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Rabino

2009-17742

BS Computer Engineering

EEE 34 FRU

Experiment 3: Resistance Measurements

I.Objectives

1mA Movement Protoboard

Digital Voltmeter (DVM) Wires, Connector Clips

Analog Multimeter

Potentiometer Box

III. Deviation from Procedure

1). In procedure no.3 , we used 10KΩ potentiometer box instead of using DRB.

Resistance Deflection

Ra 0.16 mA

Rb 0.42 mA

Rc 0.62 mA

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA

Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA

Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA

Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA

Rc 2.6 V 0.40 mA

Resistance DRB setting DRB setting

(Vs=5V) (Vs = 10 V)

Ra 54 KΩ 54.1 KΩ

Rb 14.1 KΩ 14.37 KΩ

Rc 6.57 KΩ 6.57 KΩ

V. Analysis of Data

There is no too much variation in the data in part II.1 and part II.2

Same as in varying the voltage supply in part III. (Vs= 5V and Vs =10V).

RU = unknown resistance

1. Show that the relationship between unknown resistance RU and deflection D for the series

ohmmeter circuit of Figure 1 is given by:

Vs = I * R

I = D * 1 mA

R = Req = R1 + R2 + RU

We now let RO = R1 + R2

Req = RO + RU

I = 1 mA

Vs = 1 * RO

RO = D(RO + RU)

(RO) = RO +RU

(D)

(RO) - RO = RU

(D)

RU = RO( 1 – D)

D

In our case, what is the value of RO? Why was it not necessary to measure the value of R2 to

be able to determine the value of RO?

The value of RO is 10KΩ.It is because obviously the total resistance is just 10KΩ which is the

maximum resistance of the potentiometer box. The reason why we adjust R2 is to account the

internal resistance of ammeter so that the total resistance of the two resistors is still 10KΩ.

2. Use the equation given in 1 above to determine the values of Ra, Rb, Rc. Treat these as your

experimental results. Compare these with the actual values of Ra, Rb, Rc given by your

instructor. Account for any differences. Extend table 1 to show your results.

RU Error

Ra 0.16 mA 52.5 KΩ 56 KΩ 6.25%

Rb 0.42 mA 13.8 KΩ 15 KΩ 8%

Rc 0.62 mA 6.129 KΩ 6.8 KΩ 9.85%

3. From the voltage and current readings obtained in Procedure II, compute the corresponding

resistance values of Ra, Rb, Rc both the circuit of Figure 3 and the circuit of Figure 3. Neglect

the loading effects of the meters. Compare these with the actual values of Ra, Rb, Rc. Tabulate

your results. Account for any differences obtained.

RU = VVOLTMETER

IAMMETER

For Figure 2

(V) Reading (mA) Value of RU Value of RU Error

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 65 KΩ 16.07%

Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 14.44 KΩ 3.73%

Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA 6.8 KΩ 6.19 KΩ 8.97%

For Figure 3

(V) (mA) Value of RU Error

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 65 KΩ 16.07%

Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 14.44 KΩ 3.73%

Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA 6.8 KΩ 6.19 KΩ 8.97%

4. From the voltage and current readings obtained in Procedure II, re-compute the

corresponding resistance values of Ra, Rb and Rc taking into account the loading effect of the

meters. How do these compare with the previously computed values and with the actual values

of Ra, Rb, and Rc?

For Figure 2

In figure 2, the internal resistance of the voltmeter is 10KΩ. Considering the loading effect, the total

current would be equal to the current through RU plus the current through the voltmeter. And the total

resistance would now be equal to RU parallel with internal resistance of voltmeter.

Rtotal = RU * 10KΩ

RU + 10KΩ

We know the Rtotal is just equal to Vs/ I

RU = 10Vs .

10(I) + Vs

(V) (mA) Value of RU Error

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 8.6667 KΩ 84.523%

Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 5.9091 KΩ 60%

Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA 6.8 KΩ 3.8235 KΩ 43.77%

For Figure 3

In figure 3, the internal resistance of the ammeter is considered because the voltage reading of the

voltmeter is for the equivalent resistance of RU series with internal resistance of ammeter which is

Rtotal = RU + Rammeter

Rammeter = 68.8 Ω

RU = Rtotal – 68.8

RU = (Vs/I) – 68.8

(V) (mA) Value of RU Error

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 64.932 KΩ 15.95%

Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 14.376 KΩ 4.16%

Rc 2.6 V 0.40 mA 6.8 KΩ 6.431 KΩ 36.9%

5. Give the two possible arrangements for making resistance measurements using the

voltmeter-ammeter method, when should one method used instead of the other if the

resistance is to be taken as the voltage reading divided by the current reading?

Number 1 is letting the current be divided for the Ru and the voltmeter or unknown resistance parallel

with voltmeter. Number 2 is letting the voltage be divided for the RU and the ammeter (ammeter series

connected with the unknown resistance).

In figure 2, the voltmeter accounts the true voltage across Ru but the ammeter is reading the current

through both voltmeter and RU causing the measured current is larger than the current needed to solve

for RU.

Giving us RU=Vreading/(IVoltmeter + Ireading)

The RU would be smaller.

In figure 3, the ammeter gives the true current across R U while the voltmeter reads the voltage across

the series connection of ammeter and RU causing the measured voltage is too large.

If the R is smaller, then use number 1 arrangement and if R is larger (specifically those with

resistances of higher than the internal resistance of voltmeter) use arrangement number 2.

6. Derive the relationship between R1, R2, R3 and RU for the Wheatstone Bridge Circuit of

Figure 4 under balance conditions.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheatstone_bridge

7. Taking into account the tolerances of the resistances used in the bridge, compute for the

range of possible values of Ra, Rb and Rc, from the values of R3 obtained in Procedure III. Do

the actual values of Ra, Rb and Rc fall within the computed ranges?

T= ±5KΩ

Resist

RU (Ω) considering tolerances Value of RU fall within

ance

computed ranges?

RU

5V 10V min max 5V? 10V?

Ra 54 KΩ 54.10K 53.20 KΩ 58.80 KΩ 56 KΩ Yes Yes

Ω

Rb 14.10KΩ 14.37K 14.25 KΩ 15.75 KΩ 15 KΩ No Yes

Ω

Rc 6.57KΩ 6.57KΩ 6.46 KΩ 7.14 KΩ 6.80 KΩ Yes Yes

8. What was the effect of varying power supply voltage of the resistance measurements made

using the Wheatstone Bridge method? What should the actual effects have been?

There is no effect in varying power supply voltage in measuring resistances because the

resistance are maintains a ratio of voltage sharing. However , there could be changes in power

dissipation and it should not exceed with the wattage of the resistances.

9. Compare the three method of making resistance measurements taking into consideration

simplicity, cost, speed, accuracy of measuring equipment, tolerance of resistances used, and

any other points that may be of interest.

Method Simplicity Cost Speed Accuracy of Tolerance of

measuring resistances

equipment used

Series Simple circuit Not that Fast Good knowing -

Ohmmeter but the expensive. that

Method computation of Ammeter will percentage

the resistance be the one error is less

is not that that costs than 10 %

simple much.

Voltmeter- Simple circuit May cost Fast It depends on ±5% plus the

Ammeter (both much because the resistances of

Method arrangements) of the arrangement ammeter and

ammeter plus and following voltmeter

the voltmeter the right

arrangement

for the

resistance will

give you more

accurate

result. And the

results are

better than the

previous one

Wheatstone complicated Cheaper than Not that fast Most accurate ±5%

Bridge of the two because of

Method adjustments in

the

potentiometer

VI. Conclusions

There are several methods to measure resistances and each one of them has its own

advantages and disadvantages. In the voltmeter-ammeter method, we can have two possible

arrangements, the first one works best with smaller resistances while the other one works more

accurate with larger resistances. Wheatstone bridge method is the most accurate method.

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