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Republic of the Philippines

Division of City School Manila

Mariano Marcos Memorial High School





SCHOOL S.Y 2017-2018

Submitted by:


Grade 9- Boccacio

Submitted to:





Anime is a Japanese term for hand-drawn or computer animation. Anime started

from Japan and Japanese animation began in 20th century it all started when Japanese filmmakers
experimented the art of animation. It was said that the first animation is “Katsudo Shashin” in
1917 by an unknown creator, later on the publicity displayed works started to appear. And as
time past more animators become known for their works, mostly about life of a Samurai but due
to the 1923 great “Kanto earthquake” most of these early works has been destroyed. Due to the
success of Snow white and the seven dwarfs by Walt Disney it influenced many Japanese
animators to start and make their own animation, and at 1960’s “Osamu Tezuka” adapted and as
well simplified the Disney animation technique to produce a material that has been aired in 1960,
the “Three Tales” the first animation shown on televisions. Sooner Osamu Tezuka been called as
a “Legend” and “God of Manga” because of the popularity of his works. Because of Anime’s
great stories it became famous all over the world. And now most of the countries near Japan has
been influenced to create their own.

So in my topic mostly of the Grade nine students in Mariano Marcos Memorial High school
has been addicted in Anime which they call themselves an “Otaku” many of them are my
friends. Many of Anime addicted students I known, usually think out of this world, many of
them can’t focus in their studies, most of them is the mushroom type of student or should I say
the students who are mostly absent and has less interest in studying, there are also some cases
that the student tend to not talk much and don’t have so much social activity or lack of social
skills causing them to have less friends and sometimes bad grades, Many of them are the targets
of bullying because of being weird, always being alone and out of this world, but of course not
all Anime addicted students are like that, there are also some Anime addicted students that very
efficient in their time, those who have time for their study and a time for watching anime but it is
only a few cases. Many of them are also addicted in games like League of Legends and Dota and
been addicted in Kpop. As I can observe many of Anime Addicted students achieve different
skills like being fluent in speaking English , some of them can already speak in Japanese. Some
of them achieved great skills in drawing or sketching or even in Animation and lastly some are
good in creating stories because of their extraordinary thinking and their wide imaginations. So
overall Anime Addiction isn’t all bad for students.
So why did I choose this topic? It is because I can relate more in this topic than all the other
topics that came in my mind, not only that it is also because for me this topic is more interesting
and can be much deeper than others, it can explain the personalities of the students that have this
kind of situation, like why are they behaving like that , how did they become like that, what are
the reasons for them being like that and so much more and in that way I can inform other people
about it. For I have met so many people that does not really understand the people that have been
Anime addicted and criticize them in anyway they can, it also saddens me when the people who
are doing that to the Anime addicted person don’t even really know what is an Anime, most of
them associate it with Cartoons. In my topic I can tell them more about what is Anime really is. I
also want to inform the guardians of an Anime Addicted students to what are their child being
addicted about, I want them to know more about what it is really is, and why are they child love
watching it so much. In this way they can talk to their child and maybe become closer to their
child because now they something about what are they child talking about, I made this research
for I have met so many students that have this case of being addicted in Anime that are not close
to their parents or having less conversation with their parents having in mind that their parents
don’t know what are they talking about or having a mindset “they just don’t understand it”, in
some way it is also the reason why Anime addicted person don’t talk to other persons, just like
their classmates who don’t have same interested as them, or for them to be not sociable. I want
them all to further understand why are they so addicted in anime.

Some other people think of being addicted in anime is really bad for the students but in my
research it is not , it can be bad if you don’t control or you don’t have control of it, I am
informing others so they can guide the Anime addicted students to maintain their time efficiently
and to watch something that is just right for their age. What are their watching, what is coming to
their minds while watching it, if it can affect their lifestyle, how can they prevent being not like
that and so much more. I want to inform them to what are they are being like and how they can
change it and control it. Watching anime isn’t bad it can also be good but just like what we
always says everything that is too much is bad, so just need to have control of it, manage it, and
keep in mind that you must study first.

For I am also a grade nine student, I can really relate to this topic, and I have to admit
that I am also one of many Anime addicted students in Mariano Marcos Memorial high school.
In my early years of being addicted in anime I am the kind who don’t talk much in class, always
absent and doesn’t have interest in what’s going on in our class I am also always late because of
watching anime overnight and waking late in the morning then in my first class I am always
asleep, so in that situation I have less friends or should I say I don’t have friends but my grades
are fine. But it is really sad not having friend, no one to talk to and having bad relationship with
my family.

So why did I become an Anime addicted person, in my case I become like this because
of the reason that everytime I am watching anime I tend to escape reality, where I grew up in an
unlikely family and everyday there is a quarrel going on and everytime that’s happen I tend to
open the TV watch anime and forgot what’s happening in the present, for me it is my scape in
this reality. I always watch anime to lessen my stress in my life cause it made me happy, forgot
my problems for a while and have fun for a minute. The truth is, it isn't healthy to be doing that
so much. It changes your personality, and makes you forget that life is real and anime is just
made up. I know it sounds ridiculous. But simply put, you just start making everything your own
world, and start to forget who the real you is. It's almost a type of escape, just like boys and
drugs are, from reality. There are some things that I want to just forget about or 'escape'. But it
isn't healthy to always run away from your issues and the problems in your life that you struggle
with. sometimes, you don't even know that you struggle with them. All you know is that anime
makes you feel happier, and less worried for some reason. This is what I know from personal
experience, and I know that this is what it's like to have anime addiction. But it isn't healthy to
run away from your issues, or to consume so much time with something as unproductive as
building an wall of anime to separate you from the world. Trust me, I have lost so much sleep on
school nights, and I'm struggling to get back on the right path. I alone know that this is a
problem, and I have nobody to help me. Though anime makes me happy to some degree, it also
scares me how much it gets to my head, and how much I have to struggle to still be myself.

In watching anime I become more skilled in many things specially in drawing, and because
of it I am competing in many different contests like poster making and editorial cartooning,
sometimes I won sometimes I do not but the fun part is I met many people and become friends
with them and also other people known me for my talent. I also become less shy about myself
actually I become more proud of myself by joining this different contest, now I am joining
cosplay where I can portray my favorite characters in anime. Somehow watching anime made
me crave for more stories so now I tend to love reading books, I now even love to write stories
and poems. In watching anime I really love somehow their heart touching, very inspiring, and
very deep lesson that I apply in my life. Because of watching anime I can understand now really
deep stories or those stories that are difficult to understand.

Due to the increasing of technology teenagers now tend to be more on social media or in
computers so nowadays, anime addiction is very rampant especially among students. There are
many factors that urge students to watch anime that leads to addiction. Anime itself serves as a
great factor that let the students to watch, because anime became the latest trends for all
teenagers and having good storyline that makes the students hook up. Another one is due to cool
animation, which has vibrant color that tickles their eyes every time they watched a single
episode. Next is peer pressure, which influences a person to watch anime. As an expert say “
boredom is not the lack of imagination or creative thinking, so students tend to watch anime
more often and surf the internet to read online manga.
Why is it worthy to be a topic? Because it tackle the very reason why the students are
having these unlikely behavior, explains and give further knowledge about what are they being
addicted about. It also gives awareness for those people who are having this kind of addiction
and awareness for those who known someone who have this kind of situaion . In that way we
and them can guide, understand and support them and the very right way they can in a way that
they do not rule them to stop watching it but helping them to manage and control themselves.
This way being an anime addicted student can’t be destructive in their very lives because many
people now in their surroundings know how to help them and understand them. I have also met
this situation that the anime addicted person is not fully aware of what now happening in their
lives and what they are becoming being so caught up in anime world. This research can help,
inform, give awareness to all people out there, to help them maintain a good lifestyle.

By researching through internet and also by asking my friends and fellow students, I now
know that there are many factors that urge students to watch anime that leads to addiction.
Anime itself serves as a great factor that let the students to watch, because anime became the
latest trend for all teenagers and having a good storyline that makes the students hook up and
somehow keep them watching it till it end then find another Anime to watch again. The second
reason for them is, by watching anime they become more happy, saying that watching anime is
their stress reliever and time waster. Another one is due to cool animation, which has a vibrant
color that tickles their eyes every time they watched a single episode. Next is peer pressure,
which influences a person to watch anime, when your group are expose to anime it will surely
influences you.

Now let’s talk about how can watching too much Anime can affect the personality and
behavior of a student. Do you know the anime "Death Note", which features a notebook in which
the protagonist can write down the name of someone he wants to die as well as the method of
that person's death and actually kill the person, has caused a number of problems in American
schools. There are cases where students wrote the names of other students they didn't like in a
"death note" they made, along with how they'd like those students to die, that is something we
must be really aware about. In these article, it is said that anime addiction can affect their
potential behavior problems, which cause them to do or follow what they've watched that they
think will actually happen if they do it. I see it like kind of scary, cause I didn't think that this
things can affect the mind of a person. Maybe this happening caused them so much addiction to
that kind of anime. But something like this can be prevented by proper guidance, you can start
from talking to them, asking them about it, slowly and calmly each time make sure they are not
offended and in this they might somehow open up to you and when that’s happen start to give
them good counseling. In watching anime students are expose to sexual activity through
watching sex type of anime or commonly called “Hentai” it is an anime that is R-18 that feature
sexual activity as much like porn mostly created for those who are adult enough. Watching that
kind of anime can also affect the students behavior. Students starts to be getting to much
influence by every kind of fashion. They lose the sense of reality, since they're expose to the
world of anime and sometimes students shows a very childish attitude toward life. As can you
see the cause and effect of behavior and personality of an anime addicted student is based on
what kind of anime they are watching, if they are watching anime that are about killing, fighting
and have characters that are psychopath those people tend to be suicidal and aggressive. Those
who watch cute, romantic, and lovely tend to act childish but it is still depend on the student who
is addicted. To prevent anime addiction, you must develop self-discipline or self-control.
Students must set limitation and know their top priorities. Proper parental guidance is a must to
prevent anime addiction. Parents can help their child through guiding them, academic interests
must be taught to students so that they would not focus on watching anime.

I have read some articles about the effects of anime addiction to the students and to the
people around him or her. The positive effects of anime addiction, it gives happiness to students
which satisfy them and instead of engaging into drugs they spend their time on watching anime.
Aside from the entertainment perspective, students learn to reach to others and make friends who
share with same passion through joining cosplay or anime conventions. Through watching
anime, they enhance their drawing skills by drawing their favorite anime character, and through
this their imagination widens.
Statement of the Problem

This study is all about the top reasons and effects of Anime Addiction as perceived by
among students of Mariano Marcos Memorial High School for school year 2017 to 2018.

1.What is the percentage level of the population of Anime Addicted students?

2.Which gender population has the most number of Anime Addiction?

3.What is the average number of hours Anime Addiction watch?

Importance of the study

Due to my different experience I now come to this research, but now what are the
importance of it, the value of this research?. My very focus in this topic is to inform and give
further knowledge. For the students who have this kind of addiction this can help them know
more about what is happening to them, for many students that have this addiction don’t know
that anime is changing them may be in a good way or in a bad way. And if it is in a bad way I
want them to know the ways that they must do to stop it or for them to start changing their
lifestyle. Anime addiction isn’t all bad, and there are so many positive ways that it give us, so
many skills and so many friends. If you have anime addiction as a student there are this one thing
that really assure your life if you keep it in mind that if you love anime you should learn to
balance reality and imagination. And for their fellow students who don’t have idea of what is an
anime addiction and it’s effect, they are now knowledgeable to what it is and how to prevent it
from happening to them.

One of the most reason why I conduct this study is to give knowledge to guardians and
parents out there that have this kind of addiction. During my research I have read so many
comments of parents having a child that have this addiction, most them say that they can’t
control their child and somehow now they do not know their child anymore. In my research they
can receive further notice to what might happen to the behavior of their child having addiction in
anime and in that way they can now start guiding their child, help them, and somehow get close
with them. While doing my research I found this comment on one of the article that really prove
something and might help parents to guiding their child by Mrs. Joe on December 2, 2015 “As a
mother of a teen daughter who loves anime, I have watched her improve her sewing skills as she
made her various cosplays. She has learned budgeting as she saves up to go to a big convention
so that she has her entrance fee as well as spending money. She even works extra shifts at work
to make sure she has money she needs...along with working with her manager to have a
particular weekends off by being available on other weekends. She is more comfortable speaking
in public and is working on putting together a panel for a local small convention. Her social
circle has grown and she often anime is the common ground between new people that she might
not have anything else in common with. She draws more. She writes more creative stories. She
socializes more as her friend do sewing circles and plan group cosplays. And she is now studying
the Japanese language as her foreign language requirement and hopes to go to Japan and be an
English teacher for a period of time. And she drags her older brother along (and off his internet
games) to become social with her and her friends. We are even closer as she shares her creations
or begs me to help her go thrift store shopping to solve cosplay needs. I wasn't thrilled initially
with my daughter being so hung up on "cartoons" but honestly, I am having a hard time seeing
the down side now.” These prove that having this addiction isn’t that bad and your child can
achieve many skills but of course she or he must have your proper parenting in a way that you
are not stoping them from doing what they love but helping and guiding them maintain their time
and be more responsible. Set limits to them and give them proper counseling from time to time.

Teachers will also benefit especially those who have this kind of students, after reading this
research they can now tackle it in their class for they have knowledge about it. They can even
now give proper advise to their students who have this kind of addiction. And if they can notice
the good effects of this addiction to their students they now know how can they gave their
students good sit works to do to enhance their developing skills. Many of the bad effect of this
addiction can have very great effect in the study of a addicted person which may lead them to
having bad grades in class. Having loss of interest in class, not being sociable, unhealthy
lifestyle, bad attitude these effects won’t do any good for a student but if a teacher is aware in
this things she or he can make her or his discussion to be interesting for his or her anime addicted

For business owners or for those who want to start their own business it is a great idea to
have a business associated with anime, because anime has many fans all over this country they
would have great income everyday. They can start having anime café, featuring famous anime
characters in their product, or they can sell many anime merchandise, like posters, collectables
and so much more. Because only few people is aware of anime addiction is wide in our country
business owners will have less competitors and that will have them rich for sure.

If this addiction can effect students who are also a part of our community these is
something to be worry about. Just like I’ve said this addiction can make someone being suicidal
and aggressive and if you have many Anime addicted person in your community there might a
great destruction of what your so called peace. But in a good way through this research the leader
of the community now does have an idea to help this community to become more closer to each
and one another, like having cosplay in their said community and will help the students that have
Anime addiction to be more sociable and friendly to his or her neighbors it can also help the
community raise their funds for helping the people who are needing in their community.

Political leaders will benefit this by having an advocacy of helping this students who have
an anime addiction to sharpen their skills to help them change their selves that will be likely
making happy the parents of these students and will sure vote for this political leaders.

For researchers, they will benefit this because it can add to their research giving them more
great ideas for their research giving them deeper knowledge and so much more that will make
their research great and interesting.

Chapter 2

Foreign Literature

According to Kincaid addictions build off of our natural reward systems–systems that
everyone has. Substances hijack those systems, and behaviors short circuit the triggers within the
brain. Dopamine, the chemical that makes you feel pleasure and happiness, sits at the center of
addiction. Anything that encourages the brain to secrete it can be addictive. Even love can be an
addiction, which is why some people jump from one toxic relationship to another like a heroin
addict looking for another hit.1

Addiction is, essentially, “an extreme dysfunctional attachment to an experience that is

acutely harmful to a person, but that is an essential part of the person’s ecology and that the
person cannot relinquish (Alter, 2017)”. The experience component of addiction is the key.
Addictions have a strong association with environment and memory. Environment triggers
memory, which triggers the addiction. Lee Robins studied returning heroin addictions from the
Vietnam War. Around 19% of veterans admitted to having a heroin addiction. Normally, heroin
addicts relapse at a rate of 95%. These veterans had a relapse rate of only 5%. Robins, along with
other addiction researchers, discovered the relationship between environment, memory, and
addiction. To break an addiction, a person must leave the environment–the people, places, and
memories–where they practiced their addiction. Few veterans returned to Vietnam, so their
addiction didn’t return (Alter, 2017):2

The otaku choose fiction over social reality not because they cannot distinguish between
them but rather as a result of having considered which is the more effective for their human
relations, the value standards of social reality or those of fiction. For example, they choose
fiction because it is more effective for smoothing out the process of communication between
friends, reading the Asahi Newspaper and then going to vote, or lining up with anime magazines
in hand for an exhibition. And, to that extent, it is they who may be said to be socially engaged
and realistic in Japan today, by virtue of not choosing the “social reality.” Otaku shut themselves
into the hobby community not because they deny sociality but rather because, as social values
and standards are already dysfunctional, they feel a pressing need to construct alternative values
and standards.3

According to Paes the effect of anime to students generally vary from person to person and
anime to anime. There are exceptions, but mostly students from grades 9–12 suffer anime
addictions. This is usually because it is during that time that marks and extra-curricular activities
actually start mattering in stuff like college or high school admissions, so they actually get their

Chris Kincaid “Japan Powered”, May 21, 2017, Japan
Chris Kincaid “Japan Powered”, May 21, 2017, Japan
Chris Kincaid “Japan Powered”, May 21, 2017, Japan
first taste of the adult and working world. So, when they are introduced to specific types of
anime, basically Utopian and happy anime where everything seems to work out in the end and
major characters don’t really die(aka anime that have a shit ton of plot armor), they see these
worlds as escapes from the first harsh bit of reality they are facing. And anime, especially the
above mentioned types, can be very addictive as they are beautifully portrayed.4

Addicts aren’t simply weaker specimens than non-addicts; they aren’t morally corrupt where
non-addicts are virtuous. Instead, many, if not most, of them are unlucky. Location isn’t the only
factor that influences your chances of becoming an addict, but it plays a much bigger role than
scientists thought.5

Addictions often center around negative coping methods, ways of handling pain, regret,
loneliness, and other negative emotions. Any behavior that triggers dopamine and eases
emotional pain can become an addiction, including Internet use and anime. I wasn’t able to find
any studies that dealt directly with anime addiction. However, studies on Internet addiction
provides us with useful parallels.6

According to Kincaid Anime addiction lacks clear research, but using the research into
Internet Addiction, and the nature of behavioral addictions can help us understand anime
addiction. Yes, you can become addicted to anime just as you can become addicted to gambling,
sex, love, online gaming, texting, Tumblr, Facebook, Twitter, and anything else that fills an
emotional need. Anime can become a coping technique, a way to escape, which is fine until it
becomes destructive. When anime watching damages your relationships, consumes your
thinking, consumes your money, and becomes a craving, you may well be addicted. However,
we have to be careful not to blindly fling the word addiction at anime fans. Otakuism appears to
be an addiction to outsiders because it is an alternative culture (Azuma, 2009):7

like a Japanese version of Disney movies. They want to constantly feel the feelings that come
into their brains when they watch these types of anime, much like a drug addiction. Only anime
isn’t illegal, is an awesome hobby, will not kill you and is a form of art. Now for you otakus who
read this, don’t be like “But then why are we not addicted? Anime isn’t a drug” because I’m
talking about specific people who aren’t used to dealing with hard situations. Anime isn’t a drug
(I love it dearly myself xD) but the way some people treat it makes it look like one.8

According on wikihow Figure out how much time you spend on Anime. Some people may
accuse you of being addicted, but are you really addicted? Knowing how much time you spend
watching Anime and how much time you spend doing other things can help you figure out
whether or not you are really addicted. Figure out how much you are spending on your

Zoya Paes “Qoura”, March 21,2017, United Arab Emirates
Chris Kincaid “Japan Powered”, May 21, 2017, Japan
Chris Kincaid “Japan Powered”, May 21, 2017, Japan
Chris Kincaid “Japan Powered”, May 21, 2017, Japan
Zoya Paes “Quora”, March 21, 2017, United Arab Emirates
hobby. Are you spending so much money on Anime that you can no longer afford necessities,
such as food, clothing, school supplies, or rent? Make a chart on a sheet of paper, and create
sections, such as "Anime," "Food," "Clothing," and "School Supplies." Each time you buy
something from one of those categories, write down how much you spent. Write down how
much money you have to spend, then look at how much you actually spend in each category.
Number three is to determine how much you rely on Anime to be happy. If you can't tell if you
are addicted to Anime or just simply really interested in it, try to remember how upset you were
the last time you were unable to watch Anime. One of the signs of addiction is getting upset at
not being able to fulfill your craving. If you got mad because you got grounded and had to miss
an episode or the episode got delayed, then you may indeed be addicted. If the mere thought of
not being able to watch Anime upsets you, then you most probably are addicted. 9

Determine your emotional attachment to Anime. Does your entire life revolve around
Anime? If you really cannot tell, you may have to take a step back and try to see things from an
outside point of view. Ask yourself these questions to determine just how emotionally attached
you are to Anime. And lastly Know if Anime affects your social behavior. Do you find yourself
talking and acting like your favorite Anime characters or using too many Japanese words to be
even more like them? Animes, much like cartoons, are often exaggerated; what may seem
acceptable in an Anime or cartoon is often not acceptable in real life society. You may not mind
being treated as a character in an Anime, but others might be offended if you treat them the way
your favorite character might. Some people might find your behavior confusing or annoying, and
they may treat you with less respect as a result.10

Local literature

According to Wazzup Pilipinas anime starts in 1960 and gained popularity in the following
years. With so many people interested in it, had the thought of its effects crossed your mind?
Yes? Well, good for you. 11

First of all is the social interaction. Anime help us interact with each other, especially when
two people are in the same fandom, since the most problem in making friends is the topic they
would talk with one another, and having no topic would make things awkward. This may imply
to people who are having difficulties in socializing and making friends. Some people would go to
the internet and share and discuss their favorite anime and the first step in making internet
friends. At anime conventions, people interact by cosplaying their favorite characters.
Friendship, romance, and even marriage may start from anime.12

According to Cejoco Too much exposure to anime can cause a postivie and negative effects
to its viewer. Let's first talk about the positive effect. The positive effects of anime addiction, is it

Wazzup Pilipinas, 2013
Wazzup Pilipinas, 2013
gives happiness to students which satisfy them and instead of engaging into drugs they spend
their time on watching anime. Aside from the entertainment perspective, students learn to reach
to others and make friends who share with same passion through joining cosplay or anime
conventions. Through watching anime, they enhance their drawing skills by drawing their
favorite anime character, and through this their imagination widens. Though most of animes are
in Japanese language, we have English sub or dub which allows us to understand what is it all

Students starts to be getting to much influence by every kind of fashion. They lose the sense
of reality, since they're expose to the world of anime and sometimes students shows a very
childish attitude toward life. To prevent anime addiction, must develop self-discipline or self-
control. Students must set limitation and know their top priorities. Proper parental guidance is a
must to prevent anime addiction. Parents can help their child through guiding them, academic
interests must be taught to students so that they would not focus on watching anime.14

According to Tahir Watching anime is now one of the primary sources of entertainment,
especially among students. They are so addicted to anime that instead of studying their college
assignments is they choose
to watch their favourite anime series. They don’t know their limitations when it comes to anime,
it’s because that anime is so addictive to watch.15

Lawrence eng, found out that one great benefit that anime has on students was to increases
social interaction. He studied his IT students, and figure that they generally been victims of a
stereotype that casts them as antisocial and unapproachable. When the IT students become anime
fans, they're immediately accepted by all of the other students who like anime, as well as a
community of fans on internet.16

According to Tahir that perhaps the most educational benefit of students' interest in anime is
the frequent interestin Japanese language and culture that these students develop as a result.
Many Americans who spend time abroad in Japan or who pursue careers in Japan can point to a
love of anime as the original impetus. In these article, it implies on how the student haves
interest in Japanese language and culture. Because of so much love to anime, they want to learn
Japanese language, and sometimes apply to their daily life a Japanese live.17

Kimberly Cejoco “”, July 14, 2013, Philippines
Kimberly Cejoco “”, July 14, 2013, Philippines
Mohd Tahir “Anime Addiction”, November 9,2016, Philippines
Mohd Tahir “Anime Addiction”, November 9,2016, Philippines
Mohd Tahir “Anime Addiction”, November 9,2016, Philippines
Chapter 3


Methods of Research

The descriptive method of research was used in the study. It is fact-finding study
with adequate interpretation of finding. It aims to described the most common reasons and effect
of Anime Addiction. Since my study surveys the questions of what is the percentage level of the
population of anime addiction?, which gender population has the most number of Anime
addiction cases?, What is the average number of hours anime addicts watch?. The descriptive
method was the most appropriate method to use.

Methods of collecting Data

The method of collecting data was the normative survey. This is connected with
looking into the commonality of most common reasons and effect of Anime Addiction.
Therefore it is the most appropriate method use.

The instrument used to collect data was the questionnaire. This was used to gather
data faster than any other method.

The Sampling Design

The size of population compose of third year students. There are Third year
students but there are only 75 of the population will be used.

The type of technique used was pure ramdom sampling.