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The administrator has no direct clinical responsibility for any patients that rests
firmly on the members of the medical staff who have the clinical freedom to decide who
shall be treated for what, by what means & for how long.
Balance the goals of the hospitals by working with patient care teams where
physician is the kingpin who in turn works with others in rendering patient care.


Running any hospital calls for a great deal of tact and ingenuity. This is because there
are many types of staff who are specialists in their own sphere and department, which
function more or less as autonomous units.


Expensive facilities and equipment do not necessarily make for a good hospital; it is
the people who operate them that make the hospital go. The staff needs to be motivated to
give their best at all times even in trying situations. Many discouraging factors and stress
situations, in which hospitals abound, tend easily to lead to erosion in motivation.


There are several kinds of decision making. The most characteristic are the technical
decision about the treatment of patients, with which he is not directly associated, but which
influence overall decision making.


All decision making is limited by the humans and material resources the hospital has.
The hospital administrator as an expert in the art of getting things done but assimilates,
reconciles and synthesis all the view of those, who put up competing demands.



The administrator spends considerable time negotiating both with agencies outside
the hospital and with staff members within, especially regarding their working arrangements
and conflict resolution. this is not to be confused with negotiating with worker·s union
which is a collective bargaining process .administrator must negotiate with third party
payers(insurance companies, employees)etc., Ideally, the administrator should strive for a
positive problem solving.

Being in charge of the business side of hospitals management, a hospital

administrator is responsible fir the conduct of all the business aspects. With phenomenal rise
in hospitals costs the administrator has to devote considerable time and energy to monitor
and contain costs.
The medical staff knows nothing about the economics of hospital care. Therefore it is
necessary to make them cost-conscious, to reduce expenditure without jeopardizing patient
The administrator puts into practice his knowledge and skills in financial
management to practical use in forecasting financial results. If the budgeting has not been
carried out correctly, funds allotted for specific activities can only be diverted to other
activities for smooth running of the hospital.



Hospital practice has become more and more dependent on high technology which
can become rapidly outdated as the technological advance continues .medical staffs are
subjected to pressure because of newer items, and they may tent to seek knowledge about


The administrator cannot manage the institution single handedly. There is ample
need to strive for better management in a hospital, which has few trained managers.
Rapid changes are occurring which necessitate upgrading the knowledge, skills and
attitudes in subordinate administrative positions. So educational activities has to be directed
for the staffs .personnel is encouraged to attend programmed of courses and workshops to
improve their managerial and leadership skills.


The administrator makes decisions mostly after fact finding analysis. Managerial style
is an important element in investigations .if situations is consensus it is good to have group
decision making process, but if situation calls for immediate decisions that cannot be


The hospital administrator is a part of society in which the hospital functions, he

must be aware that he is a part of the wider health care system and serves the larger society
through the hospital.

Effective hospital management:

To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate, and to



The work assigned to each worker should be clearly defined and activities of he
organization precisely clarified all work thus gets performed efficiently with gradual
development of competence and skills.



These two are inseparable, without authority one cannot discharge responsibility.


Discipline as respect for agreements which are directed at achieving obedience,

discipline requires good supervisors at all levels.


Employee knows who is his boss and responsible to him. It means that employees
should receive orders from one superior only.


Each group of activities with the same objectives must have one head and one plan.
There should be team work and unity.


The chain of supervisors from the highest to lowest ranks in the organization.


This refers to the extent to which authority is concentrated and dispersed. It should
be clear in the organization as to who is to issue orders and the areas of authority.

Equal work for equal pay to employees.


Unnecessary turnover of employees is both the cause & effect of bad management.
Assurance of job and feeling of security.


Managers manage through the work of others, through delegation subordinates get
prepared for higher responsibility.


It·s the thinking out and execution of a plan given opportunity for employees for
using creative ideas.



The individual must sacrifice some selfish interests in the overall interest of the

A)? Determination of goals and objective- this consists primarily with policy
B)? Facility and programmed planning- refers to the activities involved in
remodeling existing services, organizing new facilities , services and
C)? Financial management- budgeting and costing.
D)? Personnel management- selection, motivation &guidance of employees that
is human resources ²men, money, material.
E)? Co-ordination- dealing with internal functioning of all hospital departments.
F)? Programmed review and evaluation- continues process.
G)? Public & community activities-related to the development and maintenance
of interaction with other health service institutions.
H)? Health industry activities-it includes association with insurance companies
I)? Government related activities- concerned with legal problems of the
J)? Educational development- continuing education of hospital personnel.
48% directing & co-ordination.
11% meeting.
12% control.
4% information & organization.


The successful management rests on 3 basic skills.


Technical skill is the understanding of and proficiency in specific types of activities

involving methods, processes or techniques. It implies specialized knowledge in trade and
proficiency in the use of techniques and tools of trade.


All MANAGERS achieve the organizational objectives through the efforts of others
in the organization .It is the skill in dealing with people. It involves ability and judgment in
working with and through people. This skill is demonstrated in the way the individual
perceives everything and requires awareness of their attitude, beliefs and feelings.


It involves the ability to understand complexities of the whole organization and how
changes in any one part of the organization affect others .This knowledge permits the
manager to act according to the objectives of total organization rather than only on the basis
of needs of the problems .The success of decision depends on the conceptual skill of
manager who makes the decisions.

Lower level of organization =technical skills

Middle level of organization=human skills
Higher level of organization=conceptual skills



Many factors are attributed towards success or failure in administration. Situation,

circumstances, social environment and social connections have all as factors affecting
success, failure, and effectiveness.

A ?    

The more clear and realistic goals are greater, the possibility of an individual
trying to achieve those goals and more effective the individual would be to mobilize and
effectively utilize resources.
Î ?        

These individuals always try to do their best and perform at their best. They
believe in providing the best services keeping the patients, customers, employees or public
interest in mind.

X ?    

These individual continuously learn about their fields, new ideas, new
strategies about innovation and application in the field, they learn from discussion with
colleagues, reading books, workshops etc.


They show higher degree of commitment to his field .they are not ready to
change from his field even if any other fields has great attraction ,salary, etc .as a result they
are deeply involved in their work.



Effective professionals have positive attitudes towards themselves, towards

other and the system. Positive attitude helps to over come the obstacles and gives
confidence for professional identity.

´ ? 

Professional exchange of ideas on problems and issues helps in effective

decision making. They have oral and written communication abilities to communicate

Ë ?  

Effective individual under take several specialties .they are able to apply their
knowledge in various areas. This helps in cognitive flexibility and developing perceptual

* ? 

These individuals are highly creative and analytical in their approach .they
always thinks of new ideas, new practices and new methods which they can use in solving

â ? 

MOTIVATION is the inner urge, desire, drive that compels an individual to

engage in a task or service .effective individuals are highly motivated .it helps to overcome
frustration, dejections and failures.
A ?

These individuals tend to be satisfied with self and others and the
environment, they drive satisfaction and pleasure from the work they do, which serves as
atonics to build up greater energy towards their work.

AA ?  

These individuals have degree of positive acceptance and trust in self and
accept themselves and aware of their strength and limitation and also aware of the reality or
environment in which they are to function.

PLANNING is essential in every walk of life it is the primary process. as a process it

involves a conscious determination of future course of action in order to achieve desired
results. Planning determines the times of action to achieve pre determined organizational
goals, it answers the 6 question that is what, why, where, how, who, and when .it seeks their
answers in advance.


  ² Planning is deciding in advance what to do, how to do it. It bridges
the gap where we are to where we want to go.

 - Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done (i.e.) a plan is a projected
course of action.

- A plan is a trap lay to capture the future.

It is an intellectual process of thinking, restored designing a course of action which

helps to achieve the pre ²determined objectives of organization in future.

A manager should plan all his managerial functions effectively. Plan provides the
standard and degree of control. Goals are desired results, where as the plan are the means to
bring about these results, plan period may be short or long depending upon the duration the
plan can be categorized into the following.

1. Short time plan up to 1 year

2. Intermediate range plan 1to 5 years
3. Long time about 5 years


1. Planning is looking in to the future.

2. Planning involves pre determined line of future.
3. Planning discovers the best alternative out of available many alternatives.
4. It is a continuous process.
5. Planning is done for specific period.
6. Planning requires considerable time for implementation.
7. The objectives of planning is to achieve the pre-determined objectives in a
better way.
8. Planning integrates various activities of the hospital.
9. Planning is required at all level of management.
10. Growth and prosperity of any organization depends upon planning.



The function of management includes planning, organizing, staffing, directing and

controlling. Writers of the management unanimously accept that planning is the primary
function of all the other functions.


It is an excellent exercise; it is concerned with thinking in a creative way as to how

the existing combination of resources may be adjusted and adopted to match the emerging


While planning any activity, any one of the available alternative is selected.
Planning selects the best alternative based on assumption. If the assumption is proved
wrong, the selected alternative tends to be incorrect and vice versa.


Planning is not come to an end with the establishment of business consent. A

number of decision is taken during the life time of the business consent .so planning is a
continuous process.


Planning is done by every person who works in the business unit may be the
managing director or foreman.


Planning is done at all level of management.

o? Top management looks after strategic plan.
o? Middle management looks after administrative plan.
o? Low management looks after operational plan.


Planning co-ordinates various business activities without planning anything can be



Every plan is formulated after considering limiting factors like men, money, material
and machinery.

(a) Planning helps management to adopt modern methods and technology to

improve quality.
(b) Since all the activities are co-ordinate in a systemic way, the efficiency of
the hospital increases.
(c) Planning enables the hospital to make adequate adjustment, to adopt future
(d) planning provide adequate vision to the management there by eliminating
any possibility of mistakes.
(e) Planning increases the confidence of managers.
(f) Planning eliminates wastage and time consuming process.
(g) Planning helps to anticipate SWOT- weakness and threat discovers out
strength and opportunity.


(a) Planning is based on assumption ,so it cannot predict the future accurately.
(b) Planning is a costly function, a smaller organization cannot afford it.
(c) Planning does not provide any immediate solution if any unavoidable
circumstances arises.
(d) It is difficult to accommodate any changes once planning is complete.
(e) Delay in action caused by planning may create misunderstanding.


(a) Changing environment is one of the important barriers.

(b) Poor preparation of the manager in terms of their planning, knowledge and
(c) Effective planning sometimes fails if any staff dominates the planning
(d) The pressure in increasing the work is another potential barrier in planning.


Forecasting is inherent in planning .forecasting is common to all types of planning.

Therefore, planning requires making assumptions about internal resources needs and
external environment forces.

In middle field, the future involves addressing 2 important issues.

1. One is how far in the future it is appropriate to estimate.
2. And the other is how far into the past is it appropriate to in order to forecast.

The first issue determines - short term, medium term, or long term forecasting
techniques are appropriate.
The second issue determines ²which forecasting techniques are feasible depending
on the amount and type of past data available. Forecasting has to rely on trends to a great


Forecast of demand should be made as for as ahead as the maximum lead time. The
period of time it will take to implement a decision .since the past alone is an unreliable basis
for predicting the future, especially in longer range forecast; there is limited value in
acquiring large amount of past data.

Future based forecasting techniques may require minimal data or a large number of
observations. Quantity of generally adds to knowledge about the present and past, and may
not necessarily increase the accuracy of forecast of the future.


It has to be determined what the future utilization of a specific service will be a

change in utilization in future may be expected or desired. The factors for the change need
to be analyzed.

The changes in the demographic characteristics, the changes in attitude and

behavior patterns of user population, changes in medical care patterns and changes in the
concurrent factors affecting utilization (medical insurance, health programmed) must be
incorporated in a utilization forecasting.




It carries a wider perspective for the whole of the organization at the highest
planning level. It is concerned with developing main mission of the institution, developing
broad objectives, followed by determining the services required and determining the means
of fulfilling the same.


It is at the lower organizational level, generally focuses on programmed formulation

and implementation.

It is concerned with implementing the strategic plan in all its components at the
operational level.

It is independent of strategic planning because it concerns itself with systems

planning at all levels of the institution. When a new services or department is added, when
there is a need for upgrading of an existing services or department or when anew system of
organization is being introduced.
 "  c 


Whether it is strategic planning with wide perspective at the higher organizational

level or operational planning, the planners do have some idea of the problem they want to

Nevertheless an analysis of the situation concerned with the broader problems must
be carried out.

Analysis of the situation leads to all the facets of an institution functions and
resources .the problems which are highlighted may relate to the following.

1. Personnel
2. Physical facilities
3. Equipment
4. Finance
5. Information
6. Extra mural factors
Cause or effects of the core problems are likely to be mistaken for the problem itself.


It is impossible to plan for the entire problem at all times simultaneously. In ranking
the relative importance of each of the problem, certain factors should be considered.

(a) Is the problem situation really the one to be solved or larger problem which
requires study?
(b) Extent and nature of the benefits to be achieved?
(c) Attitudes of personal towards the existing situation?
(d) Are there any management policies or professional requirements that might
influence this planning?


After selecting the problems, the next step is to formulate objectives. A hospital
achieves its objectives through the various service departments. Therefore each departmental
head must establish his own departmental objectives, consistent with the institution

Objectives must be,

a) Relevant and realistic

b) Feasible and achievable
c) Observable and measurable
There are 3 criteria for the attainment of objectives.

1) Is that the person responsible for achieving the desired results, understand and
accept the responsibility.
2) Objectives should clearly state the results to be achieved or outcomes to be
3) The time frame in which objectives have to be achieved.




For department objectives, institutional objectives provide the over riding direction.
Each departmental head establishes departmental objectives, with the process pushed down
the chain in the organization from department

Sub department
Individual objective


Goals articulate a specific strategy. The management team prepares statements of

goals both short term & medium term.

Some of the goals are,

A)? Achieving recognition of the hospitals residency programmed by a

B)? Completion of the new building for housing the ct scanner by end of the
year etc.,


No goals setting can be accomplished without anticipating and giving adequate

consideration to the obstacles with may be encountered in meeting objectives & goals.
The limitation can be in the form of personnel, equipment finance, time and others.

o? Identifying the external forces

o? Assessing impact of the forces on goals
o? Internal analysis
o? External analysis
o? Identification of weakness, limitation, strength etc.,



It is a statement of objective and principles functions for each department.

Operational policy and strategies leads to operational plans & systems at each level until the
institution gets down to ¶nuts and boltsµ of its operations.


The main purpose of operational system is to determine the way the institution will
ultimately operate. It is a way of laying down the intended use of each department until every
detail becomes clear.


A plan has no value if it remains only in the mind of the planner. Therefore the plan
must be written down and copies passed on to all concerned.

o? Opportunity analysis
o? Establishment of objectives
o? Developing premises
o? Alternative ideas/ identifying ideas
o? Evaluation and choosing best alternative
o? Formulate the supporting plan



'()* - communication is the process, conveying messages from one to another, so

that they are understood.

'+), -). - The process of passing information and understanding from one person to

The word communication has been derived from the Latin word COMMUNIS,
which can be translated as common .it also, translate the meaning of transfer, meaning and

The communication can be defined as ¶THE PROCESS THROUGH WHICH


The basic function of management is communicating its ideas, strength and

opportunities to the society through coordinating and integrating the human efforts in the

!     !

Communication is also essential for dealing with external environment .Informational

exchange permits health care organizations to become aware of the needs of the patients and
consents of the community.

1)? To disseminate goals and develop plans for their achievements.

2)? To organize resources in the most effective and efficient manner.
3)? To appraise and develop members of the organization.
4)? To lead, direct, motivate and create a climate in which the people want to contribute.
5)? To control performance.


Communication is the two processes, is both an originator and receiver of information.

The elements are as follows:

A) The sender
B) Ideas
C) Encoding
D) Channel
E) Receiver
F) Decoding
G) Feedback


Communication begins with the sender. He is the person who intends to make contact with
objectives of passing information, ideas to other persons. He encodes the subject matter of
communication which might be opinion, attitude, feelings, suggestion etc. the subject matter
into symbols such as words, action and picture.

A !

The sender is the person who intends to make contact with the objectives of passing
information ideas to other persons. The sender initiates communication because he has
some need, thought, idea, or information that he wishes to convey to other person .encoding
enables the thoughts to be put in the form of symbols.

Î  !

CHANNEL AND TRANSMISSION: the channel is the link which joins the sender and the
receiver. In the organization the channel is ´FACE TO FACEµ, written memos etc, Outside
the organization the channels are letters, magazines, radio etc,

X !


The receiver interprets and translates the message into thoughts, understanding and
derived response.

The homogenize or similarity in attitudes, experience, knowledge, environment and

socio-cultural background between the sender and the receiver avoids false communication.


The information is then transmitted through different channel via, oral form, written,
telephone, telegraph, fax or computer.

Proper selection of medium of media is vital for effective communication since there
are many channels available.


Receiver is the person to whom the message is meant for. The receiver has to decode
the information into thought for action.
Accurate communication will occur only when both sender and receiver attaches the
same meaning to the message. Use of technical and complicated terms may be
misunderstood by the recipient of message.


Feedback is necessary to check or to ensure the effectiveness of communication.

One can never be sure whether or not a message has been effectively encoded, transmitted,
decoded or understood unless it is confirmed by feedback.

Feedback also acts as an energizing factor thereby changing the cause of action in

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This communication flows from superior to subordinate E.g.: orders, circular,

policy statement, and job sheets, downward communication is eminently suited to an
organization in which line of authority runs distinctly downward with each rank clearly
below another.


1)? To gain specific directives about the job interested to the subordinate.
2)? To explain policies and organizational procedure.
3)? To appraise subordinate of their performance.
4)? To give information about rationale of the job.

1)? Downward communication is often coupled with either under communication or over
2)? Delay ² the lines of communication is downward communication being very long,
transmitting information to the lowest worker is time consuming.
3)? Loss of information- unless the communication is fully written a part of it is almost
certainly is lost.
4)? Distortion- in the long line of communication is lost it is even distorted.
5)? Building resistance- the subordinate do not get an opportunity of participating in
decision making process, hey are expected to receive the policy decision and derivatives
without questioning their appropriate and utility which they result

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The communication channel which pushes the flow of information upward is

known as upward communication. The manager has only recently comes to recognize the
importance of upward communication.

1)? Providing feedback- this type of communication provides the management with
necessary feedback.
2)? Outlet for the pent-up emotions- it gives the employees an opportunity to vest their
problems and grievances.
3)? Constructive suggestions- often employees offer constructive suggestions to promote
welfare of the organization.
4)? Easier introduction of new schemes ² since the employees feel themselves to be a part
to the decision making process it helps the organization to introduce new schemes.
5)? Greater harmony and cohesion ² upward communication acts as the kind of lubricant it
makes the atmosphere in the hospital, congenial. Create greater harmony and cohesion
between manager and employees.



The employees are given feeling that the managers door are always open to them.
Whenever they like they can walk into his room without any hesitation and talk about


At some convenient place in the office, compliance and suggestion box are


It is frequently arranged in different department, these gatherings offers a very

informing atmosphere in which the employees shed their inhibition and felt free to talk
about their problem.


Some times the manager may directly write to an employee and ask him to
communicate with him.

(1)? Employees are usually reluctant to initiate upward communication.
(2)? Employees often feel if they communicate their problems to superiors it
may adversely reflect on their own efficiency.
(3)? Sometimes workers become to bold ignore their immediate superior
and directly approach their topmost authority.


In every organization, an informal channel of communication called the grapevine
is in operation. It is quiet natural for a group of people working together to be interested in
one another and talk about appointments, promotion or even domestic affairs.
Some people derive great pleasure from gathering information and transmitting to others.
They are the leaders who control the grapevine.



The existence of grapevine prove that the workers are interested in their associates,
the very fact they talk among themselves and helps to promote organizational solidatory and



All information cannot be transmitted through official channels so this type of

communication is used to transmit such information.


The speed with which the information is transmitted through grapevine is



Grapevine provides feedback to the management.


1)? The major drawback is that it spreads baseless

2)? It is usually incomplete.
3)? A rumor may have spread and cause serious damage before the management could
become aware of it and take steps effectively.


In the commercial field it is felt desirable that when the board of meeting is held decision
should be arrived at consensus.
Unanimous decision helps to project a good image of the organization among the employees
and share holders.


1)? It can be read by a large audience, can promote uniformity in policy and procedure
and provides record.
2)? It has the disadvantage that it provide no immediate feedback
3)? It may take a long time to know whether a message has been properly understood.
4)? A lot of effort is required.

Guidelines for effective written communication:

1)? Use simple words and phrases.

2)? Use short and familiar words.
3)? Use short sentences and paragraphs.
4)? Give illustrations and examples.
5)? Use personal pronounces.
6)? Economize on adjectives.


1)? Oral communication can be face to face meeting.

2)? It can also be formal or informal.
3)? The advantage is it provide for speedy interchange for immediate feedback.
4)? However oral communication does not always save time. Committees may be costly
in term of time.


1)? It can reinforce verbal communication.

2)? This is achieved through gestures, facial expression and body language.
3)? Attentive eye contact, active listening a show of confidence reflect a mature person.
4)? Sloughing , laughter, wringing of hands reflect an immature personality
5)? In addition visual aids may be used to supplement both oral and written
6)? When a message is repeated through several media it will be more accurately
received, comprehended and recalled.


1)? A good leader has to be a good listener.

2)? The art of listening requires his or her listening habits by the manager.

The following guidelines may improve an administrator listening skills:

1)? Physically show that you are ready to listen, face the speaker and show attention.
2)? Ignore the speakers· appearance or manner of delivery.
3)? Watch non verbal communication expressions, gesture and body language.
4)? Keep the mind on what the speaker is saying.
5)? Allow for your own bias. Do not always agree with everyone.
6)? Visualize the situation from speakers· point of view.
7)? Do not interrupt immediately in an apparently wrong statement.
8)? Evaluate the logic and credibility of communication.
9)? Do not give your last word, you need time think about a problem in different angles
before you communicate.


It is essential to employ motivation, for desirable direction to organizational operations,

for control and for direction. The guidelines are,
1)? Clarify ideas before attempting to communicate.
2)? Eliminate unnecessary details and avoid information which people cannot use.
3)? Plan the organizational communication in consultation with all.
4)? Establish two way communications- try to get feedback, ask questions and clarify
5)? Understand the parties· frame of reference- visualize from the point of view.
6)? Follow up- appropriate action must follow every communication.
7)? Be a good listener.


There might be number of barriers in the organization.

a) Semantic
b) Emotional or psychological
c) Organizational
d) Personal factors


Semantic barrier are obstructions caused in the process of receiving or understanding of

message during encoding and decoding ideas and words. These barriers arise from linguistic


Lack of clarity and recession in a message makes it badly expressed. Poorly chosen and
empty words and phrases, careless omissions, awkward sentences, structures inadequate
vocabulary are some common false in this case.



Every manager receives various types of communication from superior subordinate and
he must translate information detained for subordinate and superiors into language suitable
to each. Hence the failure, results as the barrier for communication.

There are certain excommunicated assumptions which underline particularly on all

messages. Though a message appears to be specific its underlying assumption may not be
clear to the receiver.


It is often form that the technical, personnel and special groups tend to develop special,
peculiar and technical language of their own. This increases their isolation from others and
built communication barrier.



Evaluation is the tendency of pre maturely evaluating communication rather than to

keep an uncompromised position during the interchange.

The pre occupied mind of the receiver and the result of none listening is one of the
major and chronic psychological barriers. It is common phenomenon that people simply
fails to react to notice bulletins and reports.


When the communication passes through various levels in organization successful

transmission of the same message is decreasingly accurate. It is said that in case of oral
communication about 30% of information is lost in each transmission.


It arises out of ill considered judgment or ill- logical decision or frequent counter mantling
of the original communication by the communicator, repeated experience of this kind delays
the action of receiver.


It is quite and unaccepted fact that managers often fails tom transmit needed message.
This might be because of laziness on the part of communication or deliberately to embraces



The general organizational policy regarding communication acts like a overall guidelines to
everyone in the organization regarding how he is normally expected to behave in this


The rules and regulation affect the flow of communication by prescribing the subject
matter to be communicated through manner which these are to be communicated. The rules
may restrict the flow of certain message and leave many important.


The placing of people in superior subordinate capacity in formal , organization structures

also block the flow of common and more particularly in upward direction greater to be the
possibility of communication breakdown.



In an organization, where there are number of managerial levels communication gets

delayed hence the chances of communication getting distorted are more likely.


Organizational facility provided for smooth adequate clear and timely flow of common
may take a number of forms some of these have been mentioned are like meeting
conference, open door system.



A)? )(34.(56)6 towards communication in general or in particular

direction affect the flow of message in different direction.
B)?  647, * (,6)' the person in the organization always tries to
get higher position and prestige. As such managers in general try to withhold
the information coming down the line or going up.
C)? .).756567, : one of the basic features of superior
exercising of the authority is that they wish to remind the communication links
and they do not like any type of bypassing in communication.
D)?  7+474)37).(863) : superiors generally perceive that their
subordinates are less competed and less capable were not able to advice the
E)? *6)*7()7 ): sometimes superior consciously and deliberately
ignore the communication from the subordinates to maintain their importance.
F)?  7+4): superiors feel that they are over burden with work and they
have little time to talk to their importance.
G)?  7+4  6..: sometimes superior may lack awareness about the
significance and usefulness of communication in direction of general of a
matter resulting in blockage of communication flow.


In vertical communication direction can take place when subordinates actively

participate in the process. There are various factors in this subordinates that adversely
affect such participation. They are



Lack of motivation to communication also prevents subordinates communication of

work. The reward and punishment system of organization is more responsible for this thus
if suggestions by subordinate does not awoke any attention from the organization he
would not convey it.


6*66': Decision making is the selection based on some criteria from two or more
possible alternatives.

c6').+ 39$)) .: A decision is the selection of course of action from two or
more alternatives. The decision making process is a sequence of steps leaving to that

 -6: Decision making may be defined as the selection based on some criteria of one
behavior, alternative from to or more possible alternatives.



Decision making is the selection process.

È? It is an end process.

È? It is the application of intellectual ability to great extent.

È? It is situational.

È? It is dynamic process.

È? It may be positive or negative.

It is taken to achieve the objectives of an organization.


Decision making is the process through which managers identify organizational

problems and attempt to resolve them.

It is the process of selecting and implementing alternatives consistence with the goal,
it is a serious of activity begin with defining the purpose or goal of the decision and involves
developing and evaluating alternatives, selecting and implementing the alternatives. The
entire process from setting the decision goal to making sure the goal has been achieved is
decision making


Decisions are taken, the future action hence decision making is a risky and challenging
task for a manager. The process of decision making manager is to make use of their
knowledge of appropriateness.



The first step in decision making process is identifying the problems. Problems
cannot be identified without a search; organizational problems are the difference between
expected result and actual situation.

Identifying the problem involves three main activities.


Monitoring the work condition for changing circumstances that can indicate the
emergency of problem.


Attempts to categorize a situation as a problem or a non-problem.


Gathering additional information and diagnose the problem nature and causes.



The second step in decision making process is developing alternatives. A problem

can be solved by different alternative solution. A manager has to develop alternative solution
before selecting any specific solution a manager has to think on all the possible alternative
solution. In this era of accelerating changes and global competition, the traditional solution
to organizational problem has become ineffective.

Innovative alternatives need to be generated. The most familiar technique of

enhancing creativity is brain storming. Brain storming is a technique that encourages group
members to generate many ideas as possible on an given topic without evaluating them.



When all the possible and realistic alternative has been identified, the focus of
decision process shift to evaluating those alternatives to identify strength and weakness of
each option.

Each alternative should be evaluated systematically according to general criteria, they


Either quantitative or qualitative approach can be used to evaluate and choose an

alternative. Qualitative approach uses mathematical and statistical techniques to analyze the
decision alternative.

Quantitative approaches are linear programming, break even analysis, decision tree
analysis. Qualitative approach uses comparison of characteristic of alternative and takes
relevant decision. A typical qualitative approach is tree chart.



A decision is just a choice unless it is implemented and monitored. Implementation

of decision reveals its effectiveness and significance in achieving desired goal. Successful
implementation usually depends on careful planning and sensitivity to those involved in
implementation or affected by it.

Even effective implementation does not complete the action phase of the decision
making process. Once it is implemented, the decision must be monitored to ensure that the
alternative put into action is moving the organization closure to its goal.

It is only monitoring phase that confirm, the organizational goals have been achieved.




!  "

Decision makers may have inadequate information about the problem, possible
alternative and their strengths and limitation.


Time and cost are the limiting constraint through out the decision making process.


Decision maker·s perception in identifying the problem, selecting alternative may

ignore the actual critical problem.


If decisions are to be taken with less information then extensive experience with
situation becomes the key point. The experience of decision maker becomes the key factor.

A decision maker must not reflect his own personnel values rather than companies
need or personnel, both the goals and the result of decision process.


Even after gathering perfect information it·s the intelligent and calculating capacity
of manager which limits the success of any decision.



A quality decision may be taken by a manager if he adopts certain principles, they are







Venture analysis, game theory, probability theory and waiting theory are some of the
mathematical theory. A manager takes the decision on basis of mathematical theory.


A manager takes a decision on basis of his aspiration, technological skill, personality,

social status and organizational status. Though the manager is expected to take a decision
confined to the scope of his responsibility and authority, there is an impact of psychology
over the decision.



If there is only one alternative to solve the problem there is no need of taking a
decision. Decision is a selection process of all the alternatives are evaluated and screened on
the order of their usefulness. Finally the best alternative is selected according to the
circumstances and purpose.


The fundamentals of the problems are studies. Interference or the conclusion is

drawn on basis of studies. The manager takes a decision with a help of conclusion. Decision
is based on limiting factors like time, cost or resources.


This principle is based on human behavior and human relationship. Each and every
person wants to be treated as an important person so the management may allow the
employees to have a say or word in the process of decision making.



A ?     

They are otherwise called routine or structured decision. The reason is that this type
of decision is taken frequently and repetitive in nature. This decision is taken within the
preview of the policy of the organization. Programmed decision has short time impact and
used only by low level management. E.g. Granting overtime, placing purchase order for
material. There is a clear cut procedure to take programmed decision.

Î ?      

They are otherwise called strategic decision or basic or policy or unstructured

decision. This decision is taken by top level management people whenever the need arises. A
careful analysis is made by the management before taking a policy decision. The
management may publish its policy in a small book known as policy manual. Policy decision
includes heavy expenditure to management. E.g. Acquisition of a business or starting a new
business. A slight mistake in policy decision this decision has a long-term impact on

X ?   

This decision is taken by top management related to the purchase of fixed asset more
value. E.g. Land and building.


This is taken by low level management people related to the purchase of current
asset with less value. E g. Pen, pencil.

å ?  

A decision which relates to day-to-day operation of an organization is known as

operative decision. This is taken by middle level management people. E.g. Time of payment
of overtime wages.
´ ?  
The decision maker takes a decision and implements it for effective functioning or
organization. It is called organizational decision.

Ë ?   

A decision maker takes a decision for his personal life known as personal decision.
This decision does not reflect the functioning of an organization. The decision maker is not
a member of an organization while taking a personal decision.

* ?   

The decision maker is member of an organization while taking an individual decision.

He can implement it in the organization. He considers the policy and situation prevailing in
an organization while taking individual decision.

â ?   

A committee is formed by top management for specific purpose. The top

management fixes the time within which the committee or group is expected to submit it·s
report with concrete decision.

A ?  

It refers to a decision which does not incur any expenses. These types of decisions
are taken at all level of management. E.g. correcting moral behavior of workers.

AA ? 

A decision is taken to meet the unexpected situation. There is no possibility and time
for the decision maker for getting through investigation while taking crisis decision .It can
also be called as spot decision.

AÎ ?    

A decision is taken after analyzing after pros & cons of particular matter. There is no
pressure on decision makers to take such decision. It requires a lot of information.

AX ?   

A decision is taken to solve a problem. The problem may be expected or unexpected.

A ? 


The term certainty refers to accurate knowledge of the outcome from each choice.
E. g: Maximization of profit through new product. There is only one outcome for each
choice. The decision maker himself knows the outcome & consequence of choice.


The outcome is not accurate or several outcomes are possible, whenever a decision is
taken, the reason is due to incomplete knowledge and the consequence. E.g.: Marketing a
new product. If the prosperity period is long the amount of profit is high and vice versa.


Management people take a number of decisions every day. These decisions are every
day. These decisions are aimed at solving the existing problem. There should be justice in
taking a decision.


Time management refers to a range of skills, tools and techniques used to manage
time when accomplishing specific task, projects and goals. This set encamps a wide scope of
activities and these include planning allocation, setting goals, delegation, and analysis of time
spent, monitoring organizing scheduling and prioritizing. Initially time management referred
to just business or work activities but eventually the term broadened to include personal
activities. A time management system is a designed combination of processes tools and



A ? 

Reminders based on clocks and watches but with computer implementation possible
can be used to alert of the time when a task is to be done.

Î ?    

Planning and preparation based on calendar and appointment books. Includes setting

X ?

Planning, prioritizing, controlling using a personal organizer, other. Paper based object
or computer or PDA based systems activities on a daily bases. This approach implies
spending sometime in clarifying values and priorities.


Being efficient and proactive using any of the above tools places. Goals and roles as
the controlling element of system and favour important over urgency.



Time management has been considered as subsets of different concepts such as


Time management can be considered as a project management. Subset and is more

commonly known as project planning and scheduling. Time management is also been
identified in project management.


Attention management relates to the cognitive resources and in particular time that
humans allocate their mind to conduct the activity.



Time management strategies are often associated with the recommendation to set
goals, these goals are recorded and may be broken down into a project and action plan or a
simple task list for individual task of our goals and importance may be established and dead
lines may be said and priorities may be assigned this process result in a plan with a task list in
a schedule or calendar of activities.

It is usually recommended daily, weekly, monthly or other planning periods usually

fixed but sometimes variable.

Different planning periods may be associated with different scope of planning or

review; individuals may or may not emphasize reviews of performance against planning.

Routine and recurring task may or may not be integrated into the time management
plan and if integrated the integration can be accomplished in various way.

c $ !  

When an individual spend time there is no improvement in deficiency productivity.

Time is gone without a return administrator saves time when he performs task in less
time or with less effort than previous. He uses short cuts and process that streamline activity.
Administrator invests time when he take time how to save to time later.

Delegation is a valuable investment of our time when we delegate we teach some one
to perform task we usually payoff later. Since we free our time to perform higher pay of
activities. The goal is to look for base a person can save and invest time.



1.? Set each goal as a positive statement.

2.? Be précised.
3.? Set priorities.
4.? Write down goals.
5.? Keep operational goals.
6.? Set realistic goals.
A useful way of making goals more powerful is to use SMART.



To motivate goals must take into consideration that the degree to which each of the
following exist.

1.? Clarity.
2.? Challenge.
3.? Commitment.
4.? Feedback.
5.? Task complexity.

Task list is also called as ´to do listµ task list is a list of task to be completed such as
step towards completing a project. It is an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or
supplement to memory. Task list are used in self management, business management,
project management and software development. It may involve more than one list.

The traditional method is to write these on the piece of paper with a pencil or pen
usually in a notepad.

Numerous digital equivalence like personal informational management application

are available. There is several web based task list application.


Task list are often tiered the simplest tiered system includes a
general to do list to record all the task a administrator need to accomplish the daily to do list
which is created each day by transferring task from general to do list.

An early advocate of ABC prioritization was aleulakein. In his system ´Aµ items were
the most important. ´Bµ next most important. ´Cµ least important.

A particular method of applying ABC method assigns

A - To task to be done within a day.

B - To be done within a week.
C - Within a month.
To prioritize daily task list or either records the task in the order of highest priority
or assigns them a number after they are listed which indicates the order to excrete the task.

c $ !  

There are four step procedures which are

1). Collection.
2). Pruning.
3). Organization.
4). Working.


First, inventory list of all things that requires resolution are made. The administrator
should collect and write down everything urgent or not big or small, personal or professional
that he feels is incomplete and needs action from him to get completed.


Now, processing of the list made in step by looking carefully at each item. Decision
is taken whether administrator should actually take action on it. A lot of what comes in his
real levels has no real relevant or really not important in the scale of things. If that is the
case, these things are then deleted from the inventory list.


Step 3 comes in three parts which are

x? First of all the items in the inventory list is reviewed. For any which are separate,
individual action that may make up part of a largest project, group these individual
action together into their project. [At hospital administrator wants to improve the
bathroom and repaint the rooms these can be categorized into hospital renovation
x? Review these projects and allocate priorities to them depending to their importance
clearly administrators personal goals are exceptionally important projects.
x? Third, insert your project into a formatted action programmed. This is split up into 3
parts (i.e.)
1.? A ´NEXT ACTION LISTµ, which shows the small next actions that the
administrator will take to move his project forward.
2.? A ´DELEGATED ACTIONA LISTµ, which shows projects and actions
have delegated to other people.
3.? A ´PROJECT CATLOGUEµ that shows all of the projects that
administrator is engaged in small unusual task he has identified so far that
contributes to them.
Typically the project catalogue is at the back of action programmed as its often only
referred to during a weekly review process. Delegated action list sits in front of the project
catalogue as it is referred to quite often. The next action list goes on the front page of the
net programmed as it is referred many times a day.


An action programmer is typically fairly long but administrator doesn·t have to run
through the entire programmer daily. Usually he will only be dealing with top page or pages.
Some activities may be day specific or time specific. Depending on the way he works these
can be either maintained as a top page of action programmed or mark on calendar. It is just
that only specific short action are outline here while the major projects to which the actions
belong or stored in projects to catalogue.

The lead or archive items that has completed, more items from project catalogue to
the front page as he makes progress in the project and adds any new action that as come this


While these approaches to prioritization suites many situation. There are plenty of
special cases where administrator needs other tools if he is going to be truly effective.


This is most useful were decision criteria are vague, subjective or
inconsistent. It helps to prioritize option by comparing each item on a list with all other
items on a list individually. By deciding each case which of the two is most important.
Administrator can consolidate results to get prioritized list.


This helps to prioritize list of task where the administrator needs to take
many different factors into consideration.


This quick and simple diagrammatic techniques demands administrator to
plot the value of the task against the effect it will consume. By doing this he can quickly
spot the ´quick winsµ which will give him the greatest reward in the shortest possible
time and avoid the ´hard slogsµ which soak up time for little eventual reward. This is an
ingenious approach for making highly efficient prioritization decisions.


This is similar to the action priority matrix. This technique also demands to
think about whether task is urgent or important. Frequently, seemingly urgent task
actually are not that important and often really important activities just or not that

These give administrator quick ´rules of thumbµ for prioritizing the

opportunities opened to him. The Ansoff matrix helps to evaluate and prioritize
opportunities by risk. The Boston matrix does a similar job helping to prioritize
opportunities based on the attractiveness of a market and administrator ability to
take advantage of it.


Where administrator is facing a flurry of problems needing to be solved Pareto

analysis helps to identify the most important changes to make. It first demands to group
together different types of problems faced. And then asks to count the number of cases
of each type of problems by prioritizing the most common type of problem. He can
focus his efforts on resolving it.

This is the idea that 80% of task can be completed in 20% of disposable time. The
remaining 20% of task will take up 80% of time. The 80 -20 rule can be applied to
increase productivity it is assumed that 20% of the task. If productivity is aim of time
management and then these task should be prioritized higher.


This is a useful technique for prioritizing issues and project within a

group, giving everyone fair input into the prioritization process. This is
particularly useful were consensus is important and were the robust group
decision needs to be made using this tool each group participants ´nominatesµ
his or her priority issues and then on the scale of 1-10. This score of each issue is
then added up, with issues then prioritize and based on score.


A complete different approach which is used against

prioritizing was put forward by British author mark Forster. This is based on the
idea of operating ´closedµ to do list instead of traditional ´openµ to do list. He
argues that the traditional never ending to do list virtually guarantees that some of
the work will be left undone. This approach advocates getting all the works done
every day and if unable to achieve it helps to diagnose where administrators are
going wrong and what needs to change.


Modern task list application may have built in task hierarchy may
support multiple methods of filtering and ordering the list of task. And may
allow one to associate arbitrarily. Long notes for each task. Task list application
may be thought of as light weight personal information manager or project
management software.


x? Fear of change.
x? Uncertainty.
x? Time pressure.
x? Lack of will power.


x? Increased effectiveness.
x? Performance improvement.
x? Personal responsibility development.
x? Increased responsibilities.


x? Dwelling on list :

According to sand berg·s report and estimated ´30% of the

listers spend more time managing their list than completing or on themµ
This could be caused by procrastination by prolonging the
planning activity.
This list akin to analysis, paralysis. As with any activity there is
a point of diminishing the returns.

x? Rigid adherence :

Hendrickson asserts that rigid adherence to task list can create

a tyranny of to do list that forces one to waste time on unimportant
Listing routine task is a waste time.
To remain flexible a task system must allow adaptation in the
form of rescheduling in the phase of unexpected problems and
opportunities to save spent on irrelevant or less than optimal task
To avoid getting shrunk in a wasteful pattern the task system
should also include regular planning and system evaluation session to
weed out inefficiency.
If some time is not regularly spent on achieving long range
goals individual may get struck in a perpetual holding pattern on short
term plans, like staying at particular job much longer that originally