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1879 1920

Wilhelm Wundt establishes first formal psychology Watson and Rayner demonstrate that a child's fear can
laboratory at the University of Leipzig. be learned.

1885 1921
Sir Francis Galton establishes first mental testing center James McKeen Cattell forms Psychological Corporation.
at the South Kensington Museum, London.
1924
1890 Mary Cover Jones employs learning principles to
James McKeen Cattell coins the term mental test. remove children's fears.

1892 1931
American Psychological Association (APA) founded. Clinical section of APA appoints committee on training
standards.
1895
Breuer and Freud publish Studies in Hysteria. 1935
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) published.
1896
Lightner Witmer founds first psychological clinic, 1937
University of Pennsylvania. Clinical section of APA breaks away to form American
Association for Applied Psychology (AAAP).
1905
Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale published in France. 1938
First Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook published.
1907
Witmer founds first clinical journal, The Psychological 1939
Clinic. Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Test published.

1908 1942
First clinical internship offered at Vineland Training Carl Rogers publishes Counseling and Psychotherapy,
School. outlining an alternative to psychodynamic therapy.

1909 1943
William Healy founds first child-guidance center, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Juvenile Psychopathic Institute, Chicago. Freud lectures published.
at Clark University.
1945
1910 AAAP rejoins APA. Journal of Clinical Psychology
Goddard's English translation of the 1908 revision of published. Connecticut State Board of Examiners in
the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale published. Psychology issues first certificate to practice
psychology.
1912
J.B. Watson publishes Psychology as a Behaviorist 1946
Views It. Veterans Administration and National Institute of
Mental Health begin support for training of clinical
1916 psychologists.
Terman's Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test published.
1947
1917 American Board of Examiners in Professional
Clinicians break away from APA to form American Psychology organized. Shakow Report recommends
Association of Clinical Psychology (AACP). clinical training standards to APA.

1919 1949
AACP rejoins APA as its clinical section. Colorado conference on training in clinical psychology
convenes, recommends “Boulder Model.”
1950 1972
APA publishes first standards for approved internships Menninger Conference on Postdoctoral Education in
in clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology.

1952 1973
American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Vail, Colorado, Training Conference.
Statistical Manual (DSM-I) published.
1974
1953 National Register of Health Service Providers in
APA's Ethical Standards for Psychologists published. Psychology established. Federal government allows
payment for clinical psychologists' services to its
1955 employees without medical supervision or referral. APA
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Test published. establishes Standards for Providers of Psychological
Services. First Inter-American Congress of Clinical
1956 Psychology held in Porto Alegre, Brazil.
Stanford Training Conference.
1977
1958 All fifty U.S. states have certification or licensing laws
Miami Training Conference. Clinical Division of APA for clinical psychologists.
holds NIMH-sponsored conference about research on
psychotherapy. 1980
Third edition of DSM (DSM-III) published. Smith, Glass,
1959 and Miller publish The Benefits of Psychotherapy. Blue
The first psychotherapy benefit in a prepaid insurance Shield health insurance companies in Virginia
plan appears. successfully sued for refusing to pay for clinical
psychologists' services to people covered by their plans.
1965
Chicago Training Conference. 1981
APA publishes its revised Ethical Principles of
1968 Psychologists.
Psy.D. training program begins at the University of
Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. Second edition of DSM 1983
(DSM-II) published. Committee on Health Insurance Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Hospitals
begins campaign to allow payment of clinical allows clinical psychologists to become members of
psychologists' services by health insurance plans hospital medical staffs.
without requiring medical supervision.
1987
1969 DSM-III-R published. Conference on graduate education
California School of Professional Psychology founded. in psychology, Salt Lake City, Utah.
APA begins publication of the journal, Professional
Psychology. 1988
American Psychological Society formed.
1970
Department of Defense health insurance program 1990
authorizes payment of clinical psychologists' services California Supreme Court affirms right of clinical
without medical referral. Classes begin at California psychologists to independently admit, diagnose, treat,
School of Professional Psychology, the first and release mental patients without medical
independent clinical psychology training program in the supervision. Dick McFall publishes “Manifesto for a
United States Science of Clinical Psychology.”

1971
Council for the Advancement of Psychological
Professions and Sciences, a political advocacy group for
clinical psychology, is organized. Journal of Clinical Child
Psychology published.
1993 2002
Commander John L. Sexton and Lt. Commander New Mexico grants prescription privileges to specially
Morgan T. Sammons complete psychopharmacology trained clinical psychologists. 2005 APA sponsors a
program at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Presidential Task Force on evidencebased practice.
becoming first psychologists legally permitted to
prescribe psychoactive drugs. 2006
Psychologists win a second settlement in two years in
1994 federal court alleging that managed care companies
DSM-IV published. Amendment to Social Security Act conspired to reduce and delay provider payments in
guarantees psychologists the right to independent violation of federal law.
practice and payment for hospital services under
Medicare. Academy of Psychological Clinical Science is 2008
established. The U.S. House of Representatives passes legislation
requiring mental health parity: The Paul Wellstone
1995 Mental Health and Addiction Equity Act of 2007.
APA task force of clinical psychologists publishes list of
empirically validated psychological therapies and calls 2009
for students to be trained to use them. University of Illinois becomes the first PCSAS accredited
program.
1996
Dorothy W. Cantor becomes first president of APA to 2013
hold the Psy.D. rather than the Ph.D. 2000 DSM-IV-TR DSM-5 published.
published.