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# Andie C.

Rabino
2009-17742
BS Computer Engineering
EEE 34 FRU
Experiment 3: Resistance Measurements

I.Objectives

## Variable DC Supply Resistors

1mA Movement Protoboard
Digital Voltmeter (DVM) Wires, Connector Clips
Analog Multimeter
Potentiometer Box
III. Deviation from Procedure

1). In procedure no.3 , we used 10KΩ potentiometer box instead of using DRB.

## Part I.The Series Ohmmeter Method

Resistance Deflection
Ra 0.16 mA
Rb 0.42 mA
Rc 0.62 mA

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA
Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA
Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA

Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA
Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA
Rc 2.6 V 0.40 mA

## Part III. Wheatstone Bridge Method

Resistance DRB setting DRB setting
(Vs=5V) (Vs = 10 V)
Ra 54 KΩ 54.1 KΩ
Rb 14.1 KΩ 14.37 KΩ
Rc 6.57 KΩ 6.57 KΩ

V. Analysis of Data

There is no too much variation in the data in part II.1 and part II.2
Same as in varying the voltage supply in part III. (Vs= 5V and Vs =10V).

## VI. Answers to Questions

RU = unknown resistance

1. Show that the relationship between unknown resistance RU and deflection D for the series
ohmmeter circuit of Figure 1 is given by:

## RU = RO (1 – D)/D, where RO = R1+R2 where D=ImA/1mA

Vs = I * R
I = D * 1 mA
R = Req = R1 + R2 + RU
We now let RO = R1 + R2
Req = RO + RU
I = 1 mA
Vs = 1 * RO
RO = D(RO + RU)
(RO) = RO +RU
(D)
(RO) - RO = RU
(D)
RU = RO( 1 – D)
D

In our case, what is the value of RO? Why was it not necessary to measure the value of R2 to
be able to determine the value of RO?

The value of RO is 10KΩ.It is because obviously the total resistance is just 10KΩ which is the
maximum resistance of the potentiometer box. The reason why we adjust R2 is to account the
internal resistance of ammeter so that the total resistance of the two resistors is still 10KΩ.

2. Use the equation given in 1 above to determine the values of Ra, Rb, Rc. Treat these as your
experimental results. Compare these with the actual values of Ra, Rb, Rc given by your
instructor. Account for any differences. Extend table 1 to show your results.

## Resistance Deflection Computed Value of Actual Value of RU Percentage

RU Error
Ra 0.16 mA 52.5 KΩ 56 KΩ 6.25%
Rb 0.42 mA 13.8 KΩ 15 KΩ 8%
Rc 0.62 mA 6.129 KΩ 6.8 KΩ 9.85%
3. From the voltage and current readings obtained in Procedure II, compute the corresponding
resistance values of Ra, Rb, Rc both the circuit of Figure 3 and the circuit of Figure 3. Neglect
the loading effects of the meters. Compare these with the actual values of Ra, Rb, Rc. Tabulate
your results. Account for any differences obtained.

RU = VVOLTMETER
IAMMETER

For Figure 2

## Resistance Voltmeter Reading Ammeter Actual Computed Percentage

(V) Reading (mA) Value of RU Value of RU Error
Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 65 KΩ 16.07%
Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 14.44 KΩ 3.73%
Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA 6.8 KΩ 6.19 KΩ 8.97%

For Figure 3

## Resistance Voltmeter Reading Ammeter Reading Actual Value of RU Computed Percentage

(V) (mA) Value of RU Error
Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 65 KΩ 16.07%
Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 14.44 KΩ 3.73%
Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA 6.8 KΩ 6.19 KΩ 8.97%

4. From the voltage and current readings obtained in Procedure II, re-compute the
corresponding resistance values of Ra, Rb and Rc taking into account the loading effect of the
meters. How do these compare with the previously computed values and with the actual values
of Ra, Rb, and Rc?

For Figure 2
In figure 2, the internal resistance of the voltmeter is 10KΩ. Considering the loading effect, the total
current would be equal to the current through RU plus the current through the voltmeter. And the total
resistance would now be equal to RU parallel with internal resistance of voltmeter.

Rtotal = RU * 10KΩ
RU + 10KΩ
We know the Rtotal is just equal to Vs/ I
RU = 10Vs .
10(I) + Vs

## Resistance Voltmeter Reading Ammeter Reading Actual Value of RU Computed Percentage

(V) (mA) Value of RU Error
Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 8.6667 KΩ 84.523%
Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 5.9091 KΩ 60%
Rc 2.6 V 0.42 mA 6.8 KΩ 3.8235 KΩ 43.77%

For Figure 3
In figure 3, the internal resistance of the ammeter is considered because the voltage reading of the
voltmeter is for the equivalent resistance of RU series with internal resistance of ammeter which is

Rtotal = RU + Rammeter
Rammeter = 68.8 Ω
RU = Rtotal – 68.8
RU = (Vs/I) – 68.8

## Resistance Voltmeter Reading Ammeter Reading Actual Value of RU Computed Percentage

(V) (mA) Value of RU Error
Ra 2.6 V 0.04 mA 56 KΩ 64.932 KΩ 15.95%
Rb 2.6 V 0.18 mA 15 KΩ 14.376 KΩ 4.16%
Rc 2.6 V 0.40 mA 6.8 KΩ 6.431 KΩ 36.9%

5. Give the two possible arrangements for making resistance measurements using the
voltmeter-ammeter method, when should one method used instead of the other if the
resistance is to be taken as the voltage reading divided by the current reading?

Number 1 is letting the current be divided for the Ru and the voltmeter or unknown resistance parallel
with voltmeter. Number 2 is letting the voltage be divided for the RU and the ammeter (ammeter series
connected with the unknown resistance).

In figure 2, the voltmeter accounts the true voltage across Ru but the ammeter is reading the current
through both voltmeter and RU causing the measured current is larger than the current needed to solve
for RU.
Giving us RU=Vreading/(IVoltmeter + Ireading)
The RU would be smaller.

In figure 3, the ammeter gives the true current across R U while the voltmeter reads the voltage across
the series connection of ammeter and RU causing the measured voltage is too large.

## The RU would be larger.

If the R is smaller, then use number 1 arrangement and if R is larger (specifically those with
resistances of higher than the internal resistance of voltmeter) use arrangement number 2.

6. Derive the relationship between R1, R2, R3 and RU for the Wheatstone Bridge Circuit of
Figure 4 under balance conditions.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wheatstone_bridge

7. Taking into account the tolerances of the resistances used in the bridge, compute for the
range of possible values of Ra, Rb and Rc, from the values of R3 obtained in Procedure III. Do
the actual values of Ra, Rb and Rc fall within the computed ranges?

T= ±5KΩ

## Computed Value of Actual Value of RU Actual Do actual values

Resist
RU (Ω) considering tolerances Value of RU fall within
ance
computed ranges?
RU
5V 10V min max 5V? 10V?
Ra 54 KΩ 54.10K 53.20 KΩ 58.80 KΩ 56 KΩ Yes Yes

Rb 14.10KΩ 14.37K 14.25 KΩ 15.75 KΩ 15 KΩ No Yes

Rc 6.57KΩ 6.57KΩ 6.46 KΩ 7.14 KΩ 6.80 KΩ Yes Yes

8. What was the effect of varying power supply voltage of the resistance measurements made
using the Wheatstone Bridge method? What should the actual effects have been?

There is no effect in varying power supply voltage in measuring resistances because the
resistance are maintains a ratio of voltage sharing. However , there could be changes in power
dissipation and it should not exceed with the wattage of the resistances.
9. Compare the three method of making resistance measurements taking into consideration
simplicity, cost, speed, accuracy of measuring equipment, tolerance of resistances used, and
any other points that may be of interest.
Method Simplicity Cost Speed Accuracy of Tolerance of
measuring resistances
equipment used
Series Simple circuit Not that Fast Good knowing -
Ohmmeter but the expensive. that
Method computation of Ammeter will percentage
the resistance be the one error is less
is not that that costs than 10 %
simple much.
Voltmeter- Simple circuit May cost Fast It depends on ±5% plus the
Ammeter (both much because the resistances of
Method arrangements) of the arrangement ammeter and
ammeter plus and following voltmeter
the voltmeter the right
arrangement
for the
resistance will
give you more
accurate
result. And the
results are
better than the
previous one
Wheatstone complicated Cheaper than Not that fast Most accurate ±5%
Bridge of the two because of
Method adjustments in
the
potentiometer

VI. Conclusions

There are several methods to measure resistances and each one of them has its own
advantages and disadvantages. In the voltmeter-ammeter method, we can have two possible
arrangements, the first one works best with smaller resistances while the other one works more
accurate with larger resistances. Wheatstone bridge method is the most accurate method.