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ESSENCE - International Journal for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservation

Mahajan & Dulkar/VIII [2] 2017/47 – 51

Volume VIII [2] 2017 [47 – 51] [ISSN 0975 - 6272]

The diatom flora of Madhya Pradesh, Central India – A review

Mahajan, S. K. and Dulkar, C. L.

Received: July 17, 2017  Accepted: October 21, 2017  Online: December 31, 2017

Abstract Introduction

The present paper is an attempt to prepare a In general diatomaceous floras are familiar as
checklist of the diatom flora of Madhya diatoms and are placed in a separate class
Pradesh. It is largely based on the information Bacillariophyceae amongst algae. Diatoms are
available from published literature. The list a widespread group that can be found in the
includes in all 48 species belonging to 25 oceans, in fresh water, in soil and on damp
genera of diatoms. These species are reported substrata. As algae, diatoms are distinguished
from different districts of Madhya Pradesh by the presence of an inorganic cell wall
(Barwani, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, composed of hydrated silica. It has been
Khandwa, Khargone, Sagar and Ujjain) which estimated that nearly 20,000 to 2 million
have so far been surveyed by various research species belonging to more than 200 genera are
workers up to the year 2016. Dominant genera found on the earth. They are unicellular,
with 3 or more species reported are Navicula sometimes colonial algae found in almost
(9 species), Nitzschia (5 species) and every aquatic habitat as free living
Pinnularia (4 species), Gomphonema (4 photosynthetic autotrophy, colorless
species ) Cymbella (3 species) and Fragilaria heterotrophy or photosynthetic symbionts.
(3 species) while Synedra, Diatoma and They occur as plankton or periphyton with
Achnanthes are common species found in the most brownish-green films on substrates such
area surveyed. as rocks or aquatic plants being composed of
attached diatoms. The cells are surrounded by
Keywords: Bacillariophyceae | pinnate
diatoms | fresh water algae | nimar eco-region a rigid two-parts boxlike cell wall composed
| central India | periphyton | phytoplankton of silica called as frustules.

Earlier the progress of algal systematic has

been reviewed from time to time in the past
For Correspondence:
not only in relation to taxonomy but also in
Botany Department, Govt. College, Mandleshwar, M.P.
E-mail: relation to algal cytology, algal physiology
and algal fossils. The present review deals
with the work done on diatoms by the various
Mahajan & Dulkar/VIII [2] 2017/47 – 51

workers up to the period 2016. In past few Gonzalves. He focused his research work on
decades several monographs on algae have algal taxonomy, periodicity, seasonal
been published in India which has proved to succession, population dynamics and its
be valuable for future researchers working in ecology and published research papers on
the field of phycological studies. diatoms of Bombay and Salsette in three parts,
each containing descriptions of 6, 42 and 24
diatoms respectively. During his career,
Taxonomic work in phycological studies has Gandhi reported in all 84 species belonging to
been carried out by various workers in past 15 genera of diatoms which enabled him a
few decades. The pioneer work in the field of permanent place in the field of diatom
algal taxonomy and especially on diatom was research. Undoubtedly he is the father of fresh
started by Gandhi under the guidance of E.A. water diatomology in India.
S. No. Name of Diatom S. No. Name of Diatom
1 Achnanthes minutissima Kutz. 1. Navicula cuspidate Kutz.
2 Amphora ovalis Kutz. 2. N.gracilis Ehrenb.
3 F.intermedia Graun. 3. N.mutica Kutz.
4 Asterionella sp. 4. N. pupula Kutz.
5 Bacillariaparadoxa gmelin 5. N. reinhardtii Grun.
6 Caloneis bacillum 6. N.radiosa Kutz.
7 Coscinodiscus sp. 7. N.rhynchocephala Kutz
8 Cymbella affinis Kutz. 8. N. subminuscula
9 C.cistula( Ehrenb.)Kirch. 9. N.viridis ( Nitz.) Kutz
10 C.naviculiformis Auer.ex.Helb. 10. Nitzschia capetellata Hustedt.
11 Diatoma vulgaris 11. N.commutata Grwn.
12 Denticula thermalis Kutz 12. N.palea ( Kutz.) Smith
13 Diploneis elliptica( Kutz.) Cleve. 13. N.siomoides (Nitz.) Smith
14 Fragilaria crotoneis Kitt 14. N.subtilis( Kutz.) Grun.
15 Anomoconeis sphaerophora (Kutz.) Pfitzer 15. Pinnularia appendiculata (Agard.) Schaars.
16 F.rumpens Kutz. 16. P.braunii Cleve
17 Frustulia vulgaris ( Thwait.) Toni. 17. P.simplex Gandhi
18 Gomphonema gracile Ehrenb. 18. P.viridis (Kutz.)Ehrenb.
19 G.lanceolatum Ehrenb. 19. Pleurocapsa sp.
20 G.sphaerophorum Ehrenb. 20. Stauroneis anceps Ehrenb.
21 G.ventricosum Greg. 21. Surirella sp.
22 Hantzschia sp. Grun. 22. Synedra affinis Kutz.
23 Melosira granulate ( Ehrenb.) Ralfa. 23. S.ulna ( Nitz.) Ehrenb
24 Meredion circulare ( Grev.) Agard.. 24. Tabellaria flocculosa (Roth.) Kutz.
Table 1: The list of diatoms reported from Madhya
Pradesh up to 2016

Class : Bacillariophyceae (Diatom) No. of Genera and Species

1. World Genera- More than 200
Species- Approximately 2 million
2. India Genera- 92
Species- 231
3. Madhya Pradesh Genera – 25
Species- - 48
Genera and Species ratio :
1. World 1:1000
2. India 1:2.51
3. Madhya Pradesh 1:1.92
Table 2: Showing the statistical data of genera and species and and also the
ratio of genera to species of the World, India and Madhya Pradesh
Mahajan & Dulkar/VIII [2] 2017/47 – 51

Contributions made by various workers on ratio should decline within the same floral
algae in general and diatoms in particular in region or investigated area. Now a days
past decades is worth to be mentioned. In epilithic algae particularly diatoms are
Madhya Pradesh, the taxonomic studies on attracting the attention of the phycologists.
algae continue to receive attention from The diatom species reported so far from
various workers in the past. Genera and various parts of Madhya Pradesh is shown
species belonging to Bacillariophyceae have alphabetically in Table 1 and the ratio between
so far been discovered and described by genera to species of World, India and Madhya
several workers. All the diatoms reported Pradesh in shown in Table 2.
from this state belong to fresh water only.
Although an attempt has been made to include
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region up to 2016, no claim is made that the Algal Taxonomy in India, Today and
list is complete. Omissions if any, may be Tomorrow's Printers and Publishers,
pointed out by the readers. The present author New Delhi.
does not take the responsibility for the Gonzalves, E. A. and Gandhi, H. P. (1954): A
correctness of the identification made by the systematic account of the Diatoms of
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