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# GEOMETRIC OPTICS

##  Ray of Light – extremely narrow beam of light

 All visible objects emit or reflect light rays in all directions

##  Our eyes detect light rays

 We see images, not objects
 Images formed when light rays converge (converge = come
together)
 When light rays go straight into our eyes, we see an image
in the same spot as the object

## Spherical Mirrors (Concave & Convex)

Mirrors
 C: center or curvature (center point of the sphere)
 It is possible to see images when converging light rays
reflect off of mirrors  r: radius of curvature (radius of sphere)
Reflection (bouncing light)  F: focal point of the mirror or lens (halfway between C and
the sphere)
- When light changes direction by bouncing off a surface
 f (focal distance) = r/2

##  When light is reflected off a mirror, it hits the mirrors at

the same angle as it reflects off the mirror Concave Mirror (Caved In)
 Normal – imaginary line which lies at right angles to the
mirror where the ray hits it

##  Mirrors reflect light rays

 We see images in mirrors when light form the object,
reflects off the mirror and converges to form an image

Properties of Image
 Erect
 Virtual
 Same size as the object  Light rays the come in parallel to the optical axis reflect
through the focal point
Sight Lines Example 1: Object is before focal point
 We perceive all light rays as if they come straight from an  First ray comes in parallel to the optical axis and reflects
object through the focal point
 Sight Lines – imaginary light rays that we think we see  The second ray comes through the focal point and reflects
to the parallel axis
Image Type  A real image forms where the light rays converge (smaller
 Real images are formed by light rays than object)
 Virtual images are formed by sight lines

## Plane (Flat) Mirrors

- Images are virtual (formed by sight lines) and upright
- Objects are not magnified
 Object height (HO) = Image height (Hi)
 Object distance (DO) = Image distance (Di) Example 2: Object is after focal point
 First ray comes in parallel to the optical axis and reflects
through the focal point
 Second ray comes through the focal point and reflects
parallel

KIM 12 STEM 5
 Real image formed but light rays do not converge (larger
than object)
 Virtual image forms where sight rays converge

Positions

##  Light rays that come in parallel to the optical axis reflect

from the focal point

## Types of Images Formed by Concave Mirror for Different Object

Positions
Object Position Image Position Type of Image
At infinity At F A point
Beyond C Between C and F Real, inverted,
smaller
At C At C Real, inverted,
same size
Between C and F Beyond C Real, inverted,
bigger
At F At infinity No image
Between F and V Behind mirror Virtual, upright,
bigger

KIM 12 STEM 5
Water 1.33
Fused Quartz 1.46
Glass (crown) 1.523
Sapphire 1.77
Zirconium 2.2
Diamond 2.419

Snell’s Law

REFRACTION
- Change in medium and object density

n – index of refraction
c – speed of light 㘠 t
v – speed of light in a given substance/material

travels

## Index of Refraction of Some Materials

Material N
Air 1.0003
Ice (at 0oC) 1.309
KIM 12 STEM 5