word-formation
лисье (compare - синее) or full: лисьего, лисьей, лйсьих. of Adjectives
Most adjectives are formed with the help of derivational suffixes. Methods using
Declension of possessive adjectives with suffixes -о в/-ев
prefixes or other suffixes are less widespread. The prefixes and suffixes can be pro­
ductive and non-productive.
Sing. Р1.
Cases
masc. neut. fern. for all genders
Word-formation
Nom. отцов 0 ОТЦОВ-О отцов-а ОТЦ0В-Ы
father’s
of Qualitative Adjectives
мамин 0 мёмин-о мёмин-а мёмин-ы Qualitative adjectives are formed from verbal or nominal stems with the help
mother’s
.. . . .Ш of the following suffixes:
отцбв-а • -H-: жирный fat, полёзный useful, шумный noisy, голодный hungry,
ОТЦ0В-ОЙ ОТЦ0В-ЫХ
Gen. • -ист-: волнистый wavy, скалистый rocky, горйстый mountainous-,
мамин-oro мёмин-ой мёмин-ых
• -лив-: талантливый talented, дождливый rainy, стыдлйвый shy,
отцов-у ОТЦ0В-ОЙ о тц о вы м • -к-: громкий loud, звонкий sonorous, clear,
Dat.
мёмин-ому мёмин-ой мёмин-ым • -нив-: задумчивый thoughtful, pensive, довёрчивый trusting-,
• -тельн-: изобретательный inventive, увлекательный fascinating.
отцов-у
Acc. as Gen. or Nom. as Gen. or Nom.
мёмин-у

Instr.
отц о вы м отцов-о й отцов-ыми Word-formation
мёмин-ым мёмин-ой мёмин-ыми of Relative Adjectives
об ОТЦ0В-ОМ об отцов-ой об о тц о вы х
Prep. Relative adjectives are formed from nominal stems with the help of the following
о мёмин-ом о мёмин-ой о мёмин-ых
56 suffixes: 57
< a
А • ов- (-ев-): бронзовый bronze, боевой military, столовый table-, «hi (-ев-) suffix is added to stems of masc. animate nouns:
D • -ск- (-еск-, -ческ-): апрельский April, педагогический pedagogical, Sing.
J переводческий translational; Noun Р1
E masc. fem. neutr.
• -н- ( енн-): водный water, государственный state.
C отцов отцова ОТЦОВО отцовы
отёц
T I he adjectival suffixes -ан-/-ян- and -шн- are non-productive: кожаный lea­
lather шШ Ш Ш Ш
I ther, глиняный clay (exception: деревянны й wooden, стеклянный glass,
КНЯЗЬ Князев Князева князево Князевы
V оловянный tin), вчерашний yesterday’s, нынешний current.
prince
E
дедов дёдова дедово дёдовы
дед
grandpa
Word-formation
1110 suffix -MH(biii) is added almost only to the stems of masc. and fem. nouns
of Possessive Adjectives
denoting birds and animals:

Derivational suffixes of possessive adjectives have certain specific features. Sing.


Noun И
Productive derivational suffixes are: - mh- (-bm-), - mh- (-biii-), -o b - (-eB-), - mm- masc. fern. neutr.
1
(-bfl-, -be-). All of these suffixes are added to the stems of animate nouns. мышиное мышиные
мышь мышиным мышиная
T he suffix - mh (-biH-) is added to the stems of masc. and fern, animate nouns end­ mouse w tí& m m
ing in -a, -ft and denoting people:
лев львиный львйная львйное львиные
Поп
Sing.
голубь голубиный голубиная голубйное голубйные
PI.
masc. fem. neutr. dove
мама MáMMH орёл орлиный орлйная орлйное орлиные
MáMHHa MáMMHo MáMMHbi
mother eagle
Ш Ш Ё
дочка дочкин дочкина The productive - mm- (-bn-, -be-) suffix is added to the stems oi masc. and fem. nouns
дочкино дочкины
daughter denoting people and animals. In that case, the stem’s final consonant changes.

дядя ДЯДИН дядина Sing.


дядино ДЯДИНЫ Р1
uncle Noun
masc. fern. neutr.
дёдушка дёдушкин дёдушкина дёдушкино дёдушкины
рыбак рь^чий рыбачья ры бачье рыбачьи
grandfather
fisherman
Ваня BáHMH BáHMHa Bát-шно BáHMHbi
охотник охотничий охотничья охотничье охотничьи
Таня TáHMH Тёнина TáHMHO TáHMHbi hunter
о > - до-: довоённый prewar, дореволю ционны й pre-revolutionary,
Sing.
• за-: заграничный, заморский foreign;
PI.
J IIIIISC. fem. neutr. - меж- (между-): межконтинентёльный intercontinental, международ­
Е ный international,
модвёдь медвежий медвёжья медвёжье медвёжьи
С - на-: наручный handwom;
bear
т • от-: отглагольный verbal,
I волк волчий волчья волчье волчьи • под-: подводный submarine, undemater,
V wolf - после-: послевоённый post-war;
Е
• пред-: предвыборный pre-election;
• при-: приозёрный lake-side-,
Word-formation of Adjectives • по-: почасовой hourly;
with the Help of Prefixes • сверх-: сверхштётный surplus, redundant.

The prefixes a-, анти-, без-, не- form antonyms or the opposite of adjectives
they are attached to:
• а-: алогичный illogical, аморальный immoral; Compound Adjectives
• анти-: антигуманный antihuman, асимметричный asymmetrical;
• без-: безболёзненный painless, безграмотный illiterate; 1 he most widely used method to form compound adjectives is with the help of the
copulative vowels о and e.
• не-: небольшой small, некраейвый not good-looking.
1. Adjective’s stem + noun’s stem + adjectival suffix:
The prefixes пре-, наи-, ультра-, сверх-, раз- not change the adjective s main
желёзнодорожный railway
meaning but just add some new shades. Пре- and наи- are used with superlative
народнохозяйственный national economic
adjectives:
2. A combination of two nominal stems + adjectival suffix:
предобрёйший the most kind
огнеупорный fireproof
наимилёйший the sweetest
жизнерадостный vivacious
Ультра-, сверх-, раз- express the highest degree of quality:
ультракороткий ultra-short 3. Numeral’s stem + noun’s stem + adjective’s suffix:
сверхзвуковой supersonic двухлётний two-year-old
развесёлый merry, gay трёхкилометровый three-kilometer-long
\ . A combination of two adjectival stems:
блёдно-розовый light pink
Word-formation of Adjectives лимонно-жёлтый lemon yellow
with the Help of Prefixes and Suffixes Some compound adjectives are spelled as one word, while others are hyphenated.
If the conjunction и, when inserted between the two parts of a compound adjec-
• -H- and -CK- are the most widely used suffixes: бездомный homeless, t ive, makes sense, then a hyphen is necessary:
пушкинский Pushkin’s-,
ярко-ейний bright blue
60 • вне-: внеплановый extraordinary, горько-солёный bitterly salty
()n the contrary, if и doesn’t make sense, the adjective is spelled as оме и iiiif jinnuBecHa future spring
семилётний seven-year im«m npaBfla sincere truth
железнодорожный railway 11 inllv adjectivized participles can be used both in verbal and adjectival
It t
г. шонанный ребёнок (adjective) a spoilt child
Transition of Other Parts ¡Мибванный матерью a child spoilt by his mother
of Speech into Adjectives (Adjectivization) ймок (participle)
jji 11 Ivized participles can acquire some grammatical features of an adjective,
Adjectivization mostly occurs in participles that are widely used as ndjci i u
1 ) passive participles: degrees of comparison:
им просвещённая медицина the most advanced medical care
• with the -енн-, -нн-, -т- suffixes:
L pronouns can also play the role of adjectives - никакой nothing, какой-
взволнованный excited
уд|. any, кое-какой some kind o f etc.:
повышенный heightened
wot он никакой. (=плохой) He is a bad actor.
оживлённый animated, busy
избалованный spoilt
открытый open
Transition of Adjectives
приподнятый elevated
into Nouns (Substantivization)
• with the -им-, -ем- suffixes:
видимый seen i)|lr many adjectives can be used to substitute masc., fern, or neut. nouns, while
любимый loved illii aiding the adjectival patterns of case and number:
несклоняемый indeclinable ) male and female persons:
неспрягаемый non-conjugated §ш.н6и/больная patient
(ии/нйщая pauper
2 ) active participles:
{вОчий/рабочая worker
• with the -ащ- (-ящ), -ущ- ( ю щ ) suffixes:
I plai es (only fern.):
блестящий shining
Шринмёхерская hairdresser’s
руководящий leading утеш ая bakery
знающий expert iiiii'man canteen
следующий next, etc. If dm iiments:
• with -вш-, -ш- suffixes: pi тонная gift certificate
^йимпднёя consignment note
бывший former
n fmиI and beverages:
минувший, прошедший past dessert
Н 1АДН00
опухший swollen, etc. мицбжвное ice-cream
Adjectivization can be full or partial. Fully adjectivized participles lose i In n s пирожное cake
bal characteristics and are used only as adjectives: ШймпАнское champagne
А ( )n I lie contrary, if и doesn’t make sense, the adjective is spelled as one word удущая весна future spring
D семилётний seven-year ущая правда sincere truth
J железнодорожный railway 'artially adjectivized participles can be used both in verbal and adjectival
E ilirases:
C набалованный ребёнок (adjective) a spoilt child
T
Transition of Other Parts набалованный матерью a child spoilt by his mother
I of Speech into Adjectives (Adjectivization) ебёнок (participle)
V Adjectivized participles can acquire some grammatical features of an adjective,
Adjectivization mostly occurs in participles that are widely used as adjectives:
E 1) passive participles: rg., degrees of comparison:
самая просвещ ённая медицина the most advanced medical care
• with the -енн-, -нн-, -т- suffixes:
ome pronouns can also play the role of adjectives - никакой nothing, какой-
взволнованный excited
нибудь any, кое-какой some kind o f etc.:
повышенный heightened
Артист он никакой. (=плохой) He is a bad actor.
оживлённый animated, busy
избалованный spoilt
открытый open
Transition of Adjectives
приподнятый elevated
into Nouns (Substantivization)
• with the -им-, -ем- suffixes:
вйдимый seen Quite many adjectives can be used to substitute masc., fem. or neut. nouns, while
любимый loved maintaining the adjectival patterns of case and number:
несклоняемый indeclinable 1) male and female persons:
неспрягаемый non-conjugated больной/больная patient
нйщий/нйщая pauper
2) active participles:
рабочий/рабочая worker
• with the -ащ- (-ящ), -ущ- ( ющ ) suffixes:
2) places (only fem.):
блестящий shining
парикмахерская hairdresser’s
руководящий leading bakery
булочная
знающий expert столовая canteen
следующий next, etc. 3) documents:
• with -вш-, -ш- suffixes: дарственная gift certificate
накладная consignment note
бывший former
4) food and beverages:
минувший, прошедший past dessert
слёдкое
опухший swollen, etc. мороженое ice-cream
Adjectivization can be full or partial. Fully adjectivized participles lose their ver­ пирожное cake
62 bal characteristics and are used only as adjectives: шампанское champagne
i) nbslrncl notions (always neut.): прошлое past, живбтное аШщ
главное essence, and also grammatical terms - прилагательное adjn fl
сущ ествйтельное noun, etc.
Some fully substantivized adjectives are no longer used as adjectives but only
nouns:
булочная bakery
приданое dowry
портной tailor
мостовая pavement
горничная chambermaid
In that case, substantivization is complete and irreversible. Other adjectives ran i
be used both as adjectives and/or as nouns (partial substantivization): PRONOUN
столовая ложка table spoon столовая canteen
военный врач military doctor военный serviceman
знакомая девушка a familiar girl знакомая an acquiantance

64
PRONOUN Personal Pronouns
Personal pronouns decline for number, case and gender (only the 3rd person):
Pronouns are words that do not name objects or features but only indicate
them.
As a special grammar class, pronouns do not possess their own morphologi­
cal characteristics but correlate with certain parts of speech. As far as their
meaning is concerned, pronouns correlate with nouns, adjectives and numer­
als. In modern Russian, the list of pronouns is not long, only about 70 units,
yet they are characterized by the high frequency of occurrence in speech.
Their syntactic position in a sentence is after the verb.
Remarks:
Pronouns of all classes possess certain common semantic features. 1 The pronoun я is used when the speaker is the subject of speech; in case the
The first feature is the high degree of generalization. Thus, for instance, the pro­ speakerjoins a group of people, the pronoun мы is used.
noun кто who names any animate object, что what - any inanimate object or no­ 2 Ты is used when the speaker addresses one person (a relative, close friend or
tion; pronoun он he indicates both animate and inanimate objects; кто-то some­ child), вы - when the speaker addresses a group of people or one person (a polite
one - a person or living object unknown to the speaker, etc. |i inn of addressing a senior, a stranger or anyone in official situations):
The second feature is the relativeness of meaning manifested in correlation Иван Андреевич! Поздравляем Ivan Andreevich, we congratulate
with other objects, features or quantity. For example, correlation between the Вас с юбилеем! you on yourjubilee!
pronouns я / - ты you, when the use of one pronoun presupposes the use of In the latter case, Вы is spelled with the capital letter.
the other one. I Он, она, оно indicate not only people or animals, but also things. Он: брат
Or in case we use столько so much, so many, it is obligatory to indicate quantity. brother, волк wolf, нож knife; она: сестра sister, собака dog, книга book.
Generalization and relativeness are closely connected with the third semantic I Isually pronouns are used as subjects and objects.
feature - the concreteness of meaning. This is due to the fact that pronouns are Declension of personal pronouns of the 1st and 2ndperson
normally used after words with independent meaning.
Singular Plural
Cases
Iмperson 2"d person 1st person 2nd person
Norn. яI ты you мы we вы you
Classes of Pronouns
Gen. меня тебя нас вас
1) Personal pronouns; 1)at. мне тебё нам вам
2) reflexive pronouns; меня тебя нас вас
Лес.
3) possessive pronouns;
1list r. мной тобой нами вами
4) demonstrative pronouns;
(мною) (тобою)
5) interrogative pronouns;
I'rep. обо мнё о теб ё о нас о вас
6) relative pronouns;
7) definitive pronouns; Remarks:
8) negative pronouns; I All Russian personal pronouns have different stems and special declension
9) indefinite pronouns. types in indirect cases.
P 2. In Prep., the prefix обо is used instead of о about они говорили обо мне It ides, the pi. pronoun мы can be used to denote one person, instead of the sing, P
R they talked about me. и mainly in scientific papers: R
O 3. Before pronouns in Dat. and Instr., the prepositions к to, c with, перед in И |учёя этот вопрос, мы пришли While investigating the given О
N front of, над above take the final о vowel: и опёдующим выводам. problem, we came to the following N
O Он пришёл ко мне. He came to me. conclusions. О
Надо мной голубое нёбо. The blue sky is above me. U
U Mu can be used to describe action or feeling. For example, a doctor can address
The gender of sing, personal pronouns is determined with the help of syntactic N
N i put ient as follows:
means - by the morphological form of the predicate (in the Past tense): я/ты Ну, как мы себя чувствуем? Well, how are we feeling?
пришёл (masc.) I/you came, я/ты пришла (fern.) I/you came.
11«те the pi. form expresses intimacy and familiarity.
Declension of personal pronouns of the 3rdperson \ lector can also use мы when speaking about his or her research results:
Singular Итёк, мы выяснили... So we came to the following
LtlSCS Plural conclusions...
masc. neut. fern.
I'he pronoun ты is characterized by intimacy, but in certain situations it can be
Norn. OH оно она они
Impolite.
Gen. его (у него) её (у неё) их (у них) In Russian, Вы (pi. form) shows politeness and respect when addressed to one
Dat. ему (к нему) ей (к ней) им (к ним) person and is usually capitalized in writing.
Acc. его (на него) её (на неё) их (на них) I'mnouns of the 3rd person can be used as stylistic tools for emphatic purposes:

Instr. им (с ним) ей (с ней) йм и (снй м и ) Унйдев его, онё понялё: это он! Having seen him, she immediately
understood: that's him!
Prep. о нём о ней о них
Remarks:
1. Acc. of the 3rd person sing, coincides with Gen. irrespective of the animateness/ Reflexive Pronoun себя
inanimateness of a noun:
Где eró чемодён? Дай eró мне. Where is his suitcase? Give it to me. flic reflexive pronoun себя oneself indicates an object that coincides with the
2. Pronouns of the 3rd person take the initial letter н after prepositions: subject of action. It does not have gender, person or number:
Он ж ивёте ними. He lives with them. И вижу себя в зёркале. I see myself in the mirror.
Возьмй у него ручку. Take his pen. I i.i вйдишь себя в зёркале You see yourself in the mirror.
There is no н after prepositions вне out, благодаря owing to, вопрекй in spite Он видит себя в зёркале. He sees himself in the mirror.
of, comácHO according to, вслёдствие because of:
Онё вйдит себя в зёркале. She sees herself in the mirror.
Благодаря ему мы сдёлали работу. With his assistance we did our work.
Мы видим себя в зёркале. We see ourselves in the mirror.
3. Stylistic peculiarities of pronouns are widely used in texts of different styles.
Вы вйдите себя в зёркале. You see yourselves in the mirror.
For example, in colloquial speech and official papers the pronoun я is not used -
especially when expressing gratitude or request: Они вйдят себя в зёркале. They see themselves in the mirror.
Прошу предостёвить мне I ask you to give me a sick-leave. I'he pronoun себя is not used in Nom. and its case endings are similar to those
отпуск по болёзни. cl l he pronoun ты you. 69
р Р Я встретился с самйм Он доволен собой.
Nom.
R R директором. He is happy with himself.
Gen. себя
О О 1met the director himself.
N Dat. себе
N Мы говорйли о самом Он думает о себе.
О О Асе. себя
директоре. He thinks about himself.
U U Instr. собой We talked about the director.
N N Prep. о себе i Main difficulties may arise when себя is used with several other objects. For
This pronoun can refer to a person that experiences a certain feeling: s.imple, in the sentence
Начальник велел секретарю отнестй The boss told his secretary to bring
Я чувствую себя хорошо. I feel well.
документы к себе. the papers to his/her place.
Мне посчастливилось I was lucky to find a room
i In' word себя can refer either to the boss or to the secretary. In this case, the
найти себе комнату. for myself. iiiraning should be specified:
The pronoun себя is unique because though it always coincides in meaning wit Начальник велел секретарю, чтобы она отнесла документы к себе.
I here are many phraseological expressions with the pronouns себя and сам:
the given person or object, it is merely a grammatical tool. Thus, the sentence 1
1 им себе хозяин I am my own master
Я снимаю с себя пальто. I am taking off ту coat.
I амо по себе in itself
has one subject (я) and two objects (с себя, пальто), but logically there shoull сам по себе by himself
be only one object (пальто). The form себя denotes the same person express« иыйти из себя to become outraged
дать себе слово to promise himself
by the pronoun я.
ностй себя как у себя to behave at ease
The reflexive pronoun себя is different from the definitive pronoun сам oneself.
дбма
Себя indicates the subject of an action and plays the syntactic role of the verb’s о читать про себя to read to oneself
ject. Сам emphasizes the subject and is the attribute of nouns or personal pronoun мрийтй в себя to come to one’s senses
'»то говорйт самб за себя. It tells its own tale.
Cases Сам Себя
Он сам виноват. He has only himself to blame.
Сам директор приехал. Мне не по себе. I don’t feel quite myself.
Nom.
The director himself came. Самб собой разумеется. It goes without saying.
Зто приказ самого директора. Он в з я л кнйгу для себя.
Gen.
The director himself gave this order. Не took this book for himself.
Reciprocal Reflexive Pronoun друг друга
Об этом сказали самому Он в з я л себе кнйгу.
Dat. директору. He took this book for himself. I lie first part of this pronoun is indeclinable and the second one follows the de­
The director himself was told about it. clension pattern of animated nouns of the second declension.
Мы вйдели самого Он увйдел себя в зеркале. Cäma и Нйна помогают друг другу. Sasha and Nina help each other.
Acc. директора. Не saw himself in the minor. ( Саша помогает Нйне, а Нйна
We saw the director himself. помогает Саше.)
The reciprocal reflexive pronoun друг друга each other does not possess the их (брат) их (сестрё) ИХ(OKHÓ) их (брётья,
person pi.
forms of gender, number or Nom. case. (онй they) сёстры, окна)
Prepositions always come before the second part. своё(окно) свой (брётья,
any person свой (брат) своя
Nom. in sing, and pi. (сестрё) сёстры, окна)
-
Gen. Мы давно не вйдели друг друга.
Remarks:
We haven't seen each other for a long time.
I Possessive pronouns answer the question - чей? чья? чьё? чьи? whose?
Dat. Мы чёсто ходим друг к другу в гости.
2. The possessive pronouns of the 3rd person его, её, их his, her, their coincide
We often visit each other.
with the Gen. of personal pronouns in the 3rdperson sing, or pi. он, онё, они: eró
Асе. Мы срёзу узнёли друг друга.
мать his mother, её брат her brother, их дёти their kids.
We immediately recognized each other.
They do not decline for case, irrespective of the number or gender of the nouns
Instr. Онй встрётились друг с другом.
Ihey modify:
They met each other.
Я знёю eró/её/их брёта. I know his/her/their brother.
Prep. Онй думали друг о друге.
They were thinking about each other. Unlike personal pronouns, they have no н consonant after prepositions:
Я был y eró брёта (possessive pronoun). I was at his brother's house.

Possessive Pronouns Я был у него дома (personal pronoun). I was at his house.
Possessive pronouns indicate object’s belonging to a person. 3. The possessive pronoun свой shows that something belongs to the doer:
Singular Plural Я взял свою книгу. I took ту book.
Possession mase. fern. neut. for all genders Ты взял свою кнйгу. You took your book.
(whose? чей?) (whose? чья?) (whose? чьё?) (whose? чьи?) Он взял свою кнйгу. Не took his book.
Is' person sing. мой (брат) моя моё (окно) мой (брётья, Онё взялё свою кнйгу. She took her book.
( " /) my (brother) (сестрё) ту (window) сёстры, окна)
Мы взяли свой кнйги. We took our books.
ту (sister) ту (brothers,
sisters, windows) Вы взяли свой кнйги. You took your books.
2nd person твой (брат) твоя твоё (окно) твой (брётья, Они взяли свой кнйги. They took their books.
sing. (Tbi you) (сестрё) сёстры, окна) The pronoun свой can be used instead of possessive pronouns of the 1st and
3rd person его (брат) eró (сестрё) его (окно) его(брётья, the 2nd person sing, or pi. to denote something that belongs to the doer:
sing, ( oh he) сёстры, окна)
Я говорю о своём (моём) дёле. Italk about ту business.
3rd person её (брат) её (сестрё) её(окно) её (брётья, Ты говорйшь о своём (твоём) дёле. You talk about your business.
sing. (oHa сёстры, окна)
she) There is no such interchangeability between свой and possessive pronouns
Is' person pi. наш (брат) нёша нёше (окно) нёши (брётья, of 3rdperson:
(Mbi we) (сестрё) сёстры, окна) Он говорйт о своём дёле. Не talks about his own business.
2nd person pi. ваш (брат) вёша вёше (окно) вёши (брётья, Он говорйт о его дёле. Не talks about his (somebody else s)
(Bbi you) (сестрё) сёстры, окна) T v i i í vi v i / ) í 'C '

73
НОсвоим голосом in a frantic voice P
Declension of possessive pronouns of 1st and 2nd person
simply, homely R
and of pronoun свой но свойски
; О
Singular ( пойми глазами with somebody’s own eyes
V/USUS Plural N
<пойми руками with somebody’s own hands
mase. пенс. fein. О
по своему вкусу according to somebody’s taste U

II
Nom. мой ту, моё, моя,
наш оиг наше Hátua сиойм чередом regularly, on time N
Gen. моего, моёй, нёшей мойх, нёших Он сам не свой. He is not himself.
Háuiero
Он не в своём уме. He is not right in the head.
Dat. моему, моёй, мойм,
Он там свой человек. He is quite at home there.
HáineMy нёшей нёшим
Асе. as Nom. or Gen. мою, нёшу as Nom. or Gen.
Instr. мойм, моёй, мойми,
нёшим нёшей нёшими D e m o n s r a tiv e P ro n o u n s
Prep. о моём, о моёй, о мойх,
о нёшем о нёшей о нёших The demonstrative pronouns этот this, тот that, такой such, таков such and the
Remarks: pronoun-numeral столько so many/so much indicate certain objects differenti­

1. The pronouns твой and свой follow the declension pattern of the pronoun ated one from another.
I he demonstrative pronouns этот, тот, такой decline for gender, number and
мой and ваш as наш.
2. Possessive pronouns of 1st and 2nd person and the pronoun свой agree in gen­ case and agree with the nouns they modify.
der, number and case with the nouns they modify: Singular
Plural
Как зовут твою сестру? What’s the name o f your sister? mase. neut. fern.
Моего брата зовут Борис. Му brother’s name is Boris. , эти
этот эта это
Я хочу рассказать вам о своей I want to tell you about my family. тот та то те
семье. такое такйе
такой такёя
The meaning of possessiveness expressed by pronouns has a complicated struc­
Таковой is an obsolete and bookish form of the pronoun такой and has a short
ture: with concrete nouns denoting personal belongings (пальто coat, шапка
form таков (такова, таково, таковы). It has the functional role of the predi­
hat, ш арф scarf, etc.), the pronouns мой, твой, свой realize their inner mean­
ing assigned to use by this particular subject, with such nouns as дача summer cate:
cottage, сад garden, дом house, they acquire the meaning of bought by..:, with Такова наша жизнь. That is what our life is.
nouns завод factory, лес forest, деревня village, etc. these pronouns have the The demonstrative pronouns include the numeral столько and the archaisms
full-fledged possessive meaning. сей this, оный that, in modern Russian they are used only as parts of phraseolo-
In Russian, there are lots of set expressions with the pronoun свой: gisms:
в своё время at one time, in due course по сей день, до сих пор until now
75
на своих двоих on shanks’spony (mare) во время оно а l°n8 time ago
The pronouns этот, тот, такой are not stylistically marked and can be used both In Nom. столько so many/so much agrees with Gen. pi. of nouns; in other case
in oral speech and in writing. The pronouns экий what (а), этакий, эдакий such, li >rms it follows the declension pattern of plural nouns.
what (a) are colloquialisms but can also be used in fiction for stylistic purposes. столько студентов столько книг О
Nom. N
so many students so many books
Declension of Demonstrative Pronouns О
( ¡en. стольких студентов стольких книг
и этот and mom U
Dat. стольким студентам стольким книгам N
N
The demonstrative pronouns этот this and тот that have a peculiar type Лес. стольких студентов столько книг
of declension.
1nstr. столькими студентами столькими кнйгами
Singular
Cases Plural Prep. о стольких студентах о стольких кнйгах
mase. neut. fein.
Nom. эт от, т от эт о, т-о эт а, т-а эт и, т е
Usage of Demonstrative Pronouns
Gen. эт ого, т-ого эт ой, т ой эт их, т ех
Dat. эт ому, т ому эт ой, т ой эт им, т ем I k-monstrative pronouns этот and тот are used depending on object’s pro-
ximity /remoteness.
Асе. as Nom. or Gen. эт у, т у as Nom. or Gen.
этот, эта, это, эти this тот, та, то, те that j
Instr. эт им, т ем эт ой, т ой эт ими т еми
1) indicate a close object: 1) indicate a distant object:
Prep. об эт ом, о т ом об эт ой, о т ой об эт их, о т ех
Дай мне эту кнйгу. Дайте мне ту кнйгу.
dive те this book. Give те that book.
Declension of Demonstrative Pronoun такой such and take the particle вот: and take the particle вон:
Я возьму вот эту кнйгу. Возьмй вон ту кнйгу.
Singular
Plural 1will take this particular book. Take that particular book.
mase. neut. fern.
2) these pronouns can replace the 2) in the main sentence these
Nom. тако й т ак о е так-ёя т ак и е
previous sentence: pronouns indicate an object revealed
Gen. такого т ак о й так и х Сын опазды вал. Это in a subsequent subordinate clause:
Dat. таком у т ак о й так и м беспокоило мать. Я принёс то, что ты проейл.
Асе. as Nom. or Gen. The son was late and his mother was I brought you what you asked.
так-ую as Nom. or Gen.
worried about it.
Instr. так-йм т ак о й так-йми
3) they indicate the simultaneity of 3) indicate a moment or a certain
Prep. о так ом о так ой о так-йх
l wo actions: period of tim e:
Он встал, и в эту минуту вошёл с тех nop
Declension of Demonstrative Pronoun столько ДРУГ- from that time
lie stood up and at this moment his в то время
It does not possess number or gender, and takes the -o ending in Norn. In other at that time
friend came in.
76 cases, it follows the declension pattern of the collective numeral двое two. 77
The demonstrative pronoun такой accentuate certain distinctive features I In i«' are several classes of interrogative pronouns: P
of objects: • interrogative: кто? who? что? what? R
Такие люди нам нужны. We need such people. • i иerrogative-definitive: какой? what? который? which? О
Такого силача я ещё не видел. I haven't ever seen such a mighty • mtrrrogative-possessive: чей? whose? N
person. • tut i rrogative-quantitative: сколько? how many? О
It can also emphasize a higher degree of quality: U
Здесь идёт такой интересный Here we can see such an interesting N
Declension of Interrogative Pronouns кто and что
фильм. movie.
In combination with interrogative pronouns, it accentuates that a person or thing что? what?
Nom. кто? who?
are unknown to the interlocutor:
( ¡en. кого чего
Кто вы такой? Who are you?
Что это такое? What is this? Uat. кому чему
In adjacent sentences, it can replace the preceding or subsequent definitions. Act:. кого что
Мне нужен орфографический 7 need an orthographic dictionary. 1list r. кем чем
словарь. Такого словаря здесь нет. No such dictionary can be found о чём
Prep. о ком
Такой словарь есть в соседнем here. Such dictionary can be
магазине. bought in the neighbouring store. Кго and что do not decline for number and gender. In sentences, words used after
Туман бы л такой, что ничего It was so foggy that nothing could the pronoun кто? take the masc. sing, form:
кругом не бы ло видно. be seen. Кто пришёл? Who came?
The pronoun столько so many, so much ■places quantitative words: Кго из девочек сказал вам об этом? Who o f the girls told you this?
Он принёс мне килограмм яблок, He brought me one kilo o f apples .uni words used after the pronoun что? take the neut. form:
но мне не нужно столько яблок. but I do not need so much.
Что случилось? What happened?
The demonstrative pronouns тот, такбй in combination with the particle же or
the pronoun самый shows the identity of two objects being talked about:
Declension and Usage of Pronouns
Эта та самая книга, о которой This is the book I ’ve already told
какой and который
я тебе говорйл. you about.
Ihe pronouns какой and который decline for gender, number and cases, follow­
Interrogative Pronouns ing t he declension pattern of adjectives (such as сухой dry) and agreeing with
Interrogative pronouns are used in interrogative constructions and can refer to adjacent nouns.
persons, objects, their qualities, time, location etc. These pronouns ask for differ­ Singular
ent types of information and have two main functions: Cases
masc. neut. fein.
• interrogative:
как-ой what как о е как ая как-йе
Кто зд есь ? Who’s there? Nom. которы й which которое которая которы е
Что это? What is this?
• relative (as conjunctions): какого какой каких
Gen. которой которы х
которого 79
Спроси, кто пришёл. Ask who came.
Singular as Nom. or Gen. чью (кнйгу) as Nom. or Gen.
Plural
mase. neut. fern.
_______ _______ L чьим (столом, окном) чьей чьйми (столбми,
каком у какой как йм (кнйгой) окнами, кнйгами)
Dat.
котором у которой которы м
о чьём (столё, окнё) о чьей о чьих (столбх,
Acc. as Nom. or Acc. какую as Nom. or (кнйге) окнах, кнйгах)
котор ую Gen.
как-йм какой как-йми
Instr. Declension of Pronoun сколько
которы м которой которы м и
■■■■■■И and Its Combination with Nouns
о как ом о как ой о как йх
Prep.
о котор ом о котор ой о котор ых I Imi type of declension is identical to that of the demonstrative pronoun столько
The semantic difference between какой and который is that the former denotes lune much/how many.
qualitative characteristics of an object, while the latter shows the place an object
сколько врачей сколько комнат
occupies among similar objects: Nom.
how many doctors how many rooms
Какой он человек? - Прекрасный. What kind of a person is he? -
Wonderful. ( »en. скольких врачей скольких комнат
Который час? - Около трёх. What’s the time? - About three.
1>at. скольким врачам скольким комнатам
Который из этих журналов Which of these magazines is more
интереснее? - Журнал «Вокруг света», interesting? - “Around the World”. скольких врачей сколько комнат
Acc.
In colloquial speech, какой is used instead of который:
Instr. сколькими врачами сколькими комнатами
На каком этаже вы живёте? On what floor do you live?
В какой класс ты переш ёл? What grade do you go to? о скольких врачах о скольких комнатах
1’rep.

Declension of Pronoun чей


I he pronoun чей whose follows the declension pattern of possessive pronouns Relative Pronouns
ending in -ий and agrees in gender, number and case with nouns:
This group comprises interrogative pronouns that put together parts of complex
Singular
- Plural sentences and are indissoluble part of subordinate clauses:
mase. neut. fern.
Расскажи мне, что ты вйдел в музее. Tell те what you saw in the museum.
Nom. чей (стол) чьё (окно) чья (кнйга) чьи (столы, окна,
whose (table) whose (window) whose (book) Хорошо тому, у кого много друзей. Lucky is he who has many friends.
кнйги) whose (tables,
windows, books) Я был рад увидеть друга, чьи советы I was happy to see my friend whose
Gen. чьего (столб,окна) чьей (кнйги) чьих (столов, окон, мне б ы л и нуж ны . advice I needed so much.
книг)
These pronouns include the synonymous кто —который whom:
Dat. чьему (столу, окну) чьей (кнйге) чьим (столам, Я тот, которому ты веришь. I am the one whom you can believe.
окнам, кнйгам) Я тот, кому можно доверять. I am the one whom you can trust.
P In modern Russian, кто is more preferable in the same context. I1• murks: r
R The pronouns который - какой are also synonymous while the latter one add', i I hr pronoun сам follows the declension pattern of этот this, эта, это, эти but R
O the meaning of comparison: u и h one difference - it has accented endings except Norn. pi. О
N Видишь перемены, которые One can see the changes that I | hr pronoun самый follows the declension pattern of hard-stem adjectives N
O возможны только в нашей стране./ can happen only in this country. i и. h as красный red). О
U Видишь перемены, какйе возможны I’li,. pronouns сам and самый decline for gender, number and case and agree U
N только в нашей стране. N
»Mh adjacent nouns.

Definitive Pronouns Usage of Pronouns сам and самый


The pronouns сам, самый oneself, каждый every, всякий each, любой any
Cum specifies or generalizes the nature of a person or thing,
define an object more precisely or generalize the nature of the defined object. h 14 used with personal pronouns and animate nouns and emphasizes an object
Compare:
in person being spoken about:
Ему позвонйл начальник. The boss called him.
11пм об этом сказал директор. The director told us about it.
Ему позвонйл сам начальник. The boss himself called him. Нлм об этом сказал сам директор. The director himself told us
Ребёнку нужны лю бовь и забота. A child needs love and care. about it.
Всякому ребёнку нужны Every child needs love and care. Он виновёт в этом. It is his fault.
лю бовь и забота.
Он сам виновёт в этом. He himself is to blame.
Дёти сдёлаю т это. The children will do it.
Declension of Pronouns сам and самый
Дёти сёми это сдёлают. The children will do it themselves.
Singular In colloquial speech, сам is synonymous with the words chief, boss.
Plural Сёмый in combination with nouns denoting time or place has the meaning
mase. neuf. fern.
i-
сам/ сам -ó/ сам-ё/ сём-и/ of proximity:
Nom. Онй жили у сёмого моря. They lived very close to the sea.
сём-ый сём-ое сём-ая сём ые
Дождь л ил с сёмого утрё. It began rainingfrom the early
Gen. са м о й / сам-йх/
сам-ого/сём-ого morning.
сём-ой сём-ых
Сёмый in combination with abstract nouns emphasizes the prominent features
сам ой/ сам и м /
Dat. сам-ому/сём-ому
сём-ой сём-ым of an object:
Зто бы ло сёмое глёвное в eró рёчи. It was the main message o f his
сам у/
Acc. as Nom. or Gen. as Nom. or Gen. speech.
сём-ую
Я тогдё понял сёмую суть вопроса. I got the sum and substance
сам-йм/ са м о й / сам-йми/
Instr. o f the subject.
сём-ым сём-ой сём-ыми *
Сёмый in combination with adjectives has a superlative meaning.
о сам ом/ о сам ой/ о сам-йх/
Prep. Крёсная площ адь - сёмая красйвая The Red Square is the most
о сём-ом о сём-ой о сём-ых
82 площ адь Москвы. beautiful square in Moscow.
Declension of Pronouns
.
весь, каждый, всякий, любой r. всем всей всеми
> обо всём обо всей обо всех
The definitive general pronouns весь all, каждый every, всякий, любой an,,/
every follow the adjectival declension pattern for gender, number, and agree in ,11
of the above forms with the nouns they modify. The pronouns каждый, всякий Usage of Pronouns
любой follow the declension pattern of the adjectives желёзный iron, лёгкий весь, каждый, всякий, любой
easy, slight, молодой young.
11, pronouns весь - всё all express the meaning of fullness, plenitude, general
n \ , unanimity and can the subject or attribute:
и« и группа бы ла на собрании. The whole group was at the meeting
каждый каждое каждая Mi о (кто? who?) были готовы Everybody was ready to leave.
Nom. всякий каждые
всякое всякая всякие к отъезду.
любой лю бое лю бая лю бы е
Неё (что? what?) бы ло Everything was prepared.
каждого каждой
Gen. всякого каждых подготовлено.
всякой всяких
любого любой Ihe pronoun каждый every gives the noun it modifies a higher prominence, cm
лю бых
каждому phasizes it:
каждой каждым
Dat. всякому всякой всяким КАждый студент должен сдать Every student has to take this exam.
любому любой лю бым »тот экзамен.
каждую Она стремится прийтй на помощь She is eager to help each pupil.
Асе. as Nom. or Gen. as Nom.
всякую
or Gen. кАждому ученику.
любую
кёждым I lie pronoun каждый is normally used in the sing.:
кёждой каждыми
Instr. всяким всякой всякими кАждое утро every morning
любым любой любыми кАждый студент each student
о кёждом о кёждой
Prep. о всяком о кёждых Its plural form is used with pi. tantum nouns:
о всякой о всяких
о любом о любой Он приезжал каждые сутки. He came every day.
о любых
The declension of the pronoun весь has certain peculiarities: or in combination of nouns with quantitative numerals:

Singular Мы встречались каждые два дня. We met every second day.


Cases h----------------
Plural I lie pronoun всякий generalizes similar objects of the same group:
neut. fem.
Всякий человек на моём месте Any person in my place would
поступил бы так же. have done the same.
The plural form of the pronoun всякий has the meaning of various, different
Всякие бываю т люди: и хорошие, There are many different people
Acc as Norn, or Gen всю as Norn, or Gen. и плохие. good and bad ones.
Я рассказы вал ему всякие истории. / told him various stories
р The pronoun любой refers to a class or group of similar objects: и никому не скажу об этом. I will tell nobody about him.
R Зту книгу можно купить This book can be bought in any 11 комнате никого нет. There is nobody in the room.
О в любом магазине. store. I lie pronouns никакой and ничей are attributes; they agree in gender, number
N or to some particular object of the group: ¡ииI case with nouns:
О Ты можешь взять любую книгу. You can take any book. Он не соглашался ни в каких Не agreed under по circumstances.
U
If definitive general pronouns refer to a certain object of a group of similar objects, случаях.
N
they can be interchangeable: Он не реагировал ни на чьи намёки. Не reacted to nobody’s hints.
Все студенты должны (каждый/ All the students (every/any student) Negative pronouns refer to objects negated by the predicate:
любой/всякий студент должен) should know it.
Никто из нас не спал. None o f us was asleep.
знать это.
Он ничего не забы л. He forgot nothing.
Всём растениям (каждому/любому/ All the plants need (each/any plant
Similar meaning and usage is typical for negative adverbs with ни-: никогда
всякому растению) нужна вода. needs) water.
never, нигде nowhere, нисколько not at all, никак by no means, никуда no­
where, ниоткуда from nowhere.
The negative pronouns некого and нечего do not have Nom.; they follow the
Negative Pronouns declension pattern of the interrogative pronouns кто and что.

Negative pronouns are formed from interrogative - relative pronouns with the Nom. -
help of negative prefixes ни- (unstressed) and не- (stressed). Gen. некого нечего
The negative pronouns никто nobody, ничто nothing, никакой none, ничей Dat. некому нечему
nobody’s follow the declension patterns of interrogative - relative pronouns.
Лее. некого нечего
If a preposition is used, it is inserted between the negative prefix and the pronoun:
Instr. некем нечем
Hи у кого нет этого слова ря. Nobody has this dictionary.
Prep. не о ком не о чем
Он ни с кем не простился. Не didn’t say good-bye to anybody.
Она не отвечала ни на чьи звонки. She answered nobody’s calls. Некого спросйть. There is nobody to ask.
Negative pronouns with the prefix ни- (никто, ничто, никакой, ничей) are Им нечего есть. They have nothing to eat.
used only in negative sentences. It is especially important to note that in this type К preposition is inserted between the negative prefix and the pronoun:
of sentences, the negative particle не is always used before the predicate:
Нам не с кем говорйть. We have nobody to talk to.
Его ничто не интересовало. Nothing interested him.
Ему не от кого получать письма. Не has по one to get letters from.
Никто не ответил на мой вопрос. Nobody answered ту question.
Negative pronouns with the prefix не- are used only in impersonal sentences
Я никому не скажу об этом. I will tell nobody about it. where the predicate is the infinitive form of a verb (without negation), while the
Он ничего не вйдит в темноте. Не sees nothing in the darkness. subject is a noun in Dat.:
Syntactically, the pronouns никто и ничто are subjects or objects: Ребёнку нечего делать. The kid has nothing to do.
Никто не ответил на мой вопрос. Nobody answered ту question. Нам не с кем поговорйть. We have nobody to talk to.
Ничто не мешает ему работать. Nothing prevents him from working. Ему некуда идтй. He has nowhere to go. 87
Unlike the pronouns никто and ничто, the pronouns некого and нечего in Usage of Indefinite Pronouns
dieate the absence of the object/subject of the action and therefore express the with Postfixes -то, -нибудь, -либо
impossibility of the action itself:
Indefinite pronouns with the postfix -to show that the speaker is not aware
Некому пойтй за билетами There's nobody to go and buy tickets
ill what he is talking about while other people know this:
(the doer is omitted).
Iпои кто-то спраш ивал. Somebody asked about you.
Нам некого послать за билетами There’s nobody we can ask to buy tickets.
(the doer is omitted). II комнате что-то упало. Something fell down in the room.

Compare: Чтб to случйлось. Something happened.

Ему нечего читать Антбн ушёл к кому-то. Anthony went to visit somebody.
He has nothing to read.
(action's object is omitted). I'mmouns with -нибудь and -лйбо show that everybody (including the speaker)
Он ничего не сказал. He said nothing. h intally unaware of the subject or object of the action:
Ему нечего бы ло сказать. He had nothing to say. Мне звонйл кто-нибудь? Did anybody call me?
Я никого не спросйл. I asked nobody. Гобё нужно что-нибудь? Do you need anything?
Мне некого бы ло спросить. I had nobody to ask. these postfixes may also indicate that speaker knows potential doers but does not
Он ни о чём не рассказал. He told nothing. . are who will actually be the real doer (usually in imperative sentences):
Ему не о чем бы ло рассказывать. He had nothing to tell. Пусть кто-нибудь сходит в магазйн. Let somebody go to the store.
Дай мне что-нибудь почитать. Give те something to read.

Indefinite Pronouns While coinciding with -нибудь in meaning, the postfix -лйбо differs irom it sty
list ically and is mainly used in bookish or official style:
Indefinite pronouns consist of the interrogative-relative pronouns кто who, что
Ктб-нибудь хочет добавить Does anybody want to add any
what, какой what, чей whose, сколько how many and the postfixes -то, -либо,
дополнйтельную информацию? additional information?
-нибудь and prefixes кое-, не-.
Indefinite pronouns express uncertainly, ambiguity while characterizing an ob­ Я, может, что-нибудь не так сказала? Maybe I said something wrong?
ject or its features. They have forms of declension:
• кто-то, кто-либо, кто-нибудь somebody, someone; Usage of Indefinite Pronouns with Prefix кое
• что-то, что-либо, что-нибудь something;
• чей-то, чей-либо, чей-нибудь somebody’s, someone’s; Indefinite pronouns with the prefix кое- (кой-) can be used with prepositions
• какой-то, какой-либо, какой-нибудь some; which are inserted after the prefix:
• сколько-нибудь any (amount); Он рассказал кое о чём. Не told us something.
• кое-кто, некто somebody, someone;
Он побеседовал кое с кем. Не talked to somebody.
• кое-что, нечто something;
These pronouns show that the speaker knows the subject while his interlocutors
• кое-чей somebody’s, someone’s;
• кое какой some, certain; are not aware of it:
• некоторый some, certain; Кое-кто не пришёл на собрание. Somebody did not come to the meeting.
• несколько several, some; Я кое-что знаю о тебе. I know something about you.
• некий some, certain. Pronouns with the particle кой- are colloquial.
I lie pronoun некий declines for gender, number and case and plays I he synt art n
Usage of Indefinite Pronouns
некто, нечто, некоторый, несколько, некий mle of the attribute. It is mainly used in Nom.:
Приехал некий Петров. A certain Petrov came.
The indefinite pronouns некто, нечто, некоторый, несколько, некий (close
in meaning to кто-то and что-то) indicate a person or object for the first time,
without specifying the details. Classification of Pronouns According
Некто is used only in Nom.:
to Their Correlation with Other Parts of Speech
Некто в белом костюме подошёл Somebody in a white suit came
ко мне. up to me. I »upending on their function and forms there exist pronouns with general objcc
Пришла некто Иванова. A certain Ivanova came. Iive, qualitative objective and general objective meanings.
The pronoun нечто is used in Nom. and Acc. and usually accompanies the neut.
attribute: Pronouns with general objective meaning
В нашем городе случилось нечто Something amazing happened
Personal Reciprocal Interrogative Indefinite Negative
удивйтельное. in our city.
The indefinite pronouns некоторый, несколько are declinable and can com­ себй кто кто-то никто
я
who somebody nobody
bine with nouns similarly to the pronouns который and сколько. They denote / пШШПН! oneself
■НШ
indefinite or small quantity: что что-то ничто
мы
what something nothing
Он купйл несколько журналов. He bought several magazines. we
который некто некого
С некоторыми артистами We knew some actors. ты
which someone nobody
мы были знакомы.
you
нечто нечего
The pronoun некоторый is close in meaning to pronouns with кое- (кое-какой, вы
you something nothing
кое-что, кое-кто):
он кто-либо
Я взял с собой кое-какйе книги./ Itook some books with me. somebody
he
Я взял с собой некоторые книги.
она что-либо
Кое-кто из студентов любит спорт./ Some students like sports. she something
Некоторые студенты любят спорт. кто-нибудь
оно
The pronoun несколько in Nom. and Acc. requires the Gen. pi. of nouns: it somebody
Он принёс несколько книг. He brought some books. они что-нибудь
they something
Вошли несколько человек. Several persons came in.
ЯМНННИННИНННИН
кое-что
In other cases, несколько agrees with nouns used only in pi.:
something
Брат пришёл домой с несколькими Brother came home with several
кое-кто
друзьями. friends.
somebody
Турйсты разместились в нескольких Tourists occupied several tents.
These pronouns are close to nouns in meaning and grammatical forms.
палатках.
Pronouns with general qualitative meaning
Transition of Other Parts
Ц Demon- Possessive Definitive | Interrogative- Indefinite Negative of Speech into Pronouns
1 strative relative
TOT мой
(Pronominalization)
весь какой какой-то никакой
that my all what some none ш
In certain speech situations, some words are capable of acting as pronouns. Thus,
этот твой всякий чей какой-
нибудь ничей the numeral один one acquires the features of a pronoun with demonstrative or
this your every whose
some nobody's
indefinite meaning.
такой свой каждый каков Demonstrative (denoting something special):
какой-либо
such one's every what some Все думали только об однбм: Everybody was thinking about one
таков наш сам каковой когда придёт помощь. thing: when will help come?
кое-какой
such our oneself which some
The indefinite meaning has two shades:
оный ваш самый КОЙ чей-то Вас спрашивает одйн человек. Somebody is askingfor you.
that your very/most which someone's
(somebody unknown)
сей его любой который чей-нибудь
this his every which Шёл одйн из последних дней It was one of the last days ofJanuary.
someone's
её января.
чей-либо
her someone's (something from a group of homogeneous objects)
их иной некий Some adjectives can also be pronominalized:
their other some • другой another:
некоторый Одйн читал, другой писал. One was reading, the other one
m ■ 1 some was writing.
......... O v v i . v i u w , y v iu ii c u a j c ^ L i v c a — U U Lil i n -
• определённый special:
dicate the objects passive characteristics (unlike adjectives - in a general way) на определённых (=на некоторых) under special conditions
and have similar morphological characteristics. условиях
These pronouns are close to adjectives both in meaning and grammatical forms. • целый whole:
целый (=весь день) день all day long
Pronouns with general quantitative meaning • следующий next:
Demonstrative были обсуждены следующие the following questions were
Interrogative-relative Indefinite Negative
(=такие-то) вопросы discussed
столько сколько несколько нисколько Some nouns can also act as pronouns:
so many/so much how many/how much several none
• дело:
сколько-то it happened last year
дело (=это) бы ло в прошлом году
any (amount)
• вещ ь thing:
сколько-нибудь
Здоровье - вещь (=нёчто) серьёзная. Health is a serious thing.
any (amount)
• человек, мужчйна man, брат brother, сестра sister, женщина woman,
These pronouns are close to numerals.
народ people (here they become delexicalized):
д есять человек студентов ten students ничего подобного nothing similar
Он мужчина серьёзны й. Не is a serious person. ну егб/её/тебя/вас/их к чёрту! to hell with him/her/you/them!
Анна - женщина смелая. Ann is a brave person. по всей вероятности in all probability
The opposite of that is when pronouns become other parts of speech, for example, nouns: по его/её/их мнению according to his/her/their opinion
Все мой здоровы (= relatives). All my relatives feel well. по его/её/их словам according to his/her/their words
Матч кончился ничьей (= draw game). The game ended in a draw. момогй вам бог! God bless you!
In Russian, pronominalization is less productive as compared to nominalization < вёшего разрешения with your permission
or adjectivization. т к тебё/ему/ей/им и надо! it serves you/him/her/them!
шкйм образом this way
<6лько этого ещё не хватало! that’s a bit too thick!
1ипун тебё на язык! curse that tongue o f yours!
Pronouns as Parts of Modal чёрт бы тебя/егб/её/их взял! the devil take it!
Phraseological Expressions чёрт тебя/его/её/их возьмй! the devil take it!
чёрт/лёший тебя/егб/её/вас/их знает what the devil
бог его знает! goodness/God knows! чего доброго may... for all I know
боже мой! my God!/goodness gracious! что и говорйть! it cannot be denied!
более того more than that что ты! what on earth are you doing!
в таком случае in this case Pronouns as parts of phraseological expressions denoting the quality and inti
во всяком случае in any case sit y of action:
вот это да! that is a point! по весь голос at the top o f one’s voice
воля ваша as you want по весь дух at full (top) speed
другйми/иными словами in other words по весь опор at full (top) speed
(да) ни в коем случае! by no means! но все глаза with eyes wide open
ещё чего! what next!/indeed! но всей красё in all one’s beauty
ишь ты! indeed! но всех деталях in all details
и всё тут! and that is all! но всё горло at the top o f one’s voice
и все дела! and that is all! но всю мочь at full might
и/а крыть-то нечем! there’s nothing one can say to that! но всю прыть at full speed
кроме того besides (that) но всю ейлу at full might
какого чёрта! what the hell! но всю ширь to the full extent
мало того more over исей душой with all one’s soul
между нами (говоря) just between ourselves мсем мйром all together
на мой/твой/его/её/наш/ваш/их взгляд as to me/you/him/her/us/you/them мсем скопом all together
на тебе! нате вам! here you are! нсёми ейлами with all one’s power
нечего делать nothing to be done нсоми фйбрами душй with all one’s heart
ничего не подёлаешь/попйшешь nothing can be done и ю всех сил with all one’s power
ничего не скажешь nothing can be said инк ни в чём не бы вало as if nothing happened
р какйми судьбами? fancy meeting you!
R любой ценой at any price/cost
О на все лады in all ways
N на всех парах at full speed
О на всех парусах at full speed
на всю Ивановскую at the top o f one’s voice
U
на всю катушку at full speed
N
на каждом шагу at each step
ни в коей мере by no means
ни за какие блага not for the world ADVERB.
ни за какйе коврйжки not for the world
никоим образом
ни под каким видом
by no means
by no means
CATEGORY OF STATE.
от всего сердца
от всей душй
with all one’s heart/soul
with all one’s heart/soul
NUMERAL
по всей строгости with due strictness
по всей форме with due formalities
по всем правилам according to the rules
по всем статьям in all items
сверх всякой меры excessively
со всего (раз)маху with all one’s might
со всей очевидностью evidently
такйм манером in that way
таким образом in that way
такйм способом in that way
что есть духу at full speed, impetuously
что есть сйлы with all one’s might
что есть мочи with all one’s might

96
ADVERB Adverbial Modifiers A
D
Ы i11blit I modifiers indicate I lie time, place, cause or purpose of an action. They
Ну adverbs, we mean indeclinable and non Inflective words denoting certain V
jtiiiiill v до wit h verbs,
characteristic features oi an action or a subject. Adverbs modify verbs (хорошй E
Mu adverbs of time (answer the question когда? when?): вчера yesterday,
петь to sing well), adjectives (ослепйтельно белый dazzle white), oilier R
Hfttnto a long lime ago, всегда always, вначале at the beginning, накануне
adverbs (очень давно very long ago) or nouns (совсем ребёнок quite a child), В
H i tin eee, днём in the daytime, завтра tomorrow, сегодня today, иногда
Most frequently, adverbs name certain features of an action:
lliMit tunes, теперь now.
идти дальш е to go ahead
| In adverbs of place (answer the question где? where?): справа on the right,
поступить самостоятельно to behave independently
i ntmn on the left, снизу below, сзад и behind, вперёд ahead, назад backwards,
предупредить заранее to warn in advance
ион i. here, там there.
More rarely, adverbs indicate the features of an object, especially when they go
with nouns or words that denote: I In adverbs of cause (answer the question почему? why?): назло for spite,
1) quality: MiitmoOne willy-nilly, сгоряча hotheadedly, сослепу failing to notice.
слишком практичный | In adverbs of purpose (answer the question зачем? с какой ц ел ью ? what
too practical
немножко музыкант /ш i нарочно on purpose, ум ы ш ленно deliberately, в шутку as a joke.
musician to a certain extent
2) parts of human body: A'' a rule, t he adverbial modifiers are stylistically neutral but sometimes they can
глаза навыкате lie si ylislically colouredand aremainly used in colloquial speech:
protruding eyes
волосы ёжиком НПОшрАнку very early
hair stood on end
3) food and beverages: н о .»‘my in a state o f drunkenness
h i m иойси back where one came from
яйца вкрутую hard-boiled eggs
кофе по-американски ивчпрком at night
American-style coffee
i 'и Ilie other hand, such adverbs as йскони since olden times, йздавна at all
4) or with abstract nouns originating from verbs:
aim вспять conversely are bookish.
чтение вслух reading aloud
hi ani l imes, one and the same adverb can acquire different meanings:
разговор шёпотом talk in a whisper
< мичАс же идй домой! (adverb of time) Go home right now!
In a sentence, adverbs normally function as adverbial modifiers:
( пИчАс же за поворотом Just after that turn, you can see
Вчера я приехал в Москву. I came to Moscow yesterday.
млчинАется лес. (adverbof place) the woods.
Нельзя тратить время попусту. We shouldn’t waste our time.
Он говорйл остроумно. He spoke wittily.
Adverbs have no gender, case or number. They have specific adverbial suffixes and Attributive Adverbs
can be formed from different parts of speech.
Al Iriluitive adverbs are divided into qualitative and quantitative ones and modify
Qualitative adverbs have degrees of comparison.
vm Its, adjectives, adverbs and/or nouns.
I hi.dilative adverbs express the quality or intensity of action: хорош о well,
miôxo badly, грустно sadly, в ё с е л о joyfully, красйво beautifully, громко
Classes of Adverbs Ion,Ну, тйхо quietly, дружески friendly, иронйчески ironically, etc.
I (nanti tative adverbs indicate the degree or extent of some or other feature: очень
Depending on their lexical meaning, all adverbs are subdivided into adverbial ivM/, слйшком too much, особен но especially, исключйтельно exceptionally,
modifiers and attributive adverbs. ипчтй almost, чуть-чуть a bit, слегка slightly, мАло a little. 99
А Such adverbs as замечательно uncommonly, страшно terribly, исклю- \ iIm ibs can also be formed from two identical nouns (the first one is in Nom.) A
D чйтельно exceptionally, легко easily and some others can be used both in the lili ,i preposition inserted between them: день за днём day after day, шаг D
V qualitative and quantitative meaning: hi шагом step by step, с глазу на глаз tete-a- tete, бок 6 бок side by side. V
Е Шли легкораненые. Those who sustained minor wounds ' In i lie process of adverbialization of nouns, the following changes may occur: E
R (quantitative meaning) were walking on foot. 11 i lunge of meaning - for example, such nouns as капелька, крошечка a little R
В Он легко встал, (qualitative meaning) He stood up easily. hn begin to denote measure or quantity: В
Some adverbs describe the character or mode of action: верхбм on horseback, иАмпльку подожди wait a bit please
пешком on foot, наизусть by heart, вдребезги smashed into pieces, шёпотом пн и.мй крошечку take a little bit
in a whisper, вплавь by swimming, ощупью gropingly. Most of these adverbs are I, |„ss of an object’s character - the adverbs назубок know smth. backward and
predominantly used in colloquial speech: взахлёб excitedly, вполглаза keeping liim urd, наверх upstairs do not indicate grammar objects;
half an eye on, вприкуску biting o ff sugar while sipping tea, вповалку side l) l lie appearance of a new syntactic function - adverbs modify verbs:
by side, всухомятку to eat something without drinking water. мобхать напрямйк to go straight on
One and the same adverb can be an attribute or an adverbial modifier: bin unlike nouns, they are not governed by verbs:
Ученик живо прочитал текст. The pupil red the text quickly. моёхать на машйне to go by car
(живо means quickly, adverbial modifier) I) fusion with prepositions - the latter become prefixes while nouns’ endings
Он живо изобразил сцену He gave a vivid account become adverbial suffixes: изнутрй from inside, втихомолку quietly (some
встречи. o f the meeting. adverbs with the prepositions без, до, на are spelled separately: работать
(живо means brightly, colorfully, vividly attributive adverb) OAj толку to work inexpediently, смеяться до упаду to laugh one s head off,
i идёть на корточках to squat).
I)lcl binaries are a great help as regards the spelling of adverbs.
Formation of Adverbs
Adverbs can be formed from almost all parts of speech: nouns, adjectives, pronouns, Adverbs Formed from Adjectives
numerals, verbs (preferably, they are formed from nouns and adjectives).
flic majority of adverbs are formed from adjectives by adding the -o or -e suffix
In an adjective’s stem:
Adverbs Formed from Nouns свёжий - свежо fresh - freshly
Most adverbs are formed from nouns and take a preposition or no preposition. хороший - хорошо good - well
Nouns can become adverbs irrespective of their case forms: нёжный нёжно tender - tenderly
• Nom.: страх как испугаться to be frightened to death, шутка сказать just искренний - йскренне sincere - sincerely
think o f that; краейвый —краейво beautiful - beautifully
• Gen.: начать сначала to start from the beginning, закрыть изнутри to lock Hclow are adverbs that are formed with the help of the -и suffix:
from the inside; a ) from adjectives with the -ck- suffix:
• Dat.: находиться поблизости to be near, стать посредине to stand георетйческий - теоретйчески theoretically
in the middle; творческий - творчески creatively
• Асе.: налить капельку to pour a little bit, пойти навстречу to go towards; b) from possessive adjectives ending in -ий by adding the no- prefix:
• Instr.: идти пешком to walk on foot, работать ночью to work at night; волчий - по-волчьи wolfishly
TOO • Prep.: сделать втайне to do secretly, бы ть внизу to be downstairs. лйсий - по-лйсьи like a fox 101
А с) from adjectives with the -ск- suffix by adding the no- prefix: i li< particle -нибудь (expressing indifference): как-нибудь somehow, гдё- A
D русский - по-русски in Russian ниОудь somewhere, когда-нибудь somewhere-, the particle кое- (expressing D
V московский - по-московски in Moscow style i Ih unwillingness to specify): кое-как anyhow, кое-где anywhere, кое-куда V
Е Many adverbs have parallel forms: хорошо/по-хорошему well; быстро/ imuwhere; E
R по-быстрому quickly (the latter are mainly used in colloquial speech). i) the negative adverbs никак by no means, нигде nowhere - негде there is R
В Some parallel forms may also differ in meaning: mi place, никуда nowhere - некуда there is noplace, незачем there is no need, В
Он разговаривал с ним хорошо. He spoke to him politely. никогда never - некогда there is no time (не is always stressed and ни is not).
Он разговаривал с ним He spoke to him in an amicable Negative adverbs with the не- prefix are used only with verbs in the Infinitive,
по-хорошему. way. « bile the subject of action is a noun in Dat. sing, or pi.:
The adverbs ending in -o should be distinguished from neuter adjectives. Мне некуда идтй. I have no place to go.
Растение красиво. The plant is beautiful. I му некогда отдыхать. He has no time to relax.
(каково? what?, short-form adjective) Им негде сесть. They have no place to sit.
Андрей пишет красйво. Andrew writes plain. Possessive pronouns form adverbs with the help of the prefix no- and the suffix
(как? how?, adverb) ому-: мой - по-моему in my opinion; твой - по-твоему in your opinion; ваш -
Some adverbs were derived from short adjectives with prepositions that later по-вашему in your opinion.
transformed into prefixes, and they are now spelled as one word: Some adverbs originate from combinations of pronouns and nouns: тотчас right
• Gen.: справа on the right, изредка sometimes', now, сейчас now, сегодня today.
• Dat.: попросту simply, in a simple way, потихоньку quietly, The adverbs ныне now, отныне from now on, очень very, здесь here, иногда
• Асе.: насухо rub smth dry, вправо to the right', sometimes, иначе differently, otherwise are non-derivative.
• Prep.: налегке light-handed, вчерне in process o f being drafted.

Adverbs Formed from Numerals


Adverbs Formed from Pronouns
I here are three ways of forming adverbs from numerals:
1) by adding the -жды- suffix to cardinal numerals: однажды once, дважды
Adverbs formed from pronouns do not denote place, time or manner but just
twice, трижды three times;
indicate them or ask about them:
2) by adding the в, на, no prepositional prefixes to collective numerals in Acc.
Книга лежит где-то на полке. The book is somewhere on the shelf.
nnd Instr.: вдвое twice as, two-fold, втрое three times as, three-fold, надвое
Мы должны как-нибудь отдохнуть. We need to relax somehow.
in two parts, по трое in three, вдвоём two together, in tandem;
Он должен где-нибудь учиться. He has to study somewhere.
,'i) by adding the в- (во-) prepositional prefix to ordinal numerals in Prep.:
The following adverbs belong to that group:
uo-пёрвых firstly, во-вторых secondly, в-трётьих thirdly.
1) the interrogative adverbs как how, где where, куда where, зачем what for,
почему why,
2) the demonstrative adverbs здесь here, там there, туда there, сюда here, Adverbs Formed from Verbal Forms
оттуда from there, тогда then, теперь now, потому because, затем then,
везде everywhere, всегда always', Adverbs formed from verbal forms are those made from participles (удивлённо
3) indefinite adverbs with particle - t o (expressing uncertainty): к а к -т о amazingly, испуганно fearfully, умоляюще imploringly -o-, -e- suffixes) and
102 somehow, г д е -т о somewhere, к у д а -т о somewhere, з а ч е м - т о for some reason', verbal adverbs (молча silently, стоя upright, сидя sitting, шутя jokingly). 103
А Adverbs formed from verbal adverbs differ from the latter ones in their syntacl ir I ............. inpound form of comparative degree is formed by adding the word A
более
D features: 1м I lie кIverb (antonymous form is мёнее less): D
V работать сидя (adverb) to work in a sitting posture II торить более правильно to speak more correctly V
Е читать, сйдя на диване (verbal adverb) to read sitting on a sofa и« I n бблее громко to sing louder E
R There are also compound adverbs spelled with a hyphen: ёле-ёле barely, faintly, R
В чуть-чуть a little bit, крёпко-накрепко very firmly, подобру-поздорову В
Superlative Degree
with one’s whole skin.
I In superlative degree requires a combination of two or several words:
I i i omparative degree + всех (всего):
Degrees of Comparison of Adverbs негь громче всех to sing louder than others
нюбйть больше всего to love most of all
Qualitative adverbs with -o/-e suffixes formed from qualitative adjectives have ') наиболее + adverb:
2 degrees of comparison: comparative and superlative degrees. нпибблее полно отвётить to give the most detailed answer
ииибблее красиво вы глядеть to look the most beautiful
I In above superlatives are mainly used in intellectual prose and newspapers.
Comparative Degree I lie comparative and superlative degrees of adverbs differ from those of adjectives
in l hat adverbs always go with verbs and answer the question how?:
Ways of forming simple and compound comparative forms of adverbs follow \djcctives’ degrees of comparison Adverbs’ degrees of comparison
similar rules for adjectives. The simple form is created by means of suffixation: the
Эта книга интерёснее, чем та. Он рассказы вает интерёснее,
-ее (-ей), -ше, -e- suffixes replace the initial adverbial suffixes:
(какая? what?) чем она. (как? how?)
ново —новёе newer
Hus book is more interesting than that Не tells more interesting stories than
быстро - бы стрёе quicker she.
0nr.
тонко - тоньше thinner
Эта книга самая интерёсная из Он рассказы вает интерёснее
долго дольш е longer
нсех. всех.
часто - чаще more often
I'llis book is the most interesting of all. He tells the most interesting stories.
рёдко - рёже more rarely
The adverbs рано, далеко have two parallel comparative forms: раньше and
ранее earlier, дальш е and далее further. The adverbs много many/much,
мало few have suppletive forms: больш е and более more; мёньше and мёнее Degrees of Quality
less. The words раньше, ранее, дальш е, далее, более, мёнее are used only
as adverbs while больш е, мёньше - as adverbs and adjectives: I’lic adverbs formed from qualitative adjectives have degrees of quality. Unlike
Его всё врёмя спрашивают, Не is always asked whether degrees of comparison, degrees of quality express the intensity of some or other
можно ли сдёлать больш е, (adverb) it is possible to do more. li .it lire, irrespective of comparison:
Она удивилась, и её глаза She was surprised and her eyes nnbxo - nnoxoBaTO badly enough
стали казаться больше, (adjective) looked bigger. h A c t o - sacTeHbKO quite often
The prefix no- that enhances the meaning’s intensiveness can be added to the I)cgrees of quality are formed by adverbs derived from qualitative adjectives and
104 simple form of comparative degree: (по)больше читай try to read more. Include: 105
1) suffix forms; Ом уёхал далеко. He went fa r away.
2) prefix forms; Он уёхал далеко-далеко. He went so fa r away.
3) reduplication of adverbs. Онё тихо вошла в комнату. She quietly came into the room
ОнА тихо-тихо вошла в комнату. She came into the room so
Suffix Forms very quietly.
The diminutive suffix -OBaT- (-eBaT-) indicates smallness in degree or quality: I lie prefix npe- can be added to the second adverb to increase the intensity
плохо - плоховато badly ill meaning:
мало - маловато few i nAflKO-npecnaflKO so very sweet
поздно - поздновато lately
yMHO-npeyMHO how very smart
The hypocoristic suffixes -онечк- (-енечк-), -охоньк- (-ехоньк-):
легко - легонечко lightly 'ininetimes the adverb can be reduplicated with suffixes (-biM, -o):
тйхо тихонечко quietly inMHbtM-TeMHO very dark
блйзко - близёхонько close «иотлым-светлб very light
хорошо - хорошенечко well давным-давно long ago
Adverbs formed from nouns can also have different evaluative forms:
Заплакал он горько-прегорько. He burst into bitter tears.
говорйть шёпотом - говорйть to speak in a whisper
На улице темным-темно. It is so dark outside.
шепотком
сидеть рядом - сидеть рядышком to sit next to each other
есть втихомолку есть to eat secretly Transition of Adverbs
втихомолочку into Other Parts of Speech
прийтй вечером - прийтй вечерком to come at night
идтй пешком - идтй пешочком to go on foot Adverbs can become prepositions, conjunctions, particles and modal words.
Вместе together, вопреки in spite of. кроме except, среди among, сквозь
Prefix Forms through, перед in front of, before, близ near finally became prepositions.
Prefixes enhance a certain feature or quality. The most frequently used one is the Вокруг around, около near, вблизй not far, вдали in a distance, навстрёчу
prefix npe-: towards, напротив opposite, согласно according to, etc. are used both asadvnbs
глупо - преглупо silly and as prepositions:
спокойно - преспокойно calmly Навстречу шёл поезд, (adverb) A train was approaching from
достаточно - предостаточно enough the opposite direction.
The раз- (рас-) prefix is mainly used in poetic language: распрекрасно, Навстречу нам шёл поезд, (preposition) A train was approaching us.
расчудесно wonderfully. Магазин находится напротив, (adverb) A shop is on the opposite side
Магазйн находится напротив дома. A shop is opposite our house
Reduplication of Adverbs (preposition)
The reduplication of adverbs also has the enhancing effect: Как as, точно exactly, пока while, едва yet, etc. are used as conjunct ions:
быстро-быстро very quickly Пока шёл дождь, мы были дома. We stayed home while it was tainiii/:
высоко-высоко very high (conjunction)
далеко-далеко very fa r Мы пока туда не пойдём, (adverb) We won’t go there for the time being,
Вон over there, уже already, всё yet, ещё sft'//, yet became particles: t iii cgory of state is used with auxiliary verb быть, стать, становиться,

О
Иди вон отсюда! (adverb) Get out o f here! дА латься,казаться.

m -I >
Дайте вон ту сумку! Give me that bag over there! In Ilie Present tense, the auxiliary verb is omitted:
(demonstrative particle) < «г бдня холодно. It’s cold today.
Верно sure, положительно positively became modal words: !)) use of mood:

O
пыло/было бы/пусть будет вёсело it was/it would be/let it be funny

o
Служи верно Родине! (adverb) Serve your Motherland faithfully!
Он, верно, не придёт, (modal word) He is probably not coming. i) uuehangeability of form (only words ending in -o have comparative degree): R
Mho стало веселёе. I ’m having a better time. Y
Syntactically, the words of the category of state are the predicates of impersonal
CATEGORY OF STATE leniences: О
I ут было темно и душно. It was dark and stuffy here. F
Category of state is a part of speech that comprises indeclinable and non-inflective In impersonal sentences with words of the category state, nouns or pronouns
words (impersonal predicative words, predicative adverbs used as predicates in I)at. (instead of Nom.) are used to describe a person’s state:
S
of impersonal sentences) denoting state in a broad sense of the word. Mho нужно сказать вам об этом. I need to tell you about it.
T
They express: Сострё грустно. My sister is sad.
A
1) physical or emotional state of a person: Sentences that describe surroundings, environment or nature usually have
T
Мне холодно. I am cold. adverbial modifiers of place and time:
E
Ей трудно говорйть. It is difficult for her to speak. (Автра будет жарко. It is going to be hot tomorrow.
Им жаль расставаться. They were sorry to say good-bye. It дбме тепло и уютно. It is warm and cozy in the house.
Ему лень заниматься. He does not feel like studying. Сегбдня морозно и солнечно. It is frosty and sunny today.
2) possibility/impossibility: Words of the category of state can go with infinitives:
Можно войтй? May I come in? Нам нужно поговорйть. We need to talk.
Здесь нельзя курйть. No smoking here. Нам можно ёхать. You may go.
Мне нужно поговорйть. I need to talk. As far the origin is concerned, the category of state is not homogeneous; it mainly
Им надо посоветоваться с врачом. They should consult a doctor. consists of adverbs ending in -o and nouns.
3) evaluation of a person’s activity (temporal or spatial):
Вам курйть врёдно. Smoking is harmful to your health.
Ходйть пешком полёзно. Walking is healthy.
Impersonal Predicative Words in -о
Вставать ещё рано. It’s too early to get up. Words of the category of state in о (сты дно (for) shame, трудно difficult,
4) state of nature or environment: погко easy, темно dark, светло light, etc.) are homonymous to adverbs ending
На улице тепло. It is warm outside. in о and short neut. adjectives:
В комнате душно. It is stuffy in the room. Ему вёсело. (category of state) He is cheerful.
В лесу сейчёс сыро. It is too wet in the woods now. Он вёсело смеётся, (adverb) He laughs merrily.
The category of state has certain morphological peculiarities: Eró лицо бы ло вёсело. Не was cheerful.
1) indication of time: ( short-form adjective)
Вчера бы ло холодно, а завтра It was cold yesterday, and it is going Unlike adverbs, words of the category of state have tense forms (ему б ы л о /
будет тепло. to be even colder tomorrow. будет вёсело he was/will be cheerful) and cannot play the syntactic role 109
of adverbial modifiers; unlike short adjectives, they have tense forms and do nol I ike nouns, the num erals decline for case but their declension differs from I hat
change for gender and number. el nouns. There are m o re than 10 types of numerals’declension in modern Russian.
Impersonal predicative words ending in -o can form the comparative degree: Numerals do not decline for gender or number (except several exceptions).
светло light - светлее, темно dark - темнее. The comparative degree of the

> 73
category of state should be distinguished from that of adjectives and adverbs:
В Москве ему веселее. In Moscow he feels better.
(category of state)
Classification of Numerals
Она смеётся ещё веселее, (adverb) She laughs more cheerfully. Numerals are divided i n t o classes according to their semantics, syntactic usage
Он бы л веселее брата, (adjective) He was more jovial than his brother
and structure.
The category of state also includes such modal words as надо need, нужно have I »(-pending on their s e m a n tic meaning, numerals can be: cardinal, ordinal anil
to, можно may, нельзя do not have to, жаль it’s a pity. collective. Cardinal n n m e ra ls are subdivided into cardinal proper numbers
(d три, 10 десять, 12 двенадцать) and fractional numbers (2/7 две
седьмых, 3/4 три че твё р ты х).
Indeclinable Words Formed from Nouns Si ructurally, numerals a r e divided into:
Some nouns, initially in Nom., can be transformed into the category of state: 1) simple (consisting o f one stem): 4 четыре, 100 сто;
позор disgrace, грех sin, стыд shame, лень laziness, охота desire, время time, 2) compound (consisting of two stems): 50 пятьдесят, 90 девяносто;
пора time, etc. As the predicates of impersonal sentences, they lose the forms I) composite (a com bination of simple or compound numerals): 75 семьдесят
of gender and declension; auxiliary verbs take the neuter form: пять, 126 сто д ва д ц а ть шесть, 3875 три тысячи восемьсот семьдесят
Грех было смеяться над ними. It was a sin to laugh at them. пять.
Ему лень бы ло встать. Не is too lazy to get up. Fractional numbers, w fiic h also refer to composite numbers, consist of a cardih1
Such words of the category of state as грех, стыд, позор and some others are number (numerator) a n d ordinal number (denominator): 4/5 четыре пятЫ*>
synonymous in lexical meaning to nouns they were derived from (грех, etc.) 3/9 три девятых.
Над старостью см еяться грех. It is a sin to laugh at elderly people.
(category of state) Cardinal Numerals
Приврать любйл - этот грех за ним Ihave to admit it, he was fond
водился, (noun) o f telling lies. Cardinal numerals a n s w e r question сколько? how much? and decline for ca>>es
Invariable words of the category of state are stylistically restricted: they are used like nouns. Four c a rd in a l numerals change for gender:
only in colloquial speech.
Numeral masc. neut г. fem.
Мне неохота работать сегодня. I do not feel like working today.
1 один одно одна
Охота тебе идти пешком? Do you feel like walking?
2 ддва две

1.5 полторё полторы

NUMERAL Один also changes fox' number: один (masc.) - одна (fem.) - одно (neut.)
одни (pi.).
Numeral is a part of speech that puts together words naming the quality The numerals 1000 т ы с я ч а , миллион million and м иллиард billion h<lV(
of something as well as the order of objects while counting them. gender and decline fo r number:
Z => S

2 c z
Numeral Sing. PI. t ¡en. пятого нового
1000 ты сяча (fern.) тысячи Dut. пятому новому

E 1 000 000 миллион (masc.) миллионы ( trdinal numerals differ from adjectives in that they only indicate the numerical E
R 1 000 000 000 миллибрд (masc.) миллиарды Older of an object, while adjectives characterize its qualities. In a certain R
A i on text, howefer, ordinal numerals are also capable of expressing the qualitative A
Cardinal numerals include the so-called indefinite quantitative words expressing
L characteristics of objects (usually with such words as класс class, разряд L
the indefinite amount (large or small) of something.
( ulegory, сорт sort, степень degree), for example, первый first, второй second,
These are the adverbs много many/much, мало few, немного not much/little,
третий third, sometimes - десяты й tenth.
немало quite a lot/much; the pronouns несколько several/some, столько
товары первого сорта first quality goods
so many/so much, сколько how many/much; the nouns бездна a huge number
гостиница третьего класса three-star hotel
of', прорва a lot of', тьма thousands, уйма lots of, пропасть loads of. The latter
denote a very large quantity of something and are stylistically marked. They can
go with other parts of speech: Collective Numerals
много пить (adverb) drink much
мало друзей (numeral) few friends Collective numerals are semantically connected with qualitative numerals; they
непроглядная тьма (noun) pitch darkness indicate the quantity of objects in their entity. The most widely used collective
тьма народа (numeral) thousands of people numerals are двое two, трое three, четверо four, пятеро five , more rarely
Words бездна, пропасть etc. are abstract nouns and in some situations can шестеро six, семеро seven, десятеро ten. Восьмеро eight and девятеро
express an indefinitely enormous group of objects: nine are very rarely used and одйннадцатеро eleven, двенадцатеро twelve
Масса народу собралась на площади. Crowds of people gathered are not used at all. The word 66a (masc.) - обе (fern.) both (=тот и другой) is
at the square. also a collective numeral:
Ягод в лесу - пропасть. There’re loads of berries in a forest. Оба брата учатся хорошо. Both brothers study well.
К нам приехала уйма родственников. Lots of relatives came to visit us. ббе сестры - студентки. Both sisters are students.
These words are mainly used in colloquial speech.

Ordinal Numerals Formation of Numerals


Ordinal numerals indicate the order of objects while counting them and answer
the question который? which one? - первый first, второй second, etc. They Simple and Compound Cardinal Numerals
decline for gender, number and case according to the adjectival pattern and, like
одйн (mase.)
adjectives, agree with the adjoining noun:
1 однб (fem.) 11 одиннадцать 10 дбеять 100 сто
Gender, case Numeral Adjective одно (neutr.)
пятый этаж новый дом д ва (mase.,
masc.
the fifth floor new house 2 neutr.) 12 двенбдцать 20 двбдцать 200 двести
пятая квартйра новая территория д ве (fem.)
fem.
the fifth apartment new territory 3 три 13 тринбдцать 30 трйдцать 300 триста
4 четыре 14 четырнадцать 40 сорок 400 четыреста 1ф И трётий трётья трётье трётьи

5 пять 15 пятнёдцать 50 пятьдесят 500 пятьсот | четыре четвёртый четвёртая четвёртое чётвёртые

6 шесть 16 шестнёдцать 60 шестьдесят 600 шестьсот ¡1 пять П Я ТЫ Й пятая пятое пятые

7 семь 17 семнёдцать 70 сёмьдесят 700 семьсот II шесть шестой шестая шестое шестые
8 восемь 18 восемнадцать 80 восемьдесят 800 восемьсот 7 семь седьмбй седьмая седьмое седьмые
9 дёвять 19 девятнадцать 90 девяносто 900 девятьсот миосемь восьмой восьмая восьмое восьмые
10 дёсять девятая девятое девятые
0дёвять девятый

1 000 10дёсять десятый десятая десятое дёсятые


thousand тысяча
1 000 000 million миллион Hnnarks:
I All ordinal numerals are formed from cardinal numerals, except the words
1 000 000 000 billion миллиард
первый, второй.
Remarks: ' The numerals второй second, шестой sixth, седьмбй seventh and восьмой
1. The first ten numerals, as well as the numerals 10 дёсять, 100 сто, 1 000 <if,hih have the stressed ending -ой.
тысяча and 1 000 000 миллион, are non-derivative and are called simple I The numeral третий third has the ending -ий (-ья, -ье, -ьи).
numerals.
2. The next nine numerals have the suffix -надцать preceded by a hard consonan!
3. The numeral 12 двенадцать is formed from the fern, numeral две. Fractional Numerals
4. The numerals denoting dozens are formed with the help of the suffix -дцать
I Iас! ional numerals are formed by combining cardinal and ordinal numerals. The
and the word дёсять (from 50 to 80).
......erator of a fraction is a cardinal numeral and the denominator - an ordinal
5. Numerals from 50 to 80 and from 500 to 900 in Norn, have the soft sign ь at the
end of the first stem: 50 пятьдесят, 500 пятьсот. ....neral: 1/2 одна вторая, 3/4 три четвёртых.
6. The numerals formed by means of suffixation and by adding words дёсять In colloquial speech, the meaning of a half is expressed by the word половина or
сто are called compound. II'. part пол- added to a noun in the Gen. case. The latter are spelled either in one
word (if the noun begins with a consonant: полминуты half a minute) or with
.i hyphen (if the noun begins with a vowel - пол-игры half-time, or if the noun
Ordinal Numerals
i a proper name - пол-Москвы half o f Moscow).
In colloquial speech, the ordinal numeral четвёртый fourth is replaced by the
Cardinal Ordinal minerals
word четверть quarter - 1/4 одна четверть, 2/4 две четверти; and the
numerals mase. fem. neut. plural uiilinal numeral третий third is replaced by the word треть third: 1/3 одна
1 одйн пёрвый первая пёрвое пёрвые ipoTb, 2/3 две трети.
'
In mixed numerals with a whole-number part and fractional parts, the adjective
2 два второй вторёя второе вторые
in u.iii is used: 0.1 ноль целых одна десятая.
Z D S
Collective Numerals ИДИН ДОМ one house

2 c z
muni книга one book
These numerals are only formed from the first ten numbers by adding the sul'lUiH one apple
нднб яблоко
-o-, -e-, -ep-o-:
E " Л И И ножницы one pair of scissors E
R !l al mi agrees with nouns when it is part of a compound numeral: R
A П iditicce двадцать один ученик There’re twenty one pupils A
L i однй ученица, одно окно). (girls, windows) in a classroom. L
Mi,i говорили о двадцатй одном We were talking about twenty
ученике (одной ученйце, одном окне), one pupils (girls, windows).
' The numeral одйн one follows the declension pattern of the pronoun этот this/
M.i/бто/эти with a running vowel -и- in Nom. and Acc. sing masc.: одйн, but
одного, одному, etc.
rhc pi. of the word одйн (однй) only acts as a numeral in combination with
nouns that do not possess the sing.: однй часы one watch.
hint her pi. cases одни acts as:
• a particle with the meaning of only:
Нее ушлй, однй мы остались. Everybody left, only we stayed.
• a pronoun with the meaning of somebody.
Однй говорят, а другйе делают. Some talk - others work.
Declension and Syntactic Usage • a short adjective with the meaning of alone:
of Cardinal Numerals Она живёт одна. She lives alone.

Declension of Numerals oduH /odH a/odHO one Declension of Numerals


два two, т р и three, ч е т ы р е four

дв а (mase.,
Nom. тр и четыр-е
neut.), дв-е (fern.)
Gen. д ву х тр-ёх четыр-ёх
Dat. дв-ум тр-ём четыр-ём
Acc. As Nom. or Gen.
Instr. дв-умя тр-емя четырь-мя
Prep. о дв-ух о тр-ёх о четыр-ёх
Remarks: Remarks:
1. The numeral один declines for gender, number and case and agrees with nouns 1. The numerals два and две differ in gender only in Nom. and Acc.:
like adjectives: два стола two tables две кнйги two books 117
N 2 11м- nimici.il'. днп гри, четыре ;нк| <<>iп|>«щn<I numorals ending in два. три,

2 c z
4 All numerals of this type:
U четыре 11 in Nom., they require Gen. pi. of nouns сем ь (пятнадцать) студентов
М • in Nom., they require nouns in Gen. sing.: tl l' i) students;
Е два/три/четыре стола two/three/ две/три/четыре книги two/ h) in nl her cases, they agree with nouns: Е
R four tables three/four books П м|йге не хватает двадцати Book lacks twenty eight pages. R
А • in other cases, they always go with plural nouns. .......... страниц. А
L 3. Acc. of numerals два (две), три, четыре in combination with animate nouns L
coincides with Gen., while in combination with inanimate nouns, it coincides wil li
Nom.: Numerals сорок, девяност о,
Мы видели двух студентов. We saw two students. ст о, полт ора, полт ораст а
Мы видели два дома. We saw two houses.
But this rule does not work for Acc. of compound numerals ending in два, три, 40 сорок 1.5 полтора (mase., neutr.),
четыре: Nom., Acc. 90 девяносто полторы (fern.)
100 сто 150 nonTopácTa
К нам приехали двадцать два Twenty two students came to us. Cases
студента. (Nom.) copoxá полутора
Gen., Dat.,
Я увидел двадцать два студента. (Acc.) I saw twenty two students. девяноста полутораста
Instr., Prep.
ста

Remarks:
Numerals from 5 to 10 and All Numerals Ending
I The numerals сорок, девяносто, сто, полтора, полтораста have only
in - д ц а т ь and - д е с я т
lwo forms: one for Nom. and another —for all other cases.

Cases fron 5 to 10 ending in -дцать ending in -десят 2. The numerals сорок, девяносто, сто and the compound numerals that
include them:
Nom. 5 пять 0 8 восемь 12 двенадцать о 50 пятьдесят о
a) in Nom. and Acc. require the Gen. pi. of nouns:
Gen. пят-й восьм-й двенёдцат-и пятйдесят-и сорок книг forty books
Dat. пят-й восьм-й д в ен ад ц ати пятйдесят-и девяносто (сто) рублей ninety (hundred) roubles
Acc. ПЯТЬ 0 восемь 0 д в ен ёд ц ат ь о пятьдесят 0 b) in other cases agree with nouns:
к ста студентам to a hundred students
во сем ью ,
Instr. пять-ю двенёдцать-ю пятью десятью о сорока студентах about forty students
в о сь м ь ю
c) the nouns with пол- have this formant changed into полу- in indirect cases:
Prep. (о) пят-й (о) восьм-й (о) двенёдцат-и (о) пятйдесят-и
Он ж и л зд есь более полугола. Не stayed here more than half a year.
Remarks:
1. All the above numerals decline as 3rd-declension nouns (площ адь square,
тетрадь note-book).
Numerals д в е с т и , т р и с т а , ч е т ы р е с т а
2. In Gen., Dat., and Prep, of восемь, there is no running vowel -e-; in Instr.,
and Numerals Ending in - c o m
восемь has two forms: восемью and восьмью
Nom. 200 двёст-и 300 трист-а 400 четырест-а 500 пятьсот 0
3. Both parts of numerals ending in -десят are declinable: 50 пятьдесят -
118 пятидесяти, 70 сем ьдесят - семью десятью . Gen. двухсот 0 трёхсот 0 четырёхсот 0 пятисот о
5 c z
Dat. двумст-ём трёмстём четы рём стам пятист-ём тысячу трйста сем ьдесят семь книг
Acc. as Nom. or Gen. тысячей (тысячью) тремястами семью десятью семью
ВМ*>11
Instr. двумяст-ёми тремяст-ами четырьмяст-ёми пятист-ёми книгами
Е
Prep, (o) двухст-áx (о) трёхст-ах (о) четырёхст-ах |*и |, (о) тысяче трёхстах семйдесяти семй кнйгах R
(о) пятист-ёх
1. The second part of the stem in the numerals ABecm, TpiicTa, neTbipecia
changes to - cot in Gen, and to - ct in other cases. Forms of Adjectives in Combinations L
2. In numerals ending in - cot (like in numerals ending in -flecnT), both parts ain of Cardinal Numerals and Nouns
declinable.
3. All numerals of this type and compound numerals with similar parts: Mi, i l he numeral одйн (одна, одно) one, adjectives agree with nouns in gender,
a) require the Gen. pi. of nouns in Norn.: (tiiiiibei and case:
A B e c T M /T p iic T a /rm T b C O T w y p H a n o B /K H u r 200/300/500 magazines/books один большой дом one big house
b) agree with nouns in other cases: иднА большая комната one big room
He XBaTaeT AByxcoT/TpexcoT/nnTucoT We lack 200/300/500 magazines/ I иднб большое здание one big building
)KypHa/iOB/KHMr. books. \lirr the numerals два two, три three, четыре four in Nom., an adjective is
always plural. If a combination of these numerals includes a masc. or neut. noun,
i In n the adjective takes the Gen. pi. form:
Numerals т ы сяча, м иллион, м иллиард диа/три/четыре новых студента two/three/four new students
диа/три/четыре большйх окна two/three/four big windows
I he numerals ты сяча (fern.) thousand, миллион (masc.) million, миллиард
II a combination of numerals includes a fem. noun, the adjective may take either
(masc.) billion decline as nouns of the 1st (fem.) and 2nd (masc.) declensions.
Ilie Nom. pi. or Gen. pi. form. Both forms are equally acceptable: две новые
Тысяча in Instr. sing, takes the forms тысячей, тысячью :
студентки - две новых студентки two new students.
Я располагаю ты сячью рублей. I have one thousand roubles.
Hie same rule applies to substantivized adjectives:
As a countable noun, ты сяча in Instr. takes the Gen. pi. form:
два/три/четыре рабочих (masc.) two/three/four workers
Библиотека располагает тысячей Library has one thousand books.
два/три/четыре прилагательных two/three/four adjectives
книг.
(neut.)
Nouns after миллион and миллиард take the Gen. pi. form:
две/три/четыре булочных, two/three/four bakeries, cafeterias
Продали миллион телевизоров. They sold one million TV sets.
столовых (fem.)
Мы говорили о миллиарде рублей. We talked about one billion roubles.
After all other numerals in Nom., adjectives always take the Gen. pi. form:
пять/двадцать/сто большйх домов five/twenty/one hundred big houses
Compound Numerals сем ь/дёсять трудных задач seven/ten difficult tasks

All parts of compound numerals are declinable:


Nom.
Usage of Case Forms
тысяча триста сем ьдесят сем ь книг 1377books
of Cardinal Numerals with Preposition no
Gen. тысячи трёхсот семидесяти семй книг
Dat. тысяче трёмстам семидесяти семй кнйгам In these combinations, the cardinal numerals do not agree with nouns. Instead,
they require nouns in Gen. sing, or pi.; Acc. or Dat. The cardinal numerals 121
2 два, ,'i три, 4 четыре, 90 девяносто, 100 сто, 200 двести, 300 триста

5 c z
в, I 11mbination with the numerals 5 пять, 6 шесть (and so on), the word лет is
400 четыреста preceded by the preposition no are used in Acc. (= Nom.): _ и . ,| Ibr Nom. and Gen., and год - for all other cases.
Нам дали по два яблока/по четыре We were given 2 apples/4 books/ I
кнйги/по сто рублей. WO roubles each. Noin. семь лет 7years
Other numerals with no take Dat. (written language) or Acc. (colloquial 1 ( ¡(41. семй лет
speech): семй годам
Hui.
Нам дали по десятй/дёсять ручек. We were given 10 pens each.
Acc. семь лет
The numerals одйн one, ты сяча 1 thousand, миллион 1 million, миллиард
1 billion always take Dat., when preceded by no: Instr. семью годами

Нам дали по одному миллиону/ We were given 1 million/1 billion 1’rep. о семй годах
миллиарду рублей. roubles each. I»ебёнку не бы ло 7 лет. The child was under 7years.
Мы встретились с ним пятью I met him five years later.
юдами позже.
Combinations of Cardinal Numerals I Isually, numerals are placed before nouns: двадцать человек 20 persons,
and the Nouns ч е л о в е к , г о д , л е т семь лет 7 years. When the opposite order (postposion), approximate quantity
is meant: человек двадцать, лет семь.
In combinations with cardinal numerals, the noun человек person keeps the stem
человек (not лю ди) in all pi. case forms:
пять/двадцать/сто человек five/twenty/hundredpersons Declension and Usage
In combinations with the numeral одйн, the word год keeps all case forms:] of Ordinal Numerals
ОДЙН ГОД 1year (Nom.), одного года (Gen.), etc. This also refers to compound ■
numerals with год:
The ordinal numerals decline for gender, number and case like adjectives with
сто одйн год (Nom.) W1 years a hard stem (белый white):
двести одному году (Dat.) 201 years первый день first day
In combinations with the numerals 2 два, 3 три, 4 четыре, 1.5 полтора, первая кнйга first book
the word год is used for all cases except Gen. which requires the word лет. первое окно first window
первые месяцы first months
Nom. два/три/четыре/полтора года 2 /3 /4 /1.5years
The ordinal numeral третий declines like adjectives ending in -ий (лйсий/ox’s,
Gen. двух/трёх/четырёх/полутора лет fox-like):
Dat. третий урок third lesson
двум/трём/четырём/полутора годам
третья кнйга third book
Acc. два/три/четыре/полтора года
третье окно third window
Instr. двумя/тремя/четырьмя/полутора годами __________
третьи слова third words
Prep. In compound ordinal numerals, only the last word is declinable and agrees; with
о двух/трёх/четырёх/полутора годах
a noun in gender, number and case:
Она живёт в сорок второй квартире. She lives in fla t 42. nnl by a cardinal numeral if it’s the second hall ol an hour:
Он родился в две тысячи Не was bom in 2009. i вйчас без десяти одйннадцать. It is ten to eleven.
девятом году. Сейчас без четверти час. It’s quarter to one.
( ойчас без трёх минут два. It is three minutes to two.
Ordinal numerals are used in the following time phrases:
1) to indicate hour and minutes: '}) In indicate day and month.
ш Сегодня первое октября.
Который час?/ Когда? When?, Nom. Today is the 1st o f October.
Сколько времени? В котором часу?
W hat’s the time? At what time? Она родилась первого октября.
Gen. She was bom on the 1st o f October.
Сейчас первый час. Приду в первом часу.
It is past twelve. Он приедет к первому октября.
I ’ll come after twelve. 1)at. Не will arrive by the 1st of October.
Сейчас половйна второго. Уйду в половйне второго.
It is half past one. Лекция назначена на первое октября.
I ’ll leave at half past one. Acc. The lecture is scheduled for the 1st o f October.

To show the exact time, cardinal numerals are used. Письмо помечено первым октября.
IllStr. The letter is dated the 1st o f October.
Который час?/ Когда? When?, Мы говорйли о первом октября.
Сколько времени? В котором часу? Prep. We talked about the 1st of October.
W hat’s the time? A t what time?
In these phrases, month names always used in Gen. (-a certain day ol a <<
Сейчас час/два часа. Приду в час/в два часа.
It’s one/two o’clock. month).
I'll be at one/two o’clock.
3) to indicate year:
Сейчас без десятй три. Приду без десятй три.
It is ten to three now. Наступйл две тысячи восьмой год.
I ’ll come at ten to three. Nom.
2008 came.
Most time phrases have the preposition в with a numeral in Acc., but: в половине Онй жйли в Москве до две тысячи восьмого года.
второго (Prep.). Gen. They had been living in Moscow till 2008.
In formal speech, an hour comes before minutes.
План был выполнен к две тысячи восьмому году.
Сейчас два часа две минуты. It is two past two. Dat. The plan was fulfilled by 2008.
Сейчас шесть часов двадцать It is twenty five past six.
Вот отчёт за две тысячи восьмой год.
пять минут. Acc. Here you have a report on 2008.
In colloquial speech, minutes are often placed before hour. The latter is expressed
Мы поздравили её с две тысячи восьмы м годом.
by an ordinal numeral if it’s the first half of an hour: Instr. We congratulated her on New Year 2008.
Сейчас пять минут третьего. It is five past two.
Сейчас пятнадцать минут/чётверть I t’s quarter past four. Он родйлся в две тысячи восьмом году.
Prep.
пятого. Не was bom in 2008.

Сейчас половйна первого. It is half past twelve. In year phrases, an ordinal numeral agrees with the noun год.
I lie collective numerals б б а/б б е in Nom. require nouns in Gen. sing.:
of the Fractional Numerals
бба брата both brothers
ббе сестры both sisters
а пятая 2/5 две пятых I'lie words много many/much, немного few, сколько how many/how much,
пятой двух пятых нёсколько few, столько so many/so much follow the declension pattern
П Я ТО Й двум пятым nl collective numerals.

пятую две пятых Nom. скблько/мнбго студёнтов how many/many students


пятой двумя пятыми ( Jen. скбльк-их/мнбг-их студёнтов
пятой (о) двух пятых скольк-им/мнбг-им студёнтам
I)at.
merals always take the form of Gen. sing.: одна пятая Лее. inanimate = Nom., animate = Gen.
Instr. скбльк-ими/мнбг-ими студёнтами
Prep. (о) скбльк-их/мнбг-их студёнтах

The collective numerals can combine with the following nouns:


peclension and Usage
• with masc. nouns (трое мальчиков three boys) and baby animals (двое
0f Collective Numerals цыплят two chickens). Cardinal numerals can agree with these nouns:
двое братьев, два брата two brothers
, 0epo учеников, оба у ч ен и й (mase.), обе ученицы пятеро студентов, пять студентов five students
flBÓ0)'% /í<0/ b°th PUpÍlS • with pi. nouns (двое ножниц two pairs o f scissors, трое очков three pairs
,т8ер-ь1х/обо-их учеников, обё-их ученйц o f glasses).
When we speak about 2, 3 or 4 objects, we always use collective numerals: двое
Яц^вер-ым/обб-им ученикём, обё-им ученйцам
ворот two gatesKтрое суток three days, чётверо санок four sleighs. If there
верь1х/об 0-их учеников, обё-их ученйц is more than 4 objects, two options are possible: пятеро суток and пять суток
/<гвер-ыми/обб-ими ученикёми, обё-ими five days.
• with the nouns люди, лйца and other nouns denoting a group of persons:
трое людёи three persons
й#) четверь 1х/(об) обо-их учениках, (об) обё-их
пятеро неизвёстных лиц five unidentified men
у.|#нй«а!< сёмеро отдыхающих seven vacationers
r,|sдвое, трое decline like soft-stem adjectives in pi.; other • with personal pronouns:
follr.il'1 jsjcclinelike pi. adjectives with a hard stem (except Nom.). Их бы ло трое. There were three o f them.
. ' ’ ■< И'4 11111111 lumbers два, три, четыре, collective numerals in Nom. Остались мы двое. Only two o f us remained.
>K | . .jiliii'1
l , l' Hu Jflea студёнта двое студёнтов two students. • with a pair objects:
with nouns: двое рук two arms
We were speaking about two pupils. трое лыж three pairs o f ski
, ......... чётверо сапог four pairs o f boots
........ .. ^ученикам. We approached two pupils.
N ( oiled ive numerals are normally used in Nom. and Acc. and are replaced by i
U cardinal numerals in all other cases:
М На столе лежит двое очков. There’re two pairs o f glasses
Е on the table.
R У меня нет двух очков. I don’t have two pairs o f glasses.
А By contrast to cardinal numerals, collective ones do not form compound
L correlative pairs.
To indicate the amount of things expressed by pi. nouns, compound cardinal
numerals with the words штука thing, or пара pair are used:
две пары брюк two pairs o f pants VERB

128
v •ihie to, лечь to lie down). Infinitive suffixes can also have the particle -ся ( сь)
VERB
E мс гречать - встречаться to meet. Such verbs are called reflexive.
In dictionaries all verbs are given in the infinitive form.
R The verb is one of the most complicated and most essential parts of speech
В in the Russian language. Approximately twenty percent of all words existing
in the Russian language are verbs. No other part of speech possesses such
a diverse system of tenses, moods, aspects, persons and voices. As grammati­
Two Verbal Stems
cal category, the verb includes words that denote action or process (mental,
All grammatical verbal forms are formed from two verbal stems - the infinil ive
physical, etc.)
'ilcin and the present tense stem.
Russian verbs have the following grammatical categories:
1. tense: Present, Past and Future (Simple and Complex);
Infinitive Stem
2. mood: Indicative, Subjunctive and Imperative;
3. aspect: imperfective versus perfective; I lie infinitive stem is part of a verb without the infinitive suffix:
4. person and number (only in the Present and Future tenses in the Indicative встретить - встрети- to meet
and Imperative mood); мочь - mo- to be able to
5. gender (only in the past forms and in Subjunctive mood); нестй - нес- to carry
6. voice: active versus passive.
I Usually the infinitive stem ends in a vowel and in most cases coincides wil li pas!
The Russian verb also has non-conjugated forms - infinitive, participle and verbal
tense stem: писа-ть to write - п и сал , решй-ть to decide - решй л. but i lie.
adverb. The forms of mood, tense and person belong to conjugated forms.
coincidence does not take place in all verbs: вя н у ть fade вя л, терё ть
In sentences verbs play their main syntactic role, i.e. they are predicates: lo rub - тёр.
Дети играют в парке. Children play in the park. The infinitive stem forms:
Завтра мы поедем на экскурсию. We are going on an excursion I) Past tense: написа ть to write - написа л, принес-тй to bring принёс
tomorrow. .’) Subjunctive mood: написа ть - написа л бы, принес-тй принёс бы.
I) past participle: написа ть - написа вший, принес тй принёс шии,
Вчера мы были в Большом We were in the Bolshoi theatre
4) perfective verbal adverbs: н ап и сать - написав.
театре. yesterday.

Present Tense Stem


Infinitive.
I he present tense stem (or simple future tense) is part of a verb willmii!
Indefinite Form of the Verb Ilie 3rd person pi. ending: онй работа-ют they work, онй вйд-ят they sec
I he present tense stem may coincide with the infinitive stem (нес-тй to cany
The Infinitive is the initial form of verbs, which names (defines) action irrela­ несут), but in most cases they do not coincide (писа-ть to write пйш ут)
tively to person, number, tense and mood: работать to work, рассказы вать The present tense stem forms:
to tell, мечтать to dream. Verbs in the Infinitive answer the questions что 1) all personal forms of the Indicative mood;
д ел ать? что сд елать? and are formed with the help of suffixes -ти (нестй 2) all personal forms of the Imperative mood: чита ют they read читА и
130 to carry, идти to go), -ть (слушать to listen, видеть to see), -чь (мочь to be читайте.
V 3) present participle: читё-ют - чита ющий, чита емый; In i wren present tense stem and infinitive stem. Such classes can be productive V
E 4) imperfective verbal adverb: 4HTâ-»OT - чита я mi non-productive. E
R R
В В
Productive Classes of Verbs
Two Verbal Conjugations
I'mductive classes include verbs whose type of correlation between two
By conjugation we mean changing of the verbs’ endings for person and number. Ui•ms is typical for grammatical personal forms of majority of modern
There are two types of conjugation in Russian. Personal forms of the Present Russian verbs as well as of the newly appearing verbs. There exist 5 produc-
and the Future Simple tenses are formed by adding endings of the 1st and the 2nd i ivr classes.
conjugations to the stem.
The 1st Productive Class
Personal endings
Includes verbs with infinitive stem in -а(ть) and present tense stem in -aj-:
Person 1st conjugation 2ndconjugation
читё-ть to r e a d чита ют (чита]-ут)
singular plural singular plural мечта ть to d r e a m мечта ют (мечта) ут)

I hc l sl class comprises verbs of the 1st conjugation ending in -ать (-ять), all
1 У (-Ю) -ем (ём ) -у (ю ) -им
verbs with the suffixes -ива- ( ыва ), -ва-, -нича- (-ича-). All these verbs are
2 -ешь (ёш ь) -ете ( ёте) -ишь -ите characterized by stable accent on stem.

3 -ет (ёт) -ут ( ют) -ИТ -ат ( ят) The 2nd Productive Class
Remarks: Includes verbs with infinitive stem ending in -e(Tb) and present tense stem
1. In the 2nd person sing, the soft sign (ь) is always comes after -ш: живёшь y o u ending in -ej:
liv e , работаешь y o u w ork, строишь y o u b u ild .
npacHé-Tb to b lu sh краснё-ют (KpacHej-ут)
2. In verbal stems the alternation of final stem consonants and vowels can take
6oné-Tb to b e s ic k болё-ют (6onej-yT)
place in the root of conjugated verbs:
unaflé-Tb to o w n , to p o s s e s s владё-ют (владе)ут)
писать to w r ite пишу
бить to b e a t бью The 2nd class comprises all verbs of the 1st conjugation ending in -еть. In these
This phenomenon sometimes occurs in all persons of sing, and pi. and sometimes verbs -e is always accented.
not in all of them.
The 3rd Productive Class

Iunbraces verbs with infinitive stem ending in -OBa(Tb) or -eBa(Tb) and present
Classes of Verbs
tense stem ending in -yj:
Depending on intercorrelation between infinitive and present tense stems, рисовё-ть to d r a w pncÿ-ют (pncyj-ут)
the different classes (groups) of verbs can be put into prominence. The class танцевё-ть to d a n c e танцу ют (TaHMyj-ут)
132 of verbs is a group of words that have one and the same type of relations трёбова-ть to d e m a n d трёбу-ют (Tpeöyj-ут) 133
V The 3rd class comprises verbs of the 1st conjugation with the infinitive stem Non-productive Classes of Verbs V
Е ending in -ова- ( ева-, -прова-, -ствова-, -фицирова ) E
R Verbs of this class have accented stems if the stress falls on the infinitive stem R
lin Iiid«' a relatively small group of about 400 verbs. Here the nature of intercor-
В (трёбовать to demand - трёбую, совётовать to advise - совётую), the у В
Mfil hin between the present tense stem and infinitive stem is not typical for the
vowel is accented if the stress falls on a in the Infinitive (рисовать to draw .... Ir rn system of formation of grammatical personal forms.
рисую, танцевать to dance - танцую). I lu I' group - verbs with infinitive stem ending in -aTb/-n(Tb) and the present
ii'ii'.e stem:
The 4th Productive Class i ) luving no vowel (alternation of ending vowels in all personal forms, or run-
Ming stem vowels):
Puts together verbs with infinitive stem ending in -ну(ть) and present (future) При ть to take бер ут
tense stem ending in - h : ждя ть to wait жд ут
•ид ть to call зов ут
стукну-ть to bang стукн ут нпчё ть to begin начн ут
крикну ть to shout крйкн-ут ионй ть to understand пой м ут
отдохну ть to have a rest отдохн-ÿT принять to get, to accept прйм-ут
i Ли ть to melt та-ют
The majority of these verbs belongs to the 1st conjugation and they have accented
мби ть to blow вё-ют
stems if the stress falls on the stem (крикнуть to shout - крикну, прыгнуть смея ться to laugh сме ются
tojump - прыгну), or accented endings if the у vowel is stressed in the Infinitive i) ending in a consonant (alternation of consonants in all personal forms):
(отдохнуть to have rest - отдохну). писё-ть to write пйш-ут (chu)
плёка-ть to cry плёч-ут (к/ч)
The 5th Productive Class сказё-ть to say скёж-ут (з/ж)
рёза-ть to cut рёж-ут (з/ж)
Includes verbs with the Infinitive ending stem in -n(Tb) and present tense stem г ) ending in a consonant:
ending in a soft consonant or hushing sound: дышё-ть to breathe ды ш ат
гна ть to hurry, to urge го н ят
говори ть to speak го в о р я т молч-ёт
молчё-ть to be silent
любй-ть to like лю бят стучё-ть to knock стуч-ёт
дарй-ть to make a gift дар ят this group comprises the following verbs: звучёть to sound, лежёть to lie,
сушй-ть to dry суш ат визжёть to screech, ворчёть to grumble, дребезж ёть to rattle, дрожёть
lo tremble, жужжёть to buzz, журчёть to ripple, кричёть to cry, пищёть
The verbs of the 5th class belong to the 2ndconjugation. In verbs with the accented
to squeak, рычёть to growl, торчёть to stick out, трещ ёть to crack, шуршёть
-u in the infinitive stem (любйть to love, to like, просйть to ask), the stress in
Iо rustle, стоять to stand, бояться to be afraid.
the Present tense falls on the ending in the 1st person sing, (люблю, прошу) and Special cases: гнать to urge - гонят - гоню; сп ать to sleep - спят
134 on the stem vowel in all the other persons (любишь, просишь). сплю . 135
The 2nd group - verbs with infinitive stem in -е(ть) and present tense stem: h) do not coincide: V
V
op«c тй to s tr o ll, to lo a f бред-ÿT E
Е a) ending in a consonant: pec тй to g r o w раст-ут R
R блесте ть to s h in e блест ят I lir, group comprises the verbs вестй to le a d , сесть to s i t d o w n , местй t o s w e e p , В
В смотре ть to lo o k смотр ят hi b ro o m , изобрестй to in v e n t, цвестй t o f lo u r is h , класть t o p u t , упасть

This group comprises the following verbs: звенеть to r in g , кишеть lu f a ll d o w n .

to th r o n g , велеть to o r d e r , греметь to th u n d e r , скорбеть to m o u rn , скрипеть I hr (5lh group - verbs with the infinitive stem ending in -и(ть), -ы(ть) and the
to c r e a k , шипеть to h iss, шуметь to m a k e n o ise , вертеть t o tw ir l, пыхтеть pirsrnt tense stem ending in:
to p u f f , свистеть t o w h is tle , вйдеть to se e, обйдеть to o f f e n d , сидеть to sit, и) ej:
ненавйдеть to h a te , висеть to h a n g , завйсеть to d e p e n d .
При ть to s h a v e брё ют (бредут)
h) в:
b) ending in -oj:
жи ть to liv e жив ут
пе ть t o s in g по ют (noj-ут)
ппы-ть to s w im плыв ут
The 3rd group - verbs with infinitive stem ending in -ну(ть) and present tense (’) Oj:
stem ending in - h (these verbs drop -ну- in the past tense stem): мы ть to w a s h мо ют (Moj ут)
завяну ть to f a d e завян ут - завял
il) j (-ь in writing):
крепну ть to b e c o m e s tr o n g e r крёпн-ут - креп
пи ть to d r in k пь ют (nj-ут)
This group includes approximately 50 verbs with the common meaning of Ои ть to b e a t бь ют (6j ут)
“gradually acquiring certain characteristics”: мокнуть t o g e t w e t, меркнуть I lie 7lh group - verbs with the infinitive stem ending in -о(ть) and the present
to g r o w d im , исчезнуть to d is a p p e a r , достйгнуть to re a c h , вздохнуть to sig h , Iriisr stem ending in soft a consonant:
гаснуть to d i e o u t, сохнуть to d r y , пронйкнуть to g e t in , t o p e n e t r a te . колб ть to s p lit, t o c l e a v e кол-ют
борб-ться t o f i g h t , to s tr u g g le ббр-ются
The 4th group - verbs with infinitive stem ending in -чь and present tense stem
ending in -г/-ж or -к/-ч: I lie 8lh group - verbs with the infinitive stem ending in -у(ть) and the present
мо чь t o b e a b le мог у, мож ешь, мог ут Iruse stem ending in -yj:
пе чь to b a k e пек у, печ ёшь, пек ут ду ть to b lo w ду ют (flyj ут)
обу ть to p u t s h o e s o n обу ют (o6yj-yT)
This group comprises such verbs as: влечь to a ttr a c t, сечь to f l o g , w h ip , течь
I he 9th group - verbs with the infinitive stem ending in -ва(ть) and the present
to le a k , обречь to c o n d e m n , стеречь to w a tc h , стричь to c u t, жечь to b u m ,
I ruse stem ending in -j:
беречь to ta k e c a r e , t o g u a r d .
п п в й п ь to g iv e да ют (flaj-ут)
The 5th group - verbs ending in -сти (-сть), -зти (-зть) whose infinitive and мстава ть to r is e вста ют (BCTaj-ут)
present tense stems: I his group comprises verbs ending in -давать, -знавать, -ставать.
a) coincide: I hr 10th group - verbs with the infinitive stem ending in -е(ть), -а/-я(ть) and
нес-тй to c a r r y нес ут present tense stem ending in -H :
вез-тй to c a r ry , to c o n v e y вез-ут до ть to p u t , t o p l a c e дён-ут
ста ть to b e c o m e стан ут
This group comprises the verbs грызть to g n a w , to c r a c k , трястй to s h a k e , полз
I his group has all the verbs ending in -стать and -стрять. 137
136 тй t o c r a w l, пастй to g r a z e , to p a s tu r e , лезть to c lim b .
V Category of Person Peculiarities of Usage V
E of Verbal Personal Forms E
R The category of person describes the relationship between the action and the R
В In speech the forms of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd persons sing, and pi. acquire various В
speaker. If the speaker himself is the action’s subject, then the verb takes the
1st and person sing, or pi.: additional shades of meaning.
I ) I he form of the 1st person sing, can express generalized meaning of the subject
Я пишу, читаю. I write and read.
и! speech. This meaning is clearly manifested in proverbs and sayings:
Завтра мы поедем в Москву. Tomorrow we are going to Moscow.
Что хочу, то и ворочу. I do what I want without asking
If the action is being committed not by the speaker but his interlocutor, the verb
anybody.
takes the 2nd person sing, or pi.:
I'he form of the 1st person pi. can also acquire generalized meaning denoting
Ты хорошо поёшь. You sing well.
in l ion addressed to several persons:
Вы хорошо написали You wrote the test very well.
Что имеем - не хранйм, We don’t care about what we have
контрольную работу.
потерявши - плачем. and only when we lose it we cry.
The 3rd person sing, or pi. expresses actions committed by people or objects not
) 'I'he form of the 2nd person sing, (ты) can have generalized meaning addressed
directly involved in the conversation:
In any person:
Он отлично говорйт по-русски. He speaks Russian very well.
Онй приехали из Америки. They came from America. Что посеешь, то пожнёшь. You crop what you seed.
Поспешйшь - людей I f you hurry, people laugh at you.
насмешйшь.

Peculiarities of Formation I) The form of the 3rd person pi. (они) can have indefinite meaning expressing
of Personal Forms in Some Verbs ni l ion’s attribution to unspecified person(s):
Здесь продают билеты Here they sell tickets to the concert.
Some non-productive verbs influenced by productive ones have two different на концерт.
ways of forming the Present and Simple Future tenses - the non-productive and Здесь не курят. No smoking here.
productive types of formation. For example, the 1st productive class subordinates
many non-productive verbs ending in -ать: брызгать to splash - брызжут/
брызгают, махать to wave - машут/махают, капать to drip - каплют/ Impersonal Verbs
капают. Such forms may differ either lexically (капает and каплет) or stylisti­ and Their Syntactic Usage
cally (указывать - указывает (neutral) and указует (bookish) to point at).
lly impersonal verbs we mean the verbs expressing actions or states that occure
Not all verbs have a complete system of personal forms. Such verbs are called
by themselves, independently, without involvement of the acting person. Such
insufficient - eg., зйждиться to be based on, очутйться to find oneself,
verbs do not have the category of person and do not have the subject. They can
убедйть to convince, победйть to win, ощутйть to sense, to feel and some
be used in the Present or the Future tense only in the 3rd person sing, and in Past
others. They are not used in the 1st person sing, or the Present and Simple Future
tenses due to pronunciation difficulties. In case it is necessary to use the 1st person tense only in neuter gender:
of an insufficient verbs, analytical word-combinations are used (the insufficient i oMHeeT - TeMHeno it is getting dark - it was getting
verb takes infinitive form): хочу/могу/надёюсь победйть/ощутйть, etc. dark
138 I want/can/hope to win/to feel. м орозит - м орозил о it is freezing - it was freezing 139
Impersonal verbs are subdivided into two groups: Verbal Aspect
1) verbs that are always used only in the 3rd person sing, or in neut. forms of the
Past tense. Such verbs mainly express physical or psychic state of a person or All Russian verbs in any verbal form have aspect. There arc two aspects in
natural phenomena: Russian: imperfective and perfective.
темнеть to get dark темнеет - темнело The imperfective verbs have three tenses: the Present tense, the Past tense and
вечереть to grow dark вечереет - вечерело the Compound Future tense. The last one consists of the auxiliary verb быть in
морозить to freeze морозит - морозило personal forms and the perfective infinitive:
рассветать to dawn рассветает - рассвело Я буду читать. I will read.
нездоровиться to feel sick нездоровится - Ты будешь читать. You will read.
нездоровилось
The perfective verbs have only two tenses: the Past tense and the Simple Flit lire
не спаться not to feel like sleeping не спйтся - не спалось
tense (having personal endings of the Present tense: читаю —прочитаю / will
знобйть to feel chilly знобйт - знобйло
read, пишу - напишу l will write).
2) verbs that can be used either in impersonal or personal meaning. The aspectual forms affect formation of participles, verbal adverbs, voice,
Imperative mood, peculiarities of tense forms, mood and infinitive. They also play
Personal meanings Impersonal meanings
significant role in syntactic verbal correlation and textual composition.
Ветер дует. Здесь дует.
The wind is blowing. There is a draught here.
Воздух потеплел. Сегодня потеплело. General Meanings of Aspects
The air became warmer. It is getting warmer today.
Хлеб вкусно пахнет. Здесь вкусно пахнет. The category of verbal aspects characterizes action from the point of view ol ils
Bread smells nice. It smells nice here. evolution in time irrespective of the moment of speech. The action can be long 01
short, solitary or repeated, finished or unfinished. In grammar such meanings arc
Impersonal verbs cannot be used with nominative case (Norn.) expressing action’s
called aspectual and they make it possible to subdivide all Russian verbs into Iwo
maker; syntactically they are used:
big groups - perfective/imperfective verbs.
a) with dative case (Dat.) expressing person:
The perfective verbs show limit, end, wholeness of the action.
Мне не спйтся. I do not feel like sleeping. For example, in the sentence:
Ему не хочется есть. He doesn't want to eat.
Вчера вечером я написал Yesterday I wrote a letter to my
b) with accusative case (Асе.) expressing person:
письмо своему другу. friend.
Его знобйт. He is chilly.
the perfective aspect shows that the action “writing a letter” passed its beginning,
с) with instrumental case (Instr.) expressing action’s producer:
medium and reached the final phase.
Дорогу занесло снёгом. The road is covered with snow. In the sentence:
d) without nouns or with adverbial modifiers of place and time: Студенты запели песню. Students began singing a song.
Ужё рассвело. It is already light. the perfective, aspect indicates continuation of the action after its beginning
На улице морозит. It is freezing outside. The meaning of wholeness expressed by the perfective verbs makes impos
В 5 часов темнёет. It is getting dark at 5 p.m. sible their combination with phase verbs expressing beginning, continual ion 01
end of the action (начать, стать to begin, кончить to finish, продолжи м. b) m any past moment (for the past tense forms): V
to continue), or regular habit, rule (привык читать в постели he is used to rrml Что ты делал вчера? - Я сдавал What were you doing yesterday? - E
in bed), or repetition (регулярно regularly, систематически systematically, •к (Лмен, но не сдал его. I was taking exam but I didn 'tpass it. R
постоянно constantly) + only imperfective verbs. Он* до лго вспоминала эту She has been trying to recall that В
But the perfective verbs go together with adverbs expressing simultaneity, whole истбрию. story.
ness, finished character of action (сразу at once, вдруг suddenly, целикбм
') Imperfective aspect is also used to denote:
to the whole extent) + only perfective verbs.
.i) endless repetition, regularity:
The imperfective verbs show that the action has not reached its limits or is sub­
stantially endless in its implementation. Thus, Кйждый день я хожу в школу. Igo to school every day.
Моя мать работает в библиотеке. Му mother works in the library.
Вчера вечером я читал кнйгу. Yesterday I was reading a book. Мбсле школы я буду учйться After leaving school I will
shows unfinished action and и университете. study at the university.
Он каждый день ходит He goes to the library every day. It) constant duration of action (limitless prolonged meaning):
в библиотеку.
Земля вращается вокруг Солнца. The Earth rotates around the Sun.
shows regular action. РАньше я жил в другом городе. I used to live in the other city before.
On the other hand, the imperfective verbs can also denote action only as a fact
( ) constant ability to do a certain action:
(without indicating its entity, wholeness):
Моя сестра говорйт My sister speaks English.
Ты смотрел этот ф и льм ? - Have you watched this movie? -
по англййски.
Да, смотрел. Yes, I have.
Я умею играть в теннис. I know how to play tennis.
Ты бы л когда-нибудь Have you ever been to
Птйцы летают, а ры бы плавают. Birds fly and fish swim.
в Петербурге? - Нет, не был. St. Petersburg? -No, I haven't.
.'(. Imperfective aspect is used to denote the fact of action in the past or future
without indication of certain aspectual character or time:
a) action as a whole (meaning of a general fact):
Particular Meanings of Aspects
Ты читал этот роман? — Have you read this novel? -
Particular meanings of aspects are variants of general aspectual meanings Да, читал./Нет, не читал. Yes, I have./No, I haven't.
represented in certain concrete speech situations. Саша сдавал экзамен? - Has Sasha taken an exam? -
Да, сдавал и получйл «пять». Yes, he has and got “A”for it.
Particular Meanings of Imperfective Verbs b) to clarify the details of action as a fact (person, place, time, etc.) that has
already taken place or is being expected:
1. Expression of action in its duration (process):
a) at the moment of speech (for the present tense forms): Кто покупал эти кнйги? Who bought these books?
(the books are already bought)
Что ты д елаеш ь? - Я слушаю What are you doing now? - I am
музыку. listening to the music. c) with complete (categorical) negation of action:
Что он д елает? - Он пйшет What is he doing? - He is writing Он д о лго не звонйл мне. Не hasn't been calling me since long
упражнение. an exercise. time.
143
V 4. Imperfective aspect is used to denote: i мини сильно разболелась I've got a terrible headache. V
Е a) simultaneity of actions: I h iio h A. E
R Она сидёла и смотрёла телевизор. She was sitting and watching TV. I I In- Perfective aspect is used to show the absence of the action’s result: R
В Он ни решил эту задачу. Не didn't solve this task. В
b) action one of the moments of which is expressed by means of the Perfect ivi*
aspect: IlliHnpli ilie action took place)
i in но решит эту задачу. He will not solve this task.
Я сидёл за столом, когда кто-то I was sitting at the table when
( 11....gh Ihe action will take place)
постучал в дверь. somebody knocked at the door.
I I lie I’erfective aspect is used in stories to show sequence of actions:
И подошёл к нему и спросйл I came up to him and asked the way.
Particular Meanings
дорйгу.
of Perfective Aspect
( »и норнулся, раздёлся и лёг Не came back, took o ff his clothes
1. The Perfective aspect is used to denote full completeness of a certain action н и ть. and went to bed.
that reached its result, its final phase (resultative meaning):
В нашем городе построили They built a new stadium in our city.
Uniaspectuai and Biaspectual Verbs
новый стадион.
(the stadium is completely built) Мину Russian verbs do not have aspectual pairs and are only used either in
Я изучил русский язык. I learnt the Russian language. Pei icetive or Imperfective aspect. Such verbs are called uniaspectuai.
(I grasped this language completely, all its nuances) I Mi Ilie other hand, there exist biaspectual verbs; their aspects are differentiated
Завтра я напишу письмо своему I will write a letter to my brother mil formally but in the context, i.e. one verb can be used in both aspects.
брату. tomorrow. I Kiialty the verbs denoting resultative actions form aspectual pairs:
(I will start and finish my letter tomorrow) • i рёить дом - построить дом to build a house
2. The Perfective aspect is used to express full completeness of action within i отбвить обёд - приготовить to cook dinner
certain temporal framework (limiting meaning): иОёд
a) when the action reached the border of either beginning or end: 'н и 11 verbs are called paired.
Он начал/кончил читать кнйгу. He began/finished reading the book.
Почему вы засм еялись? Why did you start laughing? Imperfective Verbs
b) when the action reached its qualitative-temporal limit (short-time, momentary, with No Perfective Counterparts
long):
II ,m imperfective verb indicates an action not oriented at gaining the result, it
Онй погуляли полчаса, а потом They had been walking for half an
does not have perfective partner with the same lexical meaning. Usually such
легл й спать. hour and then went to bed.
verbs show a person’s position or state of affairs.
Пусть он отдохнёт немного. Let him relax a bit.
I Ihis group includes the following verbs:
c) when the action reached the limits of excessiveness or intensity: ii) ending i n -овать:
Я замечтался и не замётил его 1 completely fell to thinking and did участвовать to take part
144 прихода. not notice when he came. присутствовать to attend, to be present 145
V вл аствовать to rule ■.i lire for a short period o f time, посидеть to sit a bit, полежать to lay a bit,
Е приветствовать to salute почитать to read a bit).
R b) ending in -ничать:
В вольничать to take liberties Biaspectual Verbs
б ездельничать to idle, to loaf
важничать to put on airs lluspectual verbs can have meanings of imperfective and perfective aspects.
великодуш ничать to be generous I'licse are:
i) some non-prefixed verbs ending in -upoBaTb, -M3i/ipoBaTb, -ct>minipoBaTb:
с) ending in -ать:
ionerpac|}iipoBaTb to wire, to cable
содерж ать to keep
об л ад ать tone4>OHM3iipoBaTb to install telephone
to possess
отрицать MoxaHM3iipoBaTb to mechanize
to negate
наблю дать It) some non-prefixed verbs ending in -OBaTb:
to observe
разговаривать <:гартовать to start
to talk
состоять арестовать to arrest
to consist o f
отсутствовать даровать to grant
to be absent
образовать to make, to form
2. The unpaired prefixed imperfective verbs are belong the verbs formed by организовать to organize
means of prefix no- and suffix -ива- (-ыва-) - they do not have perfective coun­ г) some prefixed verbs ending in -овать:
terparts correlative in meaning:
исследовать to investigate
побаливать to ache a little
заимствовать to borrow
посматривать to look slightly
использовать to use.
покачивать to rock a little
In addition to this the following verbs are also considered to be biaspectual:
подум ы вать to think a little
женйть(ся) to marry
покаш ливать to have a slight cough
казнйть to execute
ранить to wound
Perfective Verbs нинйть to blame
with No Imperfective Counterparts венчать to marry (smb)
I'liey are getting one of the aspectual meanings depending on the context.
If perfective verbs express the time limit of action or sudden actions with
unexpected quick results, then the verbs are used only in the perfective form.
These are verbs with prefixes за-, воз- (вз-), no- expressing the beginning
Formation of Aspectual Pairs
of action (засм еяться to burst into laughter, вскрикнуть to start crying,
побежать to begin running, полететь to start flying) and also verbs with Formation of Aspectual Pairs by Means of Prefixes
prefixes от-, пере-, из- meaning termination of action (отслужить to retire,
перестараться to overdo, to try too hard, измучиться to be exhausted). Prefix is one of the most productive means of forming aspectual pairs: perfective
This group inludes perfective verbs with prefix no- denofing action limited in its verbs identical in lexical meaning to their imperfective counterparts are formed
146 development (побегать to run a little bit, посм еяться to laugh a bit, пожить with the help of prefixes. Such prefixes (that do not change lexical meaning but
V only aspect) are called aspectual. On the other hand, the so-called lexical prefixes
nepe- ночевать переночевать to spend the night
Е either change the verb’s meaning or give it certain additional shades of meaning.
R In this case these pairs are not considered aspectual, here aspectual counterparts мешать перемешать to mix
В are formed only by means of suffixes.
Aspectual pairs are formed with the following prefixes: o (об ) беднеть обеднеть to become poor

публиковать опубликовать to publish

глохнуть оглохнуть to grow (become)


deaf

вы- учить выучить to learn

пить выпить to drink

Formation of Aspectual Pairs


by Means of Suffixes

Aspectual pairs are formed with the help of the following imperfective suffixes:
ива- (-ыва-) (the most productive), -ва- (less productive) and -a- (always
siressed). The suffixes -ива- (-ыва-), -ва- are added to create imperfective
forms from perfective prefixed verbs and -a— from perfective prefixed and non-
prefixed verbs.
I. The suffixes -ива- (-ыва-), -ва- create the imperfective aspect of the
following prefixed perfective verbs:

Perfective Imperfective Translation

выдумать вы дум ы вать to make up

рассказать рассказы вать to tell

переписать переписывать to rewrite

дочитать дочитывать to read to the end

148 149
V \\ и !i ilii i n.Hmu ul root vowels o/a: | In .iillix a- forms the imperfective aspect of the following prefixed
e Perfective
li 11 he verbs:
к Imperfective Translation
в уговорить уговаривать to convince
Imperfective Translation

спасать to save
достроить достраивать to build up

успокоить iyib засы пать to fall asleep


успокаивать to calm down

опоздать опазды вать 1М»|пнуть замерзать to freeze


to be late

осмотреть осматривать »«« охнуть засы хать to dry up


to look attentively

In many cases, the о/a alternation is an additional means of imperfectivenesi Mimv verbs of this group have root alternation:
versus perfectiveness differentiation.
The suffix -ива- ( ы ва ) denotes repetition or longer duration of action.
2. The suffix -ва- forms the imperfective aspect of the following prefixed помочь помогать to help
perfective verbs:
ш олёчь отвлекать to distract
Perfective Imperfective Translation
начать начинать to begin
одеть одевать to put on clothes ,
' понять понимать to understand
забы ть забы вать to forget
стереть стирать to erase
разбить разбивать to break
собрать собирать to collect
узнать узнавать to recognize
Ihere is a large group of lexically correlative aspectual pairs with the suffix -n(Tb)
продать продавать to sell for perfective verbs and with the suffix -a(Tb) for imperfective verbs:

заболеть заболевать to fall ill


Perfective Imperfective Translation
встать вставать to stand up
изучить изучать to learn, to study
прибыть прибывать to arrive
объяснить объяснять to explain
смыть см ы вать to wash
проверить проверять to check
Most frequently the -B a- suffix also points to the action’s repetition or dura­
решить решать to solve
tion.
150
V
E
R
В
кончить
Perfective Imperfective

кончать to finish
Translation
Aspectual Pairs Differing
in the Position of Stress

Some verbs make aspectual pairs simply by shifting the stress. Thus, щ |.t. и i
J
совершить соверш ать to perform, verbs with the roots-резать, -сыпать the verbs with the stressed-a- sullu m
to accomplish imperfective while those with the stressed root are perfective.
простить прощать to forgive
Perfective Imperfective Translation ^
отправить отправлять to send
нарёзать нарезёть
tn cut
tt/ 1cit
победить побеждать to win
разрезать разрезать
навестить навещать to visit насыпать насыпать
to pour in/into
объявить объявлять to declare отсыпать
отсыпать

In some cases aspectual pairs are formed by perfective verbs with the -Hy-
Aspectual pairs of verbs with the root - зна-ть (узнать —узнавать) to get to know,
suffix denoting momentary action and their imperfective counterparts with
the -a- suffix. to recognize differ in the position of stress in Present and Future Simple tenses.

Perfective Stress on the ending Stress on the root


Imperfective Translation
(Present Imperfective) (Future Perfective)
Person
стукнуть стучать ,о knock 1 pi.
sing. pi. sing.

капнуть капать to drip, to spill i узнаю узнаём узнаю узнаем

моргнуть моргать 2 узнаёшь узнаёте узнаешь узнаете


to blink

3 узнаёт узнают узнает узнают


сверкнуть сверкать to flash

крикнуть кричать to cry

стрельнуть стрелять to shoot Aspectual Pairs Formed


from Different Roots and Stems
Some linguists do not consider such pairs to be strict aspectual counterparts
because the perfective verb always has the additional meaning of momentary Aspectual pairs can be formed from two different (suppletive) verbal stems. In
action while the corresponding imperfective verb does not always acquire the this case imperfective and perfective correlative verbs present either completely
meaning of recurrence (for example, крикнуть - кричать). different or partly changed words.
152 153
Imperfective Perfective плыть плавать to swim
Translation
говорить сказать to speak нести носить to carry

брать взять to take нозтй возить to convey, to carry


ложиться лечь to lie down нести водить to lead, to guide, to drive
садиться сесть to sit down пезть лазить to climb
класть положить to put
1ащйть таскать to drag, to pull
становиться стать to become
гнать гонять to turn out
ловить поймать to catch
брести бродить to stroll
искать найти to look for - to find
ползти ползать to crawl
склады вать сложить to fold
возвращ ать катить катать to roll
вернуть to return
поворачивать повернуть to turn The 1st group expresses motion occuring once or many times in one direct inn
вешать повесить to hang These verbs are called unidirectional:
Дёти бегут на стадион. Kids are running to the stadium.
покупать купить to buy
Куда вы идёте? Where are you going?
кланяться поклониться to bow I lie 2ndgroup names motion occuring once or many times in two direct intis (lim e
and back), in many different directions or when direction is not indicated (when
motion is generallized).
Aspectual Pairs of Verbs of Motion
1) Direction “there and back”:
Pairs of Verbs o f M otion w ithout Prefixes Вчера я ходйл в библиотёку. Yesterday l went to the liliran/
В дётстве мы часто бёгали When we were k i d s w e o f t e n ra n
In Russian there are the following pairs of imperfective verbs of motion:
II кино. to the cinema.
The 1st group The 2"d group Translation 2) Different directions:
Они долго ходили по улице. They strolled along the street.
идти ходить to go, to walk Every day children run in the
Дёти каждый день бёгают
ёхать ездить to go by car, train, etc. но дворё. courtyard.

бежать бегать .4) Motion as acting ability:


to run
Птйцы летают. Birds fly.
лететь летать to fly
Он хорошо плавает. He is a good swimmer.
V Prefixed V erbs o f Motion
сойтись - сходиться дома
ti (I II ) ( + С Я ) to gather to one place
E and T h eir A sp ectu al Form s
from different places to gather at home
R
Unidirectional verbs take spatial prefixes and prefix no- detoning the action to go up to a certain дойти - доходйть до угла
В
beginning (идти - пойтй to start going, бежать - побежать to start runnin point to walk up to the comer
'
Unidirectional verbs with no- prefix are always perfective.
n ip * to cross, to go across перейтй - переходйть улицу
Unidirectional verbs with spatial prefixes may have imperfective forms.
to cross the street

to move from one place переехать - переезжать


Spatial Prefixes на другую квартйру
to another
w ith Verbs o f Motion to move to another apartment

Prefixes Prefixes meaning Examples to pass by пройтй - проходйть мймо


дома
.........
в- (bo ) enter/in ВОИТИ - входить в дом 1 to pass by the house
to come into the house
to pass through smth пройтй - проходйть через лес
ВЫ- exit/out выйти - выходить из дома to walk through the woods
to come out o f the house
to cover a certain пройтй - проходйть несколько
c- (со ) downward motion distance километров
съехать - съезж ать с горы
to cover several kilometers
to go down the hill
о (об-, обо ) to go around обойтй - обходйть вокруг
B3- (взо-)/вс- upward motion взойти - всходить на гору дома
to climb the hill to walk round the house
при- arrival at a particular прийтй - приходить в школу обойтй - обходйть магазйн
to pass around
place to come to school to by-pass the store

y- departure of the subject уйти - уходить из школы :ia to go behind зайтй - заходйть за дерево
from a place to go from (to leave) school to walk behind the tree

под- (подо ) motion toward a given подойти - подходить к доске to drop by ' зайтй - заходйть за другом
point to come up to the blackboard to drop by a friend's place

от- (ото ) motion from a certain отойти - отходить от доски на- to run over/into наехать - наезжать на стеклб
point to step away from the blackboard to тп over a piece o f glass

раз- (разо-)/ motion in different разойтись - расходиться по


рас-(+ся) домам Prefixed verbs made from 6 nonprefixed verbs (идтй to go, лететь to fly,
directions’from a given
place to go to everybody's homes нестй to carry, везтй to drive, вестй to lead, гнать to hunt) form imperfective
aspect from multidirectional verbs:
156 157
V
Perfective Imperfective Mpo long time-limited Он весь день проходйл по дому.
E motion Не wandered around the house all day
R ВОИТИ входить long.
В
ввести вводить pm (+ся) intensive motion Дети расш умелись в школе.
Kids made too much noise at school.
влететь влетать
и back and forth motion Он сходил в магазин за хлебом.
ввезти ввозйть to get smth Не went to the store to buy bread.

внести вносить

пригнать пригонять

Prefixed verbs from other nonprefixed verbs form perfective aspect with the help
of the suffixes -a- and -M Ba-/-biBa-:

Perfective Imperfective

вбежать вбегать (but: бегать)

влезть влезать (but: лазить)

въехать въезжать (but: ездить)

приплыть приплывать (but: плавать)

втащить втаскивать (but: таскать)

вкатить вкатывать (but: катать)

The following prefixed multidirectional verbs are uniaspectual perfective


verbs:

Prefixes Prefixes meaning Examples

за- beginning of action Он вдруг заходил по кбмнате.


Не suddenly started walking around the
room.

по- short limited motion Дети немного побегали дома.


Kids ran a bit around the house.
158 159
VERB
(continuation)
v I In Present tense can be used to express an action that will take place in the
E
VERB (continuation) Ihi me in case the speaker is sure that if will definitely happen. This usage is
R mu a ly typical for the unidirectional verbs of motion:
В
Category of Tense i иhi pa я еду домой. I go home tomorrow.
i 1Н11ДНЯ вечером мы идём We are going to the theatre tonight
The Russian verbs have three tense forms (the Present tense, the Past tense and и шётр.
the Future tense) typical only for the Indicative mood. The Conditional and
Imperative moods do not have tenses.
The Past Tense

The Present Tense I In Past tense is formed by adding the -л- suffix to the infinitive stem:

The Present tense is typical only for imperfective verbs and is formed by adding I фби ть to build строи л
personal verbal endings to the present tense stem of verb. Differences in endings 111дохну ть to have a rest отдохну-л
depend on the type of conjugation. чигё ть to read чита л
поди ть to walk ходй-л
The 1sl conjugation The 2nd conjugation I In lent, and neut. forms have additional gender endings -a, -o:
делать говорить
Person
sing. pi. sing. pi. mase. fem. neut.

1 дёлаю дёлаем говорю говорйм чигё л read читёл-а читёл-о

2 дёлаеш ь дёлаете говорйшь говорйте склзёл told сказёл-а сказёл о

3 дёлает дёлаю т говорйт говорят oí дохнул had a rest отдохнула отдохнул-о

The two main usages of the Present tense are: Present Actual and Present Non­ I lie pi. form has the -и ending for all genders:
actual. Мы/вы/онй отдохнул и/читали/ You/we/they had a rest/read 'tohl
The Present Actual denotes the action that is taking place right now in front сказали.
of our eyes:
1lie past tense forms have no personal endings - the meaning is conveyed by
Сейчёс он пишет статью. He is now writing an article.
Iи isonal pronouns and nouns express the persons’ meanings.
The Present Non-actual denotes the action that has taken place before and will
take place after the moment of speech. It may also express regular or repeated Person sing. pi.
actions:
1 пришёл, пришлё, пришло пришлй
Земля вращ ёется вокруг The Earth rotates around the Sun.
Солнца. i пришёл, пришлё, пришло пришлй
Каждое утро почтальон стучит Every day the postman knocks
:» пришёл, пришлё, пришло пришлй
в дверь. at the door. ': 1Ш
V The peculiarities of past tense forms of verbs ending in -сти (сть), -эти (-зть), ирикнуть to cry out крикнул
Е -чь, -ереть, -нуть are the following: прыгнуть to jump прыгнул
R 1. The past tense masc. forms of the verbs with the present tense stem ending h) I lie past tense forms of the verbs with the meaning of “gradually acquiring
В in consonants б, п, г, к, x, 3, c, p are made without suffix -Л-. nine features” (without suddenness) take no -ну- suffix and masc. sing, and no
ti after the root consonant.

Past tense forms


Present
Infinitive
tense stem Р1.
masc. neut. fein.
нестй to carry нес-ут нёс несло неслё
могёснуть to die out погёсн-ут погас погасло погасла погасли
везтй to drive везут вёз везло везлё
ывянуть to wilt за в я н у т завял завяло завяла завяли
лезть to climb лёз-ут лез лезло лёзла
ослёпнуть ослёпн-ут ослеп ослёпло ослёпла ослёпли
беречь to keep б ер егу т берёг берегло береглё In become blind
жечь to bum ж гут жёг жгло жгла остынуть to get cold о сты н у т остыл осты ло осты ла остыли

запереть to lock зап р у т запер заперло заперлё I Ins group includes the following prefixed verbs:
Notice: растй to р аст у т рос росло ноздвйгнуть to erect
рослё
grow иознйкнуть to emerge, to appear
проникнуть to penetrate
2. The past tense forms of verbs with present tense stem ending in consonants достйгнуть to reach
t , fl are made by adding the of - n - suffix added to the root vowel: to catch
шстйгнуть
исчезнуть to disappear
Present Past tense forms to reject
I1М
111I1I1111IL
1iIVC tense отвергнуть
stem masc. neut. fern. pi. снёргнуть to overthrow
отвыкнуть to lose the habit
вестй to drive вед ут вёл вело велё велй привыкнуть to get used
погаснуть to go out
плестй to plait п л ету т плёл плело плелё плелй
ослепнуть to get blind
упасть to fall упад ут упал упало упёла упёли воскреснуть to resurrect
оглохнуть to become deaf
Notice: идтй to go и д у т шёл шло шла шли
есть to eat е д я т ел скйснуть to turn sour
ело ёла ёли
вымокнуть to get wet
3. The past tense forms of the verbs in -HyTb: измёрзнуть to become frozen
a) The past tense forms denoting momentary, sudden or quick action are formed тмолкнуть to become silent
164 in accordance with the general rule by adding -n- to the infinitive stem: засохнуть to get dry, etc.
v The Future Tense 11 I hi IIt at ive mood,
E i liiipciutive mood,
R Imperfective verbs have compound future tense forms consisting of the auxiliai у l imiliiional mood.
В verb быть (here it loses its lexical meaning) in its personal forms and imperfec! ivn Vi iIn hi the Indicative mood that expresses real facts in the past, presence m
infinitive: Ini n t r i . h i be used in Past, Present or Future tenses:
читать to read, писать to write, слушать to listen ...........pk>/cnbiLuy/pa6oTaK> I speak/hear/work
.... I ( Kn3ana/cnbiujana/pa 66Tana she said/heard/worked
m |.ticcKa)Ky/ycnbiiijy 1 willtell/hear

Imperative Mood

I In Imperative mood expresses inducement to an action, request, order, command:

Принеси книгу! Bring the book!


( идите, пожалуйста! Have a seat please!
И1.1ЙДИ из комнаты! Get out o f the room!

2 npoHMTaeuub npounTaeTe
Form ation of Im perative Forms
3 nposMTaeT nposMTaioT
there are 6 Imperative forms in Russian.
The Future tense describes action that takes place after the moment of speech.
(нл)писать to write
Compound tense forms are used for prolonged, unfinished or repeated actions:
Лётом я буду читать новые I will be reading new books
книги и журналы. and magazines during summer. (на)пишй (на)пишйте
2"'1person
Simple future forms are used to describe repeated actions in the past or actions
that will be completed at a certain moment in the future: 3"1person пусть/пускёй (на)пйшет пусть/пускёй (на)пйшут

Иногда приду домой и сразу Sometimes I come home and Mutual action (давёй) напйшем/ (давёйте) напйшем/
сяду за книги. immediately start reading. давёй писёть напйшемте/давёйте
писёть

Remarks:
Category of Mood 1) The forms of the 2ndperson pi. and mutual action forms pi. can be used as polite
forms with reference to the 2nd person sing.
Expresses relationships between action and reality from the speaker’s point 2) Mutual action forms pi. express inducement that refers both to the 1st person
166 of view. There are three moods in Russian: (speaker) and the 2nd persons sing, or pi. (interlocutor or interlocutors).
Form ation of Im perative Forms Peculiarities of Form ation
of Imperative Mood
of the 2 nd Person Sing, and PI.
l Imperfective verbs with the -ва- suffix in the Infinitive keep this suffix in ! lie
The Imperative mood is formed from the present tense stem. Depending on 11
11111 и aitive mood: давать to give - давай, вставать togetup - вставай.
stem and tense, there can be three types of imperative forms:
I lie verbs пить to drink, вить to twist, to weave, лить to pour, бить to beat,
ш и п . to sew change the root vowel (-и is replaced with -e): пить - пей, шить -

ПЮ И.
Present tense Imperative
Infinitivo
lllllllltl V I II I lie present tense stem ends in the “consonant + combination the
h”
stem
sing. pi. Imperative form is always formed with -и ending: толкнуть to push - толкну -
читать to read шикни, достигнуть to reach - достигнут - достигни.
читё-ют читёй читайте
I The verbs with stressed вы- prefix take the -и ending in the Imperative:
говорить to speak го в о р я т говорй говорите ММЙТИ to come out - выйди, выучить to learn - выучи.
i I he imperative forms of the verb есть (едят) to eat are: ешь - ешьте.
готовить to prepare, го то вят готовь готовьте
to cook II The imperative forms of the verb лечь to lie down are: лечь - лягут - ляг —
пйгте.
Remarks: / The verb ехать to go makes the imperative form from a different stem:
1) Verbs with the present tense stem ending in a vowel make imperative forms моёхать - поезжай, уехать - уезжай, приехать - приезжай.
н Avoid forming imperative forms from non-prefixed verbs such as видеть
sing, with the help of the -Й suffix:
in see, гнить to rot, мочь to be able to, хотеть to want, слыш ать to hear. But:
завтракать to have breakfast завтрака-ть —завтракай но заболей, захоти, услышь, etc.
гулять to have a walk гуля-ть —гуляй

2) Verbs with the present tense stem ending in consonant and with the stressed Formation of Im perative Forms
ending in the 1st person sing, take the -и suffix in the Imperative: of the 3rd Person Sing, and PI.

рассказать to tell расскаж ут —расскажи The imperative forms of the 3rd person sing, and pi. are made with the help of par-
написать to write напйш-ут - напишй l ide пусть/пускай and the verb in the 3rd person sing, and pi. of Indicative mood.
In oficial speech the imperative forms of the 3rd person sing, and pi. are made with
3) Some verbs with the present tense stem ending in consonant and the stressed
(he help of particle да.
stem in the 1st person sing, have imperative forms that end in a soft consonant or
hushing sound (-b in writing):
Formation of Mutual Action Form s in Im perative
встать to get up встан у - встань
сесть to sit down сяд-у —сядь There are three types mutual action forms:
1. The form that coincides with the 1st person pi. of the Present or Future
PI. imperative forms are made with the help of postfix -те: tenses:
гулять to walk гуляй - гуляйте a) perfective verbs in the 1st person pi. Future tense:
рассказы вать to narrate расскажи - расскажите купим let’s buy
сыграем let’splay
вставать to get up встань - встаньте
b) imperfective unidirectional verbs in the 1st person pi. Present tense:
Wit bout negation:
идём let’s go
ii ) inducement to Imperfective Регулярно занимайтесь
бежйм let’s run спортом!
tegular, repeated
летим let’s fly net ion or simply action Try to work out regularly!
2. A combination of the particle давай with the mutual perfective form: in fact He забывайте, пишите, звоните!
давай пойдём let’s go Don't forget us, write and call!
давай споём let’s sing b) inducement to Imperfective Сидй и читай книгу!
simultaneous actions Sit and read your book!
3. A combination of the particle давай with imperfective infinitives (except
unidirectional verbs): i ) inducement to Perfective Вставьте карту и нажмйте
successive actions кнопку!
давай писать let’s write
Insert your card and press
давай ходйть let’s walk the button!
Mutual action forms pi. are made by adding the -те postfix to mutual action forms (1) inducement to Perfective Позвоните мне завтра!
sing.: lut tire action when the Call me tomorrow!
speaker is absent
пойдём пойдёмте let’s go
r) inducement to a) Perfective Пожалуйста, откройте окно!
давай петь - давайте петь let’s sing act ion to addressee (polite request) Open the window please.
The most frequently usedmutual action forms are those with the давай/ b) Imperfective Входйте, входите, не бойтесь!
давайте particle. (beginning of Come in, come in, don't be ashamed!
action)
In colloquial speech the past tense forms of some perfective verbs (mainly those
denoting the beginning of action) can also be used to convey the imperative 1) expression of con­ Imperfective Можно войтй? - Входйте./
sent to commit an and Perfective Войдйте.
meaning:
action May I come in? - Yes, come in.
Начали! Let’s start!
Поехали! Let’s go!
Взяли! Let’s take! Conditional Mood
They are preferably used in dialogue speech and express intensive command or order.
I he Conditional mood is formed by adding the particle 6bi to the past form of the
Meaning and Usage of Aspectual Forms verb that changes for gender and number:
in Imperative Mood играть to play

Person Sing. PI.


Conditions of usage Aspect Examples i
1
1 игрёл (л а , -ло) бы игрёли бы
Negation Imperfective He говорите ему об этом!
(prohibition) Do not tell him about this! игрёли бы
2 игрёл ( ла, -ло) бы
Perfective Будь осторожен, не упёди!
(warning) Take care, don't fall! 3 игрёл ( ла, -ло) бы игрёли бы
171
V b) imperfective unidirectional verbs in the 1st person pi. Present tense:
Wit bout negation:
Е идём let’s go
ii i inducement to Imperfective Регулярно занимайтесь
R бежим let’s run спортом!
n'gular, repeated
В летйм let's fly ni 1Ion or simply action Try to work out regularly!
2. A combination of the particle давай with the mutual perfective form: il l lnct He забывайте, пишите, звоните!
Don't forget us, write and call!
давай пойдём let’s go
давай споём let’s sing 11) inducement to Imperfective Сидй и читай кнйгу!
»amuItaneous actions Sit and read your book!
3. A combination of the particle давай with imperfective infinitives (excepl
unidirectional verbs): i ) inducement to Perfective Вставьте карту и нажмйте
successive actions кнопку!
давай писать let’s write
Insert your card and press
давай ходйть let’s walk the button!
Mutual action forms pi. are made by adding the -те postfix to mutual action forms d) inducement to Perfective Позвонйте мне завтра!
sing.: Ini ure action when the Call me tomorrow!
speaker is absent
пойдём - пойдёмте let’s go
e) inducement to a) Perfective Пожалуйста, откройте окно!
давай петь - давайте петь let’s sing ad ion to addressee (polite request) Open the window please.
The most frequently used mutual action forms are those with the давай/ b) Imperfective Входйте, входйте, не бойтесь!
давайте particle. (beginning of Come in, come in, don’t be ashamed!
In colloquial speech the past tense forms of some perfective verbs (mainly those action)
denoting the beginning of action) can also be used to convey the imperative f) expression of con­ Imperfective Можно войтй? - Входйте./
meaning: sent to commit an and Perfective Войдйте.
action May I come in? - Yes, come in.
Начали! Let’s start!
Поёхали! Let’s go!
Взяли! Let’s take! Conditional Mood
They are preferably used in dialogue speech and express intensive command or order.
I lie Conditional mood is formed by adding the particle 6 b i to the past form of the
Meaning and Usage of Aspectual Forms verb that changes for gender and number:
in Imperative Mood играть to play

Person Sing. Р1
1 '
Conditions of usage Aspect Examples
1 игрёл (л а , -ло) бы играли бы
Negation Imperfective He говорйте ему об этом!
(prohibition) Do not tell him about this! играли бы
2 играл ( ла, -ло) бы
Perfective Будь осторожен, не упади!
(warning) Take care, don ’I fall! 3 играл ( ла, -ло) бы играли бы
170
Conditional forms change only for gender (in sing.) and number but no! Im • lb
person and tense. HtméNflf »« to arrive, to come
Place of 6bi in the sentence yittiii. to leave
MI НЯНИ. to go into
1. After the verb Вы моглй бы мне помочь? to go around
Mflt.AKitvt»
Could you please help me?
\v ,11, 11„. help of prefixes the new verbs are formed from other parts of speech:
2. In front of the verb (usually Вы бы сказали ему об этом. и) hum nouns - with the following suffixes:
after the first word in a sentence) You would better tell him about it.
игрё - игрёть to play, скука - скучёть to get bored
3. At the second place after Если бы он знал, то он встретил бы
conjunctions тебя. UfMuna(Tb) странё - стрён ствовать to wander, бедё - б ёд ствовать
I f he knew about your arrival he would to live in poverty
meet you.
иропа(ть) трёнспорт - транспортйровать to transpórtate
4. With conjunction что the Скажйте ему, чтобы он пришёл ко
particle бы makes conjunction мне. Tell him to come to me. и |ирова(ть) ирония - иронизйровать to speak ironically
чтобы

ина(ть) беседа - беседовать to have a talk


5. In compound sentences with Я пошёл бы в театр, если бы у меня
Conditional mood the particle бы было время.
is used in main and subordinate пиа(ть) ночь - ночевёть to spend night
I f I had time I would definitely go to the
clauses theatre.
и(ть) смех - смешйть to make smb laugh

е(ть) боль - болеть to hurt, to feel pain


Word-formation of the Verbs li) from adjectives - with the following suffixes:
In modern Russian there exist three main methods of forming new verbs:
1) predicative method; е(ть) жёлтый - желтёть to turn yellow
2) method with suffixes;
и(ть) бёлый - белйть to paint white
3) method with prefixes and suffixes.
With the help of prefixes the new verbs are being formed from the already exist­ With the help of prefixes and suffixes the new verbs can be formed either from the
ing non-prefixed verbs: already existing ones or from the other parts of speech:
строить: a) from verbs:
построить ió build гулять - разгуливать to stroll, to walk
перестроить to rebuild кашлять - покашливать to cough
застроить to build up b) from nouns:
надстроить to build above оружие - обезоружить to disarm
видеть: c) from adjectives:
увйдеть to see новый - обновйть to renew
предвидеть to foresee живой - оживйть to revive
Voice Active construction Passive construction

Ы удёнт выполняет задание. Задание выполняется


The category of voice expresses the relationship between action, subject and sindent is doing an exercise. студентом.
object affected by the action. An exercise is being done by the
If action is related to its executor the verb takes the active voice form: student.

Рабочие строят дом. Workers build the house. Русский язы к изучают везде. Русский язы к изучается везде.
I'cnple study Russian everywhere. Russian is studied everywhere.
Лев Толстой написал романы. Leo Tolstoy wrote the novels.

Such constructions are called active: their subject is in Nom. and object - in Ace.
On the contrary, if the action is related to its object - receiver of the action - the
verb takes the passive form: Formation
Дом строится рабочими. The house is being built by the of Compound Passive Verbal Forms
workers.
Романы написаны Львом These novels are written by Leo ( '(impound passive forms are made from perfective transitive verbs and consist
Толстым. Tolstoy. ni the auxiliary verb бы ть to be, бы л, б у дет and short form of a perfective
passive participle (с о з д а т ь to create - со зд а н , построить to build -
Such constructions are called passive and their object is in Nom. while subject -
построен, открьпъ to open, to discover - открыт)
in Instr.
Only transitive verbs can form the passive voice. The meaning of transitivity is
Active construction Passive construction |
expressed syntactically: after transitive verbs the direct object is used (noun in
Acc. without preposition) - читать книгу to read a book, рисовать картйну Зто письмо написал мой отец. Это письм о написано моим
to draw a picture, купить журнал to buy a magazine. Му father wrote this letter. отцом.
This letter is written by my father.
Passive voice verbs have their own indicators of voice. The category of voice is
best illustrated in participles that have special suffixes conveying the active and Зту книгу п ер ев еду т на Зта книга будет переведена
passive voice. русский. на русский.
they will translate this book into This book will be translated into
Russian. Russian.

Formation Some transitive verbs have no passive forms:


of Simple Passive Verbal Forms to cross the street
перейти улицу
уронить ручку to drop the pen
Passive forms are made only from transitive verbs and they are subdivided into поцеловать ребёнка to kiss the baby
simple and compound. обнять сы на to hug the son
Simple passive forms are formed from imperfective transitive verbs by adding чувствовать бол ь to feel pain
the postfix -ch (after consonants - H3yuáTbcn to be investigated, M3yHáncn, видеть сон to see a dream
M3yHáeTCfl) or -cb (after vowels - M3ynánacb. M3yHánncb) слы ш ать звук to hear a sound, etc.
175
......... || verbs are often accompanied by the pronoun друг ppyinnu.
Reflexive Verbs
иIher,
In Russian the postfix -ся in verbs is meaningful. Besides the passive теипшц I
Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs ... . ........
possesses a whole variety of lexical meanings in imperfective and perfective vei'l without ся with -ся
-ся is derivative of the reflexive pronoun себя in Acc. V erbs with this prefi \ ,m
called reflexive. шчёть —встрётить встречёться —встрётиться to meet

1. -ся-verbs with reflexive meaning: the subject (part o f the body, clothes, el .томить - познакомить знакомиться - познакомиться to acquaint
is both the receiver and executor of the action.
нать —посовётовать советоваться —посоветоваться to advise
Мать одевает ребёнка. Мать о д е в ё е тс я .
нПмщинять - объединйть объединяться - объединйться to unite
The mother is dressing her child. The mother is dressing.
Я мою руки. Я моюсь. К брить - поссорить ссориться —поссориться to quarrel
I am washing my hands. I am washing.
1 en verbs with reflexive meaning expressing:
,i i prison’s psychological state, inner feelings:
Transitive verbs Non-transitive verbs Translation
without -ся with -ся Rin и рёдуют мать. Children make their motherfe e l happy.
Man. рёдуется. Mother is happy.
мыть - помыть м ы ться - помыться to wash
yMbieáTb - умыть умы вёться - умыться Transitive verbs Intransitive verbs
to wash hands and Translation
face without -ся with -ся

брить - побрить брйться - побриться to shave


;
радовать - рёд о ваться - to please,
порадовать об рад оваться to rejoice
защищать - защитйть защищаться - защ итйться to defend
удивлять - удивйть уд и вл яться - удивйться to surprise
одевать —одеть одеваться —одеться to put clothes on
огорчёть - огорчйть огорчёться - огорчйться to grieve
раздевать - раздеть раздеваться - р а з д е т ь с я to take clothes o ff
уепокёивать - успокёиваться - to calm down
причесывать - причёсываться - to comb успокоиться
успокоить
причесёть причесёться
Ьоспокоить - беспокоиться - to worry,
2. -ся-verbs with reciprocal reflexive meaning: the actions involves two or more побеспокоить побеспокоиться to be worried
subjects, each of them being also the action’s receiver. The subjects are eitliei
in Nom.: интересовёть - интересовёться - to interest,
шинтересовёть заинтересовёться to be interesed
Друзья встретились. Friends met.
иолновёть - волновёться - to excite,
or one —in Nom. and another —by Instr. sing., and take the preposition c:
о ш олновёть взволновёться to be excited
Я встретился с другом. I met with m y friend.
V b) actions-movements made by the subject: I' hoI hok не сидйт на месте./ Child cannot sit still.
Е Туристы изменйли свой Tourists changed their itinerary. »'••пенку не сидйтся на месте,
R маршрут. и кочу поехать за город./ Ifeel like going to the country.
В Вётер изменйлся. Wind's direction changed. Мин хбчется поехать за город.
\ »<11г, that are not used without -ся are subdivided into two groups. The first one
Transitive verbs
without -ся Intransitive verbs with ся Translation lu p u s e s verbs used both with and without -Cfl are not equal in meaning.

изменять - изменйть изменяться - изменйться to change добйть - добивать добйться - добиваться


lо in complish, to kill to achieve
спускать - спустйть спускаться - спустйться to lower, to get добйть врага добйться результатов
down
мпйтй - находйть находйться
поднимать - поднять подниматься - подняться to lift, to get up to f in d to be situated
мпйтй грибы в лесу находйться в центре города
направлять - направляться - to direct, to turn
направить направиться состоять состояться
to consist of to take place
развивать - развйть развиваться - развйться состоять из двух частей встреча состойтся
to develop
увелйчивать - увелйчиваться - иростйть - прощать прощаться
to increase
увелйчить увелйчиться to forgive to say good-bye
простйть ошйбки прощаться с друзьями
уменьшать - уменьш аться - to decrease
уменьшить умёньшиться тнять - занимать заняться - заниматься
to borrow money to be occupied with, engaged in
укреплять - укрепйть укрепляться - укрепйться занять денег заниматься спортом
to make firni
ускорять - ускорить положйть - класть положйться
ускоряться - ускориться to quicken,
to put to rely on
to hasten положйться на друга
положйть в шкаф
c) -ся-verbs expressing actions characteristics of the subject: договорйться - договариваться
договорйть - договаривать
ругать - ругаться to swear, to curse to finish speaking to come to an agreement
ж®чь - жечься to bum, to sting договорйть до конца договорйться о встрече
кусать - кусаться to bite
торговать торговаться
царапать - царапаться to scratch
to sell to bargain
d) -ся-verbs expressing the beginning, continuation or end of action: торговать на рынке торговаться из-за цены
начать - начаться to start, to begin
продолжать - продолжаться tocontinue The second group is not used without -ся:
кончить - кончиться to finish бороться to stmggle
4. -ся-verbs conveying impersonal meaning (only in the 3ri1person sing, and the здороваться to say hello
178 Past tense sing. neut.). The subject is in Dat.: to take care
заботиться
to bow |tn cnlc or follow the noun they qualify. In the latter ease t hey lim a I <«'( oil
to touch hv eommas:
to be lazy
Hi ii yHciCTByromkie b KOHtpepeHumi All the students who participate
„ '‘Ч т ь '* to admire
, iyA6HTbi.../Bce CTyfleHTbi, in the conference...
to hope
V'MCTByioiiiiie b KOHctrepeHumi,...
to like
to lie down
Formation of Participles
" ’‘ w * to find oneself
to appear Formation of Active Participles
to use Present A ctive Participles
to make mistakes --------------- ---------------------------------------
to laugh Present tense stem Conjugation Suffixes Adjective flexions

> е ^ сЯ to agree писать to write - 1 -ущ-/- пиш ущ ий, -ая, -ее, -ие
to compete пишут ющ-
> п < рат
£ * смеяться to laugh - сме-ющийся, -аяся,
C4 pei> ^ to try
ся смеются -ееся,-иеся
to aspire

>^ y>f l*:Г


Tb я
to work
to smile
говорить to speak -
говорят
2 -ащ-/-ящ- говор ящ ий, -ая, -ее, -ие

слышать to hear - слыш ащ ий, -ая, -ее, -ие


V ^ b l6 ^ я to become
слышат
^ > а н о ^ ЬС to come, to appear
* Ч в п ^ сЯ Past Active Participles

Infinitive stem Suffixes Adjective flexions


Participle
ending in vowel: писать -ВШ- писё-вш-ий, -ая, -ее, -ие

•p|e is a non-inflective verbal form that describes an action from the ending in consonant: принес ти -ш- при нёсш и й , -ая, -ее, -ие
'Th‘‘I’11'1" of its attributive features and reference to time:
(view1
point0 д р а ю щ и й книгу the student who is now buying
iéHT a book
ciyfl1 Formation of Passive Participles
купивший книгу the student who bought a book
the book the student is now buying Present Passive Participles
ci'V^'^yпремия студентом
кии"' ^„нная студентом the book bought by the student Present tense stem Conjugation Suffixes Adjective flexions
циИ'" ....bines grammatical features of verbs (Present and Past tenses,
,l,r )and those ofadjectives (number, gender and case). читать - чита ют, 1 -ом-/-ем- читё-ем-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
нестй - нес-ут нес ом ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
...... ..... Ily used with various qualifiers with which they form participle
|M"" HI, infrequent in colloquial speech, they are widespread in fiction любйть - люб ят 2 -им- люб-йм-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
и,И"" I, щи writing. Participles or participle constructions may either
J 1111
кланяться to bow .......cle or follow th e n o u n th e y qualify. In th e la tte r case th e y m u st be set off V
асёться to touch Iis* commas: E
ленйться to be lazy R
н< о участвующие в конференции All the students who participate
лю боваться to admire В
i iудонты.../Bce студенты, in the conference...
надеяться to hope
умствующие в конференции,...
нравиться to like
ложйться to lie down
очутйться
Formation of Participles
to find oneself
появляться to appear Formation of Active Participles
пользоваться to use Present A ctive Participles
ошибаться to make mistakes
смеяться 1'resent tense stem Conjugation Suffixes Adjective flexions
to laugh
согласйться to agree лисёть to write - 1 -ущ-/- пйш ущ-ий, -ая, -ее, -ие
соревноваться to compete пишут ющ-
стараться смеяться to laugh - сме ющ-ийся, -аяся,
to try
I MG ЮТСЯ -ееся,-иеся
стремйться to aspire
трудйться to work i оворйть to speak - 2 -ащ-/-ящ- говор ящ ий, -ая, -ее, -ие
улы баться to smile IOHOp-ЯТ
слышать to hear - слыш ащ ий, -ая, -ее, -ие
становйться to become
слы ш ат
являться to come, to appear
P a s t A c tiv e P a rtic ip le s

Infinitive stem Suffixes Adjective flexions


Participle
i inling in vowel: писё-ть -ВШ- писё-вш-ий, -ая, -ее, -ие

T h e p articip le is a n o n-inflective verbal form th a t describes an action from I ■tiding in consonant: принес-тй -ш- принёс ш ий, -ая, -ее, -ие
p o in t of view of its a ttrib u tiv e features and reference to time:
студент, покупающий кнйгу the student who is now buying
a book Formation of Passive Participles
студент, купйвший кнйгу the student who bought a book
кнйга, покупаемая студентом the book the student is now buying Present Passive Participles
кнйга, купленная студентом the book bought by the student Present tense stem Conjugation Suffixes Adjective flexions
P articip le com bines gram m atical features of verbs (P re se n t and P ast tenses,
aspect and voice) and th o se of adjectives (num ber, gender and case). читать - чита ют, 1 -ом-/-ем- читё-ем-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
ностй - нес ут нес-бм-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
T h e y are n o rm ally used w ith v ario u s q ualifiers w ith w h ich th e y form participle
c o n stru c tio n s. In fre q u e n t in colloquial speech, th e y are w idespread in fict ion любйть - лю б ят 2 -им- люб-йм-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
and in academ ic w ritin g . P a rtic ip le s o r p a rticip le co n stru c tio n s may eilliei
181
P a s t P a s s iv e P a rtic ip le s i hi lorm participles have -H-, -eH-, -t - suffixes. They don’t decline and change V
In r,mder and number. E
Perfective infinitive stem Suffixes Adjective flexions
Mr u i form participles coincide with short-form adjectives. R
ending in -а(ть):
l ull-form participles Short-form participles Translation В
н ап и сать -ни- напйса-нн-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
сдёла-ть сдёла-нн-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
нарисованный, -ая, -ое, -ые нарисован, -а, -о, -ы drawn
ending in consonant -и(ть), -е(ть):
увез-тй -енн- увез ённ ый, -ая, -ое, -ые мопученн-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые получен, -а, -о, -ы acquired, obtained
п острои ть постро енн ый, -ая, -ое, -ые
увйде-ть увйд-енн-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые накрытый, -ая, ое, -ые закрыт, -а, -о, -ы closed
ending in root vowel, -ну-, -о:
о тк р ы ть -т- откры т ы й , -ая, -ое, -ые In sentences they are predicates:
тр о н у ть трону-т-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые /|порь закрыта. The door is closed.
пороть поро-т-ый, -ая, -ое, -ые /|порь была закрыта. The door was closed.
Диорь будет закрыта. The door will be closed.
The tables show that only a few verbs can form all four participles. Some verbs
(transitive imperfectives) have three participles, others (transitive perfective and In modern Russian the short form of present passive participles are rarely used.
intransitive imperfective) have two participles, and still others (intransitive per­
fective) have only one participle.
Only imperfective verbs form present participles. Also, only transitive verbs form Usage of Tense and Aspectual Forms
passive participles, among the latter ones only verbs with stems ending in -afi , of Participles
-OBa-, aBaii , - m- form present passive participle.
Present participles denote action that takes place simultaneously with the action
expressed by the predicate:
Declension of Participles
Нчера я разговаривал Yesterday I talked to a British
Present and past active participles are inflected like adjectives with the stem с: английским студентом, student who was studing Russian.
ending in a hushing sound and unstressed ending (like хороший). изучающим русский язык.
Present and past passive participles are inflected like adjectives with the stem Я покупаю журналы, I buy magazines published in Russia.
ending in a hard consonant (like красный). издаваемые в России.
I’ast participles denote action that precedes the action expressed by the predicate:
Short-Form Participles
Мой друг прочитёл poMáH My friend read Leo Tolstoy's novel
Present participles and past passive participles have short forms: Толстого, переведённый translated into French.
на французский язык.
Full form Short form
Past active participles can also denote action proceeding simultaneously with
решённый вопрос a solved question вопрос решён a question is solved
Ihat of the predicate if a participle is in imperfective aspect:
напйсанное письмо a written letter письмо написано a letter is written
Я сидёл и смотрёл на птиц, I sat watching the birds fly
закрытые магазйны closed stores магазйны закрыты stores are closed to the south.
летёвших на юг. 183
l»i|i<'il<Ttivo ¡к live and passive participles basically repeat the meaning b) i i ving to do something:
ul imperlective Conns expressed in personal forms: trade organization
н|нующая организация
Я лёг заболевающим, I went to bed falling ill typewriter
пишущая машинка
а проснулся больным. and woke up sick.
I ) nIal c caused by a certain action:
(process) evaporated milk
мущённое молоко
Я купил часы, заводящ иеся I bought a watch winding mi охший цветок dried flower
раз в месяц. once a month. ж шщённый человёк physically exhausted person
(unlimited repetition) II 1‘articiples-nouns:
Active and especially passive perfective participles are mainly used in perfective учащиеся students
meaning: Раненый a wounded person
Пудущее future
Мы шли по саду, усыпанному We walked in the garden all covered
настоящее present
яблоками. with apples.
иурнщий smoker
Впереди виднелась ropâ, We saw the hill all green with wood. 1
служащий clerk
заросш ая лёсом.
нОпиняемый accused person
подлежащее subject
Transition of Participles сказуемое predicate
into Adjectives and Nouns слагаемое item, etc.

Participles may lose verbal characteristics (tense, aspect, voice) and in this case
indicate either constant characteristic (become adjectives) or person/thing Relative Clauses and Participles
(become nouns).
Participles-adjectives express figurative meaning or acquire additional shades In Russian the use of a participle construction instead of a relative clause (clause
of meaning. u hich qualifies nouns) is common, especially in writing. However there is a major
1) Participles-adjectives with figurative meaning: restriction on this replacement: participle construction cannot substitute for
блестящий учёный prominent scientist a relative clause which is in the Future tense.
потерянный вид embarrassed look
Студент, кот орый Студёнт, делаю щ ий учится на втором
выдающ ийся композйтор famous composer
делает доклад о Гоголе, доклад о Гоголе, курсе.
приподнятое настроение exultant mood
рассеянный человек Студент, который д ела л Студёнт, делавш ий учится на втором
absent-minded person
доклад о Гоголе, доклад о Гоголе, курсе.
текущие события current events
образованный человек educated person Студент, который сд ела л Студёнт, сделавш ий учится на втором
доклад о Гоголе, доклад о Гоголе, курсе.
оживлённый разговор vivacious talk
2) Participles-adjectives with additional meanings: Студент, который будет no replacement is учится на втором
a) ability of doing something: делат ь доклад о Гоголе, possible курсе.
плавающий танк amphibian tank Студент, который по replacement is учится на втором
мыслящ ее существо thinking creature сделает доклад о Гоголе, possible курсе.
I ; rile, with stems ending in -ну:
Verbal Adverb
кивнуть to die
црённуть to become stronger
The verbal adverb is a non-inflective verbal form that combines in itself the Ini
I | ime syllable verbs having no vowels in the present tense stem: ждать to wait,
tures of verbs and adverbs. Russian has a special form of the verb which modilli (
HprtTb to lie, пить to drink, лить to pour, etc.;
the action of the sentence’s predicate (expressed by verb) in general. This m.ikii
ill various irregular verbs: ехать to go, спать to sleep, петь to sing, хотеть
it possible to represent one action as basic and the other as secondary or accoin
In w ant.
panying:
tin verb б ы ть to be forms the verbal adverb with the help of the -учи
Мы шли и разговаривали. We walked and talked.
iill'lx будучи.
Мы шли, разговаривая. We walked talking.
Verbal adverbs (as verbs) can be imperfective and perfective (читая - прочитан
reading), keep voice’s features (transitivity - intransitivity) (любя loving + Ace, Formation of Verbal Adverbs
отца someone's father - интересуясь being interested in + Instr. книгой book) from Perfective Verbs
and also can be reflexive (купаясь bathing, занимаясь studing). As adverb
they do not change grammatically. |*i-ifective verbal adverbs are formed from the infinitive or past tense stems:

I) from stems ending in vowel - with the -в or -вши suffix:


прочита ть - прочита в having read
Formation of Verbal Adverbs (прочита-вши)
from Imperfective Verbs построи ть - построи в having built
(мострои-вши)
Imperfective verbal adverbs are formed from the present tense stem with the help
of the -a (-я) suffix: J‘ ) from stems ending in vowel + -ся - with the -вши(сь) suffix:
играть - игра ют - игра я playing иорну-ться - верну вш ись having returned
строить - стро ят - стро я building шсмея-ться - засмея вш ись having burst into laugter
краснеть - красне ют - краснё я blushing
'!) from stems ending in consonant - with -ши suffix:
слыш ать - слыш ат слыш а hearing
принес ти - принёс ши having brought
улы баться - улыба ются - smiling
привез-тй - привёз-ши having brought
улы баясь
смеяться - сме ются - сме я сь laughing Some perfective verbal adverbs are formed with the -а/-я suffix. As a rule, the
forms ending in -а/-я are used as variants of forms ending in -в, -вши(сь):
A verbal adverb is formed from the infinitive stem if the verbs has the -ва- suffix:
истрётясь - встрётивш ись having met
давать - д а в а т ь - дава я giving
принеся - принёсши having brought
вставать - встава ть - встава я rising
Such verbs are mainly represented by the verbs of the 2nd conjugation, as well
Certain classes of verbs do not form imperfective verbal adverbs. These are: as by the verbs of the 1st conjugation with their present (future) tense stems
a) verbs with stems ending in г/к: ending in consonant:
печь - пек ут to bake привезут - привезя having brought
беречь - б ер егу т to keep, to preserve приведут - приведя having brought
and also by verb идти to go with prefixes (зайдя, отойдя, придя). For l lie Мать уложила сына, накрыв его
f ollowing the Perf. + Perf.
most of verbs of the 1st conjugation, the forms ending in -а/-я are used nmri' in.mi action одеялом.
often: принеся (and принёсши), зайдя (and зашёдши), etc. Perfect ivit Mother put her son to bed and covered him
verbal adverbs ending in -а/-я may be frequently used in the idioms: with blanket.
положа руку на сердце with one's hand upon one's heart United Perf. + Perf. Он простйлся с ним, пожав руку.
сложа руки be idle 11 impound action He said good-bye and shook his hand.

Usage of Imperfective Verbal Adverbs


Transition of Verbal Adverbs
Temporal correlations of action Aspects of into Other Parts of Speech
(state) of verbal adverbs with verbal adverbs Examples
predicate’s action and predicate Some verbal adverbs lose their verbal meanings and convert to other part of
,| irech. For example the word сидя sitting can be used as a verbal adverb or
Simultaneity:
mlverb:
complete Imperf. + Он сидел читая кнйгу. Гобёнок рисовал ейдя. (adverb) A child was sitting and drawing.
Imperf. He sat reading a book. 1'ебёнок рисовал, сидя A child was drawing sitting
partial Imperf. + Perf. Расставаясь, он пожал ма стуле, (verbal adverb) on a chair.
ему руку. I Isually the transition occurs after verbs:
Having said good-bye they ответил не думая answered without thinking
shook hands.
рассказывал не спеша was telling slowly
repetition of simultaneous, Imperf. + Читая кнйги, он .Hid also in phraseological expressions:
preceding and subsequent Imperf. вы пйсы вал новые работать спустя рукава to work carelessly
actions of verbal adverbs and слова.
бежать сломя голову to run very fast
predicates While reading the books he
was writing out new words. откровенно говоря frankly speaking
сидеть сложа руки to sit on one s hands
Some verbal adverbs became prepositions: благодаря + Dat. owing to, спустя
нёсколько лет after, несмотря на то, что... despite o f the fact.
Usage of Perfective Verbal Adverbs

Precedence Perf. + Perf. Закончив работу, он пошёл Infinitive


to main action отдыхать.
Having finished his work he went to have
The infinitive is a non-inflective form of the verb which denotes action (state) in
a rest.
categories of aspect and voice. It does not have morphologically expressed catego­
Simultaneity of Perf. + Он шёл, опустив голову. ries of person, tense and mood. In Russian the infinitive is characterized by special
state and action Imperf. He walked with his head down.
suffixes -Tb/-TM and -Mb added usually to the past tense stem:
Perf. + Perf. Вы обидели меня, ответив «нет». nuca-Ji - nnca-Tb to write
You hurt те by saying No. зна-л - зна ть to know 189
Пи .nliix чь is typical for the verbs with the consonants г/к at the end o| 11 I ....... . U I I I H O C T b to have the duty
present and past tense stems: МНрощДться to prohibit
пек ут - пёк - пе чь to bake Домику разрешили побегать, The child was allowed to run around.
мог-ут - мог - мо-чь to be able box i. нельзя курить. It is prohibited to smoke here.
Only imperfective infinitives are used: I I In I\ perfective infinitives are used:
1) In combination with verbs expressing beginning, continuation or end of all ; 11 Iи combination with the verbs conveying the meaning of positive results:
action: гумАть to be able
начать - начинать to begin • мочь can
стать (=начать) to start yi нйть to have time
продолжать to continue удАться to turn out well
кончить - кончать to finish i lii сумел закончить работу. He was able to finish his work.
прекратить - прекращать to stop И успел купить подарок. I had time to buy a present.
брбсить - бросать to quit ') In combination with the verb забы ть in perfective:
Она начала готовить обед. She began cooking dinner. И шбыл спросить об этом. 1forgot to ask about it.
П рофессор кончил говорить. Professor stopped talking. \lier the verbs успевать, удаваться, забы вать in Imperfective the infini­
2) In combination with words expressing ability to do a certain action: tives of both aspects can be used:
уметь to know, can И иногда забы вал принести/ Sometimes I forgot to bring my
привыкнуть - привыкать to get used to приносить учебник. textbook.
отвыкнуть - отвыкать to become disaccustomed I) Impressing the impossibility of an action: нельзя ( “ impossible), не могу,
учиться - научйться to learn невозможно:
Она умеет играть на скрипке. She knows how to play the violin. Здесь нельзя перейти улицу. It is impossible to cross the street
Он привык поздно ложиться He is used to go to bed pretty late. here.
спать. Я не могу решйть задачу. I cannot solve this task.
3) In combination with the words expressing negative evaluation of an action: 4) In combinations with prefixed verbs of motion to express a short period
устать - уставать to be tired iif staying somewhere:
надоесть - надоедать, наскучить to get bored Мы зашлй в ресторан We entered the restaurant for
Я устал тебя слушать. I am tired o f listening to you. пообедать. lunch.
Она подошла спросйть адрес. She came up to us to ask the address.
Мне надоело гулять в парке. I am bored from walking in the park.
4) In combination with words expressing either permission or prohibition to
fulfill an action:
разреш ается to be allowed
можно one may
нельзя it is not allowed
иметь право to have the right
SECONDARY PARTS
OF SPEECH
s SECONDARY PARTS про, чёрез, сквозь в, на, о (об), под, ПО, с s
Arc.
E E
OF SPEECH за
C C
Instr. над, пёред, мёжду под, за с
О О
hep. при в, на, о (об) по
N N
D Preposition
D
A A
The preposit ion is a secondary part of speech that expresses syntactic relationships
Derivative Prepositions
R and Their Combinability with Cases R
between nouns and words of other parts of speech:
Y Y
идти по улице to walk along the street
11alike the non-derivative group, this one is much larger. Derivative prepositions
as well as between nouns:
P lire usually unisemantic and correlate with one case only. P
дорога к морю a road to the sea
A Some of them are formed from adverbs, others - from nouns and verbal adverbs. A
As all secondary words, prepositions cannot be used independently, but only in
R Ilerivative prepositions can be simple or compound. The simple ones coincide R
combinations with other words, and they can never be parts of a sentence.
T Wit It adverbs, nouns or verbal adverbs (близ, возле near, благодаря owing to),
T
S while the compound ones are combinations of adverbs, nouns or verbal adverbs
S
wit li non-derivative prepositions (вблизи от close to, несмотря на in spite of).
Classification of Prepositions
О О
Adverbial Prepositions
F F
All prepositions are subdivided into non-derivative and derivative.
Cases Simple adverbial prepositions Compound adverbial prepositions |
s близ/вблизй near вблизи от close to S
Non-derivative Prepositions
p невдалекё от not fa r from P
and Their Combinability with Cases внутрь inside
E вмёсто instead of вдалй от fa r from E
E The non-derivative group comprises relatively few prepositions, most of which вне outside вплоть до till E
U I

U X
are polysemantic: без without, в (во) in (into), до till, для for, за behind, at, из вокруг around незавйсимо от irrespective of
from, к to, кроме except, мёжду between, на on, над (надо) above, о (об, обо) впереди in front of
about, от from, по according, под (подо) under, пёред (пёредо) in front of, мимо by, past
при by, про about, ради for the sake o f , с (со) with, from, у at, чёрез across, as накануне on the eve of
well as binary prepositions из-за from behind, из-под from underneath. Gen. напротив opposite
They correlate with one or several cases: около near
относйтельно relatively
^ Prepositions
после after
with one case with two cases with three cases посредине in the middle of
Gen. без, для, до, из, из-за, прёжде before
из-под, от, рёди, c средй amid
кроме, у
сзади behind
Dat. к no касательно as regards
194 195
и 1«ч6нии рекй (noun) in the slrram ii течбнио дня (preposition)
1 Cases 1 Simple adverbial prepositions Compound adverbial preposition
M/ ii river during the dap
вопрекй contrary to применйтельно к with reference to в ббласти фйзики (preposition)
«им. и области (noun) to live
навстрёчу towards
III и province in the field of physics
Dat. подобно like
соотвётственно accordingly, Verbal Prepositions
respectively
IM i I Compound verbal prepositions

Kr
Simple verbal prepositions
вмёсте c together не считая not taking into начиная c starting from
слёдом за right after account исходя из proceeding /гот
Instr. совмёстно c in partnership судя no judging by
Dat. благодаря owing to
with
Ait . исключая excluding несмотря на, невзирая на
рядом c close to
включая including despite, regardless of
наряду c along with
спустя later
Most of the adverbial prepositions have homonymous adverbs:
Instr. кончая ending in —
Машйна проехала мимо дома. A car drove past the house.
начиная beginning with
(preposition)
Most verbal prepositions can be used as verbal adverbs:
Машйна проехала мймо. The car drove past.
(adverb) Он ёхал, не смотря на дорожные He didn’t look at traffic signs
щёки. (verbal adverb) as he drove.
Nominal Prepositions Он ёхал несмотря на запрещёние. He drove on despite the prohibition
( preposition) sign.
Compound nominal
Cases Simple nominal prepositions
prepositions
. . . Composite Table of Prepositions
Gen. ввиду in view o f путём by means o f and Their Combinations with Cases
в течёние, в продолжёние тйпа like (люди тйпа
during Петрова people like Petrov) без, для, до, из, из-за, из-под, от, ради, крбмо, у;
вслёдствие as a result порядка approximately близ, вблизй, вглубь, вдоль, взамён, вместо, вне,
во врёмя during (температура порядка внутрй, внутрь, возле, вокруг, впередй, вроде,
по случаю on the occasion 100 градусов temperature вслед, мймо, наверху, накануне, напротив, бколо,
approx. 100 degrees) отноейтельно, повёрх, позадй, помймо, поперёк,
( ien. после, посредй, посредйне, прёжде, против, среди,
Instr. в связй с in connection with (кого? чего?) сбоку, сверх, свыш е, сзади; вблизй от, вдалокё
от, вдалй от, вплоть до, впредь до, невдалекё
In Russian, there are lots of nominal combinations that are close in their meaning
от, незавйсимо от, ввиду, в ейлу, в течёние,
to prepositions; they go together with Gen.: в духе in the spirit of, во ймя
вслёдствие, в качестве, насчёт, по мёре, во время,
in the name of, в лицё in the person of, в свёте in light of, в условиях under
conditions, на основании on the basis of. по случаю, не считая, начиная с, исходя из
к, по, вопреки, навстречу, подобно, согласно, behind an за + Acc. за + Prep, из-за + Gen.
Dat.
сообразно, соответственно, соразмерно, object зайтй за угол стоять за углом выйти
(кому? чему?)
применительно к; благодаря, судя по to go round the to stand round из-за угла
Асе. в, на, за, по, под, про, через, сквозь, о, с, включая, comer the comer to go from the
(кого? что?) спустя, считая, несмотря на, невзирая на comer

за, под, над, перед, между, с, вместе с, вслед front


III перед + Instr. перед + Instr.
Instr. за, наравне с, наряду с, рядом с, следом за, nian object поставить стул стоять перед
(кем? чем?) совместно с, согласно с, сравнительно с, в связй перед столом домом
с,кончая, начиная to place a chair to stand in front o f
in front of a table a house
Prep. в, на, о (об), при, по
(о ком? о чём?) 1ieneath под + Acc. под + Instr. из-под + Gen.
an object положйть лежать достать
под диван под диваном из-под дивана
to put under to lie under a couch - to take from
Meanings of Prepositions a couch below a couch

Above над + Instr. над + Instr.


Most non-derivative prepositions are polysemantic and their meanings vary, an object повесить лампу висеть
depending on the case or noun they correlate with. над столом над столом
The meaning of derivative prepositions is similar to that of adverbs, nouns or to put a lamp to hang above
verbal adverbs they are formed from. above a table a table
Close при + Gen.
Spatial Meanings lo an object кафе
при дороге

U I
of Non-derivative Prepositions
roadside cafe
Meanings of Куда? Where? Где? Where? Откуда? Where Outer limits до + Gen. от + Gen.
prepositions (direction) (place) from? of an object доехать отъехать
до дома от дома
Internal limits в + Acc. в + Prep, из + Gen.
to come up to to drive from
of an object войти в дом сидёть выйти из дома
a house the house
to come into the в классе to come out the
house to be in classroom house Within an к + Dat. у + Gen. от + Gen.
object’s outer ПОДОЙТЙ стоять у дом а отойтй от дома
Upper surface на + Acc. на + Prep, c + Gen.
limits к дому to stand close to th e to go from the
of an object положйть лежать взять со стола
to approach the house house
на стол на столё to take from the
to put on the table house
to lie on the table table
199
Ксшагк.ч: ¡t| whllc naming a place or destination: s
1. I he preposition в also has the meaning toputsmth on, to wrap up:
Где? (Prep.) Where? Откуда? (Gen.) E
1удО? (Acc.) Where?
одеться в новый костюм быть в новом костюме Where from ? C
(direction) (place)
to put on a new suit to wear a new suit О
mi вокзал на вокзале с вокзала
2. The combination of c + Gen. can have the meaning of to take smth. o ff an N
lu a railway station at a railway station from a railway station
object D
Ий пбчту на почте с почты
снять туфли с ног to take shoes o ff A
Ina post-office at a post-office from a post-office
смыть грязь с рук to wipe dirt o ff one’s hands R
3. The combination of у + Gen. means to spend time at smb’splace: 1) while naming activities without indicating places: Y
побы вать у друга to visit a friend Откуда? (Gen.)
j i уда? (Acc.) Where? Где? (Prep.) Where?
Where from ? P
(direction) (place)
A
на урок на уроке с урока
Usage Peculiarities R
lu a tesson at a lesson from a lesson
of Prepositions на and c T
на собрание на собрании с собрания S
in Spatial Meaning
lu a meeting at a meeting from a meeting
на выставку на выставке с выставки О
Sometimes, instead of the combinations b + Acc., b + Prep., M 3 + Gen. the
lo an exhibition at an exhibition from an exhibition F
following combinations can be used - Ha + Acc., Ha + Prep., c + Gen.:
1) while naming cardinal points or some toponyms: на экскурсию на экскурсии с экскурсии
on the excursion at-the excursion from the excursion S
Куда? (Acc.) Where? Где? (Prep.) Where? Откуда? (Gen.) P
(direction) (place) Where from? E
Non-derivative Prepositions E
на восток на востбке с востока
and Their Combinations with Verbal Prefixes C
eastward in the east from the east
H
Non-derivative prepositions in spatial meaning have correspondence with the
на запад на западе с запада
westward in the west from the west following verbal prefixes:

на сёвер на севере Prefixes Prepositions Examples


с севера
northward in the north from the north B- в + Acc. войти в дом
to enter a house
на юг на юге с юга
на + Acc. войтй на стоянку
southward in the south from the south
to enter a parking place
на Кавказ на Кавказе с Кавказа к + Dat. войтй к руководителю
to the Caucasus in the Caucasus from the Caucasus to enter a chief’s office

201
| Prefixes
Temporal Meanings
Prepositions Examples
of the Prepositions
вы- из + Gen. выйти из дома
to leave a house

O Z О
с + Gen. выйти с выставки Meanings of Examples
to leave an exhibition prepositions
до- до + Gen. дойтй до банка Когда? When?
to walk up to a bank office
за + Асе. зайти за угол Within certain tim e 1) в + Prep, (year, m o nth):

to turn round the comer . | limits в 2009 году in 2009


в мае in May
за + Instr. зайти за другом
2) в + Acc. (hour, day of the week):
to pick up a friend
в два часа at two
в + Асе. зайтй в магазин в четверг on Thursday
to go shopping 3) на + Acc. (subsequent time):
на- на + Acc. наклёить на окно приехать на следующий to come on the next
to stick smth. to a window день day
от- 4) c + Instr. (beginning of a certain time or period):
от + Gen. отойтй от окна
с приходом зимы when winter comes
to walk away from the window
пере- чёрез + Acc. перейти через улицу
to cross the street Outside certain time 1) ДО + Gen. (up to a certain time):
на + Acc. переёхать на новую limits работать до двух часов to work till two
квартйру 2) перед + Instr. (before a certain time or period):
to move to a new apartment перед войной before the war
под- к + Dat. 3) к + Dat. (close to a certain time):
подойти к окну
прийти к вечеру to come at night
to come up to a window
4) за + Instr. + пёред/до:
при- к + Dat. прийтй к товарищу за неделю перед Новым one week before the
to visit a friend годом/до Нового года New Year
в + Acc. прийтй в школу 5) через + Dat. (end of a certain time interval):
to come to school вернусь через час I ’ll be back in an hour
нэ Acc. прийтй на стадион 6) между + Instr. (in-between certain periods):
to come to a stadium говорить между лекциями to talk between
lectures
с- с + Gen. слетёть с дёрева
to fly down from a tree
2
s Meanings of
Causative Meanings of Prepositions S
E Examples E
prepositions
C из-за + Gen. не спать из-за шума to be unable to sleep because C
O Как долго? How long? o f noise О
N N
благодаря + Dat. сдать экзамен благодаря помощи друга to pass
Duration c + Acc. (approximately): D
D exam owing to friend’s help
A гулять с час to walk fo r an hour A
or so от + Gen. умереть от голода to die o f starvation
R R
с + Gen. запйть с горя to go on a drinking spree because Y
Y На сколько? За сколько? How long?
o f sorrow

P 1) за + Асе.: по + Dat. сказать по ошибке to say by mistake P


A сделать работу за час to finish work within молчать из скромности to keep a modest silence A
из + Gen.
R Period an hour R
с связй с + Instr. пропустить в связй с болезнью to fail to attend
T 2) на + Acc. + period: T
due to one’s illness
уйтй на час to go out fo r an hour S
S
за + Асе. поблагодарйть за подарок to thank smb for a gift

O вслёдствие + Gen. вслёдствие наводнёния due to floods О


Purposeful Meanings of Prepositions
F в силу + Gen. в ейлу обстоятельств by virtue o f circumstances F
д ля + Gen. приехать д ля учёбы в университете
S to come to study at a university S
P P
ради + Gen. сделать ради тебя to do fo r you, for your sake Conditional Meanings of Prepositions
E E
сказать ради шутки to say smth fo r joke’s sake
E E
в + Acc. сказать в шутку to say smth. as a joke при + Prep. при условии under condition

U X
C
сделать в отместку to do smth. in revenge в случае + Gen. в случае пожара in case o f fire
H
на + Acc. подарить на память to give smth. as a keepsake
за + Acc. бороться за свободу to fight fo r freedom
погибнуть за Родину to die for one’s homeland Concessive Meanings of Prepositions
за + Instr. сходить за хлебом to go to buy some bread
приехать за сыном to come to bring one’s son back
несмотря на + Acc. несмотря на плохую погоду despite bad weather
к + Dat. подготовиться к экзамену to prepare fo r an exam
стихй к юбилею poem fo r jubilee вопреки + Dat. вопреки совёту regardless o f advice
под + Acc. бутылка под молокб a bottle used fo r milk
наперекор + Dat. сдёлать наперекор ему to run counter to him
банка под варенье a jamjar

204 205
Quantitative Meanings of Prepositions ,1) difference:
и отличие от + Gen.:
в + Acc. Этот чемодан в два раза тяжелее другого. и отличие от него unlike, in contrast to him
This suitcase is twice as heavy as that one. \ ) accordance:
• по + Dat.:
на + Acc. Он на 10 см выше своего брата.
жить по закону abide by the laws
Не is 10 centimeters taller than his brother. одеваться по моде to be fashionably dressed

1 не по его вине through no fault of his


с + Acc. Я проболел с месяц.
I have been ill for about a month. • для + Gen.:
костюм для тебя a suit for you
около + Gen. Рыба весит около двух килограммов. • согласно + Dat.:
This fish weighs about two kilos. согласно правилам according to the rules

1
. „ • в соответствии с + Instr.:
с + Instr. два с половиной
в соответствии с законом in accordance with the law
two-and-a-half
• в свете + Gen.:
без + Gen. без десяти два в свете учения according to doctrine
ten minutes to two 5) substitution:
• за + Асе.:
отдать деньги за ремонт to pay for repairs
Object Meanings of Prepositions
• на + Асе.:
Meanings: менять квартиру на дом to change apartment for a house

1) comparison: 6) compatibility:

• между + Instr.: • с + Instr.:


г сын с отцом father and a son
сравнить между собой прозу to compare prose and poetry стакан с водой a glass o f water
и поэзию
• между + Instr.:
• в сравнении с + InstrVno сравнению с + Instr.: война между странами war between countries
по сравнению с ним in comparison with (as compared to) • под + Асе.:
him петь под гитару to sing accompanying oneself on
guitar
2) similarity:
• вместе с + Instr.:
• в + Acc.:
работать вместе с ней to work together with her
он весь в отца he isjust like his father
• наряду с + 1п51г./наравнё с + 1пз1г.:
• на + Acc.: to work on a par with men
работать наравне с мужчинами
он похож на мать he looks like his mother
• в союзе с + 1пз1г.:
206 • вроде + Gen., подобно + Dat. kind of; быть в союзе с кем-либо to be a llie s
7) incompatibility: ■ c + Instr.: s
читать со словарём to read with a dictionary E
• без + Gen.:
читать без очков to read without eyeglasses • о + Асе.: C
мытирать руки о полотёнце to wipe one’s hands with a towel О
• вне + Gen.:
при помощи/с помощью + Gen.: N
бы ть вне опасности to be safe (out o f danger)
при помощи врача with doctor’s help D
• исключая + Gen./за исключением + Gen.:
A
исключая меня except те 12) subject, thought:
R
8) joining, addition: 0 + Prep.:
говорить о сем ьё to talk about one’s family
Y
• к + Dat.:
приклёить к конвёрту 13) object of observation, care, attention:
to stick to the envelope P
• в + Асе.: за + Instr.: A
ухаживать за больными to take care o f sick people
поставить цветы в вазу to put flowers in a vase R
1d) object of disagreement: T
9) separation:
против + Gen.: S
• от + Gen.:
быть против войны to be against war
оторвать от обоев to tear down from wallpaper
15) object of support: О
• из + Gen.:
за + Acc.: F
выжать сок из лимона to squeeze juice from a lemon
голосовать за президёнта to vote for President
10) source of information: S
Memorize!
• из + Gen.: P
жениться на + Prep, (about men) to marry, to get married
узнать из газёт to learn from newspapers E
ныйти замуж за + Acc. (about women) to marry, to get married
• от + Gen.: E

U I
узнать от сестры to leam from one’s sister
• у + Gen.:
взять у брата книгу to take a book from one’s brother
Conjunction
• из + Gen.:
сдёлать пирог из яблок to make an apple pie
The conjunction is a secondary part of speech that expresses grammatical
11) instrument:
relationships between parts of simple or compound sentences, of between separate
• в + Асе.:
sentences in a text.
играть в шахматы to play chess
( onjunctions can be simple or compound. The simple ones consist of one word
• на + Асе.: and are subdivided into non-derivative and derivative:
играть на гитаре to play guitar I) non-derivative: и and, a while, and, but, но but, да and, but, ибо because, или
• по + Dat.: и/, однако however, ёсли if,
звонить по телефону to phone derivative: что that, как how, также also, чтобы in order to, etc. 209
4) explanatory - то есть that is; а именно; или (“а именно) mum In
S Compound conjunctions consist of derivative conjunctions and prepositions,
Творчество Толстого принадлежит Tolstoy's masieipin , . belong
E adverbs or pronouns: потому что because, благодаря тому что owing to,
к «золотому веку», то есть самому to the Golden , \ge , i. i ilie most
C несмотря на то, что in spite o f the fact that, д л я того чтобы for the sake of,
продуктивному и талантливому prolific and talentJul period
О etc.
N According to their syntactic functions, all conjunctions are subdivided into
D coordinate and subordinate.
A
R Subordinate Conjunctions
Y Coordinate Conjunctions
Subordinate conjunctions connect subordinate clauses with main clauses.
P Subordinate conjunctions are subdivided into:
Coordinate conjunctions connect parts c a sentence or parts of compound
A 1) explanatory, or answering questions pertaining to a certain case - что that;
sentences:
R чтобы in order that; как how; будто as if.
День б ы л дождливый, но тёплый. The day was rainy but warm.
T (parts of a sentence) Мне кажется, что он не придёт. It seems that he is not coming.
s У меня б ы л билёт, но я не пошёл I had a ticket but I didn 7 go Я рассказал отцу, как всё произошло. I told ту father everything that had
happened.
в театр, (compound sentence) to the theatre.
о Coordinate conjunctions can be: 2) temporal - когда when, while; как только as soon as, в то врем я, как while;
F после того как after, пока; до того как until; перед тем как before:
1) copulative - и; да (=и) and; ни..., ни.. . neither... nor, не только..., но и not
only... but also', тоже; также also: Когда я читал, он писал письмо. When I was reading, he was writing
S Я послал ему письмо, I sent him a letter and he answered. a letter.
P и он мне ответил. Мы были дома, пока шёл дождь. While it rained, we stayed indoors.
E
Он не решил задачу, мне также Neither he nor I could solve 3) causative - потому что; оттого что; из-за того что; так как; поскольку
E не уд алось её решить. this problem. because:
U I

Меня пригласили на вечерйнку, I was invited to the party, my friend Я не пришёл на занятие, потому I missed ту classes because
моего друга тоже пригласйли. was invited too. что заболел. I had fallen ill.

2) adversative - а; но; однако; зато but. Так как вокзал недалеко, можно The railway station is pretty close,
Многие поддержали его, Many people supported him but пойти пешком. so we can walk there.
a/но я бы л против. I was against him.
4) of purpose —чтобы (для того чтобы), во имя того, чтобы; с тем чтобы
Я бы л уверен в расчётах, однако Though I was confident o f my to, in order that:
решил всё проверить. calculations, I decided to check Он пришёл ко мне, чтобы рассказать Не came to те to tell about his trip,
everything.
о своём путешествии.
3) separative - или or, или..., или; не т о..., не то either... or, to ..., to first... 5) conditional - если if, при условии..., что provided that:
them
Если не будет дождя, мы поедем I f there’s по rain, we will go
Сейчас в Москве или идут дождй, It either rains or is cold in Moscow
загород . to the country.
или холодно. these days.
210
6) concessive - хотя though, although, несмотря на то, что in spite of\ как Particles Expressing
however etc.
Semantic Nuances
Хотя мы опоздали, друзья Although we were late, ourfriends
ничего нам не сказали. pretended not to notice that.
Particles expressing semantic nuances can be demonstrative, definitive,
7) comparative - как as; как будто; словно as if; чем than;
restrictive and/or intensive.
Он так смеялся, как будто перед Не laughed as if he saw a clown The demonstrative particles вот here, вон there, это this, во, вона there
ним был клоун. in front o f him. emphasize objects by drawing attention to them:
Relative pronouns and adverbs can be also used as conjunctions; they conned Вот твоя книга. Она лежала вон там. Here is your book. It was over there.
clauses in compound sentences: Сломали онй, это, д верь и вошлй They broke the door down and came
Я узнал, где находится аптека. I havefound out where the drugstore is. в дом. in the house.
Ко мне пришёл друг, который My friend, who promised to help me, Во/вона куда надо идтй. (low colloquial) You should go over there.
обещал помочь. has come.
The particle вот is also used when a person gives smb smth:
Он вспомнил место, куда He recalled the place where he had
Саша, вот тебе деньги. Sasha, here’s money for you.
ездил отдыхать. spent his vacations.
The definitive particles ровно as if, as though, йменно just, very, exactly,
Писатель, чью кнйгу ты читаешь, The writer whose hook you are now
приблизйтельно about, как раз right, почтй almost, совсем totally, чуть не
интересует и меня. reading interests me too.
nearly, просто just, simply, прямо really, right, точно as if, as though specify the
meaning, making it more precise:
Мы как раз говорйли о тебе. We’ve just talked about you.
He nearly fell down.
Particles Он чуть не упал.
Именно здесь онй встретились. They met at this very place.
Он совсем замёрз. He was stone-cold.
Particles are secondary words that have no lexical meaning of their own but just
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add semantic, emotional, expressive or modal shades to the meanings of words, The restrictive particles всё, только, лишь, едйнственно only,
I

word-combinations or sentences. исключйтельно extremely, хотя бы at least, всего-навсего only restrict


As a rule, particles are connected to other parts of speech by means of: conjunctions certain words by accentuating them:
(а, да, же); adverbs (лишь, только, просто, ещё, уже, прямо), verbs (дай, Лишь он может нам помочь. He alone can help us.
давай, было), interjections (вон, ну). Онй начали работать всего They got down to work only
According to statistics, particles rank among the most frequently used words, месяц назад. a month ago.
occurring predominantly in colloquial speech, but also in fiction, particularly in
Дай хотя бы сто рублей. Give те at least 100 rubles.
dialogues.
The intensive particles даже even, определённо certainly, положйтельно
In Russian, particles are subdivided into the following groups:
1) particles expressing semantic nuances; definitely, решйтельно definitely, absolutely, просто simply, же, ещё enhance
2) particles adding emotional and expressive overtones; i lie meaning of a sentence, making it more expressive:
3) modal particles; Даже не говорй о нём! Don’t even tell me about him!
4) word-forming particles. Что же он не пришёл? Why did he fail to come?
s Зто просто невозможно. It’s simply impossible. Пусть все будут счастливы. May everyone be happy.
E Нет, положительно нам Today we have bad luck. Давай сходим в кино. Let’s go to the movies.
C не везёт сегодня. Ну, говорй, где был. Well, tell me where you have been.
O The particles о, вед ь, вот и, ну и, уж, то-то, что за, как add emotional Let me have a look at the road.
Дай-ка я посмотрю дорогу.
N overtones, making speech sound more expressive without changing the main
Ну-ка выйди на минуту. Get out for a minute.
D meaning:
Да with the verbs in the Present or tense adds a shade of desirability to
A Ну и хорошо! Well done!
a sentence:
R Ну и красавица! What a beautiful girl!
Y Да будет свет! Let there be light.
То-то радость! What a delight!
Да здравствует День Победы! Vivat, Victory Day!
Ведь я говорила об этом! I ’ve told you about it!
P
A
R Affirmative Particles
T Modal particles
S
The affirmative particles are да, так, так точно yes, вот именно exactly,
Modal particles express the speaker’s attitude to the subject of speech.
They can be: хорошо, ладно ОК:
O
1) imperative; Да, не очень хорошо. Yes, nothing so good.
F
2) affirmative; Так, а что д альш е? So, what’s next?
3) negative; Позвони мне завтра. - Call me tomorrow. - OK.
S
4) interrogative; Ладно./Хорошо.
P
5) comparative;
E Да is stylistically neutral; it can be replaced by emotionally coloured equivalents:
6) evaluative.
E конёчно o f course, несомнённо no doubt, непремённо certainly, пожалуй
perhaps, very likely, which emphasize an affirmation:
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Ты придёш ь к нам завтра? — Will you come to see us tomorrow? -


Imperative Particles Непремённо. Certainly.
Пойдёшь с нами? - Ещё бы. Are you going with us? -
The imperative particles бы, ну, дай/давай, пусть/пускай, да, -ка (ну-ка,
I should think so!
давай-ка) express the speaker’s will or desire.
Бы (usually in combination with the infinitive form of a verb) adds the meaning Можно открыть окно? - Конёчно. May I open the window? - Sure.
of desirability to a sentence:
Покурить бы теперь. I ’d like to smoke now.
He тебе бы говорить, не мне бы You shouldn’t tell this, I shouldn’t Negative Particles
слушать. listen.
Пусть, давай, ну (-ка makes imperativeness more polite, softer) express an The negative particles are не, ни, нет no, not. He is often used with predicates
order, invitation or request: and also it can be used with other parts of the sentence:
214 215
S Он не любил это место. He didn’t like the place. Comparative Particles
E Зто был не он, а кто-то другой. It wasn’t him, it was somebody else.
C The particles как бы, будто, как будто, словно are mainly used when the
Он не сказал ни слова. He hasn’t said not a word.
O speaker is uncertain about smth; or when two events are being compared:
(ни enhances negation)
N Он мне задал будто бы важный Не asked те a seemingly important
У меня нет ни минуты времени. I haven’t got a minute to spare.
D вопрос. question.
A If hm is placed before the predicate, it enhances its affirmative meaning: Река словно море. A river looks like a sea.
R Кто ни приходил, все с радостью All the visitorsjoy fully greeted
Y привётствовали хозяйку. the lady o f the house.
Combinations of не with adverbs and modal words (вовсе не, далеко не, Evaluative Particles
P
совсём не, никак не not in the least, not at all) enhances negation:
A The particles дескать, мол, якобы (colloquial) express the feeling of doubt, or
R Вовсе я этого не говорйл. I didn’t say that at all. disagreement with what the speaker says:
T Он далеко не умён. He is not at all clever. Я, мол, не прав. They say I ’m not right.
S Ни + Gen. enhances negation in negative sentences: Дескать, он там не был. Не says he wasn’t there.
В доме нё бы ло нй душй. There was nobody at home. Онй якобы не видели его. They say they haven’t seen him.
O
In stimulating sentences ни particle has negative meaning even without не
F
particle:
Word-forming Particles
S Ни с места! Don’t move!
P Structures with a double не emphasize affirmation: These particles play two main roles: on the one hand, they add certain shades of
E meaning and, on the other hand, participate in the formation of new words.
He могу не сдёлать этого. I cannot help doing it.
E The particles -то, -лйбо, -нибудь, кое- express uncertainty and form indefinite
He могу не сказать. I cannot help telling this. pronouns and adverbs: кое-кто someone, где-нибудь somewhere, когда-либо
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some day.
He and ни form negative and indefinite pronouns and adverbs: никто nobody —
Interrogative Particles некто someone, an unnamed person.
He creates antonymous pairs:
счастье happiness несчастье misfortune
The particles ли (ль), разве, неужели, да ну, depending on an intonation
друг friend недруг enemy
pattern, can add extra emotional and expressive shades to a sentence.
Бы/б forms the Conjunctive mood:
Ли (ль) puts emphasis on the adjacent word: Он бы не сделал эту работу одйн. Не wouldn’t have done this work
He здесь ли ты учился? Was it here that you studied? alone.
Да ну, разве, неужели add a shade of uncertainty, astonishment or doubt: The particles -ся/-сь form reflexive verbs:
Неужели ты его не знаеш ь? Don’t you know him? вернуться to return
216 Разве онй знакомы? Have they ever met? од ёться to put on
s Пусть, да, давай create different forms of the Imperative mood: Modal words have various syntact ic fund ions:
E Давайте дружйть! Let’s befriends. 1) parenthetical words: E
C Пусть он приедет. Let him come. К сожалению, я не могу это Unfortunately, 1 cannot do that. C
O сделать. O
N Несомненно, она это знает. She definitely knows it. N
D 2) words-sentences (usually in dialogues): D
A Modal Words Вам нравится эта книга? - Do you like this book? - Sure. A
R Безусловно. R
Y Modal words play an important stylistic role in speech, making it more expressive Y
Modality is a grammatical category expressing the speaker’s attitude to
and rich in overtones. They are mainly used in oral speech (especially in dialogues).
relationships between the contents of speech and reality. The so-called
P According to their meaning and speech functions, all modal words can be P
objective modality is expressed through moods and tenses and shows that
A subdivided into two groups: A
information conveyed by a sentence is either real or unreal in the present,
R past or future. 1) modal words carrying logical evaluation of an utterance, R
T T
Subjective modality can be expressed through various linguistic means. Thus, the 2) modal words carrying emotional evaluation.
S sentence S
The first group expresses:
Картина хороша. The picture is beautiful. • the speaker’s confidence:
O asserts objective reality. definitely О
несомнённо
F Whereas the following sentences with no doubt F
безусловно
Картйна несомненно хороша!/ The picture is really beautiful!/ очевидно evidently
S Хороша картйна!/Ох и хороша Good Lord, the picture is beautiful! really S
действйтельно
P картйна! в самом дёле indeed P
E • the speaker’s uncertainty, supposition, doubt: E
have additional modal expressive shades of meaning.
E навёрно(е) most likely E
From a morphological point of view, modal words are heterogeneous and correlate

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C with different parts of speech: вероятно probably
H • with nouns: возможно possibly
право indeed пожёлуй perhaps
факт fact может бы ть (neutral), maybe
• short-form adjectives: бы ть может, может (colloquial)
действйтельно really apparently
должно быть
верно right
кажется it seems...
очевидно obviously
казалось it seemed...
• verbs:
The second group expresses:
пожалуй perhaps
кажется • a source of information:
it seems
по-моему as to me
разумеется o f course, etc.
по моему мнёнию in my opinion
All of them are inalterable.
218 no eró словём in his words 219
S на мой взгляд in my opinion Some interjections can be polysemantic: s
E как известно as fa r as is known Ax, как страшно в лесу! (fear) Ah, it’s frightening in the woods. E
C • regret, repentance, confusion: Ах, как хорошо здесь! Ah, it’s so beautiful herel C
O (joy, satisfaction) О
к сожалению regretfully
N N
к несчастью unfortunately Ах, жаль, что ты не поехал с нами. Ah, it’s a pity you couldn’t go
D D
к счастью (regret) with us.
A fortunately A
• the order of thoughts: In this case, their meaning depends on the context and general meaning
R R
of a sentence.
Y во-первых firstly Y
Syntactically, interjections are not connected to parts of a sentence. They can be
во-вторых secondly used as separate sentences:
P напротив P
on the contrary Ура! Мы победили! Hurrah! We have won!
A A
например fo r example or can form emotional dialogue utterances:
R R
с одной стороны on the one hand Его убили, знаеш ь? —Убили? Не was killed, you know... —Killed?
T T
S итак so Ox ты, господи! Good Heavens! S
в конце концов finally Some indissoluble entities can be used as interjections:
O между прочим by the way слёва богу! Thank God! О
F боже мой! господи, помилуй! Goodness gracious! For God’s sake F
• an attempt to attract attention:
чёрт возьми! Damn!
представьте себе, вообразите imagine
S All interjections are subdivided into emotional and imperative. S
поверите ли believe or not The emotional ones are as follows:
P P
E • commonness: • interjections carrying positive evaluation: ага! ай! ax! браво! урэ!, etc. E
E как всегда as ever Ай да глазки! Oh, what eyes! E
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по обыкновению, как обычно as usual Ax, как красиво! Oh, how beautiful! C
Брёво! Прекрёсная игра! Bravo! An excellent game! H
• interjections carrying negative evaluation: вот ещё! ax! ай! брр! (ть)фу!
эх!, etc.
Interjections Фу, как зд есь грязно! Ugh, it’s so dirty here!
Эх, ты! Как же ты забы л? Shame on you! How could you
By interjections we mean a class of words that do not change grammatically and
forget it?
express various feelings. Interjections express emotions but have no nominative
functions, i. e. they do not name states or feelings. They are kind of sound signals • interjections showing astonishment, reproach, suddenness, fear - 6a!
expressing certain emotions. батюшки! матушки! мамочка! ну и ну! подумать только! боже мой!
Nevertheless, interjections possess certain semantic content. Thus, 6a! expresses господи! увы!:
astonishment; a-xe-xe - regret and melancholy, cf>y! - disappointment and Ба! Подумать только! И ты здесь! Fancy that! So, you are here too!
220 contempt. У вы ! Я стар д л я п утеш ё ствий ! A la s ! I ’m to o o ld f o r tra v e l. 221
The imperative ones are as follows: хватать to seize S
S
E • interjections expressing will, desire, order - айда! брысь! вон! тсс! ну! моргнуть to blink E
C цыц! марш! но! стоп!: тыкать to poke C
O O
Вон отсюда! Get out o f here! Sound-imitations can vary phonetically: vowels, consonants or the whole word
N can be repeated to show, for example, the duration of a sound: бом-м! бо-о-м! N
Тсс! Ребёнок спит! Hush! The child is asleep.
D бо-м-бо-м! D
На, возьми книги! Here, take the hooks. A
A
R • interjections designed to attract attention - ay! алло! эй!: R
Y Ay! Где вы ? Halloo, where are you? Y
Алло! Вы слышите меня? Hello, do you hear me?
P P
Some interjections can be emotional and imperative.
A A
Ну, молодец! (emotional) That’s a good boy!
R R
Читай! Ну! (imperative) Come on, read, will you? T
T
S S

O O
Sound-imitating Words F
F

These words imitate sounds produced by people, animals or objects of nature: S


S
апчхй ahchoo P
P
E тик-так tic-tac E
E мяу meow E

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гав-гав bow-wow
кукареку cock-a-doodle-doo
ку-ку cuckoo
In contrast to interjections, sound-imitating words do not carry any emotional
meaning, but only indicate who or what has produced this or that sound.
Words like толк, хлоп, прыг, скок, хвать, морг, тык do not belong to the
sound-imitation group but correlate with infinitives sharing the same lexical
meaning and expressing instant action:
толкнуть to push
хлопнуть to clap
прыгнуть tojump
ска ка ть 223
222 to h o p
Russian Gram m ar
Русский язык.
Грамматика
На английском языке
•Essential reference book for those
studying Russian
•Grammatical categories of all parts of
speech
•Colour-coding makes necessary
information easy to find

Noun
Adjective
Pronoun
Adverb/Category of State/Numeral
Verb
Secondary Parts of Speech

Издательство
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