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6 Ansichten13 SeitenDesign Concept of the Structural Bus of Microsatellites

Mar 05, 2018

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Design Concept of the Structural Bus of Microsatellites

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Design Concept of the Structural Bus of Microsatellites

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Subham Kumar Gupta1 Priyank Puntambekar2 Saksham Chaturvedi3

SRM University SRM University SRM University

Kanchipuram – 603203 Kanchipuram – 603203 Kanchipuram – 603203

+919940327539 +918939038923 +919790713739

subhamguptasat@gmail.com priyanksp2@yahoo.in sakshamc1998@gmail.com

Abstract: Space Industry has been developing trajectory or ballistic capture trajectory. The satellite

colossally in the close past. Over the past 50 years, has been estimated to weigh about 70 kg enveloping

more than 860 microsatellites (10–100 kg), 680 the components in a volume of roughly 400𝑚𝑚 ×

nanosatellites (1–10 kg) and 38 picosatellites (0.1–1 kg)

400𝑚𝑚 × 610𝑚𝑚. The satellite has to carry a lot

have been launched worldwide for doing different

of components within a small volume with quite a

missions in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper

fundamentally concentrates on the configuration idea less structural mass and yet having a sufficing

of a microsatellite to function in a much farther orbit, natural frequency to overcome the forcing

i.e. the Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). Quite evidently frequencies induced by the Launch Vehicle carrying

heading off to the moon brings with itself a great deal the spacecraft. The spacecraft also needs to be robust

of obstacles; and when the errand needs to be enough to withstand all the launch loads, i.e. the

performed by a microsatellite the task is much more Quasi static load factors when the satellite is being

strenuous. A microsatellite has a considerable measure ejected into the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit

of imperatives added to it, particularly focusing on the

which are as high as 7.5𝑔 Transverse and ±13.75𝑔

mechanical regions of the satellite. A microsatellite is a

miniaturised variant of a satellite where it needs to

in Longitudinal directions.

perform every one of the assignments an ordinary

satellite would just with a lesser mass, lesser propellant

2. BACKGROUND

and smaller components

Design Criteria

TABLE OF CONTENTS A spacecraft design follows design criteria (mass,

1. INTRODUCTION…………………… 1 strength, reliability etc.). The preliminary design is

intended to leave room for any alterations in the

2. BACKGROUND..........……………… 1 design criteria that might be required in the later

design stages of the satellite. Depending upon the

3. COMPONENTS …………...…… 2

project, the subsystem specifications may be altered

4. ANALYSIS….……………………. 6 from the design criteria such as Solar Array (whether

or not to deploy them).

5. ADAPTER…...……………………… 12

Isogrids

6. SUMMARY….…………………… 12

7. REFERENCES …………………… 12 Isogrids are grid stiffened structures with

ribs/stiffeners intersecting as lattices of equilateral

1. INTRODUCTION triangles. Isogrid structures are isotropic in nature

i.e. they have the same mechanical properties in all

SRMSAT 2 is a progressive conceptual student directions. An isogrid can be modelled using the

small satellite mission and a step forward in deep sandwich theory which delineates about structures

space exploration, pushing horizons of robust small with separated stiff face sheets and a lighter

satellites to regimes beyond earth. Currently in the interconnecting layer. The isogrid structures are

preliminary design phase, the mission is directed manufactured from single sheets of material and

towards the design of a small orbiter spacecraft to with copious triangular openings, hence accounting

orbit and study moon in a Low Lunar Orbit (LLO)[1] for the reduction in mass of the structure. The

by utilising Low Energy Transfer. Low Energy spacecraft therefore, makes the use of isogrid for the

Transfer is a trajectory in space that allows a construction of the primary structure of the entire

spacecraft to change orbits using very little ∆v and spacecraft which includes the Side Panels, Base

hence very little fuel/propellant. This kind of a plate, Top deck and the mid-supporting deck in the

transfer is also known as weak stability bound spacecraft.

1

3. COMPONENTS As shown in the figure, the primary frame of the

satellite acts like the skeleton of the structural bus.

There are a number of components required by a The frame of the satellite is the first physical

satellite to reach the Lunar Orbit which can be seen structure which is assembled followed by the walls

in the exploded view of the proposed design of the of the satellite.

structural bus of the satellite:

Base of the Satellite

The base of the satellite is proposed to be an isogrid

structure with a hexagonal cut-out at the ribs in order

to provide symmetry to the isogrid and maintain the

isotropic nature of the structure. The 3D model of

the base plate of the satellite is shown in the figure

below:

Part Part Name Quantity Figure 3. Isogrid Base plate with circular cut-out

Label

The base of the satellite has a skin of thickness 3mm

1 On-Body Solar Panel 1

and ribs of depth 4mm. The skin of the base has a

2 Deployed Solar Panel 2

Parabolic Antenna 1 circular hole (∅42𝑚𝑚) in order to accommodate the

3

4 Isogrid Side Panel 4 PPS thruster Nozzle.

5 Top Deck of the Satellite 1

6 Propulsion Module 1

The Side Panels

7 Battery Module 1 The side panels of the satellite are isogrid plates

8 Payload As per req. made up of Aluminium-6061 T6 covering an area of

9 PCB Module 4

400𝑚𝑚 × 600𝑚𝑚. The side panels are the largest

10 Reaction Wheels Set of 4

Table 1: Exploded View Key

component of the structure of the satellite. They also

provide the ground for holding the battery and

Primary Frame Payload module.

which assemble to form the primary frame of the

satellite bus.

Top Deck

The top deck of the satellite is again an isogrid

structure with mechanical support to hold a

Figure 2. Primary Frame of the satellite parabolic antenna mounted on the top of the satellite.

2

The top is placed over mechanical support beams on the PPS thrusters is 22N while the RCS uses a thrust

the primary frame of the satellite about 100mm of about 0.7N. The propulsion module of the satellite

below the top end of the primary frame hence is shown below:

leaving enough space for the accommodation of the

parabolic antenna which requires about 30cm

diametrical space over the top plate.

tanks pressurized by helium (He) supplied from a

Figure 5. Top Deck (Isogrid inverted)

single spherical tank. In-line filters are used to filter

Middle Deck the pressuriser and propellants. The fuel, oxidizer

and pressuriser are filled into the propulsion

An isogrid plate is placed at the centre of the satellite subsystem through several fill and drain valves.

over mechanical support bars in order to These valves also allow offloading if required.

accommodate smaller components like the reaction Check valves are used upstream of the propellant

wheels and other COTS components. tanks to prevent vapour migration into the

pressuriser tanks [9]. Pressure transducers measure

the magnitude of pressure in the tanks. A redundant

pressure regulator is used to control the pressure

from the helium tank. Latch valves are located at the

exit and entry of each propellant tank to isolate the

tank during extended periods of no use, and also to

isolate any particular tank in case of any

malfunctioning. The flow control valves regulate the

flow/pressure of the fluid. It controls the amount of

pressure to be given to the propellant tanks as per the

requirements. There is a latch valve present close to

the entry of the PPS thruster, which helps in

Figure 6. Middle Deck of the Satellite preventing the fuel flow, when the RCS is

functioning and the PPS is not required.

The Propulsion System

Primary Propulsion System (PPS)-The Primary

Many satellites launched into the orbit bound to the Propulsion System (PPS) is responsible for

earth do not require a propulsion system. Satellites providing the incremental velocities to the satellite

bound for Deep space or Near Deep space missions, at its Aphelion and Perihelion. The primary

on the other hand, require a propulsion system to propulsion system is a bipropellant propulsion

provide thrust to the satellite to move through system which uses Hydrazine (𝑁2 𝐻4 ) as the fuel and

space.[10] The propulsion system is one of the most Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) as the oxidizer. The

sophisticated and significant modules of a satellite. thrust is provided by a 22N thruster. The 3D model

The propulsion system is responsible for providing of the thruster is shown in the figure below:

incremental velocities to the satellite at its Aphelion

and Perihelion and also accounts for the attitude

control of the spacecraft. The satellite uses a Hybrid

propulsion system where the PPS (Primary

Propulsion System) uses a bipropellant propulsion

system consisting of Hydrazine (𝑁2 𝐻4 ) as the fuel

and NTO (Nitrogen Tetroxide) as the oxidizer while

the same fuel is used in the monopropellant RCS

(Reaction Control System). The thrust required by

3

satellite with the nozzles pointing inwards as shown

below.

Figure 12. Base plate with thrusters mounted

bottom plate of the satellite gives minimum

translation to the satellite and the trust is used giving

a rotation to the satellite.

PCB Module

The satellite is provided with a set of 4 PCB cases

Figure 10. Top View of PPS Thruster which are capable of holding 3 PCBs each which

provides the satellite with a high efficiency and

versatility of performing multiple tasks.

Reaction Control System (RCS)-The reaction control

thrusters or the RCS (Reaction Control System)

thrusters are used to control the attitude of the

satellite in the orbit by giving a minute thrust to the

satellite in the required directions. The conceptual

model of the reaction control thrusters is shown

below:

thrusters which use Hydrazine (𝑁2 𝐻4 ) as the fuel

and are assumed to be giving a thrust of 0.5N – 1.1N

depending upon the burn time. The RCS thrusters Figure 13. PCB Module

are positioned in plane with the bottom plate of the

4

Battery and Payload

The Battery and payload in the satellite are placed in

alignment with the side walls of the satellite which

prevents the usage of extra material for the two

modules.

Antenna

The antenna used for the microsatellite is a Parabolic

antenna placed at the top of the satellite with two

transceivers placed at the top deck as well with a

Figure 14. Battery and Payload mounted on Side Panels

considerable separation in order to avoid any

interference. The antenna occupies a space of about

Reaction Wheels 30cm which is easily fulfilled by the availability of

40𝑐𝑚 × 40𝑐𝑚 area on the top deck.

The satellite is 3 axes stabilised by the use of

reaction wheels which work on the principle of

conservation of angular momentum. The attitude

control system of the satellite uses a set of 4 reaction

wheels which are placed at the centre of the satellite.

Star Tracker

The star tracker is placed on one of the side panels

Figure 15. A set of 4 reaction wheels on the middle adjacent to the panel with solar panel. The star

deck tracker will be used to track the closest star and

obtain the position and attitude of the satellite.

Solar Panel

A solar panel is provided on one of the side panels

of the satellite in order to power the satellite. The

satellite also has two panels deployed adjacent to the

on-body panel and parallel to it. The deployment

mechanism is a simple spring mechanism where the

panels are deployed once with no drive mechanism

hence avoiding complexities in the structural

stability of the satellite.

Figure 18. Star Tracker/Star Sensor

5

4. ANALYSIS Individual Tests on the Isogrid base plate were

performed with translation of edges restricted and

There are various analyses which need to be the results obtained are shown below:

performed on a satellite before its reliability can be

validated. The two major types of mechanical

analysis required are:

Subcase 1

Structural Analysis

Thermal Analysis

only as the paper deals with the structural aspects of

the satellite bus. There are two major structural

analyses which need to be performed on the bus in

order to validate the heftiness of the structure:

Modal Frequency Analysis

enough to withstand various loads. The most

important loads which a spacecraft must undergo are

the Quasi Static Loads. The quasi static load factors

(acceleration) are specific for every Launch Vehicle

and can be found on the manual of the Launch

Vehicle. The structure of the spacecraft must be so

designed that there is minimal deformation on the

application of loads and the structure stays within

the proportionality limit of the material. The linear

Figure 20. Stress result for Subcase 1

static analyses were performed for the Quasi-Static

load factors of ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Subcase 2

Vehicle (PSLV) which are as listed below [4]:

1 -13.75g 7.5g -

2 -13.75g - 7.5g

3 13.75g 7.5g -

4 13.75g - 7.5g

Table 2: PSLV Quasi-Static load factors

6

Subcase 3: Subcase 4:

Figure 23. Displacement result for Subcase 3 Figure 25. Displacement result for Subcase 4

Figure 24. Stress result for Subcase 3 Figure 26. Stress result for Subcase 4

The displacement and elemental stress results integral equations based on the considerations of

obtained were: virtual work.

Subcase Displacement (MPa)

(mm)

1 0.244 4.48

2 0.244 4.48 𝑤, 𝑧

3 0.244 4.48

4 0.244 4.48

Table 3: Displacement and Stress Results for

𝑢, 𝑥

Linear Static Analysis using FEA

quite small and the maximum stress is well below

the Yield strength of Aluminium-6061 T6 (276 𝑣, 𝑦

MPa).

Figure 27. A 2D Plate

Modal Analysis

The differential equation of forced, undamped

When a satellite is being carried by a Launch motion of plates has the form:

Vehicle, it is of prime significance that the

𝜕2 𝑤

spacecraft has sufficient natural frequency in both 𝐷∇2 ∇2 𝑤(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑝(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) − 𝜌ℎ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) (1)

𝜕𝑡 2

Lateral and Longitudinal directions to prevent the

dynamic coupling of satellite with the Launch 𝑤 = Transverse deflection along z-axis

Vehicle. Since the satellite is made up of isogrid

structures we need to examine the base plates and Where 𝐷 = Bending Stiffness of the plate given by:

side panels for their natural frequencies. But in order 𝐸ℎ3

to study the vibrations of isogrids, we need to 𝐷 = 12(1−𝜈2 ) (2)

formulate the vibrations of a thin plate. The

dynamics of plates, which are continuous elastic 𝐸 = Young’s Modulus of the material of plate

systems, can be modelled mathematically by partial

differential equations based on Newton’s laws or by ℎ = Plate Thickness

7

∞ ∞

𝜈 = Poisson’s Ratio 𝑚𝜋𝑥 𝑛𝜋𝑦

𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦) = ∑ ∑ 𝐶𝑚,𝑛 sin sin

𝑝 = Force per unit area 𝑎 𝑏

𝑚=1 𝑛=1

Consider the rectangular plate as shown with Where different values of 𝑚 and 𝑛 give different

arbitrary supports. Transverse surface loads mode shapes of vibration of the plate.

distributed on the surface cause the particles, located

in the middle surface, to attain the deflections and 𝐶𝑚,𝑛 = Amplitude of vibration of each value of 𝑚

velocities directed perpendicularly to the initial and 𝑛

(undeformed) mid-surface. At a certain time (which

Using this in the differential equation and solving we

is assumed to be the initial), the plate is suddenly

obtain the solution as:

released from all external loads. The unloaded plate,

which has initial deflection and velocity, begins to 𝑚4 𝜋4 𝑚2 𝜋2 𝑛 2 𝜋 2 𝑛 4 𝜋4 𝜔2 𝜌ℎ

+2 + − =0 (5)

vibrate. The particles located in the middle surface 𝑎4 𝑎2 𝑏2 𝑏4 𝐷

move in the direction perpendicular to the area So the natural frequencies of the plate are given by:

vector of the plate and, as a result, the plate becomes

bent. Such vibrations are called free or natural 𝑚2 𝑛2 𝐷

𝜔𝑚𝑛 = 𝜋 2 ( + )√ (6)

transverse vibrations. But natural vibration are 𝑎2 𝑏2 𝜌ℎ

only and are the inherent properties of the plate In case of a square plate the equation reduces to:

independent of any load. Therefore, the differential 𝝅𝟐 𝑫

equation reduces to: 𝝎𝒎𝒏 =

𝒂𝟐

√𝝆𝒉 (𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟐 ) (7)

𝜕2 𝑤

𝐷∇2 ∇2 𝑤(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) + 𝜌ℎ (𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 0[2] (3) 𝝅 𝑫

𝜕𝑡 2 𝒇𝒎𝒏 =

𝟐𝒂𝟐

√𝝆𝒉 (𝒎𝟐 + 𝒏𝟐 ) (8)

4 2 2 4

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

∇2 ∇2 = 4

+2 2⋅ 2+ 4 The fundamental natural frequency of the plate is

𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦

now obtained by substituting 𝑚 = 1 and 𝑛 = 1,

∇2 ∇2 = Biharmonic Operator

2𝜋2 𝐷

𝜔0 = 𝜔11 = √𝜌ℎ (9)

Now the deflection 𝑤 must satisfy boundary 𝑎2

conditions at the edges of the plate (which is the

same as the plate being in static equilibrium). So we The modal analysis was performed on a square plate

define the initial conditions as: of side length 400mm and thickness (h) 4mm. The

translation of the edges was fixed as edges can only

𝜕𝑤 rotate. The material used was Aluminium-6061 T6

At 𝑡 = 0: 𝑤 = 𝑤0 (𝑥, 𝑦), = 𝑤̇ 0 (𝑥, 𝑦) (4)

𝜕𝑡 𝑘𝑔

(𝐸 = 68.98 𝐺𝑃𝑎, 𝜌 = 2711 ⁄𝑚3 , 𝜈 = 1⁄3). The

With these initial conditions, a general solution to same was also performed using Finite Element

the differential equation the solution may be Method by creating a computerised mathematical

assumed to be of the form of: model of the plate with Finite Element

𝑤(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑡) = 𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦). 𝑇(𝑡) Discretisation using CQUAD4 elements of element

size 4mm:

Which is a separable solution of the shape function

𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦) which describes the mode shapes of the

vibration of plate; also 𝑇(𝑡) is of the form:

For a rectangular plate of sides 𝑎 and 𝑏, the shape

function 𝑊(𝑥, 𝑦) may be taken as:

with a mesh size of 4mm

8

The results were calculated using Analytical Methods as well as solved Numerically and the first ten modes of

Natural frequencies were obtained:

Natural Natural

Frequency Frequency ERROR

Mode 𝒎 𝒏 (ANALYTICAL) (NUMERICAL) (%)

(Hz) (Hz)

2 1 2 303.258 301.676 0.523

3 2 1 303.258 301.676 0.523

4 2 2 485.213 480.942 0.973

5 1 3 606.516 603.281 0.533

Table 4: Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Frequency Results

obtained for the plate are shown below:

Test on ISOGRID

Figure 30. Mode 2 Frequency

An isogrid of skin area 400𝑚𝑚 × 400𝑚𝑚 was

taken under examination and its equivalent plate was

generated. It was then tested for natural frequency

with the skin edges restricted from translation. The

isogrid specifications were as shown below:

ℎ

Figure 31. Mode 3 Frequency

𝑏⁄

2

A’

𝑎

Figure 34. Isogrid Triangular Section

9

The specimen under consideration had values as:

(unflanged isogrid)

terms of these dimensions; therefore, we use some

non-dimensional parameters as:

𝑑

𝛿=

𝑡

𝑐

𝜆=

𝑡

𝑏𝑑

𝛼=

𝑡ℎ

𝑤𝑐

𝜇= 𝑡ℎ

Figure 35. Side view of Isogrid Triangle

√3𝑎

ℎ=

2

𝛽 2 = (1 + 𝛼 + µ)[3(1 + 𝛿)2 + 3µ(𝛿 + 𝜆)2 + 1 +

𝛼𝛿 2 + µ𝜆2 ] − 3[(1 + 𝛿) − 𝜇(𝛿 + 𝜆)]2 (10)

𝜆=𝜇=0 [𝑐 = 0]

height of the triangle and not the thickness as in case

of the plate. The thickness of the isogrid skin is given

by 𝑡.) Simplification of Isogrid into Thin Plates

Figure 36. Front view of Isogrid (I – Section)

The isogrid can be transformed into its equivalent

plate by a method known as 𝑬∗ 𝒕∗ method using the

𝑎 = Side Length of the Triangle equations:

ℎ = Height of The Triangle 1. Equivalent Thickness [3]

𝑡 = Skin Thickness 12𝐼 𝛽 𝛽

𝑡∗ = √ =𝑡 =𝑡 (11)

𝐴 1+𝛼+µ 1+𝛼

𝑑 = Rib Height

𝐴

𝐸∗ = 𝐸 (12)

𝑡∗

𝑐 = Flange Thickness

Therefore, the bending stiffness is now given by:

𝑤 = Flange width

𝐸 ∗ 𝑡 ∗3

𝐷 = 12(1−𝜈2 ) (13)

10

Part 𝑨𝒊 𝜻𝒊 𝑨𝒊 𝜻 𝒊 𝑨𝒊 𝜻𝒊 𝟐 𝑰𝟎

𝑡 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡3

(1 (1 + 𝛿) (1 + 𝛿)2

𝑡 2 2 4 12

1 + 𝛿)

𝑡3

𝛼𝛿 2

𝑡𝛼 0 0 0 12

2

𝑡 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡3 2

− (1 − µ(1 + 𝛿) µ(1 + 𝛿)2 µ𝜆

𝑡𝜇 2 2 4 12

3 + 𝜆)

𝑡2 𝑡2 𝑡3 𝑡3

(1 + 𝛿) − µ(1 + 𝛿) [(1 + 𝛿)2 + µ(1 + 𝛿)2 ] [1 + 𝛼𝛿 2 + µ𝜆2 ]

𝑡(1 + 𝛼 + 𝜇) ---------- 2 2 4 12

𝜮 --

Table 5: Calculation parameters for isogrid

𝜻𝒈 = Centre of Gravity of I-section

𝐴

𝐼 = ∑ 𝐴𝑖 𝜁𝑖 2 + 𝐼0 − 𝐴 𝜻𝒈 2 M.I. of I-section

The isogrid was hence transformed into an equivalent sheet and the first 5 modes of vibrations were generated.

The Finite Element Model of the isogrid is shown below:

(Hz)

1 159.687

2 362.984

3 364.068

4 608.475

5 676.672

Table 5: Frequency Results for Isogrid using FEA

11

The modes of vibration are shown below: 5. ADAPTER : LAUNCHER-SPACECRAFT

INTERFACE

The spacecraft rests on an adapter, i.e. the

Spacecraft-Launcher interface which clutches the

spacecraft firmly in the Launch Vehicle. They are

also used for the ejection of the spacecraft into the

LEO or the GTO. Some of the common Launcher-

Spacecraft interface include ISRO’s Ball Lock

System (IBL), NASA’s Pin Puller etc. It consists of

Figure 38. Mode 1 Frequency three major rings, namely:

satellite

(ii) The aft-end ring attached to the

Launch Vehicle deck

(iii) The retainer lug connecting the fore-

end and aft-end rings

Spacecraft interface

The proposed structural bus is a versatile structural

bus which can be utilised for various missions in the

Lunar Orbit. It provides enough volume to

accommodate a number of components and

payloads. The structure has been tested against the

Quasi-Static load factors and the Natural frequencies

in both lateral and longitudinal directions, both

analytically and numerically. The results obtained

show that the structure is robust enough to be

launched by any existing Launch Vehicle in the

Figure 41. Mode 4 Frequency world.

7. REFERENCES

[1] Ratheesh A, Barad K, Naik K, Pavuluri

SH, Singha A, Bhate H, Puntambekar P,

Krishnamurthy A, Gupta SK,

Muthuswamy L, Shrivastava P.,

“SRMSAT: A Feasibility Study on Small

Satellite Mission to Moon”, 54th AIAA

Aerosapce Sciences Meeting, 2016

[2] J. Jaap Wijke, “Spacecraft Structures”

Figure 42. Mode 5 Frequency

12

[3] McDonnel Douglas, “Isogrid Design BIOGRAPHY

Handbook”, NASA-CR-124075, February

1973 Subham K. Gupta is

[4] Thakur A, Parbat S, Narayan pursuing his Bachelor’s in

Venkitachalam, Penmetsa Aditya Varma, Mechanical Engineering

Raghupathy Ajay Prasad, “Novel Low Cost (expected graduation:

Standardized Nano-Satellite Structure Bus 2017) from SRM

for LEO Missions”, IEEE Aerospace University, India. He is

Conference 2013 working in SRMSAT V2.0

[5] Jeffrey Lavin, “Buckling of Isogrid”, June as the lead Structural

2010 Design Engineer since July 2014.

[6] Dr. Wiliam Case, “Isogrid Plate

Modelling”, FEMCI The Book Priyank Puntambekar

[7] J. Lavin and E. Gutierrez-Miravete, received his Bachelor’s in

“Modelling the Buckling of Isogrid”, Aerospace Engineering in

COMSOL Conference 2010, Boston 2014 from SRM University,

[8] P. Slysh, J. E. Dyer, J. H. Furman and J. E. India. He has been

Key, “Isogrid Structural Tests and Stability involved in SRMSAT V2.0

Analyses”, Journal of Aircraft Vol. 13 No. as the Systems Engineer

10, October 1976 since its inception in 2013.

[9] NASA’s “GOES-N Databook”

[10] Ratheesh A. Naik K., Dhanasekaran J., Saksham Chaturvedi is

“Dual Propulsion System for Small pursuing his Bachelor’s in

Spacecaraft”, 54th AIAA Aerosapce Mechanical Engineering

Sciences Meeting, 2016 (expected graduation:

2019) from SRM

University, India. He is

APPENDICES working in a project called

SRMSAT V2.0 in the Propulsion Subsystem

MORE INFORMATION since August 2015.

SRMSAT V2.0 is a micro-satellite project put up

together by the students of SRM University, India.

It aims at the construction of a micro-satellite which

is to be launched into the Low Lunar Orbit. The

authors of this project are associated with the project

in various fields of the satellite project.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors would like to thank Team SRMSAT of

SRM University for its work in the Microsatellite

Design, Dr. D. Narayana Rao, Director of Research,

SRM University, Mr. L. Muthuswamy, Project

Architect, Space Systems and SRM University for

supporting the research.

13

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