Sie sind auf Seite 1von 23

ENGLEZA 1 – MEDICAL VOCABULARY HOSPITAL

Dentistry – all the diseases associated with the teeth


Stoma = oral cavity = os (pl. ora) adj. oral
Bone = os (pl. ossa) adj. osseous =bony
Thrush = candidosis of the oral cavity = afta
Prescription = medical order
 Prescription drugs
 Non-prescription drugs = OTC over the counter
o Per os = PO =oral administration = orally
o Intramuscular = IM
o Intravenous = IV Parenteral administration
o Subcutaneous = SC
 Topical/local administration – at the place of the wound
 Enteral (PO) – anal/ oral
Speech therapist = logoped
To assist the patient = a asista
To nurse a patient – only the nurse takes care of the pacient
To take care of = to look after= a avea grija de
Hospitalised patient = inpatient – stays overnight ( pacient spitalizat= stationar – sta peste noapte)
Non-hospitalised patient = outpatient = ambulatory patient= (pacient neinternat)
Discharged patient – sent home after a surgery (=externat) ( trimis acasa dupa operatie= externat)
To hospitalize = to admit to hospital ( a interna)
Hospital admission = internare
Porter = orderly = stretcher bearer =brancardier
Stretcher = targa fixa, tinuta de 2 persoane
Gurney = targa – pt ambulanta, mobile
Trolley = targa din spital
Cable bus = troleu
Chiropodist [cairopodist] = chiropractician
Orthopedist –has an MD – specialist
Ophtalmologist – has an MD – can perform surgery on the eye
Orthometrist – without an MD – prescribes recipes for glasses
Meal = dish
Advice – pl. pieces of advice/information ( sfaturi =informatii)
Appropriate = healthy, right, correct ≠ inappropriate (sanatos≠nesanatos)
Diatrician = nutritionist
Diet = regimen = meal plan = nutrition
Pharmacist = drug dispenser = druggist = chemist
Medicine = drug (medicamente)
Pharmacy = drug store = apothecary (farmacie+ magazine de medicamente)
Dispensary – front part of the pharmacy
Drug store – contains cosmetic products
Pediatrics – pediatrician
Doctor = physician = medical practitioner
Physicist = fizician
Medic – military trained person to perform first aid(persoană militară instruit pentru a efectua primul ajutor)
Paramedic = EMT – emergency medical technician (technician medical de urgenta)
Paramedical personnel – nurses, driver,porter/orderly -> people on the ambulance
To make a decision = to decide
Specialist = medic specialist
Senior specialist = medic primar
Function
 Disfunction – doesn’t work at all( nu functioneaza deloc)
 Malfunction – works, but not properly( functioneaza dar nu cum trebuie)
To operate on = to do surgery ( a face operatie)
OR = operating room = operating theatre- extraroom where you can see the operation being performed (camera de unde
poti vedea operatia)
Operating table
Surgeon in chief = main surgeon = head surgeon ( chirurg sef)
Anesthesiologist
Assistant surgeon – mana a doua
 Residents – specialists in training
 Interns
Scalpel = bisturiu
Clamp =
Forceps = pensa
Retractor = departator
Scissors = foarfeca
Bandage = dressing = bandaj
To bandage = to dress a wound
Skin = integument (adj. integumentary)
 Epidermis
 Dermis
 Subcutis = cutis = hypodermis
Skin graft = grefa
Occupational medicine = medicina muncii
Occupational disease
Occupational hazard = risc ocupational
Illness = problem = disease = sickness = condition = ailment = affliction (euferisme pt boala)
Equipment – pl. pieces of equipment
Personnel = staff
To deal with = to work with = to handle = to concern with
Linen = asternut (de pat)
General practitioner (GP – pl. GPs) = medic de familie = family physician
G.P. = general physician
To refer to = to send to
Letter of referral = scrisoare de trimitere
Letter of reference = scrisoare de recomandare
Ward = salon de spital
Sheet = cearsaf
Mattress = saltea
Crutch = carja
Drip stand = perfizor – support pt perfuzie
Bedpan = plosca
Tray = tava
Bedspread = cuvertura
Observations chart = fisa de observatie
Oxygen point = sursa de O2
Hoist = scripete
To hoist = a ridica
Basin = chiuveta
Nameband = bratara de mana
Monkey pole = aleza de glisare
Urine bottle

ENGLEZA 2

to have an operation = to suffer/undergo an operation


the surgeon performs surgery
stomach
 Gastric juice
 Gastritis
 Gastro-enterologist
 Enteritis
 Gastroenteritis
 Enterocolitis
Empty the stomach = enema (pl. enemata)
Slide = lamela la microscop
Nose = nasal cavity
Runny nose = rhinorrhea = rinoree (curge nasul)
 Rrhea = curgere -> diarrhea, menorrhea, gonorrhea
 Rhino-, naso- -> prefixe pt nas

pain = ache
painful = achy
ache – beareable,lasting (suportabil) -> toothache
pain – membre, back
 Suffix: -algia -> arthralgia, myalgia, neuralgia
painkillers = analgesics
joint = articulation
 Prefix : arthro-
Carefully ≠ carelessly
Listen to stomach = auscultation of the stomach
Palpation = palpare
Percution = tapping
Length -> to lengthen
Nostril = nara
DOB = date of birth
Blocked nose = stuffy nose = congested nose = obstructed nose -> decongestant
Otolaryngology = ORL - otorhinolaryngology
Steroid – adj. steroidal ≠ nonsteroidal
Oral examination
Written examination
Reset examination = restanta
To sit for an examination
Sight = vision
Bald = chel
To faint = a lesina
Swab = tampon
Blood – bleed -> bleeding = bloodloss = hemorrhage
Epistaxis – bleeding of the nose
Waist = talie
To atrophy = to waste away = a se atrofia
Tick = capusa
Tic = tic nervos
Eye -> prefix: ophtalmo-
Femur = thigh bone (pl. femora, adj. femoral)
To borne = a cara, purta
Sneezing = stranut
To cough = a tusi
Couch = tussis -> antitussives
 Dry cough – tuse seaca
 Whooping cough= pertussis = tuse productive
Pathogen = germ = microbe
To enhance = to augment = to improve
Infectious = contagious = transmissible ≠ noninfectious
Cannula (pl. cannulae) = branula
To heal = to cure a disease
To treat – tratat, nu neaparat vindecat (AIDS, cancer)
Curable/healable disease
Wound (mai severa) = injury = lesion
To groan with pain = a urla de durere
Pitt = groapa
Scar = cicatrix (pl. cicatrices)
To soar = a creste (pt temp)
To sore = a durea
Bedsore = escara
Alopecia = baldness
Candida = thrush
Dyspepsia = indigestion
Hemorrhoids = piles
Herpes zoster = shingles
(o)edema = swelling = inflammation
Rubella = German measles = rubeola
Urticaria = heatspot = nettle rash
Arteriosclerosis = hardening of the arteries
Cerebral palsy = spastic
Eructation = belching
Halitosis = bad breath
Infectious mononucleosis = glandular fever
Poliomyelitis = polio
Rubeola = rujeola = measles
Varicella = chickenpox
Variolla = smallpox
Bursitis = housemaid’s knee = bursita
Cerebral infarction/bleeding = stroke = CVA cardio-vascular accident
Flatulence = wind = gas
Herpes simplex = cold sore
Myocardial infarction = heart attack
Pyrosis = heartburn
Tendonitis = tendinita
Verruca (pl. verrucae) = warts = negi
Sequela (pl. sequelae) = sechele
To diagnose = to make a diagnosis (diagnostician, diagnosis – pl. diagnoses)
Symptom – subjective, felt by the pacient
Sign – objective, observed by the doctor
Strain of virus = tulpina virala
Mumps = oreion
To defecate -> fecal – adj for faeces
Sewage = reziduuri
Contaminated by

ENGLEZA 3 – PHYSICIANS AND MEDICAL SPECIALTIES

Medical care = asistenta medicala


To administer = to give = to organize
Technically
At the head of the team = running the team
To struggle = to fight
In adition to = besides
Accurate ≠ inaccurate
Appropriate = adequate
To seek (sought – sought) = to look for
To carry out = to fulfill = to perform
To reassure = to calm down
Curricular (adj.) – curriculum (pl. curriculae)
To apply oneself = to work hard
To earn a title
To practice medicine
To have your own practice = a avea cabinet particular
Dental surgery – dental office = cabinet medical
Cabinet = dulapior (fie in cabinet, fie in baie)
To specialize -> specialist
To receive training
Accredited
Ambulatory care setting = ambulatory
To complete = to finish, to end
Board = committee
To require = to ask
To subspecialise = a se supraspecializa
Pediatrics = pediatrie
Geriatrician = medic care trateaza batrani
Muscle – prefix: myo-
Neonatal – in maternity – until the child is released from the hospital after birth
Perinatal – during pregnancy and after birth (until young adulthood)
Branch = field of medicine
Need = necessity
In short supply = in demand
Mesh = match = combine = fit
to complain of = to have a complaint = dissatisfaction
anxiety -> adj. anxious
manual dexterity
eye-hand coordination
urologist – treats genito-urinary system
to explain to
pathologist = anatomopatolog
to get used to + -ing
asthma = astm
to put up with = a suporta
routine care
to consult a specialist – as a pacient
! a specialist doesn’t consult a pacient
ENT specialist = otolaryngologist (ear, nose, throat specialist)
Cancer of the --- = --- cancer
To overlap = to cover partially = a se suprapune
Speed = velocity
To go unnoticed
To elevate = to increase (eg. Blood pressure)
Normal ≠ abnormal
To turn out = to prove
ENGLEZA 4

To administer medication = a elibera medicamente (farmacie)


Order = prescription = medication order = reteta
Workweek = saptamana de lucru
To deal with = to cope with = to face = to discuss
ER = emergency room (UPU)
Intensive Care Unit = ATI (Anestezie+terapie intensiva) – reanimare
Recovery room = salon postoperator
Private room = rezerva de spital ( pt 2 pacienti)
Layman’s terms = with simple words = nonspecial terms = not a professional
To persuade = to convince
Self-indulgent pacient = delasator
People skills –to know how to talk to the pacient
Bedside manner = buna conduita – chairside manners for dentistry
To comfort = to calm
Undergraduate studies = studii de licenta
MD – Doctor of medicine – dupa licenta ≈ bachelor studies – pt alte domenii
Graduate education = master
Doctor’s degree PhD = doctorat
Organic ≠ inorganic
To graduate a school – to pass the final exam
To complete a school – without a diploma
Internship = hands-on hospital training = stagiu
Intern – stagiar
Residency = specialty training
Resident = specialist in training
Subspecialty training = fellowship training = supraspecializare
Fellow = subspecialist in training
Rotating internship – mai multe module
Straight internship – 1 modul
Primary care physician – first doctor to go to
Secondary care physician = specialist
Adolescents = teenagers
Blood – prefix: hemo – (hemorrhage), hemato- (hematologist)
Spleen -> adj. splenic
Splenectomy – removal of the spleen
Infectious disease specialist
Pulmonologist = pneumolog
Allergy -> allergist
Congestant ≠ decongestant
Stamina = resistance
Genito-urinary = uro-geniral (ro)
Congenital – related to hereditary -> present at birth
Anesthesia = anestezie
 Anesthetic = anesthetic
 To anesthetise
 Anesthesiologist
Dermatologist = skin doctor
Obstretician -> obstretics
Labor pain = travaliu
Childbirth = parturition
Fracture = broken bone
Degenerative = progressive, worsening, deteriorating
Crossed eyes = squint = strabism
Throat = pharynx
Stapedectomy = removal of the stapes
 Ciocanel = hammer = malleus (pl. mallei)
 Nicovala = anviel = incus (pl. incudes)
 Scarita = stirrup = stapes (stapedes)
Hysterectomy – removal of the uterus
Orchiectomy – removal of the testes
Obstretician-gynecologist (OB-GYN)
Anamnesis – discussion between the doctor and the pacient
Healthcare = medicalcare
To monitor = to supervise = to watch
Side effect – nu neaparat negativ (ex. Feeling hungry)
Adverse reaction - sigur negative (ex. Vomiting)
Asymptomatic disease
To refer to = to send to
Surgery -> adj. surgical
Self employed solo practitioners = cabinet particular
Comprehensive = complete (health care)
Affiliated with = associated
On-/ offduty
On call = de garda
 On call room = camera de garda
 On call report = raport de garda
Hectic = agitated = stressful
office = cabinet
to make rounds = a face vizita prin spital
nursing care
to nurse a pacient - doar asistenta
to attend a pacient – asistenta + doctor
to keep up with
reward = recompense
shift = tura
oncall schedule
appointment – la cab. medical
home visit – la pacient acasa

ENGLEZA 5 – SPECIALTIES IN DENTISTRY

Prevention = prophylaxis (pl. prophylaxes) – adj. prophylactic = preventive


Surgical = non-surgical
Disorder = tulburare
Condition = afectiune
Disease > disorder > condition
Overall health = general health = total health
To aid = to help -> first aid; first aid kit = trusa de prim ajutor
To encompass = to include
Due to = because of
Dental practice center = dental clinic = cabinet dentar
To carry out = to perfrom
Dental caries = tooth decay = cavities
Periodontal disease = gum disease or pyorrhea
Pus = puroi -> adj. purulent ; prefix: pyo-
To have a tooth filled = a plomba un dinte
To scale = a zgaria
Scaling of teeth = detartraj
Tartar = tartru
Abscessed teeth
Crown = corona -> adj. coronal
Bridge = punte
Denture = proteza
Root = radix (pl. radices ) -> adj. radicular
Gum = gingiva
Exodontia = extraction of teeth
Whilst = while
Poor health ≠ good health
Healthy person = fit = in good health ≠ sick person
Unhealthy = nociv
Tumor -> suffix: -oma
 Malignant = cancerous
 Beningnant = noncancerous
Cartilage -> prefix: chondro- (ex. Chondrosarcoma – pl. chondrosarcomata)
Blood dyscrasia – imbalance in the components of blood
Proper ≠ improper
Correct ≠ incorrect
Tooth polishing = slefuire -> periaj professional
Dental sealants = sigilari
Ortho- = straight
Prosto- = proteza
Perio- = around
Endo- = inside
Ped- = child
Forensic odontology = odontologia din medicina legala
Malformation = defect
Deficiency = lack of
Peculiar = strange, differet from normal
Tissue -> adj. tissular , prefix: histo-
To protrude ≠ to intrude
Thumb = pollix (pollices)
Forefinger = index (pl. indices)
Middlefinger
Ringfinger
Pinky = babyfinger
Cleft = despicatura
Cleft lip = buza de iepure
Lip -> adj. labial
Deformities = malformation, abnormality
To lead to = to cause = to determine
Genetic = hereditary
Chewing = mastication
To masticate = to chew
Thus = so = therefore = thereby = astfel
Undue stress = exaggerated/ excessive stress
If feasible = if works
Readily remove = immediately remove
Full dentures = proteza totala
Calculus (pl. calculae) = calculi/piatre
Kidney stone
Cervix = colet
In addition = moreover
Tooth cusps = cuspizi
To inflame = to swell
Inflammation = swelling
 Adj. inflammatory ≠ anti-inflammatory (drugs)/ ≠ non-inflammatory (disease)
Eventually = in the end
Loose = slabit
Pulp -> adj. pulpal
Nerv -> adj. nervous (system) / neural (stimulus)
Neuralgia = durere de cap
Bleaching = whitening
Milk teeth = deciduous dentition = primary teeth
Space maintainers = apparat dentar
Bite plates = departator
Bacterium – pl. bacteria
por -> adj. porous = spongy = cancellous (pt oase)
resin = rasina
cause = etiology
regarding consultation
field = domain = area

ENGLEZA 6 THE MODERN CONCEPT OF ENDODONTICS

Hollow = gol, scobitura


Inhabited by = locuit de
Merely = pur si simplu = only
Fin = nervure
Nook = colt, reces
Crannies = crapaturi
To render = a face, a reda, a da
Ingress = patrundere
Sealer = sigilant
Debris = residue
Taper = ingust, subtire
Tooth -> adj. dental
Surgery -> adj. surgical
Trauma -> pl. traumata
Microbe -> microbial
To refer to = to be know as
To inhabite = to populate
Vessel -> adj. vascular (? Prefix: phlebo-)
Cellular -> prefix: cito-, suffix: -cyte
Subsequent = following
Tiny = small
Files = pile -> endodontic file
Obturation = filling
Inert = inactive, dormand
Apex -> pl. apices, adj. apical
Steril -> sterilization
To take the toxin away -> to detoxify
Microorganism = germ, pathogen
Apicoectomy = apex removal
Incarcerate = trap
to take intro account = to considerate
at least = minimum
orthograde = straight
occurrence = appearance, presence
either… or
neither… nor
both… and
to percolate = a percola – a patrunde, a se strecura
vital ≠ nonvital = essential, important
healing = curing
to heal = to cure
to rely on someone = to trust
mild = soft
to delay = to postpone
to damage = to harm, to deteriorate
significant ≠ insignificant
to break down = to decompose
to render = to make, to cause
breakdown = decomposition
on the other hand = on the contrary
anachoresis = intrusion of germs in the blood
via = through
bloodstream = bloodflood
protrusion = ingress = entering
soluble ≠ insoluble
minute = small, tiny
wall -> adj. parietal
overemphasized = exagerat
despite = inspite of
to inject
injection = shot
to be suited for = fit for
shade (-> prefix: morpho- ) = form
tub -> adj. tubular

THE DENTAL SURGERY

Stress -> stressfull


Tiredness = fatigue
Tired = fatigued
Concentrate on = focus on
Stomatology -> includes dentistry
Environment -> environmental
Law -> adj. legal ≠ illegal
Law = justice
Nevertheless = although
To allow = to permit
To endow = to supply -> endowments
Syringe
Air-water syringe -> seringa apa-aer
Oral inhalator = aspirator
Main = principal
Comfort ≠ discomfort
Comfortable ≠ uncomfortable
Role = purpose
To vary = to differ
Foot -> adj. pedal
Drill = freza
Visibility ≠ invisibility
Available ≠ unavailable
To keep at hand = close
Storage = deposit
To house = to keep, to store
Article = item
gauze pad = tifon
cotton buffers = tampoane de bumbac
special plates = placate speciale de sticla
saliva -> adj. salivary
to remove = to get rid of = to eliminate = to extract
to examin = to check
consultation = medical check-up = examination
to restore = to bring back
dental probe = sonda
clip = pensa
useful ≠ useless
retractor = departator
tongue = lingua (adj. lingual) = glossa -> glossitis
friction grip = cleste
bur = freza
multifluted = cutat
shank = tija
shank = shaft
chisel = dalta
excavator = excavator
burnisher = polizor
plugger = amalgam condenser
ENGLEZA 7 THE SURGEON

Surgery = operation = surgical intervention


Cleft lip and palate = despicatura de buza si palat ( “buza de iepure”)
Invasive -> operation involves extensive incision; affects several tissues ≠ noninvasive (eg. Laser surgery, laparoscopy)
Diseased = afflicted with a disease
Bladder stones (= calculae) – affects urinary system
Gallbladder = colecyst
Minimal invasive surgery -> neurointerventional surgery
To operate on = to do/ perform surgery
The pacient undergoes surgery = is operated on
Nurse anesthetist -> only local anesthesia
Anesthetic drug -> anesthesia -> anesthesiologist-> anesthesiology
Scrub nurse –give necessary instruments to the doctor during operation – doesn’t go out of the OR
Circulating nurse – goes out of the OR, takes probes to the laboratory room
Lumpectomy = inlaturare nodul
Tonsillectomy = inlaturare amigdale
Appendectomy = inlaturare apendice
Mastectomy = inlaturare glanda mamara
Hysterectomy = inlaturare uter
Splenectomy = inlaturare splina
Myotomy = cutting into muscle
Osteotomy = cutting into bone
Tracheotomy
Trachea = wind pipe
Colonoscopy
Jejunostomy
Ileostomy Creating an opening
colostomy
rhinoplasty
angioplasty
hernia = rupture
herniated disk = ruptured disk
e.g. = exempli gratia = for exemple
i.d. = id est “that is”
small bowel = small intestine
pancreas -> pl. pancreata
thoracic = thoracal
proctologist -> colon + rect
to mould = a da forma
pediatrician -> pediatrics
graft = grefa
to graft = a grefa
recipient = primitor
donor
prior to = before
attending physician/surgeon = medic curand
to attend pacients needs
CPR = cardio-pulmonary resuscitation
Ongoing = continuous
Mastopexy = breast lift surgery
To cut out = to remove = to excise

ENGLEZA 8

Peripheral nervous system


Amenable = malleable
Open heart surgery = operatie pe cord deschis
Detached retina, cataract, glaucoma -> ophthalmologist
Eyelid = pleoapa
Podiatrist -> treats more diabetic pacients, because they have problems with their feet
Gown = halat
Scrub cap = boneta
Protective glasses
Surgical mask
To scrub hands = a dezinfecta, a curate foarte bine mainile
Enema (pl. enemata) = clisma
To give/administer enema to a pacient
To abstain from food/drink = a se abtine
Antiseptic -> chlorhexidine gluconate, povidone-iodine
To render = a induce (-> the anesthesia renders the pacient unconscious)
Mechanical ventilator = life support machine
To resect = partial removal
To sever = a sectiona (a amputa pt member)
Hollow organs = organe cavitare
Loops of intestine = anse intestinale
Rod = tija
Pins and screws = suruburi
Prosthesis = proteza
Ligation = ligaturare
Arthrodesis = artrodeza -> pt blocarea unei articulatii
Ankyloses
Fistula = abnormal connection between organs
Prolapse = to fall out of place
Debridement = debridare (inlaturare tesuturi moarte)

Dental Fillings

Teeth grinding = bruxism -> causes: stress, malocclusion


Worn down = abrazat, distrus
Misuse = folosire gresita
To numb = to anesthetize
Laser – light amplification by stimulated emission of light
To probe = to test
To trim off = a decupa, a tai ape margini
Multilayering =multistratificat
Layer = stratum
To polish = a lustrui
To smoothen = a netezi
AMALGAM
+ -
Resistant (mechanically) Unaestethic
Cheap Can lead to tooth decay
Hardens in short time Discoloration of teeth
Can be applied on any surface Can lead to tooth fracture
Duration ↑ Neurological problems (some specialists)

ENGLEZA 9 TOOTH EXTRACTION

Exodontia = tooth extraction


Tooth socket = alveolus
Upper jaw = maxilla
Lower jaw = mandible
Tooth decay = cavity = caries
Gum = gingiva
To worsen = to advance, to deteriorate
To loosen = a se slabi
Extent = level
To avoid = to prevent
Complication = aggravation
Malaligned = malpositioned
Extra teeth = supernumerary teeth
To refer to = called
To block = to stop
To erupt = to appear
Innate immunity = nonspecific
Acquired/specific immunity
Likelihood = possibility, probability
To occur = to happen
Recurance = reappear
Relapse = recidiva
Impacted teeth = dinti inghesuiti
Mouth = os, stoma, oral cavity
Permanent teeth = adult dentition
Fang = colt
To do an extraction
Tooth sectioning = breack into pieces
Conscious ≠ unconscious
Preoperative = before operation
Postoperative = after operation
Perioperative = before+during+after operation
Coagulation = clotting
Veins -> prefix: phlebo-, veni- (eg. Venipuncture)
Plier = extraction forceps = cleste
Luxator = surgical cutting instrument
Elevator
To grasp = to grab = a apuca
Screwdriver = surubelnita
Cover ≠ uncover
Stiches = sutures = copci
Absorbable
Absorbtion = intake
Adjacent = near, next to
Disadvantage = draw back
Disability = handicap
Allow ≠ disallow
Swelling = inflamed
Cold compress = cold bandage
Stiff = ridid
Stiffness = rigidity
To dissipate = to disappear
To relieve the pain = to ease, to calm
In addition = moreover
Painkillers = analgesics
to dislodge = to remove, displace
thrombus = bloodclot
spit = saliva
strenuous = intens activity
small grains = gaunte mici
to crack = a se sparge
to splinter = to break
to resist = to withstand
to be caused by = determined by
hole = depression, pit
nerve cell = neuron
temporary = transient = transitory
bisphosphonates
myeloma = cancer of the spinal cord
to metastasize = to spread
to rott = a putrezi
long-term problem
gum recession = retraction
to fail to ≠ to succed, to manage
odor = smell
gyne- – prefix for women
andro- – prefix for men
unless = if not
to smooth the pain = alleviate the pain
palliative = medicine for relieving pain

DENTAL IMPLANTS
Similar to = alike
Substitute for = replace
To trigger = to start = to cause
To strink = to narrow
Muscle strain = intindere musculara
Stable ≠ unstable
To exhibit = to show
Unearthed = dezgropat

ENGLEZA 11 EMERGENCIES IN THE DENTAL SURGERY

to prevent = to avoid
prevention = prophylaxis
sweating = perspiration
to sweat = to perspire
excessive sweating = diaphoresis
skin = integument
pallor = paleness
to ascertain = to establish
fainting = collapse = syncope
fear -> suffix: - fobia
nausea = greata
antiemetics = antivomitive
antipiretics = antifebrile
to moisten
puls = heartbeat
tight ≠ loose
to oxygenate ≠ to deoxygenate
heart -> prefix: cardio-
narrowing = stenosis
arteries -> prefix: arterio-
exercion = effort
overexercion = suprasolicitare
digestion ≠ indigestion
indigestion = dyspepsia
thrombosis
embolus
myocardial infarction = heart attack
to clot = to coagulate
coagulation = clotting
clammy = umed + rece (hands)
previous = before, anterior
orthostatic position
cardiac arrest = cardiac stop
to commence = to start, to begin
disorder = disease
phase = stage, level
to breathe in = to inspire = to inhale
to breathe out = to expire = to exhale
epilepsy = fits
sleepy = drawsy
drowsiness = sleepiness
steroidal ≠ nonsteroidal (medication)
range = variety
dosage = quantity
severe allergic reaction = anaphylactic reaction
dyspnea = difficulty in breathing
vomiting = emesis
wheezing = suierat
acut ≠ cronic
allergy -> allergist
mellitus diabetes = diabet zaharat
insipidus diabetes = diabet insipid
lightheadedness
paresthesia
to respond = to answer, to give signs
deep -> to deepen ≠ superficial
paralysis -> sufix: -plegia
 Monoplegia -> un membru paralizat
 Paraplegia -> membre inferioare paralizate
 Hemiplegia -> jum. dr/stg paralizata
 Tetraplegia -> de la gat in jos
 Panplegia -> paralizie totala
Lung -> adj. pulmonary
Gut = intestine (adj. intestinal)
Blunt = tocit
Choking = a se ineca
ETIOLOGY AND CLASSIFICATION OF MALOCCLUSION

Primary teeth = deciduous teeth = temporary dentition


Slightly = shortly before
Harful ≠ harmless
Balance ≠ inbalance/unbalance
Proper alignment = correct, right
Cheek = buccal
Mesial = towards middle
To elucidate = to discover
Dilaceration = angulation in the root of the tooth
Parent -> adj. parental
Features = characteristics
Essence = importance
Role = function
Prognatic mandible
Skeletal -> subst. skeleton
Pattern = model
Crowding
To precipitate = to make happen, to exacerbate, to aggravate
Prevalent = predominant, happening
Salient = the most important
Assessment = evaluation
Borne in mind = kept in mind
Shorthand method