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PROJECT WORK 1

The diagram below shows the gate of an art gallery. A concrete structure is built at the upper part of the gate and
the words ‘ART GALLERY’ is written on it. The top of the concrete structure is flat whereas the bottom is parabolic
in shape. The concrete structure is supported by two vertical pillars at both ends.

The distance between the two pillars is 4 metres and the height of the pillar is 5 metres. The height of the
concrete structure is 1 metre. The shortest distance from point A of the concrete structure to point B, that is the
highest point on the parabolic shape, is 0.5 metres.

(a) The parabolic shape of the concrete structure can be represented by various functions depending on the point
of reference. Based on different points of reference, obtain at least three different functions which can be used to
represent the curve of this concrete structure.
(b) The front surface of this concrete structure will be painted before the words ‘ART GALLERY’ is written on it.
Find the area to be painted.
FURTHER EXPLORATION
(a) You are given four different shapes of concrete structures as shown in the diagrams below. All the structures
have the same thickness of 40 cm and are symmetrical.
(i) Given that the cost to construct t cubic metre of concrete is RM840.00, determine which structure will cost the
minimum to construct.
(ii) As the president of the Arts Club, you are given the opportunity to decide on the shape of the gate to be
constructed. Which shape would you choose? Explain and elaborate on your reasons for choosing the shape.
(p) The following questions refer to the concrete structure in the diagram below. If the value of k increases with a
common difference of 0.25 m;
(i) complete Table 1 by finding the values of k and the corresponding areas of the concrete structure to be
painted.
(ii) observe the values of the area to be painted from Table 1. Do you see any pattern? Discuss.

(c) Express the area of the concrete structure to be painted in terms of k. Find the area a k approaches the value
of 4 and predict the shape of the concrete structure.

REFLECTION
While you were conducting the project, what have you learnt? What moral values did you practise? Represent
your opinions or feelings creatively through usage of symbols, illustrations,
drawings or even in song.

PROJECT WORK 2

Part 1
The theory of probability has been applied in various fields such as market research, medical research,
transportation, business, management and so on.
(a) Conduct research on the history of probability and give at least two examples on how the theory of probability
is being applied in real life situations. Then, write an Introduction to this Project Work based on your findings. You
may include the historical aspects, examples of the probability theory applications and its importance to real life
situations.
(b) The probability theory can be divided into two categories: Theoretical Probabilities and Empirical Probabilities.
Find out, discuss and write about the difference between the Theoretical and Empirical Probabilities.

Part 2
(a) Suppose you are playing the Monopoly game with two of your friends. To start the game, each player will have
to toss the die once. The player who obtains the highest number will start the game. List all the possible outcomes
when the die is tossed once.
(b) Instead of one die, two dice can also be tossed simultaneously by each player. The player will move the token
according to the sum of all dots on both turned-up faces. For example, if the two dice are tossed simultaneously
and “2″ appears on one die and “3″ appears on the other, the outcome of the toss is (2, 3). Hence, the player shall
move the token 5 spaces. Note: The events (2, 3) and (3, 2) should be treated as two different events.
List all the possible outcomes when two dice are tossed simultaneously. Organize and present your list clearly.
Consider the use of table, chart or even tree diagram.

Part 3
Table 1 shows the sum of all dots on both turned-up faces when two dice are tossed simultaneously.
(a) Complete Table 1 by listing all possible outcomes and their corresponding probabilities.

(b) Based on Table 1 that you have completed, list all the possible outcomes of the following events and hence
find their corresponding probabilities:
A = {The two numbers are not the same)
B = {The product of the two numbers is greater than 36}
C = {Both numbers are prime or the difference between two numbers is odd) I) = {The sum of the two numbers
are even and both numbers are prime)

Part 4
(a) Conduct an activity by tossing two dice simultaneously 50 times. Observe the sum of all dots on both turned-
up faces. Complete the frequency table below.

Based on Table 2 that you have completed, determine the value of:
(i) mean;
(ii) variance; and
(iii) standard deviation
of the data.
(b) Predict the value of the mean if the number of tosses is increased to 100 times.
(c) Test your prediction in (b) by continuing Activity 3(a) until the total number of tosses is 100 times. Then,
determine the value of:
(i) mean;
(ii) variance; and
(iii) standard deviation
of the nibw data.
Was your prediction proven?

Part 5
When two dice are tossed simultaneously, the actual mean and variance of the sum of all dots on the turned-up
faces can be determined by using the formulae below:

(a) Based on Table 1, determine the actual mean, the variance and the standard deviation of the sum of all dots
on the turned-up faces by using the formulae given.

(b) Compare the mean, variance and standard deviation obtained in Part 4 and Part 5. What can you say about
the values? Explain in your own words your interpretation and your understanding of the values that you have
obtained and relate your answers to the Theoretical and Empirical Probabilities.
(c) If n is the number of times two dice are tossed simultaneously, what is the range of mean of the sum of all dots
on the turned-up faces as n changes? Make your conjecture and support your conjecture.

FURTHER EXPLORATION
In probability theory, the “Law of Large Numbers (LLN)” is a theorem that describes the result of performing the
same experiment a large number of times. Conduct a research using the internet to find out the theory of LLN.
When you have finished with your research, discuss and write about your findings. Relate the experiment that you
have done in this project to the LLN.

REFLECTION
While you were conducting the project, what have you learnt? What moral values did you practise? Represent
your opinions or feelings creatively through usage of symbols, illustrations, drawings or even in a song.

PROJECT WORK 3

BACKGROUND
Every business requires some form of investment and a sufficient number of customers to buy its products or
services that give profits on a continuous basis. When pricing experts set a selling price for a new product, their
goal is to maximize profits. They begin by estimating the demand for the product at various selling prices.
Generally, the demand for a product will increase as the selling price decreases.

PART 1
Table 1 shows the various selling prices and estimated demand for a particular computer component
manufactured by a company, Warisan RMN.

(a) Determine the relationship between the demand, d, and the selling price, s, by plotting a graph based on the
values displayed in Table 1. Plotting of the graph can be done manually, using computer software such as
Microsoft Excel or graphing calculator. Interpret the graph, discuss and write a brief explanation on the
relationship between the demand and the selling price of the computer components manufactured by the
company.
(b) Assuming that the production cost of the computer component is RM50 per unit, express the yearly profit, Y, in
terms of the selling price, s. Comment on your answer. [Note: Total Profit = Total Sales — Total Cost]
(c) Use two or more methods to determine the maximum profit and the corresponding selling price. Explain your
answers.
(d) Further, determine the number of the computer components to be manufactured by the company in order to
gain maximum profit.

PART 2
In year 2009, Warisan RMN made a profit of RM200 000. The company intends to increase its production in year
2010, and therefore needs a substantial amount of money for capital
investment.
As manager of the company, you have to decide on the amount of loan and the period of the loan to be taken for
the purpose mentioned above.
Table 2 shows part of a monthly repayment schedule for a commercial loan from Bank A:
(a) Based on Table 2, calculate the total amount of interest incurred for each choice of repayment period and their
corresponding amount of loan. Tabulate the values in Table 3.

(b) Based on your findings in (a) calculate the average interest rate per month. Tabulate your results and
comment on your findings.

(c) Further, tabulate the amount of yearly repayment for each choice of repayment period up to 5 years for loan
amounts from RM10 000 to RM100 000. By observing the total annual payment for 12 months, show that the
annual payment for loan amount of RM10 000, RM15 000, RM20 000 and so on form a progression.

(d) The company allocated only 20% of the profit made in the year 2009 on loan repayment period per annum.
Assume that the company continues to make an annual profit of RM200 000 in the following years.
(i) Based on your table in (c), determine the maximum amount of loan, in multiples of RM5000, for each choice of
repayment period: 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, 4 years and 5 years.
(ii) Hence, determine which loan option should the company take, and elaborate on your reasons.

(e) The company has set aside a reserve fund of RM50 000 in a bank and earns monthly interest beginning 1st
January 2010.
Assuming that the bank gives an annual interest of 2.5%; determine the amount of the reserve fund at the end of
each month until 31St December 2010.
FURTHER EXPLORATION
Look into other commercial loans or other financial sources available in the market that may be utilized by the
company for its capital investment. (Example: Overdraft, Islamic Loan) Discuss the advantages and
disadvantages of the different types of loans available.

REFLECTION
While you were conducting the project, what have you learnt? What moral values did you practise? Represent
your opinions or feelings creatively through usage of symbols, illustrations, drawings or even in a song.

PROJECT WORK 4

PART 1
The prices of goods sold in shops vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy goods which are not only
reasonably priced but also give value for their money. You are required to carry out a survey on four different
items based on the following categories i.e. food, detergent and stationery. The survey should be done in three
different shops.
(a) Collect pictures, newspaper cuttings or photos on items that you have chosen. Design a collage to illustrate
the chosen items.
(b) Record the items and their prices systematically as in Table 1. Since items may be differently packed, be sure
to use consistent measurements for each item selected so that comparison can be done easily and accurately.

(c) Create at least two suitable graphical representations (the use of ICT is encouraged) to compare and contrast
the prices of the items chosen.
(d) Based on the graphical representations that you have constructed in Part 1(c), interpret, discuss and draw
conclusions. Comments on your findings.

(e) Identify an item that has a large price difference among the shops. Calculate the mean and the standard
deviation of that particular item. Hence, suggest and discuss possible reasons for the price difference.

PART 2
Every year SMK Indah organises a carnival to raise funds for the school. This year the school plans to install air
conditioners in the school library. Last year, during the carnival, your class made and sold butter cakes. Because
of the popularity of butter cakes, your class has decided to carry out the same project for this year’s carnival.
(a) Suggest a shop from Part 1 from which you would go to purchase the ingredients for the butter cakes. State
and discuss your reasons for purchasing from the shop you suggested.
(b) Complete Table 2 with the prices of the items found in the shop/supermarket that you have chosen.
(i) Calculate the price index for each of the ingredients in Table 2 for the year 2010 based on the year 2009.
(ii) Calculate the composite index for making a butter cake in the year 2010 based on the year 2009. Discuss how
you obtained your answers.
(iii) In the year 2009, the butter cake was sold at RM15.00 each. Suggest a suitable selling price for the butter
cake in the year 2010. Give reasons for your answer.

(c) (i) Find out from reliable sources how to determine suitable capacity of air-conditioner to be installed based on
volume/size of a room.

(ii) Work in groups to estimate the volume of your school library. Explain how you arrive at your answer. Hence,
determine the number of air conditioners with the appropriate capacity required for your library.

(iii) If your class intends to sponsor one air conditioner for the school library, how many butter cakes must your
class sell in order to buy the air conditioner?

PART 3
As a committee member for the carnival, you are required to prepare an estimated budget to organise this year’s
carnival. The committee has to take into consideration the increase in expenditure from the previous year due to
inflation. The price of food, transportation and tents has increased by 15%. The cost of games, prizes and
decorations remains the same, whereas the cost of miscellaneous items has increased by 30%.

(a) Complete Table 3 based on the information given above.

(b) Calculate the composite index for the estimated budget of the carnival in the year 2010 based on the year
2009. Comment on your answer.
(c) The change in the composite index for the estimated budget for the carnival from the year 2009 to the year
2010 is the same as the change from the year 2010 to the year 2011. Determine the composite index of the
budget for the year 2011 based on the year 2009.

FURTHER EXPLORATION
Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air pollution index, stock market
index, gold index and property index.
Obtain information from the Internet or other reliable sources on the importance of two different types of index
numbers of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of these index numbers in daily life situations.

REFLECTION
While you were conducting the project, what have you learnt? What moral values did you practise? Represent
your opinions or feelings creatively through usage of symbols, illustrations, drawings or even in a song.