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GEOMETRIC OPTICS

 Ray of Light – extremely narrow beam of light


 All visible objects emit or reflect light rays in all directions

 Our eyes detect light rays


 We see images, not objects
 Images formed when light rays converge (converge = come
together)
 When light rays go straight into our eyes, we see an image
in the same spot as the object

Spherical Mirrors (Concave & Convex)


Mirrors
 C: center or curvature (center point of the sphere)
 It is possible to see images when converging light rays
reflect off of mirrors  r: radius of curvature (radius of sphere)
Reflection (bouncing light)  F: focal point of the mirror or lens (halfway between C and
the sphere)
- When light changes direction by bouncing off a surface
 f (focal distance) = r/2

 When light is reflected off a mirror, it hits the mirrors at


the same angle as it reflects off the mirror Concave Mirror (Caved In)
 Normal – imaginary line which lies at right angles to the
mirror where the ray hits it

 Mirrors reflect light rays


 We see images in mirrors when light form the object,
reflects off the mirror and converges to form an image

Properties of Image
 Erect
 Virtual
 Same size as the object  Light rays the come in parallel to the optical axis reflect
through the focal point
Sight Lines Example 1: Object is before focal point
 We perceive all light rays as if they come straight from an  First ray comes in parallel to the optical axis and reflects
object through the focal point
 Sight Lines – imaginary light rays that we think we see  The second ray comes through the focal point and reflects
to the parallel axis
Image Type  A real image forms where the light rays converge (smaller
 Real images are formed by light rays than object)
 Virtual images are formed by sight lines

Plane (Flat) Mirrors


- Images are virtual (formed by sight lines) and upright
- Objects are not magnified
 Object height (HO) = Image height (Hi)
 Object distance (DO) = Image distance (Di) Example 2: Object is after focal point
 First ray comes in parallel to the optical axis and reflects
through the focal point
 Second ray comes through the focal point and reflects
parallel

KIM 12 STEM 5
 Real image formed but light rays do not converge (larger
than object)
 Virtual image forms where sight rays converge

Convex Mirrors (Curved Out)

Types of Images Formed by Convex Mirror for Different Object


Positions

 Light rays that come in parallel to the optical axis reflect


from the focal point

Types of Images Formed by Concave Mirror for Different Object


Positions
Object Position Image Position Type of Image
At infinity At F A point
Beyond C Between C and F Real, inverted,
smaller
At C At C Real, inverted,
same size
Between C and F Beyond C Real, inverted,
bigger
At F At infinity No image
Between F and V Behind mirror Virtual, upright,
bigger

KIM 12 STEM 5
Water 1.33
Fused Quartz 1.46
Glass (crown) 1.523
Sapphire 1.77
Zirconium 2.2
Diamond 2.419

Snell’s Law

REFRACTION
- Change in medium and object density

n – index of refraction
c – speed of light 㘠 t
v – speed of light in a given substance/material

 The smaller the index of refraction, the faster the light


travels

Index of Refraction of Some Materials


Material N
Air 1.0003
Ice (at 0oC) 1.309
KIM 12 STEM 5