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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

Chapter 1
Introduction to Highway
Engineering

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

HISTORY OF ROADS

ROMAN ROADS
Roman roads, dating back to 312 BC, were built using rocks bounded by lime grout and other
natural pozzolans as binders.

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

HISTORY OF ROADS

TELFORD PAVEMENTS
• Thomas Telford started building roads in the late 1700s while he was Surveyor of Public
Works in Salop county.
• He attempted to build relatively flat roads (no more than a 1 in 30 slope).
• The pavement thickness was between 14 to 18 inches.
• Telford pavements did not use binding agents to hold the stones together

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

HISTORY OF ROADS

MACADAM PAVEMENTS
• Introduced by John McAdam (often known as Macadam) in the early 1800s.
• He introduced the usage of angular agregates on well compacted subgrade for better
performance.
• The subgrade was sloped to improve drainage.
• The angular agregates were placed in two layers for a total depth of 8 inches (maximum
aggregate size was 3 inches).
• On top of this a wearing course was placed, about 2 inches thick (maximum aggregate size
was 1 inch).
• He did not use binder to hold the stones together because he realized that the broken
stones would eventually become bound together by fines generated by traffic.

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

HISTORY OF ROADS

TAR MACADAM PAVEMENTS


• Built using the basic Macadam pavement but the surface material was bound using tar.
• The tar (coal tar) was a residue from coal gas lighting.
• The first tar macadam road was build in Lincold Road in 1848.
• “Tarmac” was also introduced in the early 1900s using blast furnace slag coated with tar,
pitch, portland cement and a resin.

SHEET ASPHALT PAVEMENTS


• Introduced in the mid-1800s, it consisted of sheet asphalt placed on a concrete base which
had a thickness of between 4 inches (for light traffic) and 6 inches (for heavy traffic).
• Traffic load, concrete strength and soil support were the parameters used to determine the
final concrete layer thickness.

BITHULITIC PAVEMENTS
• One of the earliest Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavements in history.
• Introduced by Frederick J. Warren when he issued patents for a hot mix asphalt paving
material and process which he called „bitulithic‟.
• A typical bithulitic mix contained 6% bituminous cement and graded aggregates
proportioned for low air voids. 5
BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ASPHALT PAVEMENT HISTORY

The first recorded use of asphalt by humans was by the Sumerians around 3,000 years.

Around 1500 A.D., the Incas of Peru were using a composition similar to modern bituminous
macadam to pave parts of their highway system.

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

TAR VS. ASPHALT

Tar and asphalt are two different materials.

Tar, often called "coal tar" is a byproduct of the destructive distillation of coal to form coke.

Asphalt is a petroleum residue left over from the distillation of crude oil.

In pavement applications, tar is generally more brittle and less elastic than asphalt causing it to
crack under typical loading and environmental conditions.

Tar will, however, not dissolve as easily in the presence of lighter petroleum distillation products
such as gasoline and kerosene.

While asphalt is used throughout the pavement industry, tar is generally limited to sealant
use.

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

PAVEMENT TYPES

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
- Those which are surfaced with bituminous (or asphalt) materials.
- These types of pavements are called "flexible" since the total pavement structure "bends" or
"deflects" due to traffic loads.
- A flexible pavement structure is generally composed of several layers of materials which can
accommodate this "flexing".
- Flexible pavement uses more flexible surface course and distributes loads over a smaller
area.
- It relies on a combination of layers for transmitting load to the subgrade

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

PAVEMENT TYPES

RIGID PAVEMENT
- Those which are surfaced with portland cement concrete (PCC).
- These types of pavements are called "rigid" because they are substantially stiffer than
flexible pavements due to PCC's high stiffness.
- Rigid pavement, because of PCC's high stiffness, tends to distribute the load over a
relatively wide area of subgrade.
- The concrete slab itself supplies most of a rigid pavement's structural capacity.

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT

Wearing Course
Surface
Binder Course
Base

Sub-base
Formation Level
Subgrade

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

RIGID PAVEMENT

Concrete Slab

Sub-base
Formation Level
Subgrade

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD CROSS-SECTIONAL ELEMENTS

RIGHT-OF-WAY (ROW)

Shoulder
Clear zone Travel lanes Median
Verge

Embankment

Ditch
Divided Rural Highway 12
BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD CROSS-SECTIONAL ELEMENTS

C
D

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD CROSS-SECTIONAL ELEMENTS

For rural cross sections, the roadway width is the combined width of the
• traveled way
• median
• shoulders
• auxiliary lanes

For urban cross sections, the roadway consists of the


• travel lanes
• auxiliary lanes including parking lanes, any bike lanes
• median
• curb and gutter

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD CROSS-SECTIONAL ELEMENTS

TRAVEL LANE
• provide the path for travel
• lane width greatly influences the safety and comfort of driving
• travel lane widths generally vary between 2.7 m and 3.6 m depending on
functional classification, traffic volumes, and project scope of work

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

MEDIAN
• also known as the central reservation
• the median width is measured from the inside edge of the two traveled ways and
includes inside shoulders and/or median curb and gutters
• provides segregation between opposing directions of the traveled ways
• assists in draining of surface runoff
• when planted with trees and shrubs, a median will help reduce glare from vehicle
headlights
• median can be used for future expansion of the highway (for additional number
of lanes due to traffic increase)

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD CROSS-SECTIONAL ELEMENTS

SHOULDER
The road shoulder is a reserved area by the verge of the road. It may be either paved
(HMA or concrete) or unpaved (aggregate or turf).

The functions of road shoulder include:

• provide structural support for the traveled way


• provide support for guardrail and prevents erosion around guardrail posts
• prevent or minimize pavement edge drop-offs
• provide space for emergency and discretionary stop
• improve roadside safety by providing more recovery area for run-off-the-road
vehicles
• facilitate maintenance operations
• facilitate pavement drainage
• provide space for pedestrian and bicycle use

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD CROSS-SECTIONAL ELEMENTS

CLEAR ZONE
Clear zone is defined as the total roadside border area, starting at the edge of the
traveled way, available for safe use by errant vehicles.

Simply stated, it is an unobstructed, relatively flat area beyond the edge of the
traveled way that allows a driver to stop safely or regain control of a vehicle that
leaves the traveled way.

This area may consist of a shoulder, a recoverable slope, a non-recoverable slope,


and/or a clear run-out area.

The desired minimum width is dependent upon traffic volumes and speeds and on
the roadside geometry.

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

DEVELOPMENT OF ROADS IN MALAYSIA

The road development in the Malay Peninsula started during the British
occupation.

Roads were built to transport products of mining and plantation industry.

Tin mining and rubber industry were the important reasons for road construction.
The first road was built in Perak, linking Kamunting and Ujung Tembo.

The construction then was extended to Pulau Pinang. The active mining activity
in Lembah Kinta also become the reason of road construction from Taiping to
Ipoh in 1891.

Currently, Peninsula Malaysia has about 847.7 kilometers of road linking North
Malaysia to South Malaysia. The total length of highway throughout Malaysia is
about 1192 kilometers, including expressways such as NKVE, ELITE, KESAS
and BESRAYA.

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD STANDARDS IN MALAYSIA

Standard Description
R6 / U6 - highest geometric design standard
- serves long trips with high speeds, comfort and safety
- with divided carriageway
- full access control
- e.g. rural and urban expressways
R5 / U5 - high geometric design standard
- serves long to intermediate trips with high to medium speeds
- partial access control
- e.g. highways, primary roads and arterials
R4 / U4 - medium geometric standard
- serves intermediate trip lengths with medium speeds
- partial access control
- e.g. primary roads, secondary roads, minor arterials and
major collectors

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD STANDARDS IN MALAYSIA

R3 / U3 - low geometric standard


- serves mainly local traffic
- partial or no access control
- e.g. secondary roads, collectors and major local streets
R2/ U2 - lowest geometric standard for two-way flow
- applied only to local traffic with low volumes of vehicles of
commercial traffic
- e.g. minor roads and local streets
R1 / U1 - very low geometric standard
- applied to very low traffic where the chances of two-way flow
is low
R1a applied to local access to restricted areas such as access to
microwave stations and security areas
U1a applied to local access to low cost housing areas

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD CLASSIFICATION IN MALAYSIA

CATEGORIES
OF
ROADS

RURAL ROADS URBAN ROADS


Expressway Expressway
Highway Arterial
Primary Road Collector
Secondary Road Local Street
Minor Road

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

RURAL ROADS

Expressways
• divided interstate highways for through traffic
• has full access control
• with grade separated intersections
• for fast traveling
• serve long trips
• provide higher traveling speed and comfort
• designed to the highest standards

Highways
• constitute the interstate national network
• complement the expressway network
• link up directly or indirectly the federal and state
capitals, and points of entry/exit to the country
• serve long to intermediate trips
• high to medium speed
• smooth traffic is provided
• partial access control
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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

RURAL ROADS

Primary Roads
• constitute the major roads forming the basic
network within a state
• serve intermediate trip lengths and medium
traveling speeds
• smooth traffic is provided
• partial access control
• link up state and district capitals or other major
towns

Secondary Roads
• constitute the major roads forming the basic
network within a district or regional development
areas
• serve intermediate trips
• partial access control
• link up major towns within the district or regional
development areas
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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

RURAL ROADS

Minor Roads
• applies to all roads other than those described
above
• form the basic road network within a land
scheme or other inhabited areas
• include roads with special functions such as
holiday resort roads, security roads or access
roads to microwave stations
• serve local traffic with short trip lengths
• partial or no access control

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

Schematic illustration of an urban road network

URBAN STREETS
Expressway
Arterial
Collector
Local Street

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari
URBAN ROADS

Expressways
• divided highways for through traffic
• form the basic network in urbanised area
• has full access control
• with grade separated intersections
• for fast traveling
• serve long trips
• provide higher traveling speed and comfort
• designed to the highest standards
• complement the rural expressways

Arterials
• continuous roads with partial access control for
through traffic
• convey traffic from residential areas to the vicinity
of the central business
district, or from one part of the city to another
which does not intend to
penetrate identifiable neighbourhood
• smooth traffic flow is essential since they carry 27
large traffic volumes
BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

URBAN ROADS

Collectors
• roads with partial access control designed to serve on a
collector/distributor of traffic between arterials and local road systems
• major roads which penetrate and serve identifiable neighbourhood,
commercial areas and industrial areas

Local Streets
• the basic network within a neighbourhood and serves to offer direct
access to abutting land
• links to the collector roads and thus serve short trip lengths
• through traffic should be discouraged

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD ADMINISTRATION IN MALAYSIA

For the purpose of road administration, roads are classified as Tolled


Highways, Federal, State, Local Authority (City Hall, Municipal or Local
Council) and Kampung (District Office) Roads depending upon their
jurisdiction.

Tolled Highways
- link cities/towns/new developments in order to increase mobility and reduce
congestion on federal highways
- for through traffic with full access control
- involve grade-separated intersection
- each carriageway consists of two to three traveling lanes and an emergency
lane
- provide facilities such as rest and relax areas, shelters for motorcyclists,
emergency phone service, etc.
- e.g. PLUS, NKVE, ELITE, SPRINT, KESAS

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD ADMINISTRATION IN MALAYSIA

Federal Roads
- roads that are gazetted under the Federal Road Ordinance
- roads linking state capitals, airports, railway stations and ports
- also includes roads within FELDA land schemes and those in other
regional land schemes constructed with federal funds
- maintenance of these roads is the responsibility of the federal government
- maintenance is carried out through the state JKR and funded by the
federal government

State Roads
- all other roads within the states outside the jurisdiction of the local authority
or district office
- built to JKR standards
- constructed with state funds
- maintenance of these roads is the responsibility of the state government
- maintenance is carried out through the state JKR

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ROAD ADMINISTRATION IN MALAYSIA

Local Authority Roads


- all roads within the limits of the local authority (city hall, municipal or town
council)
- the local authority is responsible for the maintenance of such roads

Village / District Office Roads


- all roads directly under the jurisdiction of the district office
- usually unpaved roads with no right of way
- the district office is responsible for the maintenance of these roads

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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF


ROADS IN MALAYSIA

Economic Planning Unit (EPU) Unit Perancang Ekonomi (UPE)


- forming and planning policies for all aspects of socioeconomic developments
for the country
- the Infrastructure and Utilities Section plays a role in
 the planning, formation and evaluation of transportation policies and
programs
 identifying, analyzing, evaluating and coordinating all road developments
plans

Highway Planning Unit (HPU) Unit Perancang Jalan (UPJ)


- conducts traffic engineering studies such as traffic volume, origin-destination,
traffic growth rate, vehicle speed, accident-prone areas, etc.
- among the function of the HPU are :
- data collection of travel characteristics and traffic operations
- incorporating highway planning and land use planning
- establishing the needs of the highway sector for long-term/short-term
programs
- studying the feasibilities of highway projects
- studying the causes of accidents, identifying areas prone to accidents and32
coming up with steps to reduce/prevent accidents
BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA) Lembaga Lebuhraya Malaysia (LLM)


LLM is responsible in
- the supervision and execution of highway design, construction and
maintenance
- the supervision and execution of the design, construction and
maintenance of rest and relax areas and other facilities
- toll collection from highway users
- planning and research of effective usage of highways and its facilities
- taking steps to further develop existing highways and its facilities

Public Works Department (PWD) Jabatan Kerja Raya (JKR)


- responsible for development projects, especially in the construction of public
buildings, federal roads, state roads and bridges
- involved in planning, construction and maintenance
- the Road Branch (Cawangan Jalan) is responsible for planning and
preserving the conditions of roads for the safety and comfort of the road users
- the Road Branch is also involved in pavement rehabilitation, road widening,
and the strengthening and repair of pavements, pavement drainage systems
and road furniture
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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

Road Transport Department (RTD) Jabatan Pengangkutan Jalan (JPJ)

Objectives :
- improve road safety by monitoring motorized vehicles and drivers
- collection of road taxes

Functions :
- enforce the Road Transport Act 1987
- update the tax collection system
- assist in reducing road accidents
- assist the government in their effort reduce the effects of transport on the
environment

Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board (CVLP)


Lembaga Perlesenan Kenderaan Perdagangan (LPKP)

- responsible for issuing and controlling of license permits of commercial vehicles


and public transport such as taxis, buses and rented cars
- the function of this board is limited to the consideration of applications for
licenses and the imposing restrictions after applications are approved
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BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

State Police Polis Negeri


- the Traffic Branch is responsible for ensuring safety and discipline of drivers
on the road, and law enforcement against traffic offenders
- the role of the State Police include
- ensuring smooth traffic by patrolling the roads and easing traffic congestion
manually if the need arises
- issuing summons to traffic offenders and collecting compounds from them
- recording, analyzing and investigating road accidents
- controlling traffic during large-scale functions

Department of Town and Country Planning


Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa (JPBD)
- arrange and control developments in accordance with the Town and Country
Planning Act 1976
- in the transportation sector, JPBD is in charge of carrying out planning of
transportation systems within a town
- the State JPBD assists the State government and Town Councils in the
planning of land use and the control of development in accordance with state
and national policies
- the State JPBD also prepares structure plans and local plans covering all
aspects related with planning, which includes transportation 35
BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

Local Authorities Pihak Berkuasa Tempatan (PBT)


- District Council, Town Council, Municipality Council, and City Hall
- plan and develop areas within its administration
- the PBT is responsible for
- infrastructure allocation and road planning
- managing and controlling traffic congestion
- creating adequate parking space and managing parking fee collection
- street landscaping
- providing public transportation services which are prompt, affordable and
effective
- constructing and maintaining roads

Department of Environment (DOE) Jabatan Alam Sekitar (JAS)


- controls and monitors environmental pollution
- preserve and conserve the environment
- in the context of road transport, the DOE plays its role in
- enforcing the Motorized Vehicle Regulations 1977 through the Environment
Quality Act 1974
- controlling and monitoring of exhaust and noise emission of vehicles
- studying and analyzing the impacts of transportation on the environment
- producing Environmental Impact Assessment reports for new projects and
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developments
BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

Summary of the Functions of Government Agencies in Road and ransport Administration


Function Department / Agency Involved
Planning, financing and control of road Economic Planning Unit
construction Highway Planning Unit

Design, construction and maintenance Public Works Department


of roads and highways Malaysian Highway Authority

Road licensing Road Transport Department


Commercial Vehicle Licensing Board

Control and enforcement State Police


Road Transport Department

Road Safety Road Safety Council

Preservation of the environment Department of Environment

Town and country planning Department of Town and Country Planning


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Providing urban traffic facilities Local Authorities
BFC 31802 HIGHWAY ENGINEERING Lecturer: Rosnawati Buhari

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