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Session 806

Non-Destructive Evaluation
(NDE) for Surveyors
William Hayden, PE
Vice-President-Engineering
Davis and Company, Ltd.
Fort Lauderdale, Florida

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Copyright 2003 © Davis &Company, Ltd. - 800-223-8816
What do all NDE
Techniques have in
common?

They provide and


“Indication” of a
flaw or imperfection.
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Methods of NDT
¾ Visual
¾ Acoustic
¾ Electromagnetic
¾ Radiographic

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Visual Inspection
¾ Visible Spectrum
z Unaided eyesight
z Hand-held magnification
z Boroscope – Microscope – Macro-Lens
¾ Infrared Spectrum (Thermography)
¾ Indicators (Dye Penetrant)

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Thermography
¾ Theory of operation

¾ Homogeneous materials transmit heat at a


constant rate.

¾ Surface temperature gradients can be


detected with sensitive infrared detectors.

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Thermography
¾ Principle of operation

–Discontinuities such as delaminations,


voids, or dry fibers slow the rate of heat
transfer within the material.

–An infrared camera is used to detect the


temperature differences in radiated heat
within the structure.

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Thermography
¾ Common Uses
z Detect Delaminations or voids in composites.
z Detect overheating situations, such as
• Electrical circuits, breakers and motors.
• Shaft bearings
• Pump bearings

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Thermography

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Thermography

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Thermography
NASA Langley Research Center – Scanning Thermography System

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Thermography
¾ Advantages
z Sensor can be positioned at a distance away
from the test piece (non-contact).
z Digital output from sensor can be recorded for
later analysis.
z Sensitivity on the order of 0.4 degree F.
z Large areas can be scanned in short time.

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Thermography
¾ Limitations
z Process only highlights differences in thermal
conductivity of material.
z Inherent properties of composite materials
manufacture may lead to false positive.
z Need to confirm indications by other means.

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Methods of NDT
¾ Visual
¾ Acoustic
¾ Electromagnetic
¾ Radiographic

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Ultrasonic Testing
¾ Principle of operation
z beams of high-frequency sound waves
that are introduced into the material
being inspected to detect surface and
subsurface flaws.
z The sound waves travel through the
material and are reflected at interfaces.
z The reflected beam is detected and
analyzed to define the presence and
location of flaws.
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Ultrasonic Testing
¾ Procedure
z A sending transducer (probe or search unit)
that emits a beam of ultrasonic waves when
bursts of alternating voltage are applied to it.
z A couplant to transfer energy in the beam of
ultrasonic waves to the test piece.
z A receiving transducer to accept and convert
the output of ultrasonic waves from the test
piece to corresponding bursts of alternating
voltage. In most systems, a single transducer
alternately acts as sender and receiver.
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Ultrasonic Testing
¾ Common Uses
z Thickness Gauging.
z Internal Flaw detection.
z Bond integrity in welded or brazed joints.
z soldering and adhesive bonding also can be
ultrasonically inspected.

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Ultrasonic Testing

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Ultrasonic Testing

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Ultrasonic Testing
¾ Advantages
z Superior penetrating power for detection
of deep flaws.
z High sensitivity, permits detection of
small flaws.
z Greater accuracy in finding position of
flaws.
z Only one surface need be accessible.
z Instantaneous indications of flaws.

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Ultrasonic Testing
¾ Limitations

z Manual operation requiring trained


technician.
z Some parts are difficult to inspect.
z Couplant between transducer and part.
z Reference standards needed
z Manual recording of flaw locations.
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Methods of NDT
¾ Visual
¾ Acoustic
¾ Electromagnetic
¾ Radiographic

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Moisture Meters
¾ Principle of operation

•Resistance Meter •Capacitance Meter


•Uses two sharp •Uses transmitter plates
probes to measure to send high frequency
the resistance signal through the
between the probes. material and senses the
attenuation of the
signal. “Permittivity”

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Moisture Meters
¾ Principle of operation

•Resistance Meter •Capacitance Meter


•The resistance can •The attenuation of the
vary depending the signal can be affected
orientation of the by geometry of the
probes to the growth laminate including
rings in the wood. thickness, internal
structure, or bottom
paint.

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Moisture Meters

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Moisture Meter
¾ Advantages
z Easy to use.
z Immediate results.
z No specialized training necessary
z Compact size

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Moisture Meter
¾ Limitations
z False positives.
z Readings affected by laminate properties.
z No reference standard between models.
z Need to confirm results by taking core
samples.
z Not computer recordable.
z Manual recording of property locations.

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Conclusions
¾ Know the limitations of the equipment
you use.
¾ Remember, all NDE provides an
“indication” of a flaw or discontinuity.
¾ Appearances can be deceiving.
¾ To be absolutely sure, the part needs
to be dissected.

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Questions?

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