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1. What is the use of a bonding tester in Aircraft? How would you carry out bonding test on aircraft?


Topics concerning the electrical bonding of aircraft structure as well as electrical bonding of subsystems to aircraft structure. The primary
purpose of bonding aircraft components is to ensure all components are of the same electrical potential


All conductive aircraft components are electrically connected to one another. These connections must have a minimal electrical resistance to
prevent damage in cases of lightning strike or residual current in the aircraft systems. Or production of static charge on aircraft.
A test current (e.g. 10A) is fed into the measurement point. (Test points are the screening, screw connections, earthling straps, and pipes).
Based on voltage drop the contact resistance is calculated.

Bond Tester is consists of an ohmmeter operating on the current ratio principle, with the associated cables are 60 feet (single-spike probe
earth connection) and 6 feet in length are two spike probe.

Before carrying out a bonding test, internal battery must be checked for proper operation of the tester by observing; 1) Full-scale deflection of
the meter is obtained when the two spikes of the 6- foot cable probe are shorted
2) Meter reads zero when all three probes spikes (2 x 6-foot probe and a 60-foot probe) shorted.
Note: If the leads of a bonding tester are damaged, the damaged leads and the tester should be returned to the manufacturer for repair and

The leads of a bonding tester have critical lengths and the resistance of the leads is accounted for,
60-foot lead (bond datum point) of the test equipment should be connected to the main earth NOTE: When connecting the 60-foot lead to an
earthling point, any protective treatment (e.g. strippable lacquer) should be removed at the point of contact.
6-foot test lead should be used to check the resistance between selected points, which is specified in the bonding test schedule or the
Maintenance Manual for the aircraft concerned. When the two spikes of the test lead probe are brought into contact with the aircraft part, the
test- meter will indicate, in ohms, the resistance of the bond.
Bonding value for secondary structure is a maximum of 1 ohm & for Primary structure bonding should be no more than 50 milliohms

While doing circuit tests on aircraft bonding test should be the first in order before, continuity, insulation, functional

2. What is BITE? Describe the use of BITE?

BITE is an acronym of Built-in test equipment (BITE) which can only be performed on ground and deactivated on take-off.

Primarily purpose of BITE is passive fault management with the help of diagnosis equipment built into airborne systems to support
maintenance processes of all dedicated systems. Composed of LRUs which can be computers, sensors, probes, actuators, which perform
specific functions. A part of each system is dedicated to functions such as monitoring, testing and troubleshooting.
It includes millimetres, oscilloscopes, discharge probes, and frequency generators that are provided as part of the system to enable testing and
perform diagnostics.

Test management
System Analysis & monitoring with test results
Reporting and memorization of failures

Testing with BITE:

Power up test, CPU test, memory test, ARINC test, I/O test, configuration test
Bite tests are carried out independently. Because they do not disturb normal operation.

Operation test: (Cyclic tests)

System test: carried out by the maintenance staff for troubleshooting purposes
Specific test: Available only to specific systems
They are performed to generate stimuli to other device such as actuators or valves. (it has major effect on “automatic moving of flaps etc)
BITE test record the error in a memory device & the information are sent to the centralized maintenance computer.
3. APU starter electrical fault. What is the procedure/ equipment used to return the aircraft to service?

APU Battery and Starter:

APU control circuits are powered by the main airplane battery. So the major cause of the aircraft APU starter electrical fault is either battery or
the APU starter transformer rectifier unit (TRU) may cause of shutting down of Power source of starter power, intake flap is not open, fuel
pump, fuel control unit fault, ECB fault or start switch fault
or wiring and connections may also be the cause but it’s quite often.

Remote Stop Switch: Pressing the switch a minimum of five seconds shuts down the APU.
Note: The APU FAULT light will not illuminate when the remote stop switch is used for shut down.

Measuring equipment’s required to diagnose:

DMM, and required tools with TSM AMM APU starter manual.

Procedure used to return the aircraft to service

APU Troubleshooting is performed as per TSM ATA 49
Read the Auto shutdown report
Perform Fault isolation procedures bite test
Then do the isolation procedure as per AMM as for any fault in aircraft it is requires to follow the correct ATA TSM and do fault isolation
procedures (to check individual components which might be affected or can be faulty) which contains BITE test so same as for APU. After

4. Describe the procedure and precautions for towing an aircraft from base maintenance to the apron.


References made in accordance with maintenance manual for ground lock, steering, connection pins, switches and “radii of turns” limitations
Serviceability of aircraft brakes to be checked.
Availability of telephonic communication.
Deployment of personnel for wing tips and tail obstruction look up.

Before towing
One man who is fully trained to do so sit in the cockpit to operate the brakes
All aircraft doors must be locked & secured.
Undercarriage pins must be installed.
Check for tyre pressure
Connect the correct tow bar with the shear pin installed
One man overall in charge of the towing operation and be able to communicate with the main in the cockpit.
Start APU to ensure sufficient hydraulic pressure for the brakes (if required)
Obtain clearance from the tower
Set anti-collision light and becon light “ON”
During Towing
One man at each wing tips
Tow slowing and never exceed 5mph (8 km/h)
The man in the cockpit must be alert at all time and ready to apply the aircraft brakes when commanded.

After Towing
Ensure that the wheel have revolved at least one revolution in a straight line to relieve tyre and landing gear stresses.
Park the aircraft at the correct position.
Insert chocks, reset nose wheel steering.
Switch OFF APU and anti collosion light.


A person in charge with all other members in sight.
A person must standby in the cockpit to operate the brake in case of emergency.
Do not operates the aircraft brake when aircraft is towed.
Do not push on flying control surfaces or other delicate parts such as fabric skin. The leading edges of the wing are normally strongest, so push
the aircraft backwards.
Undercarriage ground locks must be fitted prior to towing.
Be sure that the limits of nose wheel movement are observed since the towing stops can be damaged if these limits are exceeded.
When towing the aircraft, never turn the nose wheel more than 30˚ either side of centre or the nose gear will be damaged.
5. Explain the operating principle of a moving coil ohmmeter, and why full scale deflection is zero.

Electricity makes magnetism

If you send an electric current in a wire, A magnetic field around the wire is created at the same time. it can be measured easily by compass if
bring closer to it when the coil is energised or switch on the current, When switch turn off the current and the needle will flick back again. It’s
all rough operation of a moving coil ohmmeter.
The electric current passing down a wire creates a magnetic field that makes a needle flick to one side.
It's the basic science behind moving-coil meters.

Inside a meter, a tight coil of copper wire, wrapped round an iron core, is mounted in between the poles of a permanent magnet.
The coil has connections at either end so an electric current can pass through it and it has a long pointer stuck to it that runs out across the
meter dial.

When connect the meter into a circuit and turn on the current, the current creates a magnetic field in the coil. The field repels the magnetic
field created by the permanent magnet, making the coil rotate and turning the pointer up the dial. The more current that flows through the
coil, the bigger the magnetic field it creates, the greater the repulsion, the more the coil turns, and the further up the dial the pointer goes. So
the pointer gives you a measurement of how much current is passing through the coil. Deflecting force is provided by a current carrying coil
pivoted in a permanent magnet field, controlling force in a moving coil meter is provided by hairsprings - oppositely wound, damping force in a
meter prevents oscillation of the pointer

With appropriate calibration, you can use the dial to measure the current directly.

How moving-coil meters work

With the probes unconnected, the meter is open switch: no current can flow into the meter or the coil inside it. With no current flowing, the
coil generates no magnetic field and the pointer stays at zero. Connect the meter probes to something you're testing (such as a circuit board),
and current will immediately start to flow through the meter and the coil inside it. The moving current creates a temporary magnetic field
around the coil that repels the magnetic field created by the permanent magnet. The strength of the magnetic field is directly related to the
size of the current that flows through the coil. The greater the current, the greater the magnetic field produced by the coil, and the higher up
the dial the pointer moves.

Why full scale deflection is zero:

On ohm scale on an ohmmeter is on extreme right and max is on extreme left side,
full scale deflect zero because it means there is no any resistance In between the probes and the meter shows the full reading as getting from
the internal coil with the magnet inside and vice versa,
Zeroing the needle before the test is also the calibration test to get the exact result

6. Describe the process of wire stripping and three faults to avoid during wire stripping.
Wire strippers perform two actions

Cuts Coating: The series of holes on the wire stripper fit different sized wires. When you press the stripper shut, the
appropriately sized hole becomes teeth that cut the plastic coating but leaves the core wire intact and undamaged.
Removes Coating: Continuing the above motion, the user keeps the stripper shut and slides the stripper towards the
cut end of the wire, removing and discarding the coating.

How to Use Wire Strippers

Find Wire Gauge: Identify the gauge of the copper wire to be stripped. You can find this on the outermost sheathing
that binds multiple wires together. With a number such as 12/2, the first number is wire gauge and the second
number (referring to quantity of wires) can be ignored. The most common wire gauges in household wiring will be
Match Gauges: Match the gauge with the appropriate hole on the wire stripper. The hole will be marked. This step
is essential. If you choose a hole that is too big, the coating will not cut and thus the wire will not strip. If you
choose a hole that is too small, both the coating and the wire may entirely sever. The latter can be a major problem
if you are dealing with wires coming out of a box that are already limited in length.
Open and Seat: Open the wire stripper handles. "Seat" the wire into one side of the hole.
Press: Slowly press the handles together until they can go no farther.
Twist (Optional): If the coating does not fully cut, you may have to gently rotate the wire within the hole (or the wire
stripper around the wire, whichever is easier). You do not have to rotate far: just a quarter turn in one direction and
Remove and Discard: Pull the wire stripper towards the cut end of the wire, like pulling a sock off of a foot. Discard
the casing as it has no further use.

Bottom Line
Wire strippers have holes sized to the gauge of the wire. Since the holes are smaller than the diameter of the plastic
coating, the cutting edge on the inner part of the holes will slice away the coating.
The holes accommodate a mid-range of wire gauges. Wire too thick or too thin cannot be cut with the wire stripper.

three faults to avoid during wire stripping.

pros, cone, verdit in wire stripping

63. Two or more operations should be performed to strip wire with hand operated wire stripper if the total stripping length exceeds
0.50 in
0.25 in
0.75 inch

7. Describe the procedure of refuelling an aircraft and the safety procedures that must be followed.

Majority of refuelling operations are carried out after passengers are disembarked and before passengers board the

Safety procedures:
Fire extinguishers and an aviation fuel system emergency shutdown valve are available at accessible positions at the
aircraft parking stands + Regular emergency response training would be conducted to ensure the refuelling crew is
conversant with the contingency procedures

Aircraft wheels are adequately chocked before refuelling starts;

Refuelling zone extending not less than 6 metres radially from the filling and venting points of the aircraft,
Refuelling does not take place if hot brakes occur after landing are observed, until the brakes have been cooled to
reduce potential fire danger.
The aircraft and the refuelling vehicle, should be effectively bonded to each other before filler caps are removed,
and shall not be disconnected until the filler caps have been replaced.
Ground power units must be positioned at least 6 metres from the aircraft fuel coupling and venting points
Aircraft refuelling should not be done while HF operated
60 meters of high freq or radar operation
6 meters of smoking range

Oxygen system on-board the aircraft shall not be refilled during refuelling.

08. Describe the safety precautions to be taken when servicing an oxygen system.

Oxygen servicing requires the utmost precautionary measures due to the highly explosive and flammable capabilities
of oxygen. Prior to servicing an aircraft oxygen system, personnel shall familiarize themselves with the system,

CAUTION Only qualified personnel shall be authorized to operate equipment for servicing of an aircraft
Aircraft shall not be serviced with oxygen when any of the following conditions prevail.
Aircraft electrical switches are on.
Ground powered equipment is operating within 50feet of the servicing area.
Aircraft is being serviced with fuel, oil, or anti-icing fluids.
Any combustible items, such as fluid, etc. , are evident around oxygen servicing equipment.

b.Servicing. General servicing procedures for oxygen systems are explained in the following paragraphs.
Oxygen equipment shall be kept clean at all times. No organic matter or flammable substance of any
nature shall be allowed to contact oxygen. Ensure that all components of the systems are free of moisture,
oil and grease at all times. Oxygen is a non flammable gas, however, itsupports combustion and lowers
theflash ignition point of allcombustible materials. Oxygen shallbe handled as a flammable gas.
• When an aircraft is being servicedwith oxygen within 50 feet of an areawhere smoking is permitted,
NOSMOKING signs shall be placed at a50-foot radius around the servicingarea.
A spark in the servicing areacould cause an explosion anddamage to equipment.
(1)To prevent overfilling of tanks,personnel shall observe aircraft oxygen system gauges atall times during servicing
(2)Personnel shall be stationed at theoxygen servicing unit at all times during servicingoperation
to shut off unit valves immediately uponreceiving a command from personnel watching aircraftsystem
(3)Service aircraft from cylinders clearlylabeled DRY or AVIATOR'S BREATHING OXYGEN.Other oxygen
may have moisture which could cause flowstoppage at temperatures below freezing.
(4)Always use a pressure-reducing devicewhen servicing low-pressure oxygen system from highpressure
(5)Fill oxygen system slowly to preventexplosion resulting from heat generated by filling too fast.
(6)An aircraft oxygen system not equippedwith shutoff devices at cylinders shall be completelydischarged of
all pressure prior to removing components.All electrical power shall be turned off during oxygendischarge
(7)Refer to the applicable aircraftmaintenance manual for additional information andmaintenance

9. Describe the precautions to be taken when charging oxygen systems.

Filling procedures for oxygen systems vary. Many general aviation aircraft are set up to simply replace an empty
cylinder with one that is fully charged. This is also the case with a portable oxygen system. High performance and air
transport category aircraft often have built-in oxygen systems that contain plumbing designed to refill gaseous
oxygen cylinders while they are in place. A general discussion of the procedure to fill this type of installation follows.

Before charging any oxygen system, consult the aircraft manufacturer’s maintenance manual. The type of oxygen to
be used, safety precautions, equipment to be used, and the procedures for filling and testing the system must be
observed. Several general precautions should also be observed when servicing a gaseous oxygen system. Oxygen
valves should be opened slowly and filling should proceed slowly to avoid overheating. The hose from the refill
source to the oxygen fill valve on the aircraft should be purged of air before it is used to transfer oxygen into the
system. Pressures should also be checked frequently while refilling.

Airline and fixed-base operator maintenance shops often use oxygen filler carts to service oxygen systems. These
contain several large oxygen supply cylinders connected to the fill cart manifold. This manifold supplies a fill hose
that attaches to the aircraft. Valves and pressure gauges allow awareness and control of the oxygen dispensing
process. [Figure 1] Be sure all cylinders on the cart are aviator’s breathing oxygen and that all cylinders contain at
least 50 psi of oxygen pressure. Each cylinder should also be within its hydrostatic test date interval. After a cart
cylinder has dispensed oxygen, the remaining pressure should be recorded. This is usually written on the outside of
the cylinder with chalk or in a cylinder pressure log kept with the cart. As such, the technician can tell at a glance the
status of each oxygen bottle.

No pump or mechanical device is used to transfer oxygen from the fill cart manifold to the aircraft system. Objects
under pressure flow from high pressure to low pressure. Thus, by connecting the cart to the aircraft and
systematically opening oxygen cylinders with increasingly higher pressure, a slow increase in oxygen flow to the
aircraft can be managed.

The following is a list of steps to safely fill an aircraft oxygen system from a typical oxygen refill cart.
Check hydrostatic dates on all cylinders, especially those that are to be filled on the aircraft. If a cylinder is out of
date, remove and replace it with a specified unit that is serviceable.
Check pressures on all cylinders on the cart and in the aircraft. If pressure is below 50 psi, replace the cylinder(s). On
the aircraft, this may require purging the system with oxygen when completed. Best practices dictate that any low-
pressure or empty cylinder(s) on the cart should also be removed and replaced when discovered.
Take all oxygen handling precautions to ensure a safe environment around the aircraft.
Ground the refill cart to the aircraft.
Connect the cart hose from the cart manifold to the aircraft fill port. Purge the air from the refill hose with oxygen
before opening the refill valve on the aircraft. Some hoses are equipped with purge valves to do this while the hose
is securely attached to the aircraft. Others hoses need to be purged while attached to the refill fitting but not fully
Observe the pressure on the aircraft bottle to be filled. Open it. On the refill cart, open the cylinder with the closest
pressure to the aircraft cylinder that exceeds it.
Open the aircraft oxygen system refill valve. Oxygen will flow from cart cylinder (manifold) into the aircraft cylinder.
When the cylinder pressures equalize, close the cylinder on the cart, and open the cart cylinder with the next highest
pressure. Allow it to flow into the aircraft cylinder until the pressures equalize and flow ceases. Close the cart
cylinder, and proceed to the cart cylinder with the next highest pressure.
Continue the procedure in step 8 until the desired pressure in the aircraft cylinder is achieved.
Close the aircraft refill valve, and close all cylinders on the cart.
The aircraft oxygen cylinder valve(s) should be left in the proper position for normal operations. Remotely mounted
cylinders are usually left open.
Disconnect the refill line from the refill port on the aircraft. Cap or cover both.
Remove the grounding strap.

10. Why may you need to level an aeroplane and name three types of leveling?

Section 08-20 Leveling & WEIGHT

Leveling of the aircraft for the weight and balance determination must be conducted on aircraft scales.

Levelling For some purposes, such as rigging or weighing, an aircraft must be levelled laterally and longitudinally and a number of different
methods may be employed.
The aircraft basic weight and associated center of gravity must be accurately known at all times to ensure a safe aircraft operation.
1 Spirit Level
Many aircraft are levelled by use of a spirit level, which is placed at jigged positions on the airframe structure.

light aircraft
longitudinally level position is generally obtained by placing the spirit level on two pegs or on the heads of two partially withdrawn screws on
the side of the fuselage and adjusting the jacks (or the shock absorber extension or tyre pressures, if the aircraft is resting on its wheels) until
the spirit level is centred.
laterally level position is obtained by placing the spirit level on the centre-section spar boom (or other nominated position) and again adjusting
the jacks or tyre pressures until the level is centred.

Large aircraft:
Spirit level may be used in conjunction with special fittings, which are secured by locations in the centre fuselage or in one of the wheel bays;
these fittings must be removed before flight and should have warning streamers attached. If adjustments have been necessary to level an
aircraft laterally, the longitudinal level should be re-checked. NOTE: In cases where tyre pressures are adjusted to level the aircraft, care must
be taken not to over-inflate or to completely deflate a tyre.

2 Plumb Bob LEVEL

On many aircraft a plumb bob is used in conjunction with a levelling plate. The plumb bob is suspended from a fixed position in the cabin roof
or upper part of a wheel bay and hangs over a levelling plate, which may be a permanent fixture or a separate fitting accurately located on the
cabin floor or lower part of the wheel bay. The levelling plate is marked with a zero position and scales indicating the adjustments required
about the lateral and longitudinal axes to centre the plumb bob.

3 Engineers Transit LEVEL

The most accurate means of levelling an aircraft is by the use of an engineers transit (theodolite) in conjunction with range poles or scales
located on the aircraft’s lateral and longitudinal axes. The transit is set up below the aircraft centreline and between the lateral levelling points
and levelled horizontally. Range poles or scales are then located at the four marked levelling points on the lower surfaces of the fuselage and
wings. Sightings are first taken on the lateral range poles or scales and the main jacks are adjusted until identical readings are obtained.
Sightings are then taken on the longitudinal range poles or scales and the nose jack is adjusted until identical readings are again obtained. The
aircraft is then considered level and the transit can be removed. NOTE: The transit method is also employed when checking alignment of the
aircraft structure, graduations on the range poles being used to check dihedral and incidence.