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Research on Impulse Impedance Measurement for

Grounding Device of Transmission Tower

SI Wen-Rong, FU Chen-Zhao, LU Bing-Bing GUO Xiang, XU Zhi-Bing


State Grid Shanghai Electric Power Research Institute Xiamen Red-Phase Electric Power Equipment co. Ltd.,
Shanghai, China Xiamen, China
siwenrogn@126.com xuzhibin@redphase.com.cn

Abstract—For obtaining impulse impedance characteristics waveform with parameters of 8/20 ȝs in time domain as the
for grounding device of UHV 1000 kV transmission tower, a incident wave into the grounding device, and measure the
portable instrument is used as the incident wave source to the voltage waveform which is the transient response from the
grounding device, which stably outputs a 8/20 ȝs standard grounding device, then do the calculation and analysis to
lightning current with simultaneous measurement of the response obtain the impulse impedance of the grounding device. In the
transient voltage. Tests and date recording were done to some following, after the description of the portable miniaturized
standard resistances with nominal values, and a typical tower of instrument, tests to three standard resistances in the laboratory
UHV 1000 kV An-Tong line in Shanghai Power Grid. Transient are shown with introduction of the transient grounding
grounding resistance in time and frequency domain (TGRT and
resistance in time and frequency domain (TGRT and TGRF),
TGRF) are analyzed and compared abased on the measured
current and voltage waveforms.
respectively. At last, tests and date recording done to a typical
tower of UHV 1000kV An-Tong line in Shanghai Power Grid
Keywords—transmission tower㸹 grounding device㸹 impulse is described with the analyzed results of TGRT and TGRF.
grounding impedance㸹 on-site test㸹 1000 kV
II. IMPULSE GROUNDING IMPEDANCE DETECTION DEVICE
I. INTRODUCTION The impulse signal generating unit of the detection device
developed is mainly composed of a boost conditioning module
Impedance of transmission tower’s grounding device is
(BCM), a charging capacitance module (CCM), a D/A
one of the most important parameters to evaluate the lightning
conversion module (DCM), a preset waveform module
protection performance for transmission lines under the direct
(PVM), a power amplification module (PAM) and a switch
or indirect lighting strike, especially the transmission lines
control output module (SCOM). The BCM is to boost the DC
with high voltage level, for example the UHV 1000kV. Under
low amplitude signal to a high voltage signal and regulate the
a certain condition, the probability of back flashover of a
voltage amplitude. At the same time, the DCM is used to call a
transmission tower is decided by the impedance value of the
preset waveform of 8/20 ȝs (see Fig. 1), which is a standard
transmission tower’s grounding device, especially the impulse
lightning digital signal, and converts it to an analog signal and
grounding impedance [1, 2]. Therefore, the impact of transient
sent it to a PAM under the control of the software program.
characteristics of the grounding device for the transmission
Then the CCM uses the capacitance block to discharge energy,
tower under the lightning current, is an urgent need to study
combined with the selected waveform parameters (including
and solve the real problem to diagnosis or evaluate [3, 4]. At
the wave front time and half peak time) to modulate the output
present, a large number of domestic and foreign research work
impact test signal. When it gets enough signal amplitude, then
[5, 6] mainly concentrated in detection or measurement of the
the SCOM gives an order to output the impulse test signal,
grounding impedance under power frequency [7], simulation
which achieves the parameters of 8/20 ȝs in time domain.
model of equivalent impulse grounding impedance, theoretical
calculation [8] and experimental tests in laboratory of different 12
transmission line grounding devices [9]. But various analysis
methods did not reach a consensus or result [10] , and impulse 10
grounding impedance detection devices or measurement
8
system used on-site or in-filed tests are so few to see in the
related reports [11-12].
I/A

6
Considering many large vehicles and heavy equipments 4
cannot reach to the transmission towers [13], so a convenient
operation and portable device is needed urgently. In this paper, 2
a new impulse impedance detection device for the grounding
0
device of transmission tower is introduced, which is a portable 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
t / μs
miniaturized instrument that can stably outputs current
Fig. 1. A current waveform of 8/20 ȝs generated by the portable device.

978-1-5090-0496-6/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE


182.78 5.15 35.46
The impulse grounding impedance detection device Analysis of transient grounding resistance of the date
developed is shown in Fig. 2 according to the content shown shown in Fig. 3 with the methods of TGRT and TGRF
and discussed above, which gives the results of test signal (transient grounding resistance in time and frequency domain)
waveform generated as the incident current waveform into the are shown in Fig. 4. The results show that the standard
grounding device and records the voltage waveform at the resistance with value of 35 ȍ is not non-inductance.
same time, which is the transient response voltage waveform
form the grounding device. 30
I
300

25 U 250

20 200

U/V
I/A
15 150

10 100

5 50

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
t / μs

(a) (a)

40 400
I
U

U/V
I/A
20 200

(b) (c)
0 0
Fig. 2. The portable detection device developed for impulse grounding 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
t / μs
impedance of transmission tower: (a) the measurement device developed; (b)
the incident current waveform into the grounding device (discharge current); (b)
(c) the transient response voltage waveform form the grounding device
(discharge voltage). 10 200
I
U
III. TESTS IN LABORATORY
With the device shown in Fig. 2(a), tests were done to
three standard resistances with the nominal value of 10 ȍ,

U/V
I/A

5 100
15ȍ and 35ȍ, respectively, and the results are shown in the
Tab. I. Fig. 3(a) is one of the results of 8/20 ȝs current
waveform and the measured voltage waveform under the
sample rate of 5MS/s to the standard resistance of 10 ȍ, while
Fig. 3(b) is one of the results of 8/20 ȝs current waveform and 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
0
40
t / μs
the measured voltage waveform under the sample rate of
5MS/s to the standard resistance of 15 ȍ, and Fig. 3(c) is one (c)
of the results of 8/20 ȝs current waveform and the measured Fig. 3. Typical 8/20ȝs impulse current and voltage waveforms of test results
voltage waveform under the sample rate of 5MS/s to the based on the standard resistances co-responding to Tab. I: (a) 10 ȍ; (b) 15 ȍ;
standard resistance of 35 ȍ. All the results shown prove the (b) 35 ȍ.
veracity and practicability of the device developed.
100
Fig.3(a)
TABLE I. TESTS TO STANDARD RESISTANCES Fig.3(b)
80 Fig.3(c)
U_max(V) I_max(A) R1(ȍ)
60
263.87 25.86 10.21
R/

264.09 25.83 10.22 40


263.99 25.84 10.22
75.51 5.13 14.73 20
77.82 5.11 15.23
77.74 5.11 15.20 0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
t / μs
182.85 5.15 35.49
(a)
182.65 5.16 35.41
120 20 10
Fig.3(a) I
100 Fig.3(b) U
Fig.3(c)
80

U/V
I/A
60 10 5
Z/

40

20

0 0 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
f / kHz t / μs
(b)
(c)
Fig. 4. Analysis of transient grounding resistance of the date shown in Fig. 3
with the methods of TGRT and TGRF: (a) in time domain (TGRT); (b) in
20 20
frequency domain (TGRF). I
U
IV. TESTS TO A 1000KV TOWER
With this device shown in Fig. 2, tests were also done to a

U/V
I/A
1000 kV transmission tower which is shown in Fig. 5. Fig. 10 10
5(a) is the 1000 kV transmission tower, while its grounding
device is as the test object. Fig. 5(b) is the test circuit under
the condition without shunt current. Fig. 5(c) is a typical test
result under the condition without shunt current. Fig. 5(d) is a 0 0
typical test result under the condition with shunt current. Fig. 0 5 10 15 20
t / μs
25 30 35 40

5(c) and 5(d) are the result of 8/20 ȝs current waveform and
(d)
the measured voltage waveform under the sample rate of 5
MS/s. Fig. 5. The impulse grounding impedance detection of a 1000kV transmission
tower: (a) the 1000kV transmission tower; (b) the test circuit; (c) a typical test
Analysis of transient grounding resistance of the date result under the condition without shunt current; (d) a typical test result under
shown in Fig. 5 with the methods of TGRT and TGRF are the condition with shunt current.
shown in Fig. 6, which give a result that the lightning
protection evaluation of the UHV 1000 kV transmission tower 14
Fig.5(c)
could not only depend on a value, such as the grounding 12 Fig.5(d)
resistance measurement under the power frequency or the 10
values shown in Tab. I. The curves given in Fig. 6 reflects the
transient characteristic of the grounding device under the 8
R/

lightning current should be considered and used as the 6


reference. 4

0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
t / μs
(a)
10
Fig.5(c)
Fig.5(d)
8

6
Z/

4
(a)
2

0
0 200 400 600 800 1000
f / kHz

(b)
Fig. 6. Analysis of transient grounding resistance of the date shown in Fig. 5
with the methods of TGRT and TGRF: (a) in time domain (TGRT); (b) in
frequency domain (TGRF).

V. CONCLUSIONS
In order to facilitate the impulse impedance test for the
(b) grounding device of transmission tower, a portable and
miniaturized instruments was developed, which can stably [4] Zhang Bo, He Jinliang, and Zeng Rong, “State of art and prospect of
output the impulse current waveform with parameters of 8/20 grounding technology in power system,” High Voltage Engineering, vol.
41(8), pp. 2569-2582, 2015.
ȝs in time domain as the incident wave and record the
[5] Fu Chenzhao, Su Lei, Si Wenrong, “Impedance measurement for
transient voltage response from the grounding device. The grounding grids of ultra-high-voltage Huxi substation,” IEEE Region 10
impulse impedance can be obtained by the current and voltage Annual International Conference, Proceedings/TENCON, November 4
waveforms with analysis in time and frequency domain, 2015.
respectively. Results show that the instrument is stable, the [6] Si Wenrong, Fu Chenzhao, Su Lei, “Study on Impulse Characteristics of
testing method is simple, test results can accurately reflect the 35kV Substation Grounding Grids,” IEEE Region 10 Annual
basic physical properties of the grounding device of International Conference, Proceedings/TENCON, November 4 2015.
transmission tower. Anyhow, this method shown in this paper [7] DL/T 887-2004. Power frequency ground resistance measurement for
poles & towers. Power industry standard of the People’s Republic of
is fit for the on-site test to obtain impulse impedance China, 2004.
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[8] Chen Wenfeng, and Liang Jiangdong, “The measurement and analysis of
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[9] Zhang Bo, Yu Shaofeng and He Jinliang, “Experimental analysis on
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