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Design Concept of the Structural Bus of

Microsatellites for Lunar Missions

Subham Kumar Gupta1 Priyank Puntambekar2 Saksham Chaturvedi3
SRM University SRM University SRM University
Kanchipuram – 603203 Kanchipuram – 603203 Kanchipuram – 603203
+919940327539 +918939038923 +919790713739
Abstract: Space Industry has been developing trajectory or ballistic capture trajectory. The satellite
colossally in the close past. Over the past 50 years, has been estimated to weigh about 70 kg enveloping
more than 860 microsatellites (10–100 kg), 680 the components in a volume of roughly 400𝑚𝑚 ×
nanosatellites (1–10 kg) and 38 picosatellites (0.1–1 kg)
400𝑚𝑚 × 610𝑚𝑚. The satellite has to carry a lot
have been launched worldwide for doing different
of components within a small volume with quite a
missions in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper
fundamentally concentrates on the configuration idea less structural mass and yet having a sufficing
of a microsatellite to function in a much farther orbit, natural frequency to overcome the forcing
i.e. the Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Quite evidently frequencies induced by the Launch Vehicle carrying
heading off to the moon brings with itself a great deal the spacecraft. The spacecraft also needs to be robust
of obstacles; and when the errand needs to be enough to withstand all the launch loads, i.e. the
performed by a microsatellite the task is much more Quasi static load factors when the satellite is being
strenuous. A microsatellite has a considerable measure ejected into the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit
of imperatives added to it, particularly focusing on the
which are as high as 7.5𝑔 Transverse and ±13.75𝑔
mechanical regions of the satellite. A microsatellite is a
miniaturised variant of a satellite where it needs to
in Longitudinal directions.
perform every one of the assignments an ordinary
satellite would just with a lesser mass, lesser propellant
and smaller components
Design Criteria
TABLE OF CONTENTS A spacecraft design follows design criteria (mass,
1. INTRODUCTION…………………… 1 strength, reliability etc.). The preliminary design is
intended to leave room for any alterations in the
2. BACKGROUND..........……………… 1 design criteria that might be required in the later
design stages of the satellite. Depending upon the
3. COMPONENTS …………...…… 2
project, the subsystem specifications may be altered
4. ANALYSIS….……………………. 6 from the design criteria such as Solar Array (whether
or not to deploy them).
5. ADAPTER…...……………………… 12
6. SUMMARY….…………………… 12
7. REFERENCES …………………… 12 Isogrids are grid stiffened structures with
ribs/stiffeners intersecting as lattices of equilateral
1. INTRODUCTION triangles. Isogrid structures are isotropic in nature
i.e. they have the same mechanical properties in all
SRMSAT 2 is a progressive conceptual student directions. An isogrid can be modelled using the
small satellite mission and a step forward in deep sandwich theory which delineates about structures
space exploration, pushing horizons of robust small with separated stiff face sheets and a lighter
satellites to regimes beyond earth. Currently in the interconnecting layer. The isogrid structures are
preliminary design phase, the mission is directed manufactured from single sheets of material and
towards the design of a small orbiter spacecraft to with copious triangular openings, hence accounting
orbit and study moon in a Low Lunar Orbit (LLO)[1] for the reduction in mass of the structure. The
by utilising Low Energy Transfer. Low Energy spacecraft therefore, makes the use of isogrid for the
Transfer is a trajectory in space that allows a construction of the primary structure of the entire
spacecraft to change orbits using very little ∆v and spacecraft which includes the Side Panels, Base
hence very little fuel/propellant. This kind of a plate, Top deck and the mid-supporting deck in the
transfer is also known as weak stability bound spacecraft.

978-1-4673-7676-1/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE

3. COMPONENTS As shown in the figure, the primary frame of the
satellite acts like the skeleton of the structural bus.
There are a number of components required by a The frame of the satellite is the first physical
satellite to reach the Lunar Orbit which can be seen structure which is assembled followed by the walls
in the exploded view of the proposed design of the of the satellite.
structural bus of the satellite:
Base of the Satellite
The base of the satellite is proposed to be an isogrid
structure with a hexagonal cut-out at the ribs in order
to provide symmetry to the isogrid and maintain the
isotropic nature of the structure. The 3D model of
the base plate of the satellite is shown in the figure

Figure 1. Exploded view of SATELLITE

Part Part Name Quantity Figure 3. Isogrid Base plate with circular cut-out
The base of the satellite has a skin of thickness 3mm
1 On-Body Solar Panel 1
and ribs of depth 4mm. The skin of the base has a
2 Deployed Solar Panel 2
Parabolic Antenna 1 circular hole (∅42𝑚𝑚) in order to accommodate the
4 Isogrid Side Panel 4 PPS thruster Nozzle.
5 Top Deck of the Satellite 1
6 Propulsion Module 1
The Side Panels
7 Battery Module 1 The side panels of the satellite are isogrid plates
8 Payload As per req. made up of Aluminium-6061 T6 covering an area of
9 PCB Module 4
400𝑚𝑚 × 600𝑚𝑚. The side panels are the largest
10 Reaction Wheels Set of 4
Table 1: Exploded View Key
component of the structure of the satellite. They also
provide the ground for holding the battery and
Primary Frame Payload module.

The entire spacecraft is supported by a set of beams

which assemble to form the primary frame of the
satellite bus.

Figure 4. Isogrid Side Panel of the Satellite

Top Deck
The top deck of the satellite is again an isogrid
structure with mechanical support to hold a
Figure 2. Primary Frame of the satellite parabolic antenna mounted on the top of the satellite.

The top is placed over mechanical support beams on the PPS thrusters is 22N while the RCS uses a thrust
the primary frame of the satellite about 100mm of about 0.7N. The propulsion module of the satellite
below the top end of the primary frame hence is shown below:
leaving enough space for the accommodation of the
parabolic antenna which requires about 30cm
diametrical space over the top plate.

Figure 7. Isometric View of the Propulsion System

The fuel and oxidizer are contained in four spherical

tanks pressurized by helium (He) supplied from a
Figure 5. Top Deck (Isogrid inverted)
single spherical tank. In-line filters are used to filter
Middle Deck the pressuriser and propellants. The fuel, oxidizer
and pressuriser are filled into the propulsion
An isogrid plate is placed at the centre of the satellite subsystem through several fill and drain valves.
over mechanical support bars in order to These valves also allow offloading if required.
accommodate smaller components like the reaction Check valves are used upstream of the propellant
wheels and other COTS components. tanks to prevent vapour migration into the
pressuriser tanks [9]. Pressure transducers measure
the magnitude of pressure in the tanks. A redundant
pressure regulator is used to control the pressure
from the helium tank. Latch valves are located at the
exit and entry of each propellant tank to isolate the
tank during extended periods of no use, and also to
isolate any particular tank in case of any
malfunctioning. The flow control valves regulate the
flow/pressure of the fluid. It controls the amount of
pressure to be given to the propellant tanks as per the
requirements. There is a latch valve present close to
the entry of the PPS thruster, which helps in
Figure 6. Middle Deck of the Satellite preventing the fuel flow, when the RCS is
functioning and the PPS is not required.
The Propulsion System
Primary Propulsion System (PPS)-The Primary
Many satellites launched into the orbit bound to the Propulsion System (PPS) is responsible for
earth do not require a propulsion system. Satellites providing the incremental velocities to the satellite
bound for Deep space or Near Deep space missions, at its Aphelion and Perihelion. The primary
on the other hand, require a propulsion system to propulsion system is a bipropellant propulsion
provide thrust to the satellite to move through system which uses Hydrazine (𝑁2 𝐻4 ) as the fuel and
space.[10] The propulsion system is one of the most Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) as the oxidizer. The
sophisticated and significant modules of a satellite. thrust is provided by a 22N thruster. The 3D model
The propulsion system is responsible for providing of the thruster is shown in the figure below:
incremental velocities to the satellite at its Aphelion
and Perihelion and also accounts for the attitude
control of the spacecraft. The satellite uses a Hybrid
propulsion system where the PPS (Primary
Propulsion System) uses a bipropellant propulsion
system consisting of Hydrazine (𝑁2 𝐻4 ) as the fuel
and NTO (Nitrogen Tetroxide) as the oxidizer while
the same fuel is used in the monopropellant RCS
(Reaction Control System). The thrust required by

satellite with the nozzles pointing inwards as shown

Figure 8. Isometric View of PPS Thruster

Figure 9. Front View of PPS Thruster

Figure 12. Base plate with thrusters mounted

The placement of RCS thrusters in plane with the

bottom plate of the satellite gives minimum
translation to the satellite and the trust is used giving
a rotation to the satellite.

PCB Module
The satellite is provided with a set of 4 PCB cases
Figure 10. Top View of PPS Thruster which are capable of holding 3 PCBs each which
provides the satellite with a high efficiency and
versatility of performing multiple tasks.
Reaction Control System (RCS)-The reaction control
thrusters or the RCS (Reaction Control System)
thrusters are used to control the attitude of the
satellite in the orbit by giving a minute thrust to the
satellite in the required directions. The conceptual
model of the reaction control thrusters is shown

Figure 11. Model of RCS thruster

The RCS thrusters shown above are monopropellant

thrusters which use Hydrazine (𝑁2 𝐻4 ) as the fuel
and are assumed to be giving a thrust of 0.5N – 1.1N
depending upon the burn time. The RCS thrusters Figure 13. PCB Module
are positioned in plane with the bottom plate of the

Battery and Payload
The Battery and payload in the satellite are placed in
alignment with the side walls of the satellite which
prevents the usage of extra material for the two

Figure 16. Solar Panels (On-body and Deployed)

The antenna used for the microsatellite is a Parabolic
antenna placed at the top of the satellite with two
transceivers placed at the top deck as well with a
Figure 14. Battery and Payload mounted on Side Panels
considerable separation in order to avoid any
interference. The antenna occupies a space of about
Reaction Wheels 30cm which is easily fulfilled by the availability of
40𝑐𝑚 × 40𝑐𝑚 area on the top deck.
The satellite is 3 axes stabilised by the use of
reaction wheels which work on the principle of
conservation of angular momentum. The attitude
control system of the satellite uses a set of 4 reaction
wheels which are placed at the centre of the satellite.

Figure 17. Parabolic Antenna

Star Tracker
The star tracker is placed on one of the side panels
Figure 15. A set of 4 reaction wheels on the middle adjacent to the panel with solar panel. The star
deck tracker will be used to track the closest star and
obtain the position and attitude of the satellite.
Solar Panel
A solar panel is provided on one of the side panels
of the satellite in order to power the satellite. The
satellite also has two panels deployed adjacent to the
on-body panel and parallel to it. The deployment
mechanism is a simple spring mechanism where the
panels are deployed once with no drive mechanism
hence avoiding complexities in the structural
stability of the satellite.
Figure 18. Star Tracker/Star Sensor

4. ANALYSIS Individual Tests on the Isogrid base plate were
performed with translation of edges restricted and
There are various analyses which need to be the results obtained are shown below:
performed on a satellite before its reliability can be
validated. The two major types of mechanical
analysis required are:
Subcase 1
 Structural Analysis
 Thermal Analysis

In this paper the analysis was confined to structural

only as the paper deals with the structural aspects of
the satellite bus. There are two major structural
analyses which need to be performed on the bus in
order to validate the heftiness of the structure:

 Linear Static Analysis

 Modal Frequency Analysis

Linear Static Analysis Figure 19. Displacement result for Subcase 1

A spacecraft must be designed so that it is stiff

enough to withstand various loads. The most
important loads which a spacecraft must undergo are
the Quasi Static Loads. The quasi static load factors
(acceleration) are specific for every Launch Vehicle
and can be found on the manual of the Launch
Vehicle. The structure of the spacecraft must be so
designed that there is minimal deformation on the
application of loads and the structure stays within
the proportionality limit of the material. The linear
Figure 20. Stress result for Subcase 1
static analyses were performed for the Quasi-Static
load factors of ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Subcase 2
Vehicle (PSLV) which are as listed below [4]:

Subcase Longitudinal Lateral 1 Lateral 2

1 -13.75g 7.5g -
2 -13.75g - 7.5g
3 13.75g 7.5g -
4 13.75g - 7.5g
Table 2: PSLV Quasi-Static load factors

Figure 21. Displacement result for Subcase 2

Figure 22. Stress result for Subcase 2

Subcase 3: Subcase 4:

Figure 23. Displacement result for Subcase 3 Figure 25. Displacement result for Subcase 4

Figure 24. Stress result for Subcase 3 Figure 26. Stress result for Subcase 4

The displacement and elemental stress results integral equations based on the considerations of
obtained were: virtual work.

Max. Max. Stress

Subcase Displacement (MPa)
1 0.244 4.48
2 0.244 4.48 𝑤, 𝑧
3 0.244 4.48
4 0.244 4.48
Table 3: Displacement and Stress Results for
𝑢, 𝑥
Linear Static Analysis using FEA

The results show that the maximum displacement is

quite small and the maximum stress is well below
the Yield strength of Aluminium-6061 T6 (276 𝑣, 𝑦
Figure 27. A 2D Plate
Modal Analysis
The differential equation of forced, undamped
When a satellite is being carried by a Launch motion of plates has the form:
Vehicle, it is of prime significance that the
𝜕2 𝑤
spacecraft has sufficient natural frequency in both 𝐷∇2 ∇2 𝑤(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑝(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) − 𝜌ℎ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) (1)
𝜕𝑡 2
Lateral and Longitudinal directions to prevent the
dynamic coupling of satellite with the Launch 𝑤 = Transverse deflection along z-axis
Vehicle. Since the satellite is made up of isogrid
structures we need to examine the base plates and Where 𝐷 = Bending Stiffness of the plate given by:
side panels for their natural frequencies. But in order 𝐸ℎ3
to study the vibrations of isogrids, we need to 𝐷 = 12(1−𝜈2 ) (2)
formulate the vibrations of a thin plate. The
dynamics of plates, which are continuous elastic 𝐸 = Young’s Modulus of the material of plate
systems, can be modelled mathematically by partial
differential equations based on Newton’s laws or by ℎ = Plate Thickness

∞ ∞
𝜈 = Poisson’s Ratio 𝑚𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑦
𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∑ ∑ 𝐶𝑚,𝑛 sin sin
𝑝 = Force per unit area 𝑎 𝑏
𝑚=1 𝑛=1

𝜌 = Mass density of the material 𝑚 = 1, 2, 3, … … … 𝑛 = 1, 2, 3, … … …

Consider the rectangular plate as shown with Where different values of 𝑚 and 𝑛 give different
arbitrary supports. Transverse surface loads mode shapes of vibration of the plate.
distributed on the surface cause the particles, located
in the middle surface, to attain the deflections and 𝐶𝑚,𝑛 = Amplitude of vibration of each value of 𝑚
velocities directed perpendicularly to the initial and 𝑛
(undeformed) mid-surface. At a certain time (which
Using this in the differential equation and solving we
is assumed to be the initial), the plate is suddenly
obtain the solution as:
released from all external loads. The unloaded plate,
which has initial deflection and velocity, begins to 𝑚4 𝜋4 𝑚2 𝜋2 𝑛 2 𝜋 2 𝑛 4 𝜋4 𝜔2 𝜌ℎ
+2 + − =0 (5)
vibrate. The particles located in the middle surface 𝑎4 𝑎2 𝑏2 𝑏4 𝐷

move in the direction perpendicular to the area So the natural frequencies of the plate are given by:
vector of the plate and, as a result, the plate becomes
bent. Such vibrations are called free or natural 𝑚2 𝑛2 𝐷
𝜔𝑚𝑛 = 𝜋 2 ( + )√ (6)
transverse vibrations. But natural vibration are 𝑎2 𝑏2 𝜌ℎ

function of material properties and plate geometry

only and are the inherent properties of the plate In case of a square plate the equation reduces to:
independent of any load. Therefore, the differential 𝝅𝟐 𝑫
equation reduces to: 𝝎𝒎𝒏 =
√𝝆𝒉 (𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟐 ) (7)

𝜕2 𝑤
𝐷∇2 ∇2 𝑤(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) + 𝜌ℎ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 0[2] (3) 𝝅 𝑫
𝜕𝑡 2 𝒇𝒎𝒏 =
√𝝆𝒉 (𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟐 ) (8)
4 2 2 4
𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕
∇2 ∇2 = 4
+2 2⋅ 2+ 4 The fundamental natural frequency of the plate is
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
now obtained by substituting 𝑚 = 1 and 𝑛 = 1,
∇2 ∇2 = Biharmonic Operator
2𝜋2 𝐷
𝜔0 = 𝜔11 = √𝜌ℎ (9)
Now the deflection 𝑤 must satisfy boundary 𝑎2
conditions at the edges of the plate (which is the
same as the plate being in static equilibrium). So we The modal analysis was performed on a square plate
define the initial conditions as: of side length 400mm and thickness (h) 4mm. The
translation of the edges was fixed as edges can only
𝜕𝑤 rotate. The material used was Aluminium-6061 T6
At 𝑡 = 0: 𝑤 = 𝑤0 (𝑥, 𝑦), = 𝑤̇ 0 (𝑥, 𝑦) (4)
𝜕𝑡 𝑘𝑔
(𝐸 = 68.98 𝐺𝑃𝑎, 𝜌 = 2711 ⁄𝑚3 , 𝜈 = 1⁄3). The
With these initial conditions, a general solution to same was also performed using Finite Element
the differential equation the solution may be Method by creating a computerised mathematical
assumed to be of the form of: model of the plate with Finite Element
𝑤(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦). 𝑇(𝑡) Discretisation using CQUAD4 elements of element
size 4mm:
Which is a separable solution of the shape function
𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦) which describes the mode shapes of the
vibration of plate; also 𝑇(𝑡) is of the form:

𝑇(𝑡) = 𝐴 cos 𝜔𝑡 + 𝐵 sin 𝜔𝑡 (5)

For a rectangular plate of sides 𝑎 and 𝑏, the shape
function 𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦) may be taken as:

Figure 28. Finite Element Model of the Plate

with a mesh size of 4mm

The results were calculated using Analytical Methods as well as solved Numerically and the first ten modes of
Natural frequencies were obtained:
Natural Natural
Frequency Frequency ERROR
(Hz) (Hz)

1 1 1 121.303 120.664 0.527

2 1 2 303.258 301.676 0.523
3 2 1 303.258 301.676 0.523
4 2 2 485.213 480.942 0.973
5 1 3 606.516 603.281 0.533
Table 4: Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Frequency Results

The displacement for different modes shapes

obtained for the plate are shown below:

Figure 32. Mode 4 Frequency

Figure 29. Mode 1 Frequency

Figure 33. Mode 5 Frequency

Figure 30. Mode 2 Frequency
An isogrid of skin area 400𝑚𝑚 × 400𝑚𝑚 was
taken under examination and its equivalent plate was
generated. It was then tested for natural frequency
with the skin edges restricted from translation. The
isogrid specifications were as shown below:

Figure 31. Mode 3 Frequency
Figure 34. Isogrid Triangular Section

The specimen under consideration had values as:

ℎ = 50𝑚𝑚, 𝑡 = 3𝑚𝑚, 𝑑 = 4𝑚𝑚, 𝑏 = 4𝑚𝑚 𝑐 = 0

(unflanged isogrid)

It is however complicated to study an isogrid in

terms of these dimensions; therefore, we use some
non-dimensional parameters as:

𝜇= 𝑡ℎ
Figure 35. Side view of Isogrid Triangle
𝛽 2 = (1 + 𝛼 + µ)[3(1 + 𝛿)2 + 3µ(𝛿 + 𝜆)2 + 1 +
𝛼𝛿 2 + µ𝜆2 ] − 3[(1 + 𝛿) − 𝜇(𝛿 + 𝜆)]2 (10)

Note that in case of an unflanged isogrid,

𝜆=𝜇=0 [𝑐 = 0]

(It is however important to notice that ℎ here is the

height of the triangle and not the thickness as in case
of the plate. The thickness of the isogrid skin is given
by 𝑡.) Simplification of Isogrid into Thin Plates
Figure 36. Front view of Isogrid (I – Section)
The isogrid can be transformed into its equivalent
plate by a method known as 𝑬∗ 𝒕∗ method using the
𝑎 = Side Length of the Triangle equations:
ℎ = Height of The Triangle 1. Equivalent Thickness [3]
𝑡 = Skin Thickness 12𝐼 𝛽 𝛽
𝑡∗ = √ =𝑡 =𝑡 (11)
𝐴 1+𝛼+µ 1+𝛼
𝑑 = Rib Height

𝑏 = Width of Rib 2. Equivalent Young’s Modulus [3]

𝐸∗ = 𝐸 (12)
𝑐 = Flange Thickness
Therefore, the bending stiffness is now given by:
𝑤 = Flange width
𝐸 ∗ 𝑡 ∗3
𝐷 = 12(1−𝜈2 ) (13)

Part 𝑨𝒊 𝜻𝒊 𝑨𝒊 𝜻 𝒊 𝑨𝒊 𝜻𝒊 𝟐 𝑰𝟎

𝑡 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡3
(1 (1 + 𝛿) (1 + 𝛿)2
𝑡 2 2 4 12
1 + 𝛿)
𝛼𝛿 2
𝑡𝛼 0 0 0 12
𝑡 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡3 2
− (1 − µ(1 + 𝛿) µ(1 + 𝛿)2 µ𝜆
𝑡𝜇 2 2 4 12
3 + 𝜆)
𝑡2 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡3
(1 + 𝛿) − µ(1 + 𝛿) [(1 + 𝛿)2 + µ(1 + 𝛿)2 ] [1 + 𝛼𝛿 2 + µ𝜆2 ]
𝑡(1 + 𝛼 + 𝜇) ---------- 2 2 4 12
𝜮 --
Table 5: Calculation parameters for isogrid

𝐴 = ∑ 𝐴𝑖 Area of I-section for a unit height ∑ 𝑨𝒊 𝜻𝒊

𝜻𝒈 = Centre of Gravity of I-section

𝐼 = ∑ 𝐴𝑖 𝜁𝑖 2 + 𝐼0 − 𝐴 𝜻𝒈 2 M.I. of I-section

The isogrid was hence transformed into an equivalent sheet and the first 5 modes of vibrations were generated.
The Finite Element Model of the isogrid is shown below:

Figure 37. Finite Element Model of Isogrid plate

The results obtained are as shown:

Mode Natural Frequency

1 159.687
2 362.984
3 364.068
4 608.475
5 676.672
Table 5: Frequency Results for Isogrid using FEA

The modes of vibration are shown below: 5. ADAPTER : LAUNCHER-SPACECRAFT
The spacecraft rests on an adapter, i.e. the
Spacecraft-Launcher interface which clutches the
spacecraft firmly in the Launch Vehicle. They are
also used for the ejection of the spacecraft into the
LEO or the GTO. Some of the common Launcher-
Spacecraft interface include ISRO’s Ball Lock
System (IBL), NASA’s Pin Puller etc. It consists of
Figure 38. Mode 1 Frequency three major rings, namely:

(i) The fore-end ring interfaces with the

(ii) The aft-end ring attached to the
Launch Vehicle deck
(iii) The retainer lug connecting the fore-
end and aft-end rings

Figure 39. Mode 2 Frequency

Figure 43. A conceptual model of Launcher-

Spacecraft interface

Figure 40. Mode 3 Frequency 6. SUMMARY

The proposed structural bus is a versatile structural
bus which can be utilised for various missions in the
Lunar Orbit. It provides enough volume to
accommodate a number of components and
payloads. The structure has been tested against the
Quasi-Static load factors and the Natural frequencies
in both lateral and longitudinal directions, both
analytically and numerically. The results obtained
show that the structure is robust enough to be
launched by any existing Launch Vehicle in the
Figure 41. Mode 4 Frequency world.

[1] Ratheesh A, Barad K, Naik K, Pavuluri
SH, Singha A, Bhate H, Puntambekar P,
Krishnamurthy A, Gupta SK,
Muthuswamy L, Shrivastava P.,
“SRMSAT: A Feasibility Study on Small
Satellite Mission to Moon”, 54th AIAA
Aerosapce Sciences Meeting, 2016
[2] J. Jaap Wijke, “Spacecraft Structures”
Figure 42. Mode 5 Frequency

[3] McDonnel Douglas, “Isogrid Design BIOGRAPHY
Handbook”, NASA-CR-124075, February
1973 Subham K. Gupta is
[4] Thakur A, Parbat S, Narayan pursuing his Bachelor’s in
Venkitachalam, Penmetsa Aditya Varma, Mechanical Engineering
Raghupathy Ajay Prasad, “Novel Low Cost (expected graduation:
Standardized Nano-Satellite Structure Bus 2017) from SRM
for LEO Missions”, IEEE Aerospace University, India. He is
Conference 2013 working in SRMSAT V2.0
[5] Jeffrey Lavin, “Buckling of Isogrid”, June as the lead Structural
2010 Design Engineer since July 2014.
[6] Dr. Wiliam Case, “Isogrid Plate
Modelling”, FEMCI The Book Priyank Puntambekar
[7] J. Lavin and E. Gutierrez-Miravete, received his Bachelor’s in
“Modelling the Buckling of Isogrid”, Aerospace Engineering in
COMSOL Conference 2010, Boston 2014 from SRM University,
[8] P. Slysh, J. E. Dyer, J. H. Furman and J. E. India. He has been
Key, “Isogrid Structural Tests and Stability involved in SRMSAT V2.0
Analyses”, Journal of Aircraft Vol. 13 No. as the Systems Engineer
10, October 1976 since its inception in 2013.
[9] NASA’s “GOES-N Databook”
[10] Ratheesh A. Naik K., Dhanasekaran J., Saksham Chaturvedi is
“Dual Propulsion System for Small pursuing his Bachelor’s in
Spacecaraft”, 54th AIAA Aerosapce Mechanical Engineering
Sciences Meeting, 2016 (expected graduation:
2019) from SRM
University, India. He is
APPENDICES working in a project called
SRMSAT V2.0 in the Propulsion Subsystem
MORE INFORMATION since August 2015.
SRMSAT V2.0 is a micro-satellite project put up
together by the students of SRM University, India.
It aims at the construction of a micro-satellite which
is to be launched into the Low Lunar Orbit. The
authors of this project are associated with the project
in various fields of the satellite project.

The authors would like to thank Team SRMSAT of
SRM University for its work in the Microsatellite
Design, Dr. D. Narayana Rao, Director of Research,
SRM University, Mr. L. Muthuswamy, Project
Architect, Space Systems and SRM University for
supporting the research.