Sie sind auf Seite 1von 25

Tips & Tricks of

Container Drop Simulation

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc. Container Drop Simulation


Copyright 2002 ABAQUS, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 2

CONTAINER DROP SIMULATION

OVERVIEW:

 CONTAINER WITH PARTIALLY FILLED FLUID SIMULATED

 CONTAINER DROPPED FROM 2 FEET & 3 FEET

 TEST DATA WAS AVAILABLE AT THESE DROP HEIGHTS.

 METHODOLOGY FOR THIS ANALYSIS CAN BE EXTENDED TO

•HEAD IMPACT SIMULATIONS

•GAS TANK SIMULATIONS

•PIERCING OF SKIN ETC.

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 3

BOTTLE DROP SIMULATIONS: ABAQUS SOLUTIONS

Analysis Objective:

•Simulate behavior of Container under various loading conditions


•Predict and Prevent Container Rupture on Impact

Engineering Challenges ABAQUS Solutions


•Highly Dynamic •Explicit Solver
•Large Deformation •Robust Technology; Adaptive Meshing
•Large Problem •Efficient Parallel Solver
•Rupture •Material & Element Failure
•Fluid Sloshing •Advanced Material Model (Equation of State)
•Complex Contact •General Contact (Version 6.3)

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop from 2 Feet

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc. Container Drop Simulation


Copyright 2002 ABAQUS, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 5

Animation: 2 D View of Container (2 feet drop)

(Click on image to view movie.)

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 6

Animation: 3 D View of Container (2 feet drop)

(Click on image to view movie.)

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop from 3 Feet

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc. Container Drop Simulation


Copyright 2002 ABAQUS, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 8

Animation: 3 D View of Container (3 feet drop)

(Click on image to view movie.)

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 9

Animation: 3 D View of Container (3 feet drop)

(Click on image to view movie.)

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Simulation Technique

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc. Container Drop Simulation


Copyright 2002 ABAQUS, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 11

GEOMETRY & MESH

CONTAINER FLUID GROUND


Element Type S4R C3D8R R3D4
Number of 17,283 106,880 1
Elements
Number of 17,259 113,816 4
Nodes

Total Degrees of Freedom in the Model ~ 100K

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 12

GEOMETRY & MESH

ASSEMBLY KEYWORDS

*Assembly
*Part, name = Container
Geometry Creation *End Part
*Part, name = Fluid
Mesh Generation ABAQUS/CAE *End Part
*Part, name = Ground
Assembly of Parts *End Part
*End Assembly

TIP
Use a Uniform Mesh for Fluid
Start with coarse mesh ; Finalize methodology ; Refine mesh
Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 13

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Fluid

• Equation of State Material Model is defined using *EOS.

• EOS provides a hydrodynamic material model where pressure is defined as


a function of density and specific energy.

• Variables Co, s, To (defined along with *EOS option) depend on fluid being
modeled. Values used in simulation for water (Co = 57100 ; s=0 ; To=0 ).

• Tension Cutoff Pressure is assumed to be zero and specified with *TENSILE


FAILURE.

EQUATION KEYWORDS
K
Calculate c  * Material, name = Fluid
Co using o ρo * Density
* Eos, Type = USUP
K
ρ o= Bulk Modulus * Tensile Failure, Element Deletion = Yes
= Reference Density
Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 14

MATERIAL PROPERTIES

Container

• Elastic – Plastic Type Material


Property definition used KEYWORDS

• Container is simulated with High * Material, name = Container


Density Polyethylene material * Density
properties * Elastic
* Plastic
• Tensile Failure with Hydro-static *Tensile Failure, Element Deletion = Yes
stress used as Failure Criterion
1450.00
• Calibrate Failure using
combination of simulations & test
data.
TIP
Use Equation of State Material model based on fluid being simulated
Finalize Analysis Methodology & then incorporate Failure into Analysis
Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 15

SECTIONAL PROPERTIES

Sectional Controls used for Fluid Elements

• Pure Stiffness Form of Hourglass Control Used

• Non Default Scaling Factors has been used

• For C3D8R element; default kinematic formulation is relatively expensive in


3D simulations; orthogonal kinematic formulation used instead

• Kinematic split=orthogonal is used to reduce computational cost


-this option works well for rigid body motion
-Performs well for refined mesh

KEYWORD

* Section Controls, Name = Sect, Kinematics = Orthogonal, Hourglass = Stiffness

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 16

SECTIONAL PROPERTIES

Shell Section Properties used for Container


• Shell section behavior using *Shell Section

• To represent varying thickness of container, repeat *SHELL SECTION

KEYWORDS

*Shell Section, Elset = Container, material = HDPE


0.063, 5
*Shell Section, Elset = Container_Bottom, material = HDPE
0.078, 5

TIP
 Decide Hourglass Control Method and Scaling Factors based on
level of mesh refinement & amount of deformation of fluid elements

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 17

LOADS & BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

• Gravity Loading defined on both


container and fluid

• Initial Velocity defined on both KEYWORDS


container and fluid
* Initial Conditions, Type = Velocity
( 2 Feet Drop -> 136 in/s * Dload
3 Feet Drop -> 168 in/s ) Container, GRAV, -386,0,1,0
Fluid, GRAV, -386,0,1,0
• No boundary constraints applied on
container or fluid

TIP

 Do not use Tied Constraint between Container & Fluid Elements


 Do not scale velocity of drop to reduce simulation time

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 18

CONTACT INTERACTIONS

• General Contact allows for very simple KEYWORDS


definition of contact
* Contact
(ABAQUS Version 6.3)
* Contact Inclusions
S1 , S2
S3 , S1
• Contact Interactions defined between
Fluid & Container and Container & Ground S1->Surface of Container ;
S2->Ground ;S3->Node Based Surface of Fluid

• Contact Pair Algorithm does not remove


contact faces and edges from contact
domain as underlying elements fail.

• General Contact can update failed


surfaces ; very useful in modeling fluid
sloshing out of broken container (Click on image to view movie.)

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 19

CONTACT INTERACTIONS

TIPS

Do not use *Contact Pair or ALL ELEMENT BASED option in


General Contact

Use Contact Node Set to model fluid surface

Resolution of Initial Overclosure between Container & Fluid Elements


very critical for accurate modeling

‘No Thick’ option for surfaces does not work in General Contact;
Surface thickness is always considered

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 20

ADAPTIVE MESHING

• Adaptive Mesh is essential to maintain mesh quality in fluid elements given the
amount of deformation that they go through. Get the Analysis to run with adaptive
mesh successfully before incorporating adaptive mesh controls.

• Curvature Refinement is used to increase and retain more elements in areas of high
curvature.
KEYWORDS

* Adaptive Mesh, Elset = Fluid, Frequency =5, Mesh Sweeps =3, Controls = Cont
* Adaptive Mesh Controls, Name = Cont , Curvature Refinement = 2,
Transition Feature Angle = 30, Smoothing Objective = Graded

TIP
 Increasing Adaptive Mesh Frequency or Mesh Sweeps may not
necessarily decrease computation time since quality of mesh
improves through adaptive meshing

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 21

CALIBRATION OF FAILURE

• Container Drop Analysis requires failure module driven by tensile loading.

• Tensile Failure invoked by *TENSILE FAILURE.

• Tensile Failure model uses hydrostatic pressure stress as a failure measure to


model pressure cutoff. (Value of 1450 psi used in simulation)

• Removal of an element takes place when failure criterion is met at an integration


point

• In a shell element, all through-the-


thickness integration points must fail
before element fails.

• Hydrostatic Pressure Stress can be viewed


using ABAQUS/Viewer

Result -> Field Output -> Pressure Stress.

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 22

CALIBRATION OF FAILURE

PROCEDURE TO START CALIBRATION KEYWORDS


• Run Container Drop Analysis without
Tensile Failure. * Material
* Tensile Failure, Element Deletion = Yes
• Look for maximum Hydrostatic Pressure 1450.0
Stress Value in tension.

• As a starting point, incorporate a fraction


of maximum value as Failure criterion.
Compare simulation results to test data.

TIP
 Calibration of Failure is an involved process; may need a series of
iterative simulations to get to the right Failure value.
 In shell elements; all through-the-thickness integration points have to
fail for element deletion.

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


Container Drop Simulation 23

CONCLUSION

SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT TIPS


Use Equation of State Material model based on fluid being simulated
 Finalize Analysis Methodology & then incorporate Failure into Analysis
 Do not use Tied Constraint between Container & Fluid Elements
 Do not use *Contact Pair or ALL ELEMENT BASED option in General Contact
 Use Contact Node Set to model fluid surface
 Calibration of Failure is an involved process; may need a series of iterative
simulations to get to the right Failure value.
 In shell elements; all through-the-thickness integration points have to fail
for element deletion.

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.


CONCLUSION

ABAQUS/Explicit can be used effectively to simulate real–world impact


simulations without making any approximations.

ABAQUS Solutions Midwest and other ABAQUS offices are eager to work
with you in developing strategies for such challenging problems.

Methodology for container drop can be extended to simulate a wide

range of impact simulations in Medical, Automotive, Aerospace Industries.

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc. Container Drop Simulation


Copyright 2002 ABAQUS, Inc.
Container Drop Simulation 25

Questions & Answers

(Click on images to view movies.)

Copyright 2002 ABAQUS Solutions Midwest, Inc.