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CE - Interna
ational Jourrnal for Envvironmentaal Rehabilitaation and Conservation
Volume VI: No. 2 2015 [09
[ – 13] [ISS
SN 0975 - 62722]

Use of biodegrad
b dable alkalline salt in
n exhaust dyeing
d proocess of cootton fabriic with
direct dye

Rastogi, Shivi and Jain,

J Bhavya

Received: August 12, 2015

2  Accep
pted: October 19, 2015  Online: Deceember 31, 20115

The textiile coloration
n and finishhing industryy is dyeing solutionn. The dyeing was carrried out
one of thhe major conntributors to environmenntal usinng the exhauust method.. It has beeen found
pollutionn. The inorganic salts suuch as Sodiuum thatt the color-yield obtained
o b
by the
chloride or Sodium m sulphate commerciaally bioddegradable salts were bright and dark as
used for better dye penetration into the fibber com
mpared to inoorganic non--biodegradabble salts.
during direct
d dyeingg. While inorganic alkaali, Afteer dyeing with
w biodeggradable sallt direct
such as sodium
s bicarrbonate, soddium carbonnate dyes effluent was
w also asseessed and it showed
or sodium m hydroxidee is requiredd for dye-fibber highh reductionn in color unit annd total
reaction. The use off these saltss and alkalii is susppended solidds.
drained which conttributes to environmenntal Keyywords: inorganic salts | Subbstantial
pollutionn. Substantiial remediees are beiing rem
medies | bioddegradable alkaline sallt | total
considereed within thhe textile proocessing secctor susppended solidds
to reducee the efflueent pollutionn and to fullfill Intrroduction
the envirronmental reegulations. Thus
T this stuudy Diaatom Textile industry invvolves wide range of
is a part of
o such efforts and resullts showed thhat raw
w materials, machineries and proceesses to
biodegradable alkalin ne salt nameely magnesiuum enggineer the reequired shappe and propeerties of
acetate tetrahydratee can be used as an the final produuct. Waste stream
s geneerated in
alternativve to trraditionally used noon- this industry is essentiallyy based onn water-
biodegradable inorgaanic salt and alkali in baseed effluentt generatedd in the various
activities of wet
w processinng of textilles. The
For corresp
maiin cause of generation
g o this effluent is the
Home Scieence Departmeent, Clothing annd Textiles,
use of huge volume
v of water
w eitherr in the
Banasthalii University, Rajasthan
Email: actuual chemicaal processing or durring re-
proccessing in prreparatory, dyeing,
d printing and

Rastogi & Jain/Vol. VI [2] 2015/9 – 13 

finishing. In fact, in practical estimate it is This present study showed the result where
found that about 33% industries are involved in Magnesium acetate tetra hydratehave been
dyeing. used in the exhaust dyeing of cotton with direct
Direct dyes are normally applied from a neutral dye to improve effluent quality by replacing
or slightly alkaline bath containing an the traditional inorganic salt and alkali.
electrolyte (dye bath assistant e.g., sodium Materials and Method:
chloride or sodium sulfate). The inorganic salt, Material: A commercially available cotton
such as sodium chloride or sodium sulphate, fabric of fabric count 85.6 X 48.4 and direct
for dye transfer and penetration into the fibre, dye were used in this study. Magnesium
and inorganic alkali, such as sodium acetate tetrahydrate [(CH3COO2)2.Mg.4H2O],
bicarbonate, sodium carbonate or sodium Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Sodium carbonate
hydroxide, for dye-fibre reaction, are required (Na2CO3) were used as analytical grade.
in substantial quantities to accomplish the
Method: The fabric was first scoured then
dyeing process. The use of these salts,
used for dyeing. First sample was dyed with
electrolytes and alkali is drained which
the commercially used inorganic salts viz.
contributes to environmental pollution. The
Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Sodium carbonate
effluent treatment is expensive and produce
(Na2CO3). Second and third sample were dyed
highly concentrated solid wastes. Therefore,
with Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate
the better approach would be to improve the
[(CH3COO2)2.Mg.4H2O] with varying
textile processing chemistry for reducing the
concentration of 30g/l and 40 g/l respectively.
discharge pollution.
The dyed fabrics were rinsed with cold water
Now at the use of inorganic salts in dyeing are then with hot water, then soaped at 50˚C (15
replaced by using biodegradable alkaline salts min), and then rinse with hot water until dye
which are commonly used in the detergent and desorption stopped. Finally, the fabrics were
the cosmetic industries as chelating agents. washed with cold water and oven dried.
“Biodegradable means capable of being
Testing: The dye effluent of all three samples
decomposed back into elemental components
were first cooled at room temperature and then
by biological agents, especially bacteria.
PH, Total solid (TS), Total dissolved solids
Biodegradability is associated with the use of
(TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS) and color
an item as a nutrient source by some organism
unit were determined as per American Public
within the environment”. Tetrasodium ethylene
Health Association, Washington, 1998. And
diamine tetraacetate (sodium edate) is a
the dyed samples were determined for K/S
biodegradable alkaline polycarboxylic salt and
value by the use of CCM (Computer Color
has been studied as an alternative to inorganic
Matching System), Colorfastness to washing
salt and alkali in dyeing of cotton by exhaust
(ISO-105-C10-A1), to rubbing (IS-766), to
ironing (IS-689-1988) and to light (IS- 2454).

Rastogi & Jain/Vol. VI [2] 2015/9 – 13 

Result and Discussion

Effect of dyeing using biodegradable salts versus conventional salts on effluent
Comparative effect on pH

Dye Chemical concentration pH

Sodium chloride 20g/l 9.83
Direct dye Sodium carbonate 10g/l
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 30g/l 10.00
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 40g/l 8.48
Table 1: Comparison table of effect of magnesium acetate
tetrahydrate and conventional salts on pH

This table shows the effect of biodegradable 30g/l it increases the pH of effluent slightly
salt on pH in of conventional used salts and but it decrease the pH of dyeing effluent or it
biodegradable salts in direct dyeing, and the is moves towards neutrality of water if we
results shows that when magnesium acetate use magnesium acetate tetrahydrate at 40g/l
tetrahydrate alkaline salt used in dyeing at concentration.
Dye Chemical concentration TS (mg/l) TSS (mg/l) TDS (mg/l)
Sodium chloride 20g/l 37600 6900 30700
Direct dye Sodium carbonate 10g/l
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 30g/l 46000 100 45900

Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 40g/l 51600 2600 49000

Table 2: Comparison table of effect of magnesium acetate

tetrahydrate and conventional salts on TS, TSS and

This comparative analysis shows a higher biodegradable salt in dyeing showed drastically
change in the TS, TSS, and TDS of effluent decreases in the TSS present in effluent but it
assessed after dyeing. The sample using increases the value of TDS and TS.

Dye Chemical concentration Color unit (Hzn)

Sodium chloride 20g/l 250
Direct dye Sodium carbonate 10g/l
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 30g/l 80

Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 40g/l 99

Table 3: Comparison table of effect of magnesium acetate

tetrahydrate and conventional salts on color unit.

This table depicted that the use of magnesium effluent. Thus we can say that the dye was
acetate tetrahydrate highly decreases the absorbed by the fabric better due to the use of
presence of color unit in the effluent in the magnesium acetate tetrahydrate during
comparison to the conventional dyed sample dyeing procedure.

Rastogi & Jain/Vol. VI [2] 2015/9 – 13 

Effect of dyeing using biodegradable salts versus conventional salts on dyed samples
Comparative effect on k/s value
Dye Chemical concentration K/S
Direct dye Sodium chloride 20g/l 12.05
Sodium carbonate 10g/l
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 30g/l 17.59
Magnesium acetate tetrahydrate 40g/l 17.67

Table 4: Comparison table of effect of magnesium acetate

tetrahydrate and conventional salts on K/S

It is clear from the table that the color yields of treated with biodegradable salt. However, the
the dyed fabrics from biodegradable salts and magnesium acetate tetrahydrate gives the
conventional salt. Comparable change in the higher color yield at both the concentration i.e.
color yield was observed in dyed samples 30g/l and 40g/l with direct dye.

Comparative effect on colorfastness

Dye Chemical concentration Ironing Fastness Rubbing Fastness Light
Dry Wet Dry Wet Fastness
Sodium chloride 20g/l 5 4-5 4 1 5 5 5 3-4 3-4
Sodium carbonate 10g/l
Direct dye Magnesium acetate 5 4-5 4 1 5 4-5 5 3-4 4
tetrahydrate 30g/l
Magnesium acetate 5 5 4-5 1 5 4-5 5 3-4 4
tetrahydrate 40g/l
Table 5: Comparison table of effect of magnesium acetate
tetrahydrate and conventional salts on ironing,
rubbing and light colorfastness.

DYE Chemical concentration WASH FASTNESS

Direct dye Sodium chloride 20g/l 3 3 5 5 4 2 4
Sodium carbonate 10g/l
Magnesium acetate 3 3 3-4 5 4 1 4
tetrahydrate 30g/l
Magnesium acetate 3 3 4-5 5 3 1 4-5
tetrahydrate 40g/l
Table 6: Comparison table of effect of magnesium acetate
tetrahydrate and conventional salts on washing

Rastogi & Jain/Vol. VI [2] 2015/9 – 13 

Table no 5 and 6 shows the comparative fixation in Pad-Steam Process of

analysis of colorfastness of fabrics dyed with Dyeing Cotton Fabric Using
conventionally used salts and biodegradable Tetrasodium N, NBis
salt. Results showed that there is no effect or carboxylatomethyl L-Glutamate”.
slight effect on the colorfastness properties of Khatri, A. “Use of Biodegradable Organic
the treated samples. Only in case of washing Salts for Pad-Steam Dyeing of Cotton
colorfastness noticeable staining was found Textiles with Reactive Dyes to Improve
when samples dyed with magnesium acetate Process Sustainability”, IPEDR vol.18
tetrahydrate. (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press,
Conclusion Singapore.
Moore, S. B.: “Low toxicity, biodegradable
This research has revealed that the
salt substitute for dyeing textiles:
biodegradable alkaline salt i.e. magnesium
magnesium acetate in direct or reactive
acetate tetrahydrate can effectively use for
dyeing of cotton”, Burlington Chemical
direct dyeing of cotton fabric by exhaust
Co., Inc., Burlington, NC.
process of dyeing to reduce the dyeing effluent
Thetas, P. (2013): “A Comparison of
pollution. There was also the higher increase in
Conventional and Biodegradable
color yield without any change in colorfastness
Chelating Agent in Different Type of
properties of the dyed samples in comparison
Surfactant Solutions for Soap Scum
to conventional direct dyeing methods.
Removal”, World Academy of Science,
Engineering and Technology 76.
Braimah J. A., “The Effect of Electrolytes on Trotman, E.R. (1970): Dyeing and chemical
Direct Dyes for Cotton”, Department of Technology of textile fiber, Charles
Textile Science & Technology, Gribbin and Co. Ltd. London, 4th
Department of Chemistry, Ahmadu edition, 1-5.
Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Vatsala, (2007): Text book of textile and
Christie, R.M. (2007): Environmental aspects clothing ICAR.
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