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Practice Jobs 24-J9 through 14 as specified in the Job

Outline. The intersection joint requires the welding of T


and lap joints with fillet and groove welds. The usual pro-
gression is from a fillet weld to a groove weld, back to fil-
let, then to a groove, and finally back to the original fillet
weld that is the starting point.
Follow the general procedure previously recommended
for gas metal arc pipe welds. Prepare the pipe properly, tack
weld it, and place it in the position called for in the Job Out-
line. Welding may be performed with both the downhill and
uphill techniques. Both stringer and weave beads are used,
depending on the position of the joint and the recommended
procedures on the job. The root pass is always a stringer
bead, and travel may be downhill or uphill. The intermediate
and cover passes may be stringer or weave beads, depending
on the position of the pipe and requirements of the job. You
have already learned the techniques required because the
jobs in the Job Outline have provided practice in all of them.
Fig. 24-49  Face appearance of a cover pass in steel pipe welded in You are again instructed to take extreme care in mak-
the 5G position downhill. The weld has a coarse a­ ppearance compared ing the root pass. Be sure that there is penetration to the
to that shown in Fig. 24-48.  © Plumbers and Pipefitters Union, Alton, IL
root of the joint and fusion to the pipe surfaces. All other
passes must be fused to the underneath pass and to the
pipe wall. When multiple-pass welds are necessary, make
sure that all starts and stops are in different areas. The
starts and stops must not be at the same point.
The welds should be started on either side of the in-
tersection at the heel of the joint. The heel is the coldest
point of the joint. Because it requires the greatest amount
of heat to weld, it should be welded after the joint has been
heated from the welding of other areas. This procedure
permits the welding of the heel intersection in a preheat
condition when the arc is in continuous operation.
In welding these joints, there is a tendency to undercut
at the heel and the sides. Making sure that the weld pool
fills up eliminates this possibility.
Clean and inspect each pass. Make sure that the welds
are free of surface discontinuities. After the joint is com-
pleted and you have carefully inspected its surface, cut a
number of sections from the joint and macro-etch them.
Inspect the sections for evidence of incomplete penetra-
Fig. 24-50  Face appearance of a cover pass in steel pipe tion, incomplete fusion, porosity, and undercut.
welded in the 5G position uphill. Note that the ripples are close to-
gether. Compare with the weld shown in Fig. 24-49. Uphill welding Fillet and Groove Welding Combination
will usually produce a smoother weld. Project with GMAW: Job Qualification Test 1
This combination test project will allow you to demonstrate
are difficult to fabricate and even more difficult to weld. your ability to read a drawing, develop a bill of materials
Great care must be taken in beveling and fitup. (SI conversions are optional), thermally cut, fit components
You will recall that prefabricated fittings are available that together, tack, and weld a carbon steel project. You will be
require only the application of a butt joint for installation. using the techniques developed in prior jobs in this chapter
These fittings are expensive, however, and many companies using the GMAW process. Follow the instructions found in
prefer to have the welder fabricate the joints on the job. It is Table 24-2 under Job 24-JQT1, and the notes in Fig. 24-51,
always a problem to determine which method is less costly. page 808.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 24-J1–J15 (Pipe)   Chapter 24    807
Inch Millimeters
2"
/"
1 2
/
1 16 1.6

/
1 8 3.2

/
1 4 6.4

/
1 2 12.7
1 25.4
/
3 16 1 / –3
1 2
GMAW-S See Notes
/
3 16
1 / –3
1 2
1A
Detail A 3, 7 & 10

(3/16) 45°
See Notes 1D See Notes 3 & 7
1E
2&7 /
3 16
See Notes
1C /"
1 2
2&7

GMAW-S
/
3 16

0D/4

1 1 /2" 3" /"


1 2

See Notes
6" 1B
2&7

/ " TYP
1 2
GMAW
/
1 4

See Detail A 1A

Part No. Reqd. Size S.I. Conversion


American Welding Society
1A
Tolerances (Unless otherwise specified) Level II - Advanced Welder—GMAW-S,
1B Do not scale drawing GMAW (spray)—Workmanship Qualification
Fractions: ± 1 /16 Angles + 10° , – 5°
1C Dr By: Date: Size DC No: DWG No: Rev:
11-96 AWS2-3
1D
Chk By: Date: Approved: Date: Sheet:
1E AWS-EGC 1/31/96 1 of 1

Revisions
Zone Rev Description Date Approved

Notes:
1. All dimensions U.S. customary unless otherwise specified.
2. 4"–6" ϕ Schedule 40 carbon steel pipe. Optional choice of pipe diameter within range specified.
3. 1/4" thickness carbon steel plate. Useable pieces may be joined to obtain design size Parts 1A & 1D. If joined all additional welds
shall be ground flush prior to assembly of AWS2-3 weldment.
4. Use .035 diameter E70S-X electrode.
5. The welder shall prepare a bill of materials in U.S. customary units of measure prior to cutting.
6. The welder shall convert the above bill of materials to S.I. metric units of measure.
7. Parts 1A, 1B & 1D manual OFC. Saddle Part 1B to accommodate Part 1C. Parts 1C & 1E may be mechanically, machine OFC,
or manual OFC cut.
8. All welds GMAW-S or GMAW (spray) as specified.
9. Fit and tack entire assembly on bench before welding.
10. Attach Part 1A to welding table or positioning fixture arm. All welding done in position according to drawing orientation.
11. Melt through not required.
12. Use WPS AWS2-2-GMAW for short circuiting transfer. Use WPS AWS2-3-GMAW for spray transfer.
13. Visual examination in accordance with the requirements of AWS QC11, Table1.

Fig. 24-51  Performance qualification test for GMAW AWS SENSE advanced level.  Adapted from AWS SENSE Program

808   Chapter 24   Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 24-J1–J15 (Pipe)
Inspection and Testing  Use the criteria outlined at the mastered the welding of pipe with the stick electrode and
end of this chapter. TIG processes with a high degree of skill.
Secure two lengths of 5- or 6-inch 6061 aluminum
alloy pipe and 4043 or 5356 alloy filler wire 1⁄16 inch in
Groove Weld Project: Job Qualification
diameter. The pipe should be prepared, tacked, and set up
Test 2
as shown in Fig. 24-53. Brush the beveled surfaces thor-
This test project will allow you to demonstrate your abil- oughly to remove the protective oxide coating and other
ity to read a drawing, fit components together, tack, and contaminants.
weld a carbon steel pipe test nipple. You will be using the Shielding gas should be argon or helium or a mixture
techniques developed in Jobs 24-J1 through J14 using the of argon and helium. Gas flow should be approximately
short circuit mode of metal transfer. Follow the instruc- 60 cubic feet per hour. The high gas flow is necessary
tions found in the notes in Fig. 24-52 and in Table 24-2, because of the tendency for the gas to leave the weld area
pages 813–814 under Job 24-JQT2. when welding in the overhead position. The welding cur-
rent should be set at about 150 to 190 amperes. Follow the
Inspection and Testing  Use the criteria outlined at the welding pass sequence shown in Fig. 24-53.
end of this chapter. In making the root pass, a slight motion may be neces-
sary to properly control the metal. Special care must be
Practice on Aluminum Pipe taken to direct the arc so that overheating is not caused in
any one area. This burns away the root face of the pipe. It
Horizontal Fixed Position: Job 24-J15  The opportunity
also causes excessive penetration on the inside of the pipe
to weld aluminum pipe with the gas metal arc process is and excessive buildup and sagging of the weld bead. On
offered as a bonus for those welding students who have aluminum, all welding passes should be uphill.
In welding the filler and cover passes, a slight
weave may help you to control the metal. Be
careful to keep the molten pool under control. If
the pool is too large, the effect of gravity on the
molten metal causes it to spill over and sag. Bead
size, weld speed, and bead sequence must be
such that there is no incomplete fusion between
passes.
Clean the welds and inspect the inside of the
Fig. 24-52  Performance qualification test GMAW-S, carbon steel or pipe for the root pass appearance and the out-
aluminum GMAW or GMAW-P, 6G position.  © Kaiser Aluminum side of the pipe for the face appearance of the

60° to 90° Pass 2 Single Pass 60° to 90°

Pass 1 Approx. 1/4ʺ Approx. 1/4ʺ

0 to 1/16ʺ / ʺ to 3/16ʺ
1 8

/ ʺ Root Face
1 16
1 16/ ʺ Land

Root Opening without Root Opening with


Backup Two Passes Backup Single Pass

Fig. 24-53  Joint design and weld pass sequence for MIG welding of aluminum pipe in the 5G position uphill.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 24-J1–J15 (Pipe)   Chapter 24    809
See Detail “A” and
Notes 5 & 7 a Inch Millimeters

See Notes 2 and 3 45° ± 5° /


1 16 1.6
T 3.2
/
1 8

a = 60°–80° /
1 4 6.4
R = 3/16ʺ to 1/4ʺ R f
f = 3/32ʺ ± 0ʺ /
1 2 12.7
Pipe Inclination Fixed (45° ± 5°) and Not
Rotated During Welding Detail “A” – Joint Geometry with Backing 1 25.4

Test Position 6G
Notes:

2. 21/2ʺ–6ʺ ϕ Schedule 40 M-22/P-22/S-22 or M-23/P-23/S-23 aluminum pipe. Pipe diameter and material optional within range specified.
3. The standard pipe groove test weldment for performance qualification shall consist of two pipe sections, each a minimum of 3 in. (76 mm)
long joined by welding to make one test weldment a minimum of 6 in. (150 mm) long.
4. With backing. Refer to Detail “A”. Backing ring to suit diameter and nominal wall thickness of pipe.
5. All welding done in position.
6. All parts may be mechanically cut or machine PAC.
7. For M-22/P-22/S-22 use WPS AWS3—GMAW-P—1. For M-23/P-23/S-23 use WPS AWS3—GMAW-P—2.
8. Visual examination and bend test per criteria in text.

Tolerance:
Fractions + or –1/16ʺ
Angles +10 degrees, –5 degrees

Fig. 24-54  Performance qualification test GMAW-P, aluminum 6G position.

Top of Pipe
cover pass. Look for the same weld characteristics that 5G or 6G
you have learned are indicative of a sound weld.
45–60° (TYP)
Root Bend
Face Bend
Groove Weld Project: Job Qualification
Test 3
This test project will allow you to demonstrate your abil- Specimen
ity to read a drawing, fit components together, tack, and 11/2 × 6
weld an aluminum pipe test nipple. You will be using the
techniques developed in the various GMAW aluminum
welding jobs throughout this text. Follow the instructions
found in the notes in Fig. 24-54 and in Table 24-2 under
Job 24-JQT3.
Root Bend Face Bend
Inspection and Testing After the project has been
tacked, have it inspected for compliance to the draw- Fig. 24-55  GMAW test pipe specimen location.
ing. After the project has been completely welded, use
visual inspection and cut specimens for bend testing.
Use the following acceptance criteria to visually judge Follow face- and root-bend test procedures as outlined
your welds. Look for surface defects. Keep in mind that in Chapter 28.
it is important to have good appearance and uniform •• There shall be no cracks or incomplete fusion.
weld contour. These characteristics usually indicate that •• There shall be no incomplete joint penetration in
the weld was made properly and that the weld metal groove welds except as permitted for partial joint pen-
is sound throughout. Once visual inspection is com- etration groove welds.
pleted to the following criteria, you will perform side •• Your instructor shall examine the weld for acceptable
bend tests. Reference Fig. 24-55 for specimen locations. appearance and shall be satisfied that the welder is

810   Chapter 24   Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 24-J1–J15 (Pipe)
skilled in using the process and procedure specified Root- and face-bend acceptance criteria as mea-
for the test. sured on the convex surface of the bend specimen are
•• Undercut shall not exceed the lesser of 10 percent of as follows:
the base metal thickness or 1⁄32 inch.
•• No single indication shall exceed 1⁄8 inch measured in
•• Where visual examination is the only criterion for ac-
any direction on the surface.
ceptance, all weld passes are subject to visual exami- •• The sum of the greatest dimensions of all indications
nation, at the discretion of your instructor.
on the surface, which exceed 1⁄32 inch, but are less than
•• The frequency of porosity shall not exceed one in each
or equal to 1⁄8 inch, shall not exceed 3⁄8 inch.
4 inches of weld length, and the maximum diameter •• Cracks occurring at the corner of the specimens shall
shall not exceed 3⁄32 inch.
not be considered unless there is definite evidence
•• Welds shall be free from overlap.
that they result from slag inclusions or other internal
•• Only minimal weld spatter shall be accepted, as
discontinuities.
viewed prior to cleaning.

CHAPTER 24 REVIEW

Multiple Choice 6. Some codes require draft shields to protect the


Choose the letter of the correct answer. shielding gas if the wind speed exceeds ______
miles per hour. (Obj. 24-3)
1. Radiographic quality welds on pipe are not
a. 2
possible with the GMAW process.
b. 5
(Obj. 24-1)
c. 10
a. True
d. 15
b. False
7. What is the proper groove angle for welding with
2. The GMAW-S and GMAW-P mode of metal trans-
the boiler code? (Obj. 24-3)
fer are much too slow to be used for many pipe ap-
a. 15°
plications. (Obj. 24-1)
b. 30°
a. True
c. 371⁄2°
b. False
d. 75°
3. The GMAW process is considered ______.
8. A root edge has a ______-inch surface.
(Obj. 24-1)
(Obj. 24-3)
a. Autogenous
a. 0 (it is sharp)
b. A low hydrogen process
b.  1⁄16
c. A poor quality process
c.  3⁄32
d. Both a and b
d.  1⁄8
4. For GMAW-S, which type of power source is to be
9. Feathering a tack is not required because the
used? (Obj. 24-2)
GMAW process penetrates so much. (Obj. 24-3)
a. Constant current
a. True
b. Drooper
b. False
c. Constant voltage
d. Rising 10. The root opening for welding aluminum pipe can be
zero. (Obj. 24-4)
5. For good arc starting (hot start) ______.
a. True
(Obj. 24-2)
b. False
a. The wire feeder power source must be
appropriate Review Questions
b. The wire must be clipped
Write the answers in your own words.
c. The electrode extension must be short
d. All of these 11. List several of the metals welded in the piping in-
dustry. (Obj. 24-1)

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 24-J1–J15 (Pipe)   Chapter 24   811
12. List 10 advantages of GMA pipe welding. 17. Sketch and label the V-groove butt joint used
(Obj. 24-1) for GMA pipe welding and the ASME code.
13. List five items included in an MIG/MAG welding (Obj. 24-3)
system for pipe. (Obj. 24-2) 18. Why must grinding be done on the root pass?
14. Describe why inverter power sources are becoming (Obj. 24-3)
so popular for field pipe welding. (Obj. 24-2) 19. Sketch and dimension the length of a feathered tack
15. Describe the “hot start” features for GMA pipe weld on pipe and describe two reasons why it is
welding. (Obj. 24-2) done. (Obj. 24-3)
16. Describe the shielding gases used for GMAW-S and 20. Describe the proper tie-in procedure for a root pass
GMAW-P on carbon steel and stainless steel. on a pipe weld. (Obj. 24-4)
(Obj. 24-2)

INTERNET ACTIVITIES

Internet Activity A
Using your favorite search engines find as many gas metal arc welding proce-
dures as you can for welding pipe. Make a list of where they come from and the
procedure number and present to your instructor.
Internet Activity B
Using your favorite search engines list as many organizations as you can find that
are involved with gas metal arc welding of pipe training issues in your particular
state. These can be unions, trade associations, membership societies, institutions,
or schools. Don’t list companies that do the welding. Present the list to your
instructor.

812   Chapter 24   Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice: Jobs 24-J1–J15 (Pipe)
Table 24-2  Job Outline: Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid Wire (Pipe)

Electrode
Pipe Specifications Specifications1 Welding Current DCEP

Wall Wire- Gas AWS


Type of Type of Welding Welding Diameter Weight Thickness Size Arc Feed Shielding Flow Text S.E.N.S.E.
Job No. Joint Weld Position Technique Material (in.) Schedule (in.) Type (in.) Volts Amperes Speed Gas2 (ft3/h) Reference Reference3
24-J1 Flat Surfacing 1C Stringer Carbon 4–8 40 ⁄4–5⁄16
1
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 150–160 250–290 Carbon 15–25 817 NA
surface downhill steel dioxide
Weaved 130–150 220–250
downhill
24-J2 Flat Surfacing 1C Stringer uphill Carbon 4–8 80 ⁄16–1⁄2
5
ER70S-6 0.035 19–23 130–160 220–290 Carbon 15–20 817 NA
surface Weaved uphill steel dioxide

24-J3 Butt V-groove 1G 1 Stringer— Carbon 6 40 ⁄16


5
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 130–140 220–235 Carbon 15–20 819 NA
downhill steel dioxide
2 Weaved— 140–160 235–290
downhill
24-J4 Butt V-groove 2G 5 Stringer Carbon 6 40 ⁄16
5
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 1–130 to 140 220–235 Carbon 15–25 821 Advanced
steel dioxide level
4–140 to 160 235–290
24-J5 Butt V-groove 2G 7 Stringer Carbon 8 80 1
⁄2 ER70S-6 0.035 19–23 1–140 to 150 235–250 Carbon 15–25 821 Advanced
steel dioxide level
6–150 to 170 250–330
24-J6 Butt V-groove 5G 1 Stringer— Carbon 8 40 ⁄16
5
ER70S-6 0.035 19–21 120–130 210–220 Carbon 15–20 823 Advanced
downhill steel dioxide level
3 Weaved— 130–150 220–250
downhill
24-J7 Butt V-groove 5G 1 Stringer— Carbon 8 40 ⁄16
5
ER70S-6 0.035 19–21 120–130 210–220 Carbon 15–20 827 Advanced
downhill steel dioxide level
2 Weaved— 19–23 110–120 180–210
uphill
24-J8 Butt V-groove 5G 1 Stringer— Carbon 8 80 1
⁄2 ER70S-6 0.035 19–21 120–130 210–220 Carbon 15–20 827 Advanced
downhill steel dioxide level
2 Weaved– 19–24 110–125 180–215
uphill
24-J9 90° V-groove Header 3 Stringer Carbon 6–8 40 ⁄16
5
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 130–140 220–235 Carbon 15–20 829 Advanced
branch fillet horizontal steel dioxide level
fixed;
branch
vertical
fixed top
(2F, 2G)
  813

(Continued)
814  
Table 24-2 (Concluded )

24-J10 90° V-groove, Header 1 Stringer— Carbon 6–8 40 ⁄16


5
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 120–130 210–220 Carbon 15–20 829 Advanced
branch fillet vertical downhill steel 110–120 180–210 dioxide level
fixed; 2 Weaved
branch uphill
horizontal
fixed (5F,
5G)
24-J11 90° V-groove, Header 3 Stringer Carbon 6–8 40 ⁄16
5
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 120–130 210–220 Carbon 15–20 829 Advanced
branch fillet horizontal steel dioxide level
fixed;
branch
vertical
fixed
bottom
(5F, 5G)
24-J12 45° V-groove, Header 3 Stringer Carbon 6–8 40 ⁄16
5
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 130–140 220–235 Carbon 15–20 829 Advanced
branch fillet horizontal steel dioxide level
fixed;
branch
top
24-J13 45° V-groove, Header 1 Stringer— Carbon 6–8 40 ⁄16
5
ER70S-6 0.035 18–21 120–130 210–220 Carbon 15–20 829 Advanced
branch fillet vertical downhill steel 18–23 110–120 180–210 dioxide level
fixed; 2 Weaved—
branch uphill
side
24-J14 45° V-groove, Headers 5 Stringer Carbon 6–8 40 5
⁄16–1⁄2 ER70S-6 0.035 18–23 130–140 220–235 Carbon 15–20 829 Advanced
branch fillet horizontal steel dioxide level
fixed;
branch
bottom
25-J15 Butt V-groove Horizontal 1 Stringer Aluminum 5–6 80 1
⁄4 ER4043 3
⁄64 20–24 180–190 365–390 Argon 30–40 831 NA
roll (1G) 1 Weaved 190–210 390–426
24-JQT1 T and lap Groove, 2F, 5F, 5G Stringer and Carbon 4–6 40 1
⁄4–5⁄16 ER70S-6 0.035 18–23 110–160 180–290 Carbon 15–25 829 Advanced
fillet weave steel dioxide level
24-JQT2 Butt Groove 6G Stringer and Carbon 21⁄2–6 40 0.203–5⁄16 ER70S-6 0.035 19–21 120–150 210–250 Carbon 15–25 831 NA
weave steel dioxide
24-JQT3 Butt Groove 6G Stringer and Aluminum 21⁄2–6 40 0.203–5⁄16 ER4043 3
⁄64 (4) (4) (4) Argon 30–40 832 NA
weave

Electrode type ER 80S-D2 may also be used with excellent results.


1

2
Argon-rich gas mixtures may also be used. GMAW-P may also be used if equipment is available. Various root pass techniques can also be used, such as GTAW and GMAW-S. GMAW-P is very difficult unless the joint is accurately fit and welding
is done in the 1G position.
NA = not applicable.
3

Use a synergic pulse parameter as specified by your specific equipment manufacturer for 3⁄64-in. wire.
4

Note: The conditions indicated here are basic and will vary with the job situation, the results desired, and the skill of the welder. For additional practice the FCAW process can be substituted. Stainless-steel practice can be done using appropriate
filler metal and shielding gases. Stainless-steel pipe is expensive and limited practice can be done using carbon steel pipe with stainless electrode and appropriate shielding gas.