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1. Completion Time: Time at which process completes its execution.

2. Turn Around Time: Time Difference between completion time and arrival time. Turn Around Time =
Completion Time – Arrival Time
3. Waiting Time(W.T): Time Difference between turn around time and burst time.
Waiting Time = Turn Around Time – Burst Time

Real Time Operating System

Real-Time Application A program that responds to activities in an external system within a maximum
time determined by the external system. If the application takes too long to respond to an activity, a
failure can occur in the external system. We use the term response requirement of a system to indicate
the largest value of response time for which the system can function perfectly; a timely response is one
whose response time is not larger than the response requirement of the system. Consider a system that
logs data received from a satellite remote sensor. The satellite sends digitized samples to the earth
station at the rate of 500 samples per second. The application process is required to simply store these
samples in a file. Since a new sample arrives every two thousandth of a second, i.e., every 2 ms, the
computer must respond to every “store the sample” request in less than 2 ms, or the arrival of a new
sample would wipe out the previous sample in the computer’s memory. This system is a real-time
application because a sample must be stored in less than 2 ms to prevent a failure. Its response
requirement is 1.99 ms. The deadline of an action in a real-time application is the time by which the
action should be performed. In the current example, if a new sample is received from the satellite at
time t, the deadline for storing it on disk is t + 1.99 ms. Examples of real-time applications can be found
in missile guidance, command and control applications like process control and air traffic control, data
sampling and data acquisition systems like display systems in automobiles, multimedia systems, and
applications like reservation and banking systems that employ large databases.

A hard real-time system is typically dedicated to processing real-time applications, and provably meets
the response requirement of an application under all conditions. A soft real-time system makes the best
effort to meet the response requirement of a real-time application but cannot guarantee that it will be
able to meet it under all conditions. Typically, it meets the response requirements in some probabilistic
manner, say, 98 percent of the time. Guidance and control applications fail if they cannot meet the
response requirement, hence they are serviced by hard real-time systems. Applications that aim at
providing good quality of service, e.g., multimedia applications and applications like reservation and
banking, do not have a notion of failure, so they may be serviced by soft real-time systems—the picture
quality provided by a video-on-demand system may deteriorate occasionally, but one can still watch the


Resource Allocation in Thread

Threads share most of its resources with other threads of the same process. Threads do own resources that
define the thread's context. This includes the thread id, set of registers including the stack pointer and program
counter, and stack. Threads must share other resources such as the processor, memory, and file descriptors
required in order for it to perform its task. File descriptors are allocated to each process separately and threads
of the same process compete for access to these descriptors. In memory, the processor, and other globally
allocated resources, threads contend with other threads of its process as well as the threads of other processes
for access to these resources.

A thread can allocate additional resources such as files or mutexes, but they are accessible to all the threads of
the process. There are limits on the resources that can be consumed by a single process. Therefore, all the
threads in combination must not exceed the resource limit of the process. If a thread attempts to consume
more resources than the soft resource limit defines, it is sent a signal that the process's resource limit has been
reached. Threads that allocate resources must be careful not to leave resources in an unstable state when they
are canceled. A thread that has opened a file or created a mutex may be terminated, leaving the file open or
the mutex locked. If the file has not been properly closed and the application is terminated, this may result in
damage to the file or loss of data. A thread terminating after locking a mutex prevents access to whatever
critical section that mutex is protecting. Before it terminates, a thread should perform some cleanup, preventing
these unwanted situations from occurring.