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Construction Technology II FRAMED STRUCTURES

CROSS WALL CONSTRUCTION


Cross wall construction is a form of construction where load-bearing walls are built at right
angles to the length of the building.
The front and rear walls being non load-bearing cladding.

(3D view)

(Plan view)

Suitable for buildings up to 5 storey high where internal separating or partly walls are required
such as flats, hotel or educational blocks.

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Purposes:

 Privac
 Sound resistanc
 Fire resistanc

The uniform spacing of cross walls is normally between 3.0m and 5.0m.
To stiffen the cross walls by means of upper floor joists:

1. Metal anchor strap


2. Joist hanger

1. 2.

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Advantages:

 Simplicity of construction: the walls consist of simple unbroken runs of brick or blockwork or
in-situ concrete,
 Low construction cost
 Repetition and standardization of both structural and non-structural elements, easily and
quickly constructed.

Disadvantages:

 Limitation of possible plans


 Need for adequate lateral ties between cross walls

Spacing for Cross walls


Cross walls should be spaced regularly along the building in order that a limited number of floor
spans can be standardized (i.e. thickness, reinforcement and formwork).
The optimum spacing is about 4.00m to 4.25m but spacing may range from 3.00m to 6.00m.

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Cross wall rigidity

Rigidity of the structure can be improved by the following methods:

1) Longitudinal structural internal wall in place of some lightweight partitions.

2) Rigid reinforced concrete floors linked to the wall structure at suitable vertical intervals.

3) The return of the ends of the cross wall as ‘L’ or ‘T’.

4) The use of a staircase or lift tower of which the walls at right angles to the cross walls act as
buttresses.

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THERMAL AND SOUND INSULATION

There is a particular point in the design requiring careful study and that is the junction of the
end panels and the cross walls.

The particular problems to be dealt with are those of sound travelling from one flat to the next
by a flanking transmission and heat loss.

Heat loss and Sound transmission in Cross wall construction

Problems:

Solutions:

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Materials for Cross wall construction

 Due to simplicity and familiarity, bricks or blocks are frequently used.


 The laying of blockwork is considered faster than brickwork.
 Plain in situ concrete walls are also suitable but to compete with the others is cost.
 Concrete walls can be of either normal or no-fines concrete.
 No-fines concrete is a mix of coarse aggregate and cement without the additional of fine
aggregate, thereby reducing the material content and density but improving the thermal
insulation value.
 Both concrete and timber floors can be used in cross wall construction.
 Concrete is used because the thickness required for an economic span can provide sound
insulation. The material is fire resisting and sufficient rigidity can be achieved.

STRUCTURAL STEELWORK

Structural steelwork is a means of constructing a framed building, especially multi-storey


building where it can be erected quickly and cheaply.

Parts of building normally using structural steelwork are:

1) Floo
2) Colum
3) Bea

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Floor

There are TWO common types of profiled steel decking used as floor:

1) Dovetail formatio

2) Profiled stackable shee

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Construction Technology II FRAMED STRUCTURES

Column and Beam

No. Steel section Uses


1 Universal columns  Columns support
 Stanchions
 Heavy fabrications
2 Universal beam  Supports
 Beams bracings
 Purlins
 Portal frame
3 Channels  Bracings
 Purlins
 Roof trusses
4 Angles  Roof trusses
 Purlins
 Bracings
 Stiffeners
 Light framed buildings
5 Joists  Stanchions
 Beams
 Bracings
 Portal frames
6 Rectangular hollow section  Roof trusses
7 Square hollow section  Stanchions
8 Circular hollow section  Light framed buildings
 Lattice work

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Steel sections:

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Construction Technology II FRAMED STRUCTURES

Steelwork connections
The structural steel framed can be connected together using:

1) Shop connection:

This is carried out by welding (fillet or butt welds)

2) Site connection:

This is carried out with the use of structural steel fasteners (i.e. bolts)

Generally structural engineers will decide on the type and number of bolts or the size and
length of weld to be used (according to the connection to be achieved).

Types of standard bolted connections:

1. Beam to beam connectio


2. Column connectio
3. Beam to column connectio
4. Connection to roof leve

Types of standard welded connections:

1. Direct connectio
2. Web and flanged cleat connectio
3. Flanged cleat connectio
4. Welded slab base
5. Column sections (similar sections
6. Column sections (different sections

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Standard welded connections:

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Standard bolted connections:

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Fire resistance of structural steelwork


The minimum fire resistance periods for steel frame structures and their individual members
are required according to the Building Regulations.
The purpose of providing fire providing fire protection is to ensure the safety of its occupants
by controlling the spread of fire and maintaining the stability of the structure.
Methods available for fire protection of structural steelwork are:

1) Spray coating
 The cheapest method of providing fire protection,
 The period of fire protection can be up to 4 hours depending on the thickness of the coat
applied,
 Used where appearance is not a prime consideration.

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2) Board casings
 Board is made from materials such as vermiculate,
 Board thickness ranges between 6mm and 80mm which give a maximum protection of 4
hours,
 Used to box the member, fixing either screws, straps or by glue.

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3) Preformed casings
 The casing is either ‘U’ or ‘L’ shaped using reinforced plaster or sheet steel,
 The casings are screwed to steel straps fixed around the steel sections.

4) Intumescent coatings
 The coating is applied by brush or spray to form a thin layer, to 1 hour protection,
 A thick coat up to 13mm applied by trowel thus protection for up to2 hours,
 The coating is based on mastics or epoxy resins. It swells when heated to high
temperature and form thick solid foam acting as an insulating protective layer.

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5) Plaster and lath


 The expanded metal lath is fixed around steel sections with metal angle,
 The lath is covered with plaster to provide an insulating fire protective casing.

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6) Solid casings (in-situ concrete, brick or block casings)


 In-situ concrete: traditional method of providing fire protection and protection against
corrosion. In order to prevent the concrete spalling away from the steelwork during fires,
it is lightly reinforced,
 Brick: used for sake of appearance to match surrounding brick. Considered expensive
(labour intensive operation in cutting and bonding around column),
 Block: alternative method used as an economic means of casing. The labour of cutting
and bonding is less than bricks.

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Structural Steelwork (compare with Concrete)


Advantages:

1) Require lighter foundation


2) Can be fabricated off sit
3) Faster construction tim
4) Damage during transportation and handling can be minimize
5) Flexible design if require alteration in the futur
6) Long terms retention of strength propertie

Disadvantages:

1) Great care in detailing and installation are necessar


2) Time consuming process if the steel need casing in concrete for fire proo

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