Sie sind auf Seite 1von 374



Buckling of Steel Shells

European Design Recommendations

5" Edition. 2008


• E K S

All sc£lions thai arc repealed word-for-word from EN 1993-1-6 nrc marked with a thick \"crtical
line on the left hand side.
BIIl'kling ofSrcel Slr1'1/5· European De.fig" ReCO",mell(!arlOlI.f



Buckling of Steel Shells
European Design Recommendations C hIllI.
"1" 125,5 1• edition. 2008

Published by: "

FCCS - European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
publ icutiQn~ 'tI ~1r..'Clco"
www,slcc\construct,colU 14
All rights I'CSCned. No parts of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval systcm, or
trnn!omilled in any foml or by any means. electronic, m(.'Chanical, photocopying, recording or oth- Ih
erwisc, without thc prior pcnnission of the copyright O\\'ner. 17
l-res fbsumes no liability \\ith respect to the usc for any application of the material and Infonna- IS
lion conluined in this publicntion. I.
Copyright 2008 ECCS European Con\'cntion for Constructiollul Steelwork 20

ISBN : 92-9147-000-92 Legal Ocp.: 282703 08

Primed in Mu1tioomp Ldn. Mcm Martins. Ponugal
Photo co\'cr credits: Prof. J. Michael Roller

Stllbility ofSlccl Shells: European Design Rccommendations:
Fiflh Edition 2008

PART I: General recommcndations for design against buckling

Cha]Her Tille
Introduction II
2 Shell buckling behaviour and design concepts 21
Scope. con ... entions. definitions. units. symbols and sign con ... entions 33
Modelling of the shell 47
Materiul assumptions 57
Geometric tolemnees and i~rfcctions 69
Rules for Ihe plu3tie limit slUle assessment 83
Rules for the buckling limil stllle assessment using de3ign by global numerical 95

• Rules for Ihe buckling limit siale assessment u... ing l>tress design 147

PART II: Recommendations for plirlicular shells

C hapter Title
10 Cylindricul shelll> of constant wall thickness under general loading 167
II Cylindrical shell ... of slepwise vllriable wlillthiekncss 217
12 Cylindriclll shell ... under wind loading 237
IJ Conical shell3 nnd truncated conical shells under general loading 259
14 Liquid filled conical shells supported from below 281
15 Spherical shells under unifonn external pressure 309
:lriC\ 01 system. or
recording or oth- 16 Toriconical and torispherieal shells under unifonn e:<ternal and internal pressure 319
17 Cylindrical 3hclls with ring stiffener.; under eKtemal pressure 331
erial and infonna- IR Cylindriclil shells wi th longitudmal stiffener.; under meridional eompn.:ssion 353
I. Conical shell,; with longitudinal stiffeners under meridional compression 365
20 Saddle or ring supportl..-cl cylindrical shells 371


This. documcnt is described as thc 5111 Edition of thc ECCS European Recommendations for the
Buckling ofStccl Shells. It is thc succt."li$Or to the 4111 Fdmon. pubhs.hcd in 1988. which was 'cry
diffcrent In stylc, fommt and content, though somc of Ihc regulatory r(."quircmcnls of Ihc 41t! Edition
are here retaincd in the 51b Edition.

In thc 20 ycars since thc publication of tnc 4~ Edition in 1988. much has changcd to the field of
mctal s.hell buckling. E'ttcnsivc TCSCarch has been undcnnkcn. much nc" knowledgc has been dc-
,eloped. und powcrful computational modcllmg has trun~fonncd thc field. though much d(.~ign is
still conductcd by hand calculation. These chung(.'S are renC(;ted in this 51h Edition.

l' r('\ltlus cdititl ns

Thc'oC European RecommcndmiOll ~ hll"e quite a long history: thc Finot Edition was published in
1980.lhc 2nd in 19K3. the 3rd in 1984 and thc 4th I:.dition 1Tl 1988. TIlc cnergctic chainnanshlp of
Professor Vandcplllc o"cr this. period made progress \cry mpid. But after thesc 4 editions in thc
space of only 9 years. a gap of 20 ycars cnsu(."<! ulltilthe present 51t! Edition. Thi, 5th Edition has
been 'tOme 10 yeao. in gcstalion. Jh'lnly because thc de,'elopment of thc Eurocode 011 the Design of
Shclls (EN 1993-1-6. 2007) took up thc encrgies of the same committee. and the 5th Edition could
not be complctcd untiithlU sllllldaul was also complete.

Thc Furocodc EN 1993-1-6 was. in many rcsj>(.'Cts, the succe.ssor to thc 4th Edition, taking o\cr thc
rolc of fonnal regulation of dc!.ign of mctal shcJls against buckling. Its scope was far greater thun
that of the 4l11 ldilion. co\'cring othcr failure modes apan from buckling. extended to include com-
pUllllional treatmcnts for shclls, and having a vcry strong and c1car struclure 10 pemtit application to
shclls um!..:r 011 loading and stress conditions.. II olso borrowed greally from DIN 18800 Pan 4
(1990). "hich had becn dc\clopcd for Gcnnon-s.peaking countrics in thc Intc 1980s. The Eurocodc
"as required 10 h:l\c a fonnat. :.lylc. notalion and Icnnlllology thllt is compatible wilh the remaindcr
oflhc [urocodc s.tandnrds (EN 1990 to E 1999). Thi!>lcd to a number ofchangc!>III fonnal and
tcmlino\ogy reloli\'C to trnditional shcll dcs.ign fonnulations, and thcse are all adopted into the 5110
Edition of the Recommcndation!>.

The 5110 Edition quotcs. cl'tlensi\ ely from the I·urocooc EN 1993-1 -6 (2007) and IS complctcly com-
patible \\ith that standard. I-Io\\c\cr.thc Furocodc hos no commentary. so thc meaning. limitations
and origins of Illany mles are not ulwllys clear. This 51h Edition pro\ ides un cxtcnsivc commcntary
on thc cxisting rulcs relating to buckling in the Eurocodc. but cxtcnds far beyond It III gl\ ing rcc-
ommendauons. c'tpan!>ions.. ad\ icc ond wamlllgs. cxplanntions and cxamples. all of which !>hould
gl\e thc u!>Cr con~idernbly more IIlsight and confidcnce in applying thc mles of EN 1993-1 -6.

Struct urc oftil c document

Thi~ 5111 Edition is divided inlo t"o parts. Pan I sets oul the basic infomllltiOIl and gcncrol procc-
dures required to undcrtakc all shcll buckling calculution'i IIccording to EN 1993·1·6. It dcscribci.
the methodology and conccptual principlcs for numcrical analy!>is. cithcr to dcri\c the basic data
that Can be u~ in a ~trnightforward buckling design by hand calculation. or to replacc parts of this
calculation wilh numcrical as!>C, .. mcnts, or to carry out a buckling de~ign that is completely based
on IIUtnCriclIlassessmcnt.

Bucklillg o/Steel Sllells - Europeall Desigll Recomme"tllIli01I$

Pan II sets outthc dctailed infomullion fOf hand calcUlation rrocedures when a shell of a p..1nicular
geomctry is being designed for a p..1niculllr loading condition. Many well-pro"cn engineering for-
mulas. emplricnl data and simplified rules extrncted from numerical p..1rnmetric studies ha\'c been
included in this p..1n . In panicular. Ilan It contains nldiculty updmcd "cr..ions of the rules sct OUI in
the 4th Edition of the FCCS Recommendations. Ke~ ,.""'b",'..".
An membc,.., of
T he Dra ning Cumminee ECCS T WG tt4 Rccommendation,.
they arc named in
In the extcnded period since the 4'" Edition ",as published in 1988. thc mcmbership of the dmfting contribution,
eommiuee has seen sc\ ernl changes.

Chamntlllship of the commillee \~n); first with Dr Lars Snlllueisen. wus thcn lukcn o"cr by Prof.
Itcrbcn Schmidt. und finally passed 10 Prof. J. Michael ROUL,.. The cITons of cach of these chair-
men to progress the ",ork towards its final fonn are here ad:no\~ lcdged. The good \~ork of Ihe sec-
rcturics to the committee during this period. Prof. Marios Chryss3luhopoulos. Prof. Carlo Poggi.
Prof. Wcrncr Guggenberger and Prof. Spyros Kammano!> is ulso gr.ucfulty acknowledged.

Past members of the committee "'ho contribu!<."tl grcmly during the period 1989-2008 "'ere:

Dr Lars A. Samuctscn S,,,eden

Prof. Patrick J. Dowling UK
Prof. Mariu Lsstinger GemulIIY
Prof. Gerry D. Gat1etly UK
Dr JOlUt); OtIlund Norway
Prof J. Rathe Belgium

Current members of the committee (2008) who urc responsible for it:. full eontcnl. and \\ho have all
pantcipaled and contributed to atl chupters are:

Na me Countf) Mcmbership
Dr Jan Hlachut UK Futt
Prof. Murios Chryssnnlhopoulos UK Corresponding. fomlerly Fult
Prof. Alain Combcscure Fmnce Fu1t
Dr Cornelia Iloerich UKlGcnnany Com:spondmg
Prof. Richard Greiner Austria Full
Prof. A.M. (Nol) Gresnigt I"elherlands rutt
Prof. Wenlcr Guggcnberger Austria Fut1
Dr J. Mark F.G. l-Iol!!.1 GcmlllnylUK Correspondmg
Prof. Jutticn Fmncc Full
Prof. Spyros Kammanos Greece Corresponding
Prof. VIlIstimit Khlpka Czech Republic Futl
Prof. Guy Lagae Belgium Full
Prof. Ali Limam Frnnec Com.-sponding
Prof. Jakub Marcinowski Poland Corresponding
Prof. Carlo Poggi Italy Corresponding. fonnedy Fu1t
Prof. J. Miehuel ROllcr UK Fu1t
Prof. IlelmUl Saal Full
Prof. Hernen Schmidl Gcmmny Full
Prof. Werner Schneider Gennany Correspondmg
Prof. Andrea Spagnoli Italy Corrc!!.ponding


Prof Jin-Guang Teng liong Kong. China orresponding

,hell or a panieular Dr Wesley Vanlaere Belgium Corresponding
en engineering ror- Prof Walter Wunderlich Gcnnany Full
, studies have been
'the ndes sct out in
Kc) COlltribuli(lll~ of members to chaptcr~

All rnernbcn; or thc commillL"C dli-cti ... cly contnbuted in <;()mc wily to all or the chaptcrs in these
Recommendlltions, But because eaeh chapter was es~cntially written by one or Il few individuals.
they arc named in the text as Ihe "principal authors" of each chaptcr. Ho",ever. the very significant
shIp or thc druning contributions or othcrs to p..1nicular chllptcrs arc here Illso noted.

Chal)tcr Title Principal authors and

JKen mer by Pror.
::teh orthcsc ehair-
;xl work or the sec-
, Introduction
further substantial contributors ( ... l

2 Shell bucKlin; behaviour and desi I conce IS Ch ssanth ulos. Rotter

pror Carlo Poggi. 3 Scope. conventions. definitioos. unilS. symbols
wlcdgcd. and sl ·n comcntions
4 Modclling of the shell Rotter. Schmidt
:008 .....ere: Wunderlich)
5 Material assumptions ROller. Gresnigt
6 Geometric tolerances and imperfections ROller. Schmidt
7 Rules ror Ihc plastic limit stille IIsscs~ment ROller
8 Rules for Ihe buckling limit statc IISSL"Ssmcnt Schmidt. Rotter.
t. and who halre 1111 using design by global numericnlllll!lly~il> (KunIlTlanos. Schneider.
Guggenbergcr. Vnn lucre, Doerich.
9 Rules for the buckling limit Slate nssessment Schmidt. Rolter. Greiner
usi nt' stress desi !II Karomanos. J lolst)
Innerly Full '0 Cylindricul shells of constant wall thickncss Schmidt. Rotter
under genernl loading (Kurnmanos. Lm\3m)
now chaMS bv POl!lll and Vanlaere)
Cylindrical shells ofstepwisc variable wall
"'2 thickness
Cylindrical shells under wind loading
Greiner. Roller
Karamanos. Docrich. Schmidt)
Greiner. Guggenberger. Schneider
Schmidt. Rouer. Marcinowskil
'3 Conical shells and lrUncalL'd conical shells un- Greiner. Poggi
der generolloading (Schmidt. Lugae. Vnnlaere)

,. Liquid-filted conical shells supponcd from

Flow chuMS bV Po~~i and Vanlacrcl
Lagae. Guggenberger. Vanlaere

'5 Sphcrical shells under unifonn external pres- \Vunderlic~)

~"'Tly Full ,ure Knromanos
'6 Toriconical and torispherical shelts under uni- Wunderlich
fonn external and intemul nrcssure
17 Cylindrical shells with ring stiffeners undcr Schmidt, Greiner
external nrcssurc

BI/ckling of Steel SheHf - £tlrolX'(lIIlk.f;g" Recormnemk,tiolJS

18 Cylindriclll shells with longitudinal stiffcncrs Schmidt. Salllueison

undcr lIleridional compression Rotter)
19 Coniclli shclls with longitudinal stiffeners un- Chryssnnthoupolos. SP.1b'110Ii C losure
der meridional compression
20 Saddlc or ring supported cylindrical shells Krupka 1 he eommiuee
Schmidt. RoHer. Kllnamanos) Furopl.-an

Proposed 6'· Edition

1M. Rouer
The members of the committee are .. ery aware that simplc advice on many eritic..-ally important pmc- m.rotterfil,uJ..
ticlll problems has not been gi\en in the Sill Edition. The origmal plan was to include many more Edinburgh July
chapters. 1I0\\e\ cr. in the interests of completing the publication in II rellsonablc time. these chap-
ters were omitted. The following subjects are expected to be treated in a focuS(.-d manner in a forth·
coming 6th I::dition.
• GMNIA allIllysis and interpretntion nd"iee for complex load cases
• Cylinders with cut-outs
• Cylinders on local supports at the base
• Cylinders on local bracket.; and engaged columns
• Bending lind truns\ersc shear In long cylinders
• Bendmg nnd trnnsverse shear in short cylinders
• Cylinder-conejunetions in chimneys. towers and masts
• Cone-cylinder junctions in .;il(~ and mnks
• Shallow coniclli roofs and caves stiffeners
• Corruguted stlfTened and unstiffened cylinders for silos


The opinions expressed in these Recommendations nrc those of the authors and mcmbers of thc
droning commitlc..'C nnd arc not necessarily those of the ECCS.

Every effort has been made to ensure aceurney in these Rl."commendmions. but the publisher. the
ECCS and the authors cannot accept responsibility for any loss, damage or othcr consequence re-
sulting from the usc of this infonnation.

Anyone makmg usc of the infonnation or muterinl comained in these Rccommendations. in wholc
or in part. docs so at his or her own risk and assumes any and all liability from .. uch use.


~. Srag noli C l os u r~

The committee hopes tlUlI the reader will find much useful infonnalion In this Sill Edition of the
Karumanosj European Recommendntions. will forgive any errors in the document, und '" ill provide feedback 10
the commiUL'C on any issues that should be reconsidered.

J.M. Rolter
itically important pruc- m.roncr(tl
to mdude many more Edinburgh July 2008
nable lime. these chap-
USI.."'d manner in a forth-

~ and members of the

s. but the publisher. the

If' other consequence re-

)mmendations. in whole
1m ~uch UloC.


I Introduction
1.1 T he purpose of these Recommendations

These Recommendrllions are intendt.-d to provide thc designer of a metal shcJI stnleturc with un
extended guide to the design of the shell against Inilure by buckling. TIley represent, on the one
hand, the Sill Edition of the ;ntcmat;onnlly widely-used EeeS Recommendations on Buckling of
Steet Shells. of which four edition), \\cre publishcd betwf.:en 1980 and 1988. On the other hand,
they go much funhcr and provide thc designer with a far more eomprehcnsi\'e packuge of
infonn:lIion than the previous editions, as outlined heI'C3ficr.

These Recommendations arc fuily eompalible with the European Standard for the Strength and
Sl3bility ofShclts, (ENV 1993-1-6, 1999 and EN 1993-1 -6,2(07). and repeat many of the OIles Ihat
arc gi\'cn in that standard. A few small differences are noted below in 1.3.10. HO\\c\t."f. these
Recommendations provide greatly extended nIles to cover a wide range of problems that arc beyond
the scope of the European Standard. pcnlliuing hand calculations to be used for lI\any problems Ih31
h:l\e been explored by rcsearch ill\cstigations. oot y,hich ha\e not yet been codified into a standard.

In addition. these Recommendations provide a full commentary, both on the rules gi\ocn in the
European Standard. and on the additional nlk-s ghcn hcre. Wherc\er it is thought to be helpful. the
commcntary includcs worked exalllph.-s. Because the European Standard is not penllilled to include
cxplanatory or educational materinl. users of that standard will find the cxplanations nnd
amplifications given in these Recommend:lIions of great assistance whcn they are undcnaking the
design ofshclls against buckling.

These Recommendations arc limitcd to considenltions of fuilurc by buckling. Thc additionul

covcmge of lhc European Stllndnrd is described in 1.3 below. This document should always be used
in conjunction with EN 1993-1-6 (2007).

1.2 How to usc this documcnt for dcs ign calculation s

1.2. 1 General

These Recommendations are divided into two pans.

Pan I selS out the basic infonllation and general procedures required to undcnake all shell buckling
calculations according; 10 EN 1993-1-6. This pan also describes the methodology and conceptual
principll:s for numcrical analysis. eilher to derive Ihe b.1sic data that can be used in a strnightforv. ard
buckling design by hand calculation. or to replacc parts of this calculation with numerical
nssessmems. or 10 catry out a buckling design that is completely based on numerical assessmcnt.

Part 11 sets out the delailed infom13tion that muSI be adoptcd illlo Ihe genernl procedure whcn a
shcll of a particular geometry is being designed for a particular loading condition. Many well-
proven engineering ronnulas. empirical data and si mplified rules cxtnlcted from numcrical
paramctric studies arc included in this pan. III particular. Part 11 contains radically updated vcrsions
of the n Iles sel out in thc 4'" Edition ofthc ECCS Recommcndations.

BlicklinK o/S{('('I Shells· Europe'", Desig" RI.'CO",,,,endatiollS

Mcml shcll SlnlClures are used in many different applications. leading to a great varicty of shell
dl."Signs. The layout of this document has been chosen 10 try to ensure that all dcsigns are conducted
to a common mcthodology and wi th upproximately unifonn reliability. Thc layout pennils
additional information on specific new problems to be quickly assimilated into the shell design
procedure. and new research findings to be adoptcd mpidly.

1.2.2 Procedure for a shell buckling asscssmcnt

When the geometry. muterial of cunstnlction. loadin},!. lind boundary conditions for the shell hale
been dcfined. the Recommendations pro\·ide a set of calculations thut penni! the design to be
verified agains tlhe limit Mate of buckling. TIlrcc approaches are aVlliiable: hand calculation. mixed
hand and computcr calcuhuion. and fully numerical calculation.

Hund clilcuintion mcthods (see 3.2. 1) for Ihc buckling u.o.scssmcnt of shclls have been successful
o\cr a long period. For thi)o reason. the eonccptunl frnmc",ork uscd in hand calculutions fonns both
the basis 011 \\hich numerical evaluations are adopted into the design procl."SS. and the interpretation
that is put on each kind of cvaluation.

The hand calculation process (Fig. 1.1) begins with detennination of the key rc)oiSlances: the plaslic
limit load and the linear elastic critical load (A). These t\\O loads are used to detennine the shell
rclnti\·c slendemC!>s (13). which gmems the assessment of the relative importance of clastic and
pla)olic behaviour. Next. thc gcometry. 10:Id Ctlse a nd filbrie:llion quality Icud to no USSC:>~I1ICnt ufthe
charactcristic impcrft.'Ction (C). "hich is used to detemline the sensitivity of the clastic buckling Where a nil!
strength to both imperfections and geometric nonlineanty (0). The geometry and load case a re used replaced bYj
10 detemline the foml that thc clastic.plastic interaction should takc (El. These itcms arc then buckling a]
combined to detemline the characteristic clnstic'pla)ot1c buckling resistllllcC (Fl. Finally. a plirtitli
may bc rcpl
factor (safcty margin) is llpplicd to the chamcteristic resistancc to obtain the design value of thc
elastic-plastic buckling resistance (G).
Thc dcsig
The hand calculation procedure is indicated in Fig. 1.1. taken from Roller (2002a).
same- app
chaptCl"o in


If thc pani
the dcsignCl1
approaches I
design may
The dc)oign
(LA) "ith a:
colla)SC ana
geometric 1

Where onl
load" nnd "C
critical \ al
critical bud
buckling ~
three buckli


'Cat \llricty of shcll

signs are conducted Elastic Plastic
Geometry limit resistance
"'he layout penmts
110 the shell dcsign

Load case
Hustie imperfr.:ct
Boundary buekling resistance
s for the shell have conditions
it the design to be
Imperfection Elulltic-plu!>tic
, calculation. mixed
amplitude intemction

I\e been successful Quality of Chnmcteristic clastic-plastic [I

tulations fonns both fabrication buckling resistance
id tnc interpretation

Partial "safety" factor Design clastic-plastic @)

istances: the plnstic buckling resistance
detcnnine the shell
"-igurc 1.1: I-land l:l11culation process or I'. N 1993-1-6 and th~ Rl'Conuncnliations
ance of elastic and
III assessment of the
When: u numcrical analysis is pcrrom,,:d, some or nil or the Pltr1S or thc abo\'c process may be
the clastic buckling
replacl't! by a more precise assessment rrom the numerical resulls. Where a rully nonlinear
~ load ca:,c are used
buckling analysis on an appropriately modelled complete shell with geometric imperrcctions is
lese items nrc then
pcrfomled. the entire hand calculation process. with thc exception o f the partial "safety" factors.
). Finally. n p.1rtial
design value of the may be replac(..'t! by the numerienl calculation.

The designer should first check to sec if hill pllrtieulur shdl buckling case is covered by one of the
,). chapters in Part II. Eaeh clmptcr in Purt 11 gives hund calculation aS5Cssment procedures for n
particular shell buckling geometry and load case which are rclmively easy to usc. TIley follow the
sume approach as outlined abovc. The methodology and concepllllll principles of the hand
cnlculation appro.1ch are outlined in Part 1orthesc Rl'Commcndations.

If the particular shell buckling case being designed is nOi amongst those described in Pan II. or if
the designer docs nOi wish to usc those p.1niculnr ntles. Part I otTers a wider mnge of alternative
approaches based on numcrical analyses in line with EN 1993- 1·6. These numcrical approaches to
design may use onc of se"eml altcrnJti\-e procedun.:s, depending on which analyses arc undcnakcn.
The design ca1cul3lions may be based on a linear elastic analysis (LA): or clse on a lincar clastic
(LA) '" ith a linear bifurcution analysis (LOA): or else on a linear bifurcation (LBA) and a plastic
oolla.)SC analysis (MNA): or else on a comprchcnshc fully nonlincar global analysis including
geometric imperfcctions (GMNIA).

Whcre only linear clastic numcriealnnnlyses (LA) or hand calculations are used. the shell buckling
3SS(."SSmcnt is usually pcrfonned by stress design. The two kcy n.'s istances of the "plastic limit
lood" and "elnslic criticallo.1d" are cxprc!>!>l't! in tenn!> ofstrcsscs. i.c. the yield stress and thc clastic
critical values of the three buckling-relevant membrane stress components. which are tem'K,.'t! the
critical buckling str(.."SSl.'S. The evaluations that follow (the shell relative slendcmess. the clastic
imperfl'Ction reduction factor. the elastic-plastic intentction. the ehllntcteristic clastic-plastic
buckling resistance and the design buckling rc!>i~tanee) lire nil pcrfonned sepamtcly for each of the
three buckling-relevant membmnc stress components. Only at the very end or the assessment

Bllcklinc ojStC'C'/ Sh(!l1~ - £lIrtJ/Jellll De~'igll Rl'Comll/en,'C
"C.,_ _____________

procedure are these three components re-combin,:d by means of a buckling intemction check. The
\~ hole calculation
procedure is explained in more detuil in Chnptcr 9 of these R,:commendations.

Where linear clastic numcrical anulyses fonn the mam basis of the design. the designer may choose
to usc the LIlNMNA procedure. which imohl"S a global IIncar analysis of the structure. with a
bifureation analysis (LIlA) to detenninc Ihc 10\'oest eigenvulue ","hieh represents the elastic critical
load of the structure. Thc pillstic limit load may be fommlly ~-d using a !'o mall dIsplacement
theory elastic-plastic analysis (MNA) or else this limit lood may be conservatively estimatcd from
thc l"l"Sults of the linear elastic analysis. In the luller casco the result is likely to be vcry cOIl.'>Cr" mive
whcn high loeul bending cffccts or high locul stress concentmtions ure prescnt in thc structure (for
example. udjacent to locul suppons), but it involves less computational clTon and m;IY thereforc be
seen as a desirable dl'Sign procedure. In this CIISC. the "elastic critical lood" und thc " plustic limit
load" are c\aluated in tcnns of multiplying fuctors R. r und Rpi on Ihe applied load sct. Thc
characteristic elastic plastic buckling resistance is then directl y evaluated using thcse t\'oO values to '" I'I<IJ'-'-l
obtain u global slenderness. and inferring appropriutc \alues of the clastic imperfection reduction '" 1'1<13-1-1
factor and the ehL"lic-plastic internction factors on the basis of the type of stress condition and b'lI9'}3-1-~
buckling mode that the critical mode or plastic collapse mechanism displays. This aspect, in which 1
these key \alues must be inferred. means that the method is. 31 present. only good for \ery IN 1993-5
experienced designers or for situations in which the Stress dL':Sign appronch leads to great
conscrvutism. Il o\\cver. as this method is uSl-d more. un increasing understand ing will devclop on
all optimal methodology for assessing these parameters under dilTerent conditions. und it is hoped
that this method can be c.'(ploitcd in the futu re to enable complcx struetufCS to be designed using arc oUhidc
numerical analyses without having to fCl>On to the very onerous procedure o f a fully nonlinear
GMN IA analysis.

When a!>M.~illg the II hcll buckling n..':Sistance by global numerical GMNIA anulysis. the
imperfections and the material nonlinearity ha\c to be included explicilly into the modelling of the
shell. and thc analysis has to be perfonned laking full ueCOUlIl o f Ihe changes in geometry caused by
the loods and. where Ilpproprialc. changes in the lood directions cuust.-d by thL"SC changes in
geomctry (geometricully nonlinear analysis). The result can finally be used to lind the ehanacteristic Thc~c
elaslic-plnstic buckling resistance of thc she ll . I lo\\-c\'cr. this type of analysis is difficult to perfonn buckling.
and is only successful if the analyst has great experiencc und physical insight into the buck ling fatigue).
behaviour of shells. Nc"enheless, it is increasingly favoured by many design engineers for large (the rcfcrc
cxpensive and complex structures. nlC nccess:uy rules have thcrefore been devclopl-d for the ela"lic-pla~t
European Standard EN 1993- 1-6. and they arc ,..onscqucntly included in these Recommendations
(Section 8.3).
1.3.3 St.
1.2.3 Location of reluted information
These Rec
beam SCl..'Il(
TIlc previous L-dition of thL'SC Recommcndations (4th Edition, ECCS. 1988) had a very different li.llltl\\ mg ..
fonnat and methodology. but its recommendations on the buckling strength of shells \\ere and tori~ph,
influential in the development of the Europeun Standurd EN 1993- 1-6. It therefore remains an cxtend nro,"
imponunt background document for these Recommendations. the pro\'isio

Explanatory und descriptive infomlation on the nlethodolob'Y and conceptual framework of thc Although II
design process used in these Recommendations may be found in the bibliography at the end of this ~ted ~hcl1 •
chapler. Funher references on specific shell buckling problcms are given in the references qUOIed at other maier
the end ofeuch chupler.


lh..'mclion check. The 1.3 The scope of these Recommendalions and Iheir relationship 10 Eurocode
p:ommcndalion!O. 3 Pari 1.6
d....... igner may choose
Iho,! ~tructure. with a 1.3.1 Genenal
nls Ihe clastic crnical
a ~mall displucemcnl These Recommendations apply to the struetuml design of metal Slructures Ihal have the fonn of a
h\cly cstimatL'd from thm shell of re\·olution. They are intcnded for use in conjunction with Ihe European Standard CEN
be \ cry conscl"\ali\ c I~ 1993·1·6 on the Strength and Stability of Shells.
((mille struclure (for
and may Ihereforc be The Recommcndlltion ... are eoneCl\ed for use on ~ trueturcs similar 10 those idcntHied by the
anc.lthe "plastic limit Europc:tn Standards for ~pecifie applicutions. which include:
tplied load SCI. 1lle I~ 1993·3·1 To .... ers and masts:

g thC!>C t.... o values to EN 1993-3-2 Chimneys:

nperfcction reduction FN 1993-4-1 Silos:
stress condition and EN 1993-4-2 Tunks:
ThIs aspect. in which I' 1993-4-3 Pipelines:
only good for \ery EN 1993-5 Piling.
uach leads to great
'Kling will develop 011 1I0we\cr. the scope of these Recommendations is broader than the abme standards. These
tion .. , and it is hoped Recommendations provide guidunce and design mles for a wide r.l1lgc of shell design problems that
to be designed using arc out:.ide the scope of the abO\ e standards.
of a fully nonlinear
1.3.2 Resistances defined by these Recommendations

1NIA analysis. Ihe These Recommendations define Ihe characleristie \alues of Ihe resistance of the stmcture. Partial
~ the modelling of lhe safety factoI'!.. m.."t.-rled 10 detcnninc the design rel>istanec. arc specificd in other documcnts. as notcd
n geometry caused by In Section 1.3.9.
by these changes in
lind the cMruclcristie These Recommendation~ define the requircmcnt) only for d(''!>ign against Ihc ultimllte limit stllte of
is diffieul! to pcrfonn buckling. For other limit states that are relevalllio shcll stmctures (plastic limit. cyclic plasticity and
ghl mto the buckling fatigue). the provisions of EN 1993-1-6 should be used. Ilowevcr. it may be noted that a plaslie load
~ engineers for large
(the reference plastic lilmt load) is calculated IlS pan of the buckling evaluation to ensure that
en de\clopcd for the cillstie-pinstic intcmclions are full} included in Ihe buckling cheek.
!SC Recommendations

1.3.3 Strllctural form and nlluerlnl

These Recommcndations apply to shells of revolution and associated circular or annular plates and
beam section rings and stringer stiffcncrs "hcre Ihcy fonn pun of the completc structure. The
) h:ad a \(."1)' differenl following shcll fomlS arc spccificully co\crcd: cylindcrs. cones. sphcrical cups. tonconical hcad:o.
mgth of shells were and torisphcrical hCllds. Although cylindrical. eoniclll and spherical pUllels (shell pans thm do nol
therefore remains an c_'l:tend around II complete circumference) arc not explicitly dcscribed in these R(.'Co11l11lcndalions.
the pro\ ision~ can be applicable if the nppropriate boundary conditions arc taken into uecounl.
wi framework of the Although these Recommendations arc intcnded primarily for IIllplication 10 structural engineering
aphy III the end of this sleel shell Slnlelures. Ihe provis ion ~ can be applied to othcr metallic s hell ~. and shclls m:ade from
te references quotcd at other materials. pro\idcd thalthc Ippropriule 1I'IUlcriai properties arc taken into account.
Bllcklil18 o/SteeJ Shel/s - Ellmpe(llllJesiglf R('COlmll('mllqiolls

These Recommendations are not intended for application 10 slruclUrcs under the following
The partial
• radius to thickness ratios outside Ihe range 20 to 5000.
• mlllcrials with an inadequate ductility. ",ith the "";'"'1
1.3... Boundary conditions
Boundary condition!. that maintain the circularity of the shell are assumed, except whcre othcrwise
specified. These Rcco,nmi

Thc meridional boundary conditions assume full unifonn support for membrane forces in the shell.
except where otherwise specified. Where tensile forces urc induced at boundarie:-.. it i:-. assumed
that the support is cap..1ble of supporting them without any separation or Ihc support and thc shell .

1.3.5 L.onding conditions

than rule"
Thc provisions or these Recommendations apply to structural design under actions that can be final EN .".nda!
treated tiS quasi-static in nature. was made to a
omitted from
In these Recommcndations. it is assumed that all 10.1ds can. in generdl. be trealed as quusi-stutic
actions. Where the loads may be dynlll1l;c. the consequences should be taken into [It:count
according to the relevant application pan of EN 1993. including the consequenccs for fatigue.
Ilowcver. the stress resultants arising from dynamic beha, iour are treated here as quasi·static.

In the hand calculation procedures. the shell surface is assumed to be ~ubject only to distributed
loads (pressure and traction loads only). The boundaries may be subjcctto line loads.

Thcse Recommendations do not cover any considcrations concerning the leakage of ston.-d eOlllents.

1.3.6 Construction re(luirelllcnts 1.3.10 ..'

The provisions in tlu."SC Recommendations apply to stnlcturcs that are constnlcted in accordance In any rca1i!otie
with good practice for the fonn of construction involved. us ually eonsiSL\
actions. which
single "railur.:
1.3.7 T('m~ratur(' flIng('

The provisions of these Recommendations are intended to be applied within the temperature range
defined in the relevant application standards. The maximum temperature is here restricted so that
the influcnce of creep can be neglected in the buckling assessment.
These Rl."commendations are not intended for application to structures outside the following limits:
• design metallcmpcrulllres outside the runge - 50 to +3()()"C.
rcsistnncc R.
1.3.8 111"1111(' rraetu!"c the resistance R
load factor on
condition in thc
The provisions of these Recommcndations apply to structures that satisry the brillie fracture or columns.
provisions given in Annex C of EN 1993-1-10.

13.9 Partial fllcto rs 011 Imltls II l1d resistli lices

ondcr the following
The panial factors for actions 1.. tuld the panial factors for resistances 1M to be used in conjunction
\\-ith the rcsislIlnce verifications of these Recommendations should be taken from the relevant
application parts of EN 1990 and EN 1991 for 1F and EN 1993 for 1M. as appropriate.

13. 10 Oirrerences behH!cn the publishcd EN lind quoted passages here

except where otherwise
These Recommendations follo\\ the European Standnrd EN 1993· 1·6 (2007) very closely in almost
all respects. Ilowe\er. there lire a fe\\ aspects in which the formtlt or style or notation or content of
!fUne forces in the shell. EN 1993· 1..6 has not been followed . These are noted below, with reasons given for cacho
,undaries. it IS assumed
$Upport and the shell. Clauses concerning p rinci,)les

In the drnn stand;lf(is (tenned ENVs) published in 1999. all clauses that defined principles mther
than rules were assigned the notation (P) after the clause number. During the devclopment of the
1cr actions thllt can be final EN standards. an editorial decision WItS made to eliminate this style. Although this change
was made to a late version of EN 1993·1·6 before publication. the chnnge was unfortunately
omined from the published version. This amendment is therefore ineluded in these
e treated !b quasi-static Rccommcndlll ions.
be tnken into nccount
i1SC'Iuences for fatigue. 13.10.2 Figure furmat.§
re as qunSI-stDtic.

licct only 10 distributed it is not expected that these Recommendations will be trnnslated into any other language.
,lie loads.
Consequently. the requirement for the figures in EN 1993· 1-6 to be langunge-independent. with
numbered indicators and a legend bencath. is not appropriute here. All figures are therefore written
with English labels withinthcm.
kage of stored contents.

13. 103 Notatiun ror reslShlintt or a conlplete structural 5) stem

In any realistic complete structure. such as might be analysed using a global analysis. the load case
tstrucK-d in ueeordance
usually consists of many different point loads. line louds and distributed loads. pressure nnd other
actions. which may vary from place to place on the structure. It is therefore not possible to give a
single "fllilure load" as a sing le value that cnn be tenned the resistance of the struetufC. The
resistance can only be descrilx:d in tenns of the pattern of load that was applied to the structure. As
a result. it is expected that design loads will be used in these analyses. and that the calculation will
I the tempcroture runge find the factor by which these can be augmented before failure . This factor then becomes the
J here restricted so thut dimensionless resistance R of the structure when subject to that set of design loads.

In the dmn ENV 1993·1·6 ( 1999) and all curl y dmfis of EN 1993· 1· 6, the notation for the
e the following limits: resistance of a complete structuml system. when subjected to a sct of design loads of any kind. was
defined as the load fac tor on the design loads at the limit state. and was thus, by definition. the
resistance R. This notation seems entirely nalUml. since it matches the limit state tenninology thlll
the resistance R must always exceed the load consequcnces S (R ~ S). it may be notL-d that this
load fnctor on the design loads is dimensionless. relatcs to any kind of limit state or failure
condition in the structure, and remains valid for simple cases where the description relates to beams
try the briule frncture or columns.
Buckling a/Steel Shells - £lIroPCUlIlJcsigll ReCOmmellduriolu

A good notation for this (lilrnmctcr (load faclor on design 103d5 when the limit Slale is reached) is reliable than I, N
particularly important for computational as~mcnls of shells. since buckling or plasticity failures lor bolh d",,"",,",, I
may occur ill many different place!. in the shell. nUlY imul\c coupling bcl\\ccn severn! dilTcrclll
stress rcsultnnb und may rt."quirc those "lrel>S n:!.ullan15 to luke high values 0\ cr a finite part of the
shell. The simple idea of 0 "bending resistance" or ",orstonal n.... i~lancc·· is therefore difficult \0
os 5500 (19%)
Because Ihe notation R was used in ENV 1993-1-6 (1999) and for many yean. thereafter, this
notalion hao, nchlC\cd Yo idcsprcad use in the shell Mructures rc!>Carch and prnclicc community. fRCJ (1971)
Unfortunately a Illte c<iltorial d(..'Cision was made. !thortly before publication of E 1993-1-6. thai Tok)·o.
this notation would nOI be pcnniltcd in the publi!thed !tllll1dard. Ins tead u note is insened in EN
1993-1-6 (2007) "hich reads DASI-Ri on 1191<0"
"NOTE: For consistency of symbols throughout the EN 1993 the !.ymbol for the reference Ausschuss HI,S"hl~
resislancc mtio rR, is uscd inslead oflhe symbol R,. 1I00\e\ er. in order 10 u... oid misunderslanding. il
necds 10 be nOled here Ihal Ihe !tymbol R, is widely used In Ihe expen field of shell slrueture DASI- Ri 017 (19'>2)1
design." l)culltChcr A",,,h,,·.j
The IIOlalion rRi seems clumsy and unnecessary compared wilh R,. (as "ell as having polenlial DIN I K KOO
confusion with the mdius ,) so the Inlier is used Ihroughout Ihese R(..'Commendallons. In .. litut ftir ~O""'""I.

II may Illso be not(.."(i thai Ihese Recommendations do not refer 10 this quantity as a "resistnnce ratio" I'Cl'S (1988)
(as used in I; N 1993-1-6 (2007)). but refer instead to R as the "R'lIistancc" of Ihe structural system.
which is n correct Us.1ge of the ternt.

t .3.1 0.4 Relnthe slenderncu notntion l und i

In EN 1993-1-\. Ihe relali ve slenderness of a column or beam is given the nOI:1Iion i. The bar on
this !>ymbol has ils origin In Ihe usc of A. to mean Ihc slenderness mtio (Ur for II column). Ilo"e"'er.
EN 1991-1-1 no longer uses A. 10 signify Ihe slenderness of II column or beam. except for the sIX'Cial
cnse of II battened column. For shells. the distlllclion bet" een slenderness (not defined) and relathe
Greiner, R. (1997)
slenderness. 1II1he sense implied abo\'e. has no meaning. It Iherefore seems approprillte to drop the
eonsidemtion .....
mther precious detail of Il bar, and usc the notation of A. to mean the relati ... e slenderness
Spon. London. pp
(l- JRpI . R" ).
Greiner, R., Rotter, Aeeidenlal and unintended ccecnlricilles in lolcrllllce limits steel , h"lll "ru'''"'~'' j

In EN 1993. eccentricities that should be limited urc defined as "unmtended" cccemricitles.

I low ever. these ceeemricities were previously tenned "accidental". and although Ihis correction was
made to a late ... ers;on of EN 1993-1-6 before publicalion. the change was unfonunately omilK'd Pelersen. Ch. (
from the published \ ersion. This eorr(.."(tion is mcluded in thc~e Recommendations.

1.3. t 0.6 ": rrors in cqultllons

Structures: RI ~ k.

A \ery s mall number of errors have been detected in the equations in EN 1993- 1-6 si nce ils
publication. Some of these errors were detected before publication and corrected. bUI the change Rotter. J.M.
was unfonunately omitted from the published \ersion. WhlTC\er nn error is known to exist in the I'mmework of the
equations of EN 1993-1·6 (e.g. in Eq. 8.24), it is corrected in these Recommendations. Wherever it Hiologicnl S""",",c'l
is found that a discrepancy exists, these Recommendations shou ld therefore be regarded as more


'n thc hmit \tatc is reachcd) i~ reliablc than EN 1993- 1-6. It muy be noted thut csscluially thc SIlme dr.tning team wus responsiblc
buckling or plalllicity fllilure!. for both dOCUlllents.
lillg between sc\cral different
\alues o\cr 11 tillite pan of thc
lancc" is therefore difficult to
1.4 Bibliography for C hapt er I

as 5500 (1996) "Unfired Fusioll WeldL-d Pressure Vesscls··. British Standards Institut ion. London.
)r many years thereafter. this
LTCh and prncticc community. CRCJ ( 1971) " lIandbook of Structuntl Stllbility". Column Research Council of Jllpan. CorOIlIl.
)Iication of EN 1993-1-6. that Tokyo.
,lead a note is inscrtl.-d in EN
DASI-Ri 013 (1980) " Beulsicherheitsnachweisc filr Schn1cn". DASt-Riehtlinie 013. Deutscher
he !.ymbol for the reference Ausschuss ftlrStahlbau. Kal il. 1980.
r to amid misunderstunding. it
c'pcrt field of shell :.tructure DASt-Ri 017 (1992) "BculsieherheitSllaclmcis fuer Schalen - spezic1le Faile". DASt-Richtlinie 0 17.
Deutscher Ausschuss rur Stahlb,1u. Kaln.

. (Ib \\ell as hU\lng potential DIN 18 800 ( 1990) "Stahlbautell: StlibiliUltsfillle. Schalenbculcn". DIN 18800 Part 4. DcutschL'S
ammcndations. Institut filr Nonnung. Berlin. No\ember.

quantity as a "resistance ratio" lces (1988) European Recommendations for SIL'CI Construction: Buckling of Shel ls. 4th Edition.
ance" of the structural system. European Con\ention for Constructional Steeh\ ork. Brussels.

I: N 1990 (2003) Eurocode: Basis of strueturnl design. CEN. Brussels.

ENV 1993-1-6 ( 1999) Eurocode 3: Design of steel Slnlctures. Part 1.6: rulL"S -
Supplementary rules for the strength and stability of shell structures. CEN, Brussels.
:n the nOlatlon 1.. The bar on
, (I~ r for:l column). Ilowe\'er. EN 1993- 1-6 (2007) Euroc()(k: 3: Des ign of steel stnlclurcs. Pllrt 1.6: Strength and stability of shel l
or beam. e,cept for the special structures, CEN. Brussels.
mess (not definL-d) and reilltive
Greiner. R. (1997) .. /\ concept for the classification of steel containments due to safety
seems appropriate to drop the
considerations". Containment StnJcturcs: Risk. 5.1fely and reliability, (Ed. B. Simpson) E & FN
~3n the relative slendemess
Spoil. London. pp 65-76.

Greiner. R.. Rotter, 1M. and Schmidt. II. (1998) "The new c urocode on strength and stability of
steel shell structures", Proc .. Nordic Steel Structures Conference. 15-16 Sept. Vol. I.
Jullien. IF. (00.)(1991) " BucklingorShell Structures. on Land, in the Sc3 and in thc Air". Elsevier
-unintended" eeccntnellLes. Applied Science, LondonlNew York.
)d although this correction was
~c was unfortunately omiued Petersen. Ch. ( 1982): "Statik und StabiliUit der Baukonstruktionen" ("Strellgth alld SflIhilily ojC;d/
mmcndations. £"gil/(willg Sin/eli/res "). 2nd Edition. Friedr. Vie\loeg & Sohn. Bmunsch\\cig/Wiesbaden.

Rotler. J.M. (1997) "Challenges for the future in the design of bulk solid storages", Containment
Structures: Risk. sufety and reliability. (Ed . B. Simpson) E & FN Spon, London. pp 11-34.
~ns in EN 1993- 1-6 since its
and com.-cted. but the change Rolter, J.M. (2002a) "Shell Buckling and Collapse Analysis ror Structuml Design: The New
error is known to exist in the I-rolmework of the European Stllndard". in New Appro.1chcs to Structural Mechanics. Shells and
ccommendatiolls. Wherever it Biological Structures. Eds I-I R. Drew and S. Pellegrino. Celebnnion volume for the 60th binhdllY
hercfore be regarded liS more

B"ddi"g Of Steel Shells· EUM/X'(If/ 1J<'sign RecO",/1/e,Kiat;uIIS

of Prof. C.R. Culladine. University ofCnmbridge. 9· 11 September, Kluwcr Academic rublishers,

London, pp 355-378.
2 Shell
Rotter, J.M. (2002b) -Advanced computer CtIleulations in the design of shell struclUrcs", In\'ited
plenary paper. I'roc.. International Conference on Structuml Steelwork. ICASS·02. 1I0ng Kong.
December. Vol. I. pp. 27-42.
Principal .",'h"":~

Rouer, J.M . (2005) "TIle pruetienl design of shell stnlClttres exploiting difTerem methods of 2.1
analysis", in Shell Structures: Theory and Applications. Eds W. Pietm.o.lkiewiez & C Szymeznk.
Tuylorand Fmncis, London, pp. 71-86.

Samuelson. L.A. and Eggweru~ S. (1992) "Shcll .!liability hnndbook". Else\';er Applied Science.
lenging 10 ",""r."",~
Schmidt. H. (1990) "Shell buckling desib'll by means of numerically dctennincd buckling loads".
ECCS TWa 8.4 Rcport. May. 15pp.

Schmidt. II. (1991) 'The Genn:m code DIN 18800 Part 4: Stability of shell-type stccl struclUres. ~is). The enu..c ..
design philosophy and pruetical applications". Internati(lnal Colloquium on Buckling of Shcll !>trcngth ... hortfllll i~
Structures on Land. in the Sea and in the Air. Villeurb.'1nnc. Lyon. Fmnce. 17-19 Sept" pp. 265-269. hrier outline of the

Schmidt, II. nnd Greiner. R. ( 1998) "l:.rl tluterungen LU DI N 18800 Teil"''' C"Elllcidllliolls 011 DIN
18800-4 "). In: Bcuth-Kommcntur Stahlbautcn. 3rd Edition. cds J. Lindner. J. Scheer & J.1. Schmidt.
Bcuth and Ernst & Sohn. Berlin, pp. 33J...H 7. condLtions.
nonlinearity is
Schmidt, I-I. (2002) "Bculsieherheitsnaehweisc fOr Schalcn naeh DIN 18800-4. E-DASt-Riehtlinie i~ then dcfinL-J.
017 und DlNV E IV 1993-1-6" ("Bllckling strength tlSs('SsmclIl fur lltell.f according 10 ... "). In:
Smhlbau-Kalcnder 2002. Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, pp 291-342
2.2 Stabilit)
Speicher. G. lind Snal. II. (199 1) Numerical calculation oflimit I(XLds for shel1s ofrcvohuion with
particular regard to the applying equivalent inititll imperfections. in Buckling ofShd l Stmeturcs. on Shell buckling
Land. in the Sea and in the Air (cd. J.F. Jullien). Elsevier Applied Science, London. 466-475. Or}. It is bc)'o",llh" 1
tion may be found
Teng. J.G. lind Rouer. J.M. (eds) (2004) "Buckling ofTIlin Metal Shells". Spon. London. Icnded a~ tin '""""" 1

The stability of a .
.. trcsS(..'S. which
may caultoC yield

In general. there
mon Iy ton""" ","p.~

SIIUp-t11ruUJ.:" ;mtub.
centric load. Thc goot
has a lower lotifTne~ ..
local maximum is reo
com~ unstable and II
nally applied load. [I (
on the remote ri ~mll r

Sltell hl/dUIIC heltm';ollr lind de,ric" (,(}/IC(!I"r

r. Klu"er Academic Publishers.

2 Shell buckling behaviour and design concepts

;ibm of shell slmcturcs·'. Invited
'Iwork. ICASS·02. lIung Kong.
I'rincipal autho rs : M . Chryssanthopou los and J .M. ROller

:xploiting dilTerent methods of 2.1 Inlroduction 10 shell buckling phenomena

PietraSlkiewie~ & C SLYmc7,uk.
The sufe design of shell structures against failure by buckling requires the designer to undcrstund
m:lIly complicated phenomena. The behaviour exhibited by a shell before. during and aner buckling
Xlk", EISC"ier Applied Scicnce. is \'cry sensitivc to thc gcometry. lo:tding p.1I1cm. geomelric imperfections. other sources of impcr-
fL'Clion and 10 the boundary condilions, making this part of stmcturnl mechanics particularly ch:tl-
lenging 10 understund.
Illy dctennined buckling lo:tds··.
Shells differ radically from other strueturnl fomlS in thai mOSI experiments shO\\ Ihatlhc strength is
onen far below Ihe buckling lo.1d calculated using simplc stnbility theory (linear eigenvalue analy-
ity of lIhell-type stL"C1 st ructu~ . lIis). The causes of this serious discrcp<Ulcy ure indicated belo\\. und the manner in \\ hich the
Iloquium on Buckling of Shell strength shortfall is addressed in design is outlined. TIl ill chapter is intended 10 ghe Ihe designer a
:ranec. 17-19 Sepl .. pp. 265-269. brief outline of the b3ckground 10 shell bueL.ling.

) Teil ~ .. {"EIII('illulimu (III DIN In Ihc rollowing, Ihc conccpt~ or shell buckling lire fir..t dCM:ribed. illustrated by thc behaviour o r
.indner, J. Scheer & H. Schmidt. geometrically perrect stmctures under perrectly symmctricul loading and wilh perfecl boundury
conditions. The subject or geometric imperfections is then discussed, and the role or material
nonlinearity is briefly descritx:d . The m:mncr in which Ihe design process accounts for these elTects
)IN 188()()-4. E-DASt-Richll inie i~ then defined.
for shells according '0 ... "). In :
2.2 S tability concellts
.ads ror shells or revol ution with
Buckling orSheli Stmctures. on Shcll buckling behaviour is best understood in the more gencml context or stmctuml stability the-
!eicnee, London. 466-475. ory. It is beyond the scope or this document to prcscTlt the tIH.."ory in any detail. but rurther inronna-
tion may be found in the Bibliogruphy at the end of this chapter. 11le follo\\ing remarks are in-
Ihclls". Span, London. tended as an introduction to various shell buckling phenomena and as an aid 10 understanding the
philosophy adopted in the Recommendations.

The stability of a shell is controlled by the tnembrone Slresses in the shell wall. The bending
Slresses. which vary through the shell thickness. do not affect the stability. except inasmuch as they
may cause yield of the malerial of the shell and thus cause a local reduction in Ihe Sliffness of the

In gencml. there are two ways in \\hich an elastic structure may become unstable. TI1CSC are com-
monly lenned slIllp-lllrOllgll blld lillg and bjfim:IlIi(J11 bllclilillR (Figs 2.1 and 2.2).

SlIup-throllgh ;m-Iub;lily is indicated in Fig. 2.1 using the example or an areh which camL'S an L"c-
centric load. The geometry or the structure changes as the load increases. and the changed gcometry
has a lower slilTness than the originnl underomlcd shape. The stmcture is stable under lood unlil a
local ma;-.imum is reached, callL-d the snap-through load. At Ihis point. the equilibrium path be-
comes unstable and the structure buckl(:s in a drumutic and very rupid manner. Under a fiXL'd exter-
nally applied load. a dynamic jump occurs (show11 by the dotted line) and the stmcturc comes to rest
on the remote rising region or lhe complete equilibrium P.1Ih. This next p..1rt orthc equilibri um path
Bllckling o/S,eel SIIells ~ Ellropc(1I/ Desigll Rccollllllelldafiolls

is stable. but the structure has undergone very blrge defonnations and has usually taken up a shape m. . nlal p.uh 10 th ....
Ihat rescmbles Ihe original Sln_Clure in an invcrtl.:d fonn. Tmnsvcrscly lo,aded arc hes and domes lire d.... ~nding on th ....
amongst thOM: stn.ctu rcs th.1t exhibit snap-Ihrough behaviour, bul it may lliso be found in cylinder to gfl.)\\ in an ....""
and cone buckling under certain conditions. When Ihis I>pe of slructurul beha\ iour occurs. the pre·bud,ling d~:I:~::~
maximum 10.1d is referred 10 as a IimilllHuI and is hcre denoted by P'im' cnilln \\ hich di

It should be not,,"<i that the "'quilibrium path is \ cry nonlincar before it reuehes the limi t 10.1d. It is
lliso worth noting that alt hough the limit lo,ad is !-.hown in Fig. 2.t b as a smooth maximum. the limit
load may tlppenr 10 occur at a sharp cusp: Ihe fonn o f the cunc in Fig. 2. 1b depends vcry much on
Ihe location and direction of the dis placement that is chosen as the nbsci~l in Fig. 2. 1b to charac-
terise displacements.

Lt'Od "


Snap Ihmugh point

" limit poinl" \

Load P " hm ~

L__ in this
stiffening pllth To !l"i~1 in ""d"''',"~
bifurcation e\en'" arc
~ hip. For thi~ ,",,,,,.0.1
3~ in bg. 2.l,(b:')
Cm",n deflecllon w
metne and unstable
(b) line-. rcprc'tCnt ""',"hi~
Figure 2. 1: Snap-throogh buckling: (a) changing gcomctry of the structu~. (b) Io.-w disploccmcnl response

Blfurt:tlliOIl ;,u'lubilil), occurs when two (or morc) equi librium paths pass through the same point,
liS iIIustr.lIcd in Fig. 2.2 using the familiar exumple of a column. The different gcollietries of the
structure are shown in Fig. 2.28 and n Iypical bifurcation in the load-deflcction diagram is shown in
Fig. 2.2(bl). 111e fundalliental (or pre-buckling) equilibrium path. emanllting fmm the origin, is
intersected by lhe secondary (or post-buckling) palh Bllhe bifurcation point. 11ac load at this point is
the hiplrca/ioll load Phil The fundnmental path is 11 stable condition for the structure until the bifur-
cation point is reached. but thereafter it becomes unstable. and a sudden departure from the funda-

Silell bllckling bellm·jOllr ond design collcepls

ld has u:.ually t:lken up a shape mCnial path to the scconrull) p:lth may occur The secondnry path lIlay be either stnblc or ull!>tnble.
·Iy loaded arches lind domes arc depending on the type of bifurcation. all diseus..ed below. After bifurcmion, the defonnations begin
m:ly :llso be fou nd in cylinder 10 grow in a ncw pattern, referred to II!> thc IJllcklill8 Intxle. which is usulllly quite different from the
tmcturnl beh:lviour occurs. the pre-buckling defonn:ltion p.1I1em. The form orthe IO:ld-displneement rel:llionship is aguin depend-
'lim· cnt on \\ hich displaccment is used as the abscissn III the plot (Fig. 2.2b2).

; it TC:lches the limit load. It is [ond "

IS:I :.lIIooth maximum. thc limit
'ig. 2. 1b depends \cry mueh on
abscissu III Fig. 2. 1b to chamc·

tal) PnllW)' (IIJ) Sa-ond3ry

(.) path cor",IIII" ~Ih condillon
M~bl.M:ktllljf M

l 1.n:If' I'

" Take ell new

SL'COIdary plfh

T)pIC<lI dlSplacemelt t~ y or w PC6I-budding disphlCCIllCi. w~

(b) (bl) Any Iypical dlSpbcCllll-rlt m structure (bZ) Displacement in buckling 1II0de
Fll,:urr 2.2: Birurcatlon buckling: (a) ehang"'g geometry or\he structure. (b) load-displaccmcnt respomc
In\crtcd shape
Slirrening path
To assist in understnndmg Ihe dIfferent effects Ihllt can llriSC as a result ofbirurcation buckling, the
bifurcation c\cnts arc best described in tcnns ofthc possible fonns of the load-dencction relation-
ship. For this purpose_ the ab!>Cissn is u!>(.'d ror the lImplitude I\"It or the buckling mode displacement.
as in Fig. 2.2(b2). There arc three different Iypes or birurcation (Fig. 2.3): asymmetric, siable sym-
metric and unstable symmetric blfurcntlon. The solid lines represent smble paths. and the dashed
lines represent unstable paths.
c. (b) load displacement rc5pOn5e

" pass through the same point.

i'he different gl..'OIlletrics or the
!defl ection diagram is lIho\\'" in
emanating rrom the origin, is
1 point. The load lit this point is
for the structure ulltil the birur-
!lden departure rrom the runda-

Bllckling ojSIet'1 Shells - EllrDfJeUfI Ik.~ign RI..'coIIJlmmtit,liollS

Lood Lood

- -- , ,

--- ,,
(.j "b (bj \'\, (c) wb

Figure 2.3: Bifurcation tyIX'S: (a) asymmctnc. (b) stable symmetric. (c) un~tablc symmctrlC

Columns_ beams and comprcsM.-d plutcs under in-plane loading nonnally exhibit stable symmetric
bifurcations. whilst most shell buckling problems produce unstable symmetric bifurcations.
Asymmetric bifurcations are rclathcly mre but may be encountered. for example. in axially eom-
pressed cylindrical panels. These differences are imponllnt 1K.'Clluse an unstable post·buckling path
causes thc buckling load to be scnsiti\'e to geometric imperfections, thus reducing the strength that
may be rclied on in design. Asymmetric bifureations are natumlly scnsithe to imperfL'Ctions in a 2.3
panicular sense. These matters arc descrilx.-d more fully below.

Where severol bifurcation buckling modes occur at thc samc critical 10.1d, a more complcx behav· pn.."i;i~e [t1..'OllIetry.
iour is found, tconed compound or multi-modal bifurcation. In such cases, the post-budding be· perfcctionJo can take
haviour is affected by nonlinear interactions bem-cen the potential buckling modes. In general. loading ru.ymmctriCl>.
multi-modal bifurcation leads to an increased sensitivity of the structure to small geometric imper- localthickne\\ "'i""o~
fcctions. as described below. The axially compres5(.-d cylinder and the extemnlly pressurised sphere studied elTects urc
arc the two 1x:st known examples of compound bifurcation. Intemetions bet.... "-cn modL'S can also be imperfection\ on
imponant in stiffened shells (e.g. local and stiffened panel buckling in stringcN>tifTened cylindrical :;ents on impcrl«tion
shells). bihtics (hg. 25a), the
perfect structure.
The elastic critical load of a structure that is susceptible to bifurcation buckling can be obtained
pammeter &. Where
from a linear eigenvalue analysis if the gL'OnlCtry of the structure up to the bifurcation point remains
H!ry signilieant role in
essentially unchanged (as to a compressed column). 1-loweH~r. in many pmctically important shell
indicated. d",ph"cmc"'1
buckling problems (e,g. axisymmetrically loaded shells ofre\;olution) both the critical load and the
le .. c1s and the distinct
buckling mode are significantly alTeeted by prc·buckling geometric nonlincarity. Nonlinear eigen·
perfect structu re~, ma}
value analysis is required to find the elllStie bifurcation point on the pre-buckling p.1th (and thus to
predict the critical load and mode).
The cqmlibnum path
corresponding perfect
Finlilly. it is worth noting that both snllp-through and bifurcation instabilities limy be simultancously
2.3a and 2.3c)lh' ,",,;lil
possiblc in cenain geometries and load cases. For example. thc load deflection diagram ofa shallow
dary paths of the
spherical eap undcr external pressure is shown in Fig, 2.4. For some geomctries or the cap. bifurca-
2.5h .... ith l," 0 and
tion into a non-symmetric buckling mode oceurs beforc the snap-through load is reached. The snap-
cause a limit lood
through load here corresponds to lIxisymmetric snap-through of the cap. Thc results of a linear ei-
genvalue lInnlysis are also shown ill Fig. 2.4 to ilIustnlle the influence of gL'Ollletric nonlinearity ill the perfect stmcture.
the prebuckling path on the buckling load. po..tbuckling condition
iour then rec;emblcs the

By eontrust. \\ here I
effect of geometric
.... ith either I: < 0 or I:
perfect s}~tem i~ '1'1"""

Shell hucklillg hehtn'iollr allti design collCeprs

Lood Pbif l-- ¢,(-- - l i ncar prcbuckHng

~ nonlinear
P hm +-f-...,.~""-~.
", ---prebuckling
Pbif .....
,... " . \
- - ' ----> .. " ...,..\
'trie, (e) un~lable symmetric ,,
ormally exhibit stable symmctric
nstable symmetric bifurcations, Defleclion
"Cd. for c:<umplc, in axially com- Figurt 2.4: Example; spherical cap under c:<tcmal pressure
o;e an unstable post-buckling path
as. thus reducing the strcngth that
Iy loCnsiti\e to imperfections in a 2.3 Imperfections and their effects

The abme description of stablhty phenomena has hccn presented in terms of a perfect systcm with
cal load. 3. morc complex beha\- prcci~ geometry. loading and boundary conditions. Ilowe\er. all real structures arc imperfect. Im-
lueh cases. the post-buckhng be- perfections can take the foml of g(."ometric imperfections (i.e. de\tiations from the perfect shape).
lial buckling modes. In geneml. loading asymmetries. imperfcctly realised or non-uniforn\ boundary conditions. residual stresses.
uctu~ to ~mall geomctric imper- localthickncss variations and other less common conditions. Ofthesc, the most important and most
the e:<tCtnatly pmosuriscd sphcre ..Iuelied effecl.;: arc tho<;c elue In geometric imperfections of ~h3pe. The effeet of tlu.'SC gcometric
:tions between modes can also be imperfL"Ctions on snap-through and bifurcation instabilities is ilIustmtcd in Fig, 2.5. whcre t: reprc-
g in stringcr-stiffcned cylindrical sents an imperfcction amplitudc, The perfcctlolructurc is denotcd by e = O. In snap-through insta-
blhtics (Fig. 2.5a). the response of the imperfi.'Ct l>Iructure is similar to thnt of the corrc!!ponding
perfcct structure. though the value of the limit load "lim varies with the value of the imperfection
'Cation buckling can be obtained
parameter I:. Where bifurclllion instnbility may occur (Figs 2.5b to 2.5d). imperfections may playa
p to thc bifurtlltion point remains
\·ery significant role in changing both thc rC~ I)()n)oe of the sylilcm lind the type of instability load. As
many practically imponallt shell
IIldicatcd. displacements in the foml of diflercnt buckling modes may grow from the lowest load
on) both the critical load lind the
lc\cl ... and the distinct bmnching of equilibrium paths. which is characteristic in the behaviour of
ic nonlinearity. Nonlincar eigclI-
perfect Mrueturcs. TlUlY be Imt.
'Ie pre-buckling path (and thus to

The equilibrium path of the imperfect structure is usually close to. but di\-crgL'S from. thnt of thc
corrc<.ponding perfect structure. Whcre the perfect system has an unstable post-buckling path (Figs
labilities may be simultancously
2.3a and 2.3e) the equilibriUln path of the impcrfL'Ct structurc is bounded by the primary and secon-
if deflection diagram of a shallow
dary p:uhs of the perfect syMem and the effL'Ct of imperfcctions may thcn be dmmatic_ as in Fig.
tc geometries of the cap. bifurca-
IfOUgh load is reached. The snup- 2.5b with c< 0 and Fig. 2.5d with cither c< 0 or c> O. In these circumstances im~rfections can
.c cap. The results of a linear ei- cau!>C a limit load Pllm to be reached at a considcmbly Im\-cr load than the bifurcation load PII/fof
\nee of geometric nonlinearity in the pcrfL'Ct structure. The impcrfi."Ct structure may then pass from the prebuckling condition into tbe
po!>tbuckling condition progrcssi\ely. "ith a limit load representing the maximum load, The bcha\-
iour then resembles the snap-through behaviour displayed by a perfect structure (Fig. 2.1).

By contrast ...... herc the perfect structure ha!! a stable post-buckling path (Fig. 2.3a and 2.3b). the
efTect of geometric imperfcctions is less significant. as sho\\11 in Fig. 2.5b with c> 0 or in Fig. 2,5c
wLlh either c < 0 or c> O. A fastcr growth of deflections is obscn cd as the bifurcution load of the
perfect system is IIpproached, but the equilibrium path remains stable and continuously rising.


Blldding ofSleel SheHf - Europeall ~igll Rt..'Co"''''elfdaliolrS
Load ~rlection fonn ... ca,h
prci.iI"ion!> of the _
a......:.. ~ments of the

The form of g,ometric

Ix .. imply ddincd. a.,
Dcncclion the foml or "o",d,", .•"
teriou!> 10 the .. trength
ill. !>Irength unoer
Load Load
c=o .... un es from lime to •
l\iftP;:&ct)':t independent of the
mea~urcmenl.. tll
PIl~IIJ1)Cfroct mean!> of 3\ aiding
~'-o-?"i <>0
In de ..ign strength
__-,W;.!!b (c:..)_.Jl'----:w;Eb }:l.'Ollletry before I I

rigun' 2.S: The em.oct or geometric unperrl.octions ror. (II) !>Illip-through mstllbllllY 10 II perrcct ~Iructurc. (b)-
tor tI. and the '''''''''''''1
(d) blrurcallon Insl.lIblhtlcs In II perrect structure
\, here Oi r I' the t
2.4 Accounting for imperfections in des ign against bu ckling Iher snap-through or
the ba.~is of the CJ;,.
2.4. 1 T he efTl.'t:1 or imperret:cionll on buckling llirengch calmg s.hells the
rrchud.ling ~lIh. \\
Mo"t shell buckling problems di'iplllY unstnble post-buckling puth:i wilh rc:ipcct to somc pos!>iblc
imperfection paltems. so the em.'Ct of gl.'Ollletric imperfections lIlust be understood lind quantified. geometric """"',"" ",,-1
and hifurcatilll1. sn
This !>itumion has led to the developmcnt of imperfcction sensitivity theories. particularly in relation
of the clasllc enlleal
to shells thai di.,p[ay compound unstable bifurcation .... "iuch a.<; the a:<ial1y compressed cylinder and
the c:<lemnlly prcssurised spherical shell. For these structures the reduction in the lood carrying mllon. A ke~ chan)!e
cap.1city in the presence ofimpcrfeclions is very sc\'ere. helo\\

For 1II0~t shells. there is a substantial difference between the clnstic critical buckling lond that m!ly 2....2 the il"",,,r"'9
be calculated using elassicnl methods and the experimentnl buckling load. The chief source of this
discrepancy is the geometrically imperfcct shape causcd by the fabrication or manufacturing proc-
Although the 'alue uf
ess. E.. en \ery small imperfections can eausc a sub!.tantml drop in Ihe buckling load of the shell if
buckling stre "':5
they happen to be in a particular shape. The sensitivity of the buckling strength to imperfcction~
rre...:nh a logical
depends primarily on the fonn of the shellnnd type of loading. together with Ihe shupe of the poten-
Since .. nap-through
tial imperfection. though boundary conditions and the unifonnilY of load applieUlion may also be
geometric nonlinearit)
imponunt. The imperfection sensitivity may vary from moderate to extreme. even for Ihe same ~hel1
geometry under different lood1llg or boundary conditions. For example. a cylinder under axial com- hifurcation ., the
pression is extremely scnsithe 10 a wide range of imperfL'Ction forms. "hilsl the same shcll under cilrit)' i~ pla,ed \\ ithin
external pressure exhibits much lower imperfection sensitivity. Other sources of imperfection may detenllined if ,o,,,,p,,,.~
also be important. although their effects ha .. e rccei .. ed eomparntively little attention from research- ... ~ciill geometries
'<S. ",mighttomard to
ear cllllotiC bi'o"",i,,"
The sensitivity to geometric imperfectIOns varies accordmg 10 both the form and amplitude of the mJoptcd "ithin I·
imperfection. Some fonns of imperfection strengthen. mther than weaken. the Mnlcture. and very
lnrgc amplitude imperfections mny !llso begin 10 mise the strength noove Ilmt !lssociated with ('are .. houlo be tilken
smaller amplitude!>. lIowe\er. full scale struclures generully conluin II wide range of different im- other literature. Grcat c

Shell buckli"g beh"";ollr and desig" co"cepl.f

perfection fonns, each with a difTcrent amplitude. As II R.'SUlt. it i~ \ cry difficult to produce precIse
p~ictions of the stfCngth of fCOII structur,-'S. and dCl>ign methods !>hould idcally be based on rcnlisllc
aS~'ismcnts of thc fOnTIS and amplitudes of imperf'-'Ctions that the linal structure may f1OS:.ibly con·

The fonn of geometric imperfcction that most seriously afTccts the strcngth of the stn-cturc cunnot
be simply delined. liS it cun for a bellm or column. The "worst" imperfection depend!> ... cry much on
the fonn ofl(Xlding. :IS well as on the boundary conditions. Thus. an imperfection that is \cry dele·
terious to the strength of a '-'Ylindrical shell under axial compression may h:I\C very liltle efTeet on
its strength under extemal pressure. MOlot pruetical stnletures arc lo ubjcct to complex 10.1ding that
\'aries from time to timc. so the tolerances on imperfcctions must often be sct in a manner that h,
independent of the loading pallent. This places a large burden on fabriclltors to undenuke tolenll1cc
measurements to cowr many difTerent imperfL"Ction fomls. but there docs not appear to be a simple
m~ans of avoiding this problem.

In dc .. ign strength assessments. the combmed effect of all imperfections and changes in the shell
geometry before buckling lire usually qU:lI1tilied by lin clastic imperfection (or "knock-down") fac-
tor a, and the characteristic bucklmg stress of the imperfect elastic shell 0:. is delincd as
JIblabdit)' in II pcrf..'Ct !ouucture. (b)-
"'ore ... (2.1)

\\hcre O'er is the clastic criticlIl buckling stress of the perfcct shell. traditionally associated with ei·
buckling ther snap-through or bIfurcation buckling. lIowc\cr. considemble care is n,-"Cded in disctls!>ionll of
the bnsis of the O"r... the clastic criticul buckling stress of the perfect ~hcll. UnfonunalcJy. for blfur·
catlng shells the traditional definitIon of Ojr omitted the effects of geometric nonlinearity in thc
prcbuckling p.'lth. whilst for shell .. exhibIting snap·through the delinition of O'r r ncce!>sllfily includ,-"<I
1~ ..... th
respect to some possible
geometric nonlinearity. In nmny shells. there is strong intemetion beh\een geometric nonlinearity
J~t be understood and quantified.
and bifurcation. so this anomaly prc..cnts a challenge. It is very difficult to genemlise the meaning
)' theories. particularly in relmion
of the clastic critical buckling stress O'rr whilst both types of buckling are included within the deli·
axially compressed cylinder and
Ie reduction in the 10.1d carrying mtlOn. A key change in tcnninology has therefore been introduced in EN 1993·1·6. Ill> described

Ie critical buckling load that may 2.4.2 The imperfection senslthil) flletor a ln EN 1993·1.{;
pg lood. The chief source of this
brication or manufacturing proc·
Although the value of a has traditionally been related to the lower of the two potential perfect shell
I the bucklin!! load of the shell if
bueLling stresses (elastic critical bifurclltion buckling strc!)!, and snap-through buckling stress). thIS
IClding strength to impcrf'-'Ction~
prt.'SCnll> a logical difficulty when a shell can easily pass from one fonn of buckling to the other.
• ther with the shape of the poten·
Since lillap-throu!!h buckling in a perfcct .. hell is caused only by geometric nonlinearity. the role of
of lood application m.1y also be
c'ttfCme. e,en for the !>lime shell geol1'lCtrie nonlinearity falls within the (\'aluatton of O'('r for these shells. BUI for shelilo in which
nplc. a cylinder under axial com· bifureation is the reference buckling mode of the perff.'Ct structure. the efTL'Ct of geometric nonlin·
om. whilst the same shell under earity is placed within the \alue of a. Mon.'O'er, the linear bifurcation buckling lo.1d can alwaylo be
1aK'T" sources of imperfection may detennined if compressive strcssc-s exist within the shell. but a lollap-through load only occurs in
ely lillie allention from research· .. p..'Cial geometries under lopccial load cases. TIlus. for a completely geneml description. it i\> m~t
stmightforward to place all cfTccl.s of ehllllgc of gcometry into the fuctor a. nnd to usc only the lin·
ear elastic bifurcation load liS the reference ... alue for detemlining O'er This delinition has been
III the fonn and amplitude of the adopted within EN 1993-1-6. Itnd i~ follow,-"<I here too.
I weaken. the ~tructurc. and \ cry
IJSth abo\'c that aloSOCiated with Care lohould be tllken when values of thc imperfcction sensitivity reduction factor a IIrc taken from
lin a .... ide mnge of difTercnt im· other literature. Great care should be cxereiM."<I to ensure that the quoted valucs rcprclocnt the large
Bllckli"g a/Sleel Shells - EllroP(!llll Dt·.\·igll R(·col/lml!lId{lfi(m.~

reductionlo rellllivc to the linear bifurcation loud that urc used here. and not the smaller reductions de .. ign methods :lre
rclatl\e to 0 snap-Ihrough buckling load. the le.. t "]lI!clmcn~
ing proce". The
204.3 hnperfL'i:llons lind geometric nonlin('llril~ form and III 'm,,"""d~
im]ll!rfcction<; i~ still
.. hells i .. both rare
The clastic imperfection n..'duction factor a nonnally depends on the !.hcll geometry. loading condi-
tions. initial imperfection amplitude lind other facton.. It is nonnully chosen by calibrutiOIl from
e.I(perimenlal test rcsults, though th~ tc"ls often ha\e geometric imperfections that may be quite 2.S
different from those occurring in full '>Calc structu(C\. The clastic imperfection factor a is selected
so thut a high percentage ofexpcrimentul test results (typically 9511 0) ha\e u buckling load abo\c the
valuL'S predicted by the dL"Sign method. The aoo\ e
to the point
from malerialthat
It should be rcmemben..'d Ih3t Yoherc the elaslic imperfection factor a is used in connection with model. characteri!M!d
bifurcation buckling. il accounts for two separate phenomrma: nonlinearity in thc prcbuck ling p.1th
and geomelric imperfections. llL-elluse two :.cramle elTeclS are invohed in this single parumeter. it Very thm shells
is not easy to exploit numerical an3ly!lCS in design if thc) takc only one of the:.c elTecls illto ac- m..:an.. that local
count. Thus. the predictions of a linear bifurcution a nlllysis lhat includes geometric imperfections
of the .. h..:11 '''',,"'n''''~
(LBIA). and those of a geometrically nonlinear analysis of the perfL'Ct clastic shell (GNA). arc diffi- definition U,IoCO in th..::
cult to assimilate mto the dL"Sign process.
Apan from the UloC of a numerical LA analysis to obtain an L"quivlliem stress stllte corresponding to J. ~.JflllT<T-
that found III hand calcu lutions, the EUroPCllll stllndard EI\ 1993·1-6 pennits only tYoO procedures
Yo here IT,-r \... the
for the usc of numerical allulysilo. In Ihe first. the lmear clastiC bifurcation entiealload and the plas-
tic Illnil load may be detcrmined numerically. with the rcnlainder of the e\aluation following the yield ~trcss of the
procedures of hand calculation. In the second. a full materially and geometrically nonlinear analy-
sis that explicitly inc1udL":o geometric imperfL'i:tions in the gL'Ometrical definition of the stnlcturc
dition,. RpJ
value cllI~tic
may be us..:d to assess the eharueteristie load directly. lIowe\er, Yo here the laller procedure is used.
it is 3 requirement thaI the linear clastic bifureation erilicallood. the plastic reference load. and the Mo~t rc..earch on
geometrically and materiully nonlinear fllilure load of the perfect shell should 1111 be detenllinL'd as (FEM). Ther..: arc far
pan of the cvaluation procedure. so Ih31 the user may be eertuin of the slcnderness of the system and the lotal dataoo:-c i~
th3tthe effectivc reduclion factor is appropriately low. nonllncarity on
ni .. ms to !>Iudl' the
2.4,4 Impcrfeclionsllnd tolerances buckling come.. from

The cfrcet of local I

Because the ~trcngths of shells display a high sen... itivity 10 geometric imperfcetions. any dL"Sign
from Fig. 2.6 that
method should c1eurly identify the maximum allowable an'fJlitude or imperfection associa ted with
buckling occur<; in
the design strength. The amplnudes so identified can then. in theory. be translated inlo tolerances
that should be mct afterwards m the fabrication process.

Tolerances define the limning Illllximum ... alues of measurcmC1lts Ihut can be made rclllli\cly ealoily
on a final constructed shell. The proce...s of devising methods of measurement that renecl Ihe rich
range of geometric imperfcctions thaI may be considered in the design process is \ery for from
straightforward. The Eurocode (EN 1993-1-6) defines a 13rgc sct of dilTercnttolerancc mea ~urcs,
many of which are conducted by u'sing a stick placL'd against the shell \\ all. Other new fonns of
tolerance measurement deservc in\'cstigntion. and there is an urgent need to find improved methods
ofrclati ng the imperfection fonns thai arc chosen in design t:alcululions 10 lolemncc measurements
on Ihe conlolructed shell.

The tolerances required in pmetlcal construction must e\ idently be chosen to relate to common fab-
rication and manufacturing proccsses. It should therefore be IlOK'd that care must be cI(ercised when

Shell bllckJi"8 behlll'iollr alltl desj~tI cutlce/J/.\·

'C. and not the smaller reductioll~ design methods are derived from experimental da ta (c.g. using a Im.. er bound 011 tcst results) where
the test specimens have been fabricatL-d III a manner that is different from the full-scale manufactur-
ing process. The impcrfL"Ctions in these two groups of structures may be quite different. both in
fonn and in amplitude. The relationship bch\een luborutory geometric imperfections and full scalc
imperfcctions is still an uctive area of scientific rcscarch, and dala on imperfections in eon!>tructL-d
!>hcll~ is both mre and highly sought aftcr to assist in improving Ihe reliability of the dcsign method.
he shdl gL'Ornelry. loadmg condi-
n:llly chosen by calibration from
imperfcctions that may be quite 2.5 Material nonlinearity
imperfection fuctor a is selected
.) h3\C 3 buckling load above the The above description has chiefly related to shells whose material of construction remains clastic up
to the point of maximum Stn.:5S. after which they arc ductile. Mild steel shclls are typically madc
from material that exhibits a uniaxial stress stmin behaviour that is close to this ideal clastic-plastic
.or a is used in connection with model. chamcterised only by all clastic modulus £ and yield stressh"
lhncarity in the prebuckling path
ohcd in this !>ingle pammeter. it
Vcry thm shells buckle when the shell is still clastic. but the inerea5(.-d strength of thicker shells
nl) one of thc!;c effL"Cts into ae-
mean:. Ihatlocul stresses can cxcct.-d the yicld stress before buckling occur.;. The relathe thickness
nelude!> geomctrie imperfL"Ction'> of the shell is characterised in teml~ of thc rclati\e slenderness of the structure. In kecpLllg with the
Cct elru.tic shell (GNA). arc dim-
definition used in the analysis of columns and plmes. the slenderness parameter is dcfined for shells

k'Tlt \tress state eOlTCllponding to ... (2.2)
1-6 pennit:. only two procedun....
rcation critical load lind the plu.!!- where aCT is the linear clastic bifurcation critical buckling stress of the perfect shell andh' is the
of the c\'alualion following the yicld stress of the matcrial. Where II numerical analysis is used to detcnnine thc loads for these con-
d geometrically nonlinear unaly- ditions. Rpi represents thc lo.1d factor at the plastic limit and Rcr the lood faclor of the linear cigcn-
lrical definition of the lItnleturc \'alue clastic buckling condition. The chamcteristic load fac tor is denoted by Rk-
here thc IUller procedure is ullcd.
IC plastic referenec lo.1d. nnd the Most rcsearch on clastic-plastic shcll buckling has been carried out using numerical methods
!hell should all be detennincd as (FEM). Thcre are far fewer experiments on clastic-plastic shell buckling than on clastic buckling. so
hc slcnderness of the sy:.tcm nnd the total dlllubasc is mthcr ~lIlnll. A few analytieul studies have explored the effect of material
nonlinearity on bifurcnlion buckling. and SOIllC attempts hnve been made to dcvelop plastic nl(~cha ­
msms 10 study the post-collapse behaviour. but thc bulk of what is known about clastic-plastic
buckling eomcs from numerical studies.

ytric impcrfL"Ctions. any design The effect of local yiclding on the buckling strength is illustrnted in Fig. 2.6. It may also be noted
from Fig. 2.6 thai geometric Imperfections ha\'e a smaller cffcct on the buckling strength when
!~f Imperfection a.ssocilllcd with
r'" be translated IOtO toler,IOCC<; buckling occur.; in thc clastic-plastic regimc than under elastic conditions.

t can be made rclati\cly easily

l!CII:>urcmcnt that renect the rich
~Cioign process is \cry fur from
of diffcrent tolemnce mC3!>UTCS,
!:hell wall. Othcr new fonns of
nl'Cd 10 find impro\l-d methods
bons 10 tolerance mca!>urelllenb

.hoscn to relate 10 common fab-

'lut care must be cxerci!tL'(] when

BUl'klmg o/Sleel S}",'ll\ - Em'OfH!llll Ocsign RL'l'OI111f/(mdafitJIu

p lastic col lapse

[C(,S (11)"":1~~~~;::~1
Europo.:an r 'I

\ I ...,linger, \1 IOd
clastic buckling (pcrrt..'Ct s hdl) York.
It' e lastic buck ling (imperfect s hell)
HUgge. \\
c urve

~:::;t=====:;j:======:- ___!S~lldeniess J.. Koiter. W.T.

sity. 'etherland~.
plastic e la ... tic-plaslic daslic buckling
collapse buck li ng C (lQIC!) .\'1
Figure 2.6: TYPical cu'""c orbuckhng load factor HI ogU,"51slcndcrUl.~ A for a shell 'tCh\\ cig.

Where the material ~tress-strnin cUl'\oe cannot be simply reprcscnlcd by lin ideal elastic-plaslic be- kng. J,(j. and Roller. J
haviour, shell buckling design recommendations s till gencrully limit the number of parumeters
charactcri!>ing the material to only two, so thut the chlstie modulu!> E lmd a "proof we!>!;"'!;, are used ThoIHfhOn.l\tT and
VIith \ ery simi lar design infonnalion. For consistency, the proor stress should be taken as the stn."SS England.
at which a plastic strain of 0.2 0 0 has dc\elopcd in a lensilc test. Funher mfonnation on nonlincar
material behaviour and its trealment in the design process may be found in Section 5.3. Timo:o.hcnko. S.P and
2.6 Summary or behaviour in relation to shell buckling design
Yamaki ..... (IQS·1) Et
Science Puhh h..-r;. \m
All rational !thcll buckling design procedures should be b.1scd on:
• thc stability behaviour or the perfect !>hell:
Teng. J.G. (1996) "8u,
• Ihe imperfection ~n!>ilivity appropriate to the geometry. lo.1ding and bound:lry conditions con- \'iews. Vol. 4Q, "0. 4
• the tolerunees thac are imposed on imperrcctions:
• the interaction between clastic buckling and yielding.

These rUetors arc alllilkell illlo account in the design procedure thut is descrilx.'d in Chupters 8 and 9
or these RI..'Commendutions. based on the procedures or EN 1993-1-6.

2.7 8ibliography for C hapter 2

Brush. D.O. lind Ahnroth. B.D . (1976) "Buckling of Bal'h. Plntl..'S and Shells", McGruw-llili. NcVl

Budian~ky, B. (1976) (Fd.) Bl/cHillg u/Slnlcillres, Proc .. ItJfAM SYlllpo!lium 1974. lIanard Un i-
\crsity. Springcr. NcVl York.

Bushncll. D. (1985) Compllierird hllckJi fIg O/w(I·.ri!. o/.vI1('l/s. Dordn.'Cht.

Calladinc. C.R. (1983) Tlu'oryo/Shdl SIn/cIl/res. Cambridge Unj\'crsity Pre!tS. Cmnbridge.

Donnell. L.H. (1976) Beams. Plafe.v and Shel/s. McGruw 11111. New York.

Shell bllck/illg behaviour Qnd design co",:eplf

ECCS (1988) European Rccommcndallons ror Stccl Construction: Buckling or Shells. 4th cdllion.
European Con\cntion rorCon.\truetional Stcch\ork.Brussels.

b~linger. M. and Geier. 13. (1975) Poslhm:kJillg Be/wI·jour of SrnlClllrl'S. ClSM. Springer. Ncw
·errect shdl) York.
;Iing (imperfcct shell)
nOggc, W. (1973) Srn'!>'S(!S m Shcll.\. 2nd cdn. Springer.Verlag. Bcrlin (1st Edition in Gcntmn.
__ ~s::'''':,;:demcss A.
Koiler. W.T. (1945) "On the SllIbility or Ha.!>l1c 1:":luilibrium". (in Dutch) PhD Thesis. Delft Uni\cr-
sity. Ncthcrlands.

Petersen. C. (1982) Sralik I4IIlI SllIhJli/llI/ tier BaIlAolI!>lrllcliollell. 2.... cdition. Vicweg. Bmun-

M1 by an ideal clasllc-plastic be- Teng. lG. and ROller. J.M. (eds) (2004) BlId/illK of Thill Mewl Shells. Spon. London.
limit the number or pammctl'fS
f: and a "proor strcss",h. arc used Thompson. J.M.T. and IIunt. G.W. (l-dS) (19M3) Co/fap.f{·. Cambridge Unhersity Press. Cambridge.
I'C!;5 should be takcn as the stress England.
:urthcr mronnation on nonlinear
)lind in Section 5.3. Timoshenko. S.P. and Gerc. J.M. (1961) Tlu.'Ory' of £IcH/ic Stahi/il)'. 2nd edn. McGmw-11i11. New
ling design
Yamaki. N. (1984) £I(I5lic Siabilill' ofCimllar Cylilldril'lll SIIt·lls. North Iiolland. Elsevier Applied
Scienec Publishers. Amsterdam.

Teng. lG. ( 1996) "Buckling or thin lohclls: reccnt IIdvanees lind trends". Applied Meehllnies Reo
g and boundary condi tions con- \,ie .... s. Vol. 49. No.4 April. pp 263-274.

is described in Chapters !:! lind 9


jnd Shells". McGru .... -11i11. New

r.>mposium 1974. lIarrard Un i-


r..ity Press. Cambridge.

Scope. conW!l/IiotlS. d(:jiniticmr. ""ils..'i)'mhol'i and .~ign rom-elllions

3 Scope, conventions, definitions, units, symbols and sign

3.1 Scope of EN 1993-1-6

3.1.1 General

The scope of EN 1993-1·6 is wider than these Recommendations in that it deals with a tOlal of four
different limit states: plastic limit. cyclic plasticity. buckling and fatigue. The following statement
of scope therefore extracts only the restriellons on scope that are relevant to the buckling resistancc
ofshdl struetun.'s.

3.1.2 SeOI"! limitations in EN 1993-1-6 Sectio n t.2

(I) EN 1993-1-6 gi\'es ba;ic design rules for s teel shell Slructurcs that ha\c Ihe fonn ofa thm
~hell of revolution.

(2) EN 1993-1-6 i)o intended for usc in conjunction with EN 1993-1-1. EN 1993-1-3. EN 1993-1-4.
EN 1993·1·9 and the relevant application parts of EN 1993. "'hich include:
Pan 3.1 for lowers and masts:
Pon 3.2 for chimneys:
Pan 4.1 for si los:
Pan 4.2 for tunks:
Pun 4.3 for pipelines.

(3) TIlis Standard is concenll,:d with the requirements for design against the ultimate limit states
plastic limit;
cyclic plas ticity;

(4) EN 1993-1-6 defines the churnctenst1c and design values of the resistancc of the structure.

(5) O\'er.dl equilibrium of the structure (sliding. uplifting. overturning) is not included 10
EN 1993-1 -6. but is trcmcd in EN 1993- 1- 1. Special considerations for specific applications arc
included in the relevant application p:arts of EN 1993 .

(6) The provisions in EN 1993-1-6 apply to :axisymmetric shells and associated circular or annu·
lar plates and to beam section rings and winger stiffeners where they fonn part of the complctc
structure. Gcneral procedures for computer calculations of all shell fomls are coveR:'tl. Detailed ex-
pR."Ssions for the hand calculation of unstiffcned cylinders and cones are given in the Annexes.

(7) Cylindrical and conical pancls are not explicitly covered in EN 1993·1·6. However. the pro-
\'isions can be applic:able if the appropriate boundary conditions are duly taken into account.


.. ~---.-...
Budding o(St('4!J SheJJ~· EUroP('OII De.figll Recomm('"datiOllf

(8) I:N 1993·1-{; i~ intended for applicatIOn to structural engineering teel J.hell structures. How. 3.2.2
e\er. it!> pro\isions can be applied to other metallic shells pro\ided that the appropriate material
propcniCl! arc duly taken into account. A calculation that

(9) The provisions of EN 1993-1·6 arc mtended to be applied within the temperature runge de- tlk! c\ aIUali("'":;'":~·~~:1
fcn.xJ by the ~I
fined in the rcle"anl EN' 1993 application pans. The maximum temperature is rc.stricted so thnt the
influence ofen.oep can be neglccted if high temperature ere!.'P elTects are not eO\iercd by the relevant
application pan. 3.3

(10) The provisions in EN 1993-1-6 apply to stnlcturcs that snli~fy the brittle fracture provisions 3.3.1 Structural
given in EN 199]- 1- 10.
3.3.1,1 shell
(II) The provisions of [:N 1993-1.6 apply 10 slIUetuml de~ign under uctions that can be tremed as
quasi·!oIutic In nalure.
A 'itruclure or a ittru..:lul

(12) In EN 1993·1-6. it is assumed that both wind loadmg and bulk solids flow can, in general. be
tn.~.llcd as quasi-Malic aelions. shell or re\ olu

(13) Dynamic elTects should be Inken into account according to the relevant apphcnlion pan of A ~hdl" ~ gcomctri
EN' 1993. including the consequences for fatigue. Ilowe\cr, the stress resultants arising from dy- generator Jjn~ around 11
namIc behaviour arc treated 10 this pan as quasi.sUltic. conlplett nh.
(13) The proviSIons in this Stand3rd apply to structures that are constructed in aceord:mce with
A ~ he Jl comJlO!-Cd of 3 r
(14) ThIs Standard docs not cover the aspects of leakage of stored contents. 'ihtll 'i~ment
(15) This Standuro is intended for application to Slructures within thc followlOg limits:
design IIlctaltemperuturcs within the runge -50°C 10 +300 c:
A ~h ell ur re\ nlutilln I
radius to thickness ratios within Ihe range 20 to 5000.
cylinder. conical fru~tul

For the elT!.'Ct of elevated tempemtures in the runge 10000C to 300"C on matcrial propenics such as
the modulus orelustieity and proportional limit. sec EN 1993- 1-2. shtlllJanel

NOTE: It should be notOO thal the stress design rules of this stllndnrd may be rather conservative if A n im:ollll'icle ~hdl or
lIppliOOto some geometries and 101lding conditions for rclati\icly thid•• walled shells. ax i ~ th rou~ h 11...., than 2

3.2 Terminology used in these Recommendations 3.3. 1.6 middle !turrllc,

Different methodologies or analysis arc referred to in these RecommendatIons tb follo,,"s_ Th~ surface thai Ii~... III
\\ here the :.hell IS "'illTe
3.2. 1 flllnd u lculation a, the middle surtace I
ana l )'~i • and (".In be
ecccntrieillCll Ihal Ina) 1
A calculation that uses calculations perfomlcd on paper or in computer spreadshccts to evaluate
both the stress SUIte in the shell cau'lCd by the loading and the rcsisUlnee of the structure to those
loads. It is based entirely on the usc of ex is ling fommlns. junction

The IlIle at " hir.:h hHI I

line o r nltachmcni of a r

Scope. txmlY!nliolls. dejilliliollS. IInits. symbols UlKi sign cOIIIY!ntkm.f

ering stccl shell structures. Ilow.

3.2.2 Numerical l1nal)'sis
idcd that the appropriate material
A calculation tllat USL'S a linite clement or similar computcr calculation 10 c.lclemlinc 'lOme or all of
the evaluations n..-quircd in deilign: the stress stille eauscc.l by the loads. thc resistancc to them of-
within the temperature runge c.le- fen..--d by Ihe structure. and the dcfonnations of thc structure.
mpcruture is restricted so that the
:ts are nol co\-cn..-O by thc relevant 3.3 Definitions from E 1 1993-1-6 Section 1.3

3.3.1 Structural (orlm lind I,:eollleiry

'ify the briulc fracture provisions shell
kk"'T actions that can be treated as
A .. tructure or a structural component fonned from a cuned thin plate.

ilL. solidl> flo .... can. in general. be shell orre\olutlon

, the reb ant appheallon pan of A shell \\ hose g,."omctric fonn is dcfillCd by a middle surface that is fonned by rotating a meridIonal
stn:ss resultanls arising from dy. generator line around a single axis !.hrough 2n r.ldians. The shell can be of any length. conlplelc alls) mille' ric shell

: constructed in accordance: with

A shell compo!.Cc.I of a numhcr of pans, eaeh of .... hieh is a shell of revolution.

contents. shell scgllu'nl
the following limits:
A shell of revolution in Ihe fonn of n dcfincd shell geometry with a constant wall thickness: a
eyhnder. conical frustum. spherical fru!>tum, nnnulllr plate. toroidal knuckle or other form .

Ie on material propcnies sllch as shcll pan el

ard may be mthcr conservative if An incomplete shell ofre\'olution: the shell foml is dcfin(.-d by a rotlltion of the generator about the
1cL.-\\alled shells. nis through less than 2n rudians. middlc su rraet'

llte !>urface that lies mid\\ay bct..... ccn the insidc and outside surfaces of the shell at e\cry point.
nmdatlons as folloVo s.
\\<111!I'C the shcll is stifTcned on either one or both surfacC!>. the reference middlc surface: is stilllJJi.:cn
as !.he middle surface of thc curved shell plate. The middle surface is thc refeI'Coce surfaee for
analysis. and can be discontinuous at changes of thickness or at shcll junctions. leading to
eccentricities that may be lInportant to the shell structural behaviour.
flPuter spreadsheet!> to cvulualc
;i~tancc of the structure 10 those junction

Thc line at which two or more shell segmenb 11l(.'Ct : it can include a stifTener. The circumfcrential
linl! of attachment of Il ring stiffener to the shell may be Irentcd a.s a junction.


. ----_. -.
Buckli/lg ofSIC.'t'1 Shel/s - Ellropea/l De.~ig/l RecomltlelUk,tiom. stringersliffenef e.-~ die.-

A locul stiffening member that follows the meridiun of the shell. rcpn..'SCnting a generator of the
shell of fC\·01ution. It is provided to increase the stability. or to assist \~ ith the introduction of local leading tll a
loads. It is not intended to pro\ide a primary resistance to bending enecls cuu!tOO by tnm"verse exhau!>lcd.
3.3.2",& bucklinp, rib
The ultimate hlllil
A local member thm provides a primary load eanying palh for bending down the meridian of the cornprc..,ion and or
shell. representing u genemtor or the shell of rc\ olution. It is used to transfer or distribute transverse .. uppon til\: appli..:d
loads by bending. rlttigue ringslirrcncr
The uhimale \;;m;;" '''~
A local MilTening member that passes lIround the eircumfel\.'11Ce of the shell ofrevolutiol1 ut u given
point on the mcridllln. It is nommlly 1I!>!>umed to have no stiffness for defomUltions out of its 0\\ n 3.3.3 Actions
plane (meridional di'piacements of the !>hell) but is !>tifT for defonnations in the pillne of the ring. It
is provided to inercase the stubility or 10 introduce loculloulh uCling in the plane of the ring. a};ialload bast fing

A stnlcturnl mcmber Ihat passes around the circumference of lhe shcll of revolution at the base and
pro\ides a meuns of attachment of the shell to 11 foundation or other structural member. It is nceded
10 ensure thut the 113~umed boundary condition~ lire IIchie"'cd in practice. ring bcum Of ring girdcr

3.3.3_' internal

A circumferential stifTener tlmt has bending stifTncss und ~trcngth bolh in the plane of Ihe shell
circulur seclion and nonnallO Ihut plnne. It is a primary load cunying structural member. provided Component of th..:
can \ary in ooth
for the distribution oflocalloads into the shell.

3.3.2 Limit state'!

NOTE: For 11 shell. there ure five situations defined as ultimate limit stnte where the structure is Component of th..:
considered to have reached itl> lo.1d bearing capacity. clln \ Ilry in both the

3.3.3.S h~ dro\Utic plastic limit

The ultimllle limit state where the stnleture dc .... elops zones of yielding in a p:lIIcm such thut its
ability 10 resisl increased loading is deemed 10 be exhausted. II is closely related to a small
deflection theory plastic limit load or plastic collapse mechanism. lull f,;''';"'~ tensile rUI)1urc Component or the

prc.... ure and actlOg
The ultimate limit stale whcre the shell plule experiences gross section failure due to tel13ion. cont;lincd within the

Scope. cOIII'l'miollf, th'fi"ilio".f, IIl1irs, symbols and sigll col/I·ell,ioll.'

33.23 c~clie plasticity

representing a genemtor or the The ultimate limit stme where repeated yielding is caused by cycles or loading and unlo.'lding.
~t .... ith the introduction of local leading to a low eyclc fatiguc railure where the energy absorption capacity or the muteriu! is
ng effects euultCd by tmnsversc exhausted.

33.2.4 bueklin~

lbc ultimate limit state where the slnleture suddenly loses its stability under membmne
lding down the meridiun or the compression and/or shear. It leads either to large displaeell1ellL'i or to the structure being unable \0
I tran~rer or distribute transverse suppon the applil.:d loads.

33.2.5 fatigue

The ultimate limit state \\'herc many cycles or load1Tlg cause crocks to dC\l,~lop in the shell plate.
he shell of re\ olutioll at a gi\ en
ror deformations out or its OWII 33.3 Actions
lIion~ In the plane of the ring. It
in thl! pla~ or the ring.
333.1 axial load

rXlcmally applied 10.1din8 U>.;lin8 in Ihe: axial direclion.

ell of re\'olution at the hase and

333.2 radial lond
structural member. It is needed
E~tcmally applied loading octlllg 1I0nl1alio the surraee or a cylindrical shell. internal pressure

both in the plane or the shell
ng structural member. provid(.:d Componenl oflhe surrace loading aeling non11all0 the shell in the outwurd direction. Its magnitude
can vary in bolh the meridional and circurnrerenll3l directions (e.g. under solids loading in a silo).

3.3.3,4 external pressure

mit state where the structure is Component of the surface looding acting nomml to the shell ill the inward direction. Its magnitude
can \lIry in both the meridional and circumrerential directions (e.g. under wind). h)drosfatic pressure

Iding in II pattern !ouch thut its Prc!osure \'lIrying linearly with the venieal coordmate of the shell or re\'olulion.
t is closely related to a small
3.33.6 ,ull friclion load

Component of the lourfacc loodillg ucting on the shell wall due to friction conncctl:d with internal
pressure and acting in the direction or motion or the contained mnterial (e.g. when solids arc
m railure due to tension. contained within the shell).


- - - - ._-.. locolload
the mlddic surfaec 01
nnl relate tu \ Ihr...luID
roint applied force or distributed luad IICling on a limited pan of the circumference of the shell and
o\er u limited height. plltch 100td
An anal~!>l~ bal>i:d llll
Imear clastic matenal
Local distributed load acting nonnal to the shell. al.a.:ounl... fully lilr,
chcc.:k. i.. indud,.;d al suctiun
303A.6 ma'criall) no
Unifonn net extemul pre!>!>ure due to the reduced internal prcs.sure in II ahell \\,;th openings or \enls
under 'Aind action. An anal)"!>b bibcd on
..mall ddla:tlOn as 'n partia l \sC bum geometricalh
Unifoml net external pressure due to the remo\al of stored liquids or solids from" ithin a container
that i!> inadequutely \ ented. An anal) I t" on
nonlin.:ar lars,.; dd1...·d
3.3.3. 11 Iherma i llclion A bifurcation ci!!clI\ul

Tempernture variation citlll~r do\\ n the shell meridian, or around the :.;hcll circumfcrcnce or thruu~h m c tricall~
the !ohellthiekness.
An anal)" ... is \.\lIh [ml"'<!
J.3A T) pes of a na l) sis l.lrpliCd tu the Imperf.
dc\ ialion .. from thc id,
303.4. 1 glubul un:ll)sIS thai 3ccount.~ lull) 1"01
material a.. lincar ela~t
and rc ... duul 'tre '>C".
An analysi~ that includes the complete structure. mlher than mdividual struetuml pans trcmed
303 ....9 geom elricall~
(G \Ii"'iI .\ ) memb ral ne theUf) a nlll)sis

An analysi!> Yo ith imrc

An analysis Ihot predicls the behaviour of a thin-walled shell structure under di~tribuled 10:1ds by arplied to the .mperfl
assumin.: that only membrane forces stltisfy eqUIlibrium with the e~ternolloods. dc\ iatmn... fmm the Id,
that account... fuli)" fl1t". li nellr elastic shell ual)sis (LA) plastic matcriallaw 1
residual strc"~es. .\ I
An anoly!>i!> that predicts lhe behaviour of a thin-\\ullcd ahcll structure on the basi!> of the small analysi .. may be ~"Cn I
deflection linear ela.... tie shell bending theory, related to the perfl..'Ct geometry of the middle surface callctl a full) nonline<u
oflhe shell. linea r elastic bifurcatio n (cigen\lIlue) ana lysis (LOA)

An analysis that evulumes the linear bifurcation eigenvalue for a thin-wnlled shell structure on the
basis of the amnII deflL'Ction lineur elastic shell bending thcory. rclated to Ihe perfect gcometry of
ScOJN!. COlfH.'IIliollS. 4kjiniliom. wuI.f. .nmbols alld sign rotlH!IIIioliS

the middle surfacc orthe shcll. It should be noted that, "'here an eigenvalue is mentionl-d. thi .. docs
not relatc to vibration modes.
le circumrcrence or thc shell and geomt"trH=ully nonlinrur rhuti.: Iuullysis (GNA)

An w1Uly~is bll~ on the princlplL"S or shell bending theory applied to the perfect structure. using II
linear clastic materinllaw but including nonlinear large denection theory ror thc displacements that
accounts fully ror any change in geometry due to tnc aellons 00 the shell. A birurcation eigenvalue
eh ..:ck i.. includcd at each load Ic ... cI. materia II} nonlincar anuJ) sis (MNA)

in a shell '" ith openings or .. cnt",
An analysi~ b:u.I.-d onshell bending theory applied to the perrl-'Ct loIructure. using thc 3.-.sumption or
~mall dcncctions. as in but adopting a nonlinear elasto-plastic material In\\. 2eom.:trK:lIl1} lind mliterillll) nonllnellr anaJ)lIill (C~I~A)

or solid) rrom '" Ithm a container
An analysis based on shcll bending theory applied 10 thc perfect structure. using the assumptions or
nonlinear large dcncction theory ror thc displaccmcnts and II nonlinear clasto-plaslic material law.
A birurcUlion eigcn\oluc check is included 01 each loud le... el.

e shell circumrerence or through geometricllIIl) nonlinear elastk analysis "ilh imperrections included (GNIA)

An analysis with impcrr<.'Ctions explicitly included. based on the principles or shcll bending theory
applied to the imperrcct structure (i.e. thc geomctry or the middle surrace includes unintend<.-d
deviation:; from the ideal shape). including nonlinear lorge denection th<."Ory for the displaecmcnts
that accounts rully for any change in geomctry due to the !lctions on the shell. l1nd treating thc
material as linear clastic. The imperr<.'Ctions may also include imperrcctions in boundary conditions
and residual stl'C!>SCS. A birurcation eigcnvaluc check is included at each load le ... el.
(Ji ... idual structural parts treatcd geomt"lricall) and lI1atcdall) nonlinellr anul)'sis with imperrcc:tions included

An analysis with imperrections expliCitly 1I1c1udcd, based on the principles or shell bending theory
tturt under distributed loads by applied to the imperfcct Mnacture (i_c. thc geo~try or the middle surrace includes unintended
~cmal loads. dc\·ialions rrom the ideal shape), including nonlinear large dcflection theory ror the displacemcnts
that accounts rully ror !lny changc in geometry due 10 the actions on the shell and a nonlinear ciasto-
plastic matcriallaw. The imperfcctions may also include imperrections in boundary conditions and
residuol stresses. A birurcation eigenvalue check is included at each load le\'cl. This type or
!JCturc on the basis or thc small analysis may be secn as a combinntion orGMNA and GNIA analyses. and in the literature is oRen
geometry or the middle surrace called a rully nonlinear analysis

~in·"allcd shell structure 011 thc

lated to thc perrect geometry of


...... ~-.-- -.
B/lckling o/Steel SI,elb; - £/Iropt!llll f)esigll Recollllllt!lIt/miollS

3.3.63 plastic
Table 3.1: Types ohhcllanalysls
Type of an:l1ysis Shell theory Matcnallllw Shell geometry The plastic limll
Membrane theory of shells membrane equilibrium nOl applicable perfect plu\lic material
iMlIrop), (muddkd
Linear clastic !ohcllanalysis (LA) lincar bending linear perfect
and strctchiOiI.
LillCllf clastic bifurcntion analysis lincar bcndmg lincar perfl,."Ct
(LilA) and strctCh1ll2
Geometrically non· linear clastic non-linear lincar perfect Thc load aSS(Klated
analY!ols (GNA) geometry due to
Materially non-Iincar analysis (MNA) linear non·linear pcrf~1 l:O'hlrucll~ln. and

Geometrically and m:lIcrially non-linear non·lim."3r perfl,.'Ct

non·llllear arualy!>is (GMNA)
Geomctrically non-lincar clastic non-linL"Ur linear imperfect
anlll SIS With Imperfections (GNIA) TIle nominallt><tIIt,mj
Geomctrically and m:ucrially non-linear non·lincar imperfect
non·lmear anal),!>,.) with 'mpcrfCClKMl~
(GMNIA) 33.6.6 desif!.n

33.5 Siress cah.'gorics used in slress design The design "IIIC or I~

Ihe panial factor
33.5.1 primal) slrtosses design
The stress system required for equilibrium with the imposed lo..ding. This consist!> primarily of
membnme stresses. but under some conditions bending Slrcsscs may also be required to achiC\ic Thc nominal m'tnt'~
equilibrium. S4..'Condar)' stresses

TIle value of ~trc!>~ .
Stresses inducl..-d by imemal eomp..1tibility or by compatibility with the boundary conditions. a buckling limit·
associated with impo!oed loading or imposed displacements (Iemperuture. prcslrc!>sing. settlement.
shrinkage). These !>trcsscs arc not required to achie..e equilibrium bct,,-cen an internal stress state 33.6.9
lind Ihe e~lernal loading.
The calegory of
33.6 Sl,ccial dcnnilions for buckling clilculations
3.4 criliclil buckling resislance
3.4.1 Bucklin~
The smallest bifurcation or limit lo..1d detennined assuming Ihe idealised condilions of clastic
mmerial behaviour. perfect geometry. perfcet load applicalion. perfect .!.uppon. nULlcrial isotropy blfurcallon
and absence of rcsiduill stresses (LBA unulysis).

A load at \\ihich
33.6.2 critical bucklln~ slress
a new fonn '::~:;~~
slope of the 14
The nominal membrane stress associated with the erilical buckling resistance. which is followed be
librium path may in'
modal fonn (hg. 2.:

Scope. COIII'I.!flliOlU·, dejilliliolls, ImilS, symbols and sign com>ellfiollS
--------------~-- plastic r eferen ce r('Slstance

leriallaw Shell geometry TIle plastic limit load, detenninL-d assuming the idcalisL-d conditions or small displacements. rigid-
apphcable perfect plastic material behaviour. perfect gL-ometry. perfect load Ilpplication, perfect support and material
isotropy (modclled usi ng MNA annlysis).
~ perfcct

pcrrL'Ct 3.3,6.4 characteristic buckling resistance

perfect The Jo.'Id associated with buckling in the presence of inelastic matcrial behaviour. changes of
" geometry due to loads. the gL'Ometrieal nnd structural imperfections thai ;are inevitable in practical
4linear pcrf«1 construction, and follower load eITeclS.
-linear pi.'ffL'Ct characteristic buckling st ress
The nominal mcmbr.:ane stress associated with the characteristic buckling resistance.
-linear Imperfect design buckling r('5lstance

Thc design value of the buckling load. oblllincd by dividing the charncteristic buckling resistance by
the partial factor for resistance. dcsign buckling slrt.'Ss

19. This conlli,!,!!> primarily of
y ;also be required to achie ... c 11le nominal membrane stress asM>Ciuled with the design buckling resistance. kcy \'alue of till' siren

The value of stress in a non·unifonn stress field that is u!>Cd to characterise the strcss mab"l1itudcs in
ith the boundary conditions. a buckling limit stllte assessment.
nure. pn.·Mre~ing. settlement.
etV.een an mtemal stre,';!. state fabrication tolerance (IUa lily class

TIIC catcgory of fabricntion tolerance requirements thllt is assumed in design. see Chapler 6.

3.4 Additional definitions needed in (hese Recommendations

3.4.1 Budding hcha\ iour and phenomena

;lcalised condition~ of clastic
eet support. matenal isotropy bifurcalion load

A load at which the static equilibrium defonnation mode of the structure abruptly begins to take on
:1new form superimpost.-d on the previous dcfonllation mode. This usually leads to a change in the
slope of the lo.'Id-displacement relationship, The dcfommlioll modc of the primnry equilibrium path
iSllmcc. which is followed before the bifurcation point may continue to be fo llowed. or thc secondary L'qui-
librium path may inslcud be fo llowt.-d. involving the development of displacements in a diITercnt
modal foml (Fig. 2.2). Following bifurcation. the stntcturc mny support cither incrensing or de-
creasing loads whcn it follows thc MXondnry pmh (Fig. 2.3). For a fuller description. sec &.'Clion
2.2. snllp-Ihrough or Ilmilioad

A load at \\, hieh the changing geometry of the structure causes u condition in which incrementnl
addItional dlsplacerncnts occur in the current mode of defom'l3lion \\ ithoul nny chnnge in the value
oflhe appli,..d load. TIt is corre!tponds to zero tangent stiffness in that mode relati\'e 10 the applied
load. The structure rcaCM'S 3 ma;timum lo..1d-carrying condition and smaller loads are carried at
incT'Cnl>ing displncemcnts (Figs 2. 1 and 2.4). For a fuller description. see Section 2.2.
3.4.2 Material eonstituthe modebi
(I) Forth\! s)mmctl) in compression and tension 10\\ illS are

It is commonly assUlrn..'<I that. for metals. the yield stress in uniaxial tension is L"qual to the yield (1 )
stress III uniaxial compression. nnd that plastic strnimng occur.; WLlh no ,olume change.
304.2.2 \'on ~lIses criterion or plasticily
Under Slates of biaxial or triaxial stresses. most Tlletals yicld under conditions that nrc similar.
These yield conditions may be represented by scveral different enterin. but the most widely ac· (J) PresSUfC!>:
ccpted as aecurntc is the "on Mises cnterion. This is the ooly criterion used in EN 191)3·1-6 and 1'. normal to
throughout these recommendatIOns. p.
I" ideal elastlc-phutic
(4) Linc forces:
This tcnn is used to indicate Ihat the stress-strain behaviour of the m:ucrinl in unIaxial tension may p. lood
be represented by an clastic part that has constant modulus E (with Pois!>On's ratio v) and a plastic P, load
1', lood per
part at constant SlrCSS);_ It commonly assumes symmetry in compression and tension (sec
TIte nutteriallaw is esscntially a two-parJ.mcter model.
(5) Membrane
n, idrlll clastic - linur hardening n,
n .•
This tenn is ust."<i to indicate that the stress-strain bcha, iour of the material in unt:n:ial tension may
be rcprcsenlL"tl by:m clu!otic pan that has constant modulus E (\\ith Poisson's ratio v) up to a yield (6)
stl'C!o!>);~ aftcr which it has a plastic part Ihat has a constant strain-hardcning modulus E,. It com· m,
monly assumes symmetry in compression and tension (see Thc matcrial law hns II bilinear m,
fonn with a threc·parumeter model. m.B
3.5 Preferred unil s q,.

(7) Strc<i~:
(1) SI Units should be used inllccordancc wi th ISO lOOO. U,
(2) For s tatic ealcululions. one of the follo\\ ing altcnlati\ic sets of consistent unit!. are recom-
mended to be UJ>(.."<i: u'"
r. r,lf

ScOjX'. COIu'('lItiOllt. tk:fillitiOiIS. IIl1its. symbols Cllld .figll NJIIH:llfilJ/U

a fuller ~nption, !.CC Section

• dimension and thickness m mm
- unit .....eight kN 'm1 N mm'
- forces and loads kN N
• line fum'S and line load~ kN In Nmm
- pn.'Ssurcs and area distnbuted uettOflS kl'u MP,
- unit mass tonne/m' k&lmml
condition in 'Which mcrcrncntlll J
.... ithout any chungc In the value
- acceleration
- membrane stress rcsuhunts
.hat mode relati\c to the upphed - bending stress rcsultunl" kNmlm Nmm/null
,,1<1 smaller loads arc curried al - stresses and elastic modu li kllu Ml'u ( ~ N/m1l1l )
, sec Section 2.2.
3.6 Symbols from EN 1993-1-6 Section 1.4

(I) For the purposes of E 1993-1-6. in addition to the symbols defined in EN 1993-1 - 1. the fol-
lowing arc used.

ial tcnSKm is equal to the yield (2) Coordinate system (sec Fig. 3. 1):
no \olume change. r radial coordinalc. nonnalto the axis of fe' olution:
" meridional coordinate:
= axial coordinale;
o cireumferential coordinate;
; meridional slope: angle bet.... cen axis of fe\olution and nonnal to the meridian of the iohcll.
Icr conditions that arc similar.
itcria. but the most widely ac- (3) Prl.~un:li ;
:non used In EN 1993-1-6 and
p. nonnal to the shcll:
p. meridional surface loading pamllel to the shell;
1)11 circumferential surfuce loading JXtrtlllel to the shell.

(4) Li ne forces:
lalerial in uniaxiultension mlly load I>cr unit circumference nunmtlto the ~ hcll;
Poi~son' s mtlO v) and II plastic load per unit cireumference ac ting in the meridicnul direc tion:
s:;ion and tenston (sec 3.4.2. 1). load per unit circumfercnce IIcling circumfercntially on the shell.

(5) Membrane Siress resultants:

n, meridional Tllembrnne stn:ss resultant:
n/l circumferential membrane stress resultant:
n,/I membrane shear stress rcsullant.
ten.1I 10 uniax.ialtension may
:toisson's ratio v) up 10 a yield (6) Bending stress resultants:
iUrlcning modulus £ •. It com. mA meridional bending moment per unit width;
rhe matcrialla\\ has a bilinear mil circumferential bending moment per unit width:
111 ,/1 twisting shear tnOllll"1lI per unit width:
q... transverse shear forte associated with meridional bending;
qllo transverse shear force associated with circumferential bending.

(7) Stresses:
u. meridional stress:
If con~i!otenl units nrc recorn- Uti circumferential stress;
u,. von Miscs L"quivalent SlrcloS (can also take negative values during cyclic loading):
T. r~o in-plane shear stress;
Blldding olS/eei Shells - i::llrolH!tm Desig" R('Commclldd/iolls

( 10)
r, .. , ra, meridional, dreumfercnlilll trnns\ crsc ... hcar stresses ussociu{(,:d with bending. ,
(8) Displnccmcnls: U,
/I mcridionnl displacement:
" cireumferellIial displacement: u. initial
U, initial
w displllccmeni non nul to the shell surfllcc:
p~ mcridional rOllllion (sec 5.2.2 o f EN 1993-1-6).
(II ) I'ropertlcs
(9) Shcll dimcnsions:
I. Younl!;'s
d inlenllli diametcr of shcll:
r~ Ion \ii'>C,
L tOlnllength ofthc shell :
I length of shell segment:
r. yield
gauge length for mellsurement o fimpcrfcctions:
gauge Icngth for measurement of impcrfl'Clions in circumferell liul direction: (12) Pllrameters III '
gauge length for measuremcnt of imperfections ucrms welds: C coefficient
D 1 i
limil(..-<I length of shell for buckling strength assessment:
radills of the middlc surface. nonnalto the axis of rc"olution: /..u
thickness ofshell wull: F Rd
p apex half :lIlglc o f cone,

Circumfcrcnl ial o v

\5(Non11Ui ~w /;'RpI
Meridional x II
RJ dc,ign
I Directions I Coordinatcs IDisplaccments I R,
z N.... critical
The follo\\ ing Note
udoptl'fl in thc
p. follo\\ ;n;:~;'.~~:~::~

Tmnsvcrsc shear
Surface press ures IMembrane SII"Cs,osl strcsscs,_ - , k cllhbralion
Figurt' 3.1 : Symbols in shells ofrelolution
NO".:: In EN 1993-\ -6. tensile stresSCJ.llre treated as positi ve e\elywherc, cxccpt in Chaptcr 8 of p
that sllIndnrd which is concerned with shell buckling. \\ here compressive membrane stresses are r
trealL-<I as p<».itivc . Thc direction of positive mcmbmJle shear strl"!>!>CS has .. Iso tx:en fC\CI"S(..-<I rela- I
th e 10 the publishl..'<i EN 1993- 1-6 (2007).


SeO/H..'. cflIfW'l/IiolfS. defi1litio1ls. IlIfltS, symbol.. and .\';8" ('OI/I'('I/I;01lS

lied "ilh bending. (10) Tolerances (see K.4 of EN 1993-1-6):

/! ccccntricity between the middle surfaces of joined plates;
U~ accidental eccentricity tolerance parameter;
U. out-of-roundncss tolerance paramctcr:
U~ initial dimplc imperfcction nmpliwde pnrurneler for numerical calculations:
Uo initial dimple lolcrunce pnrurneter:
&11'0 tolcrance nonnalto the shell surfnce.

(II) Properties of materhlls:

£ Young's modulus ofelasticily:
f"'l von Mises equivalent strength:
r; yield strength:
f,. ultimate strength:
\' Poisson's ratio,
rcntial directIon;
(12) Parameters in strength assessment:
s: C coefficient in buckling strength assessment:
D cumulative damagc in fllligue assessment:
f' grncml;=1 ,,';0",
n: Fr.J action sct on a convlete structure corresponding to a design situation (design values);
FRJ calculated values of the action set at the maximum n:sistance condition of the structure
(dt.''Si£,1I values):
FRJ calculated values of the action sct at the maximum resistance condition of the structure
v (ehamcteristie values):
calculated values of the IIction set III thc clastic critical buckling condition of the structure:
FRpI calcullltt..d values of the action set ntthe plnstic referencc condition ofthc structure;
R calculated resistance (used with subscripts tu idcntify thc basis)
u RrJ design resistance. defincd ll.'\ thc mtio (F p.~ I F, d):
Displaccmcnts I Rk characteristic resistance, defined liS the mtio (F It~ I FI;d):
Rpi plastic reference resistance (defined liS II load fllelOr on tksignloads using MNA analysis):
Rc. critical buckling resistnnce (defined !IS a load factor on design loads using LOA analysis);
The following Note in EN 1993-1-6 (2007) indicates the reasoning behind the a"kward not!llion
adopted in the published version of the EN. The symbols used throughout these R ccomT1lendation~
follow instead the notntiOIl -widely used ill the e'(pcrt field of shell strtlcturc design",
NOTE: For consistency of symbols throughout thc EN 1993 the symbol for the reference resistance
mtio r.. is used instead of the symbol Rltl. Ilowc\er, in order 10 a\oid misunderstanding, it needs to
be noted here that thc symbol Hltl is widely ust.-d in the expert field of shell S!rtlcturc design.
rrnns\crsc shear
stresses k calibration factor for nonlinear analyses:
k pammeter in internction cxpressions for buckling undcr multiplc stress components:
number of cycles of loading:
"a clastic imperfcction reduction factor in buckling strength assessment:
)'\\ hen:, eKcept in Chupter 8 of p plastic range factor in buckling interaction:
lressi\'e membrane stn..'SM:S are partial factor:
.cs has also becn re\ erK-d rela- d range of parameter whcn alternuting or cyclic uetions are in\ olvcd:
plllStic strain:
interaction CKPOI1(,.'Ot for buckling:
rela ti vc slenderness of shcll :
Am· overnll relu ti ve sl(.'Odemcl>S for the complete shell (multiplc segmcnts):

Bm:kling (lISleel SI1f!11J - £UroJX,(III Design R('(:mm"e"dOl;ous

squash limit rell1ti,c slcndenu:l>s (vul ue of A. abo"e which resistance reductions duc to
instability or change of geomctry occur): 4
pla..<"ic limit relath c slenderness (yuluc of ). below which plu:.ticity alTects the sUlbility);
TIle notation 1 is used in the published vcrsion of EN 1993-1-6 (2007), bccuusc the charnClcr A. Principal ••• ho'''l
had previously been used in EN 1993-1- 1 to define a rntio related to strnin lit yield, The distinction
between A. lind 1 seems unnecessnrily complicUled II:. nOllllion for the slendcnlCSS of a shell, M> 1 4.1 General
is here replaced by A throughout these Recommendations.

(J) rel:ltivc length (Xtnllncter for shell : Th\..-..c R~~"n~:~n;~;j

i» pro\ ilk'\!,
:t buckling resi:.t:mcc reduction fuctor for clastic-plustic clTects in buckling strength dcslgn \!lluc:.of
assessment: com,hllun.. arc 'oCt
:t", owrall buckling resistuncc n..duetion f.1Clor for I.:omplctc shell. arc ...:t nut In Secil

( 13) Subscripts:
E \·aluc of stress or displncemelll (arising from design actions): ~.2 Rule~ of
P actions: for anul)
AI material :
R resistance: (I) The ~hdl
cr critical buckling \ulue: Illiddle ~urr.lcc.
d design vuluc:
illt intcrnal: (2) "!he rod,.,0'
k charnClcristic vuluc: thc nominal radlu»
m lLt nmximum value: .. hould be n'I,'c~I,-d.1
mill minimum value: K of l.:.N
nom nominlll vuluc: ( 'hapten. N and Q of
pi plastic:
/I ultim.1te: Ol An n..'>Cmbly
J' yield. hi: .. ubl.!i\ilkd into
,I" unle the b..u..~
(14) Funher symbols ure defined where they first occur. Illent aT\' chosen In
3.7 Sign conventions manlll.'r.

(4) A oo:;e nns

nlC sign conventions used throughout these RL'Commcndations (consistcnt with EN 1993- 1-6) arc
port fOl\:c int{llhe
as follow5:
fflll1l th~ .. hell LI
The direction outward from the axis of the shell is positive.
!tmll ..tate LSJ.
Outward displacemenls are positive.
Compressive stresses arc positive,
(~) h:centricitLe..
Shear stI'CSSCS are positive as shown in Fig. 3.1.
..urface .. hould bc
Both external pressures and intcnllli pressures arc lrCatcd as positive whC1'C thcy occur.
If they induce I

NOTE : In EN 1993- 1-6. ten:.ile stresses arc trcatc...d as positi\e everywhere. except in Chapter 8 on
shell buckling.
1Il~ an c'

(tl) \t Juncllom
,hell -.cgmcnh

Mockllil1K of Ille sllt'll

h resistance reductions duc 10

4 Modelling of the shell
lSlicily uffccis thc stabIlity);
2007). ba,llUSC the ehamclcr i Principal authors: J.M. RoUer and J I. Schmidt
slrnm al yield. Thc distinction
he slendcrness of a "hcll. so I 4.1 General

These Recommcndations Ul>C the MIme nllcs as EN 1993- 1-6 for severnl purposes and a commentary
is prodded. For modelling thc shell gcometry for analysis. the nIles are SCt OUi in Section 4.2. The
CffL'(;L" in buckling MtCngth
dcsign values of g(.'OmctricIlJ dat3 lire sct out III &-ction 4 .3. The general rules concerning bound:try
conditions arc M:t out in SL'Ction 4.4. 11IC spcciul ntk... on bud, ling-relevant bound;try condition"
arc sct out in Section 4.5.

4.2 Rules of EN 1993-1-6, Section 5.2.1, on modelling of the shell geometry

for analysis

(I) The shell should be repl'CM:nted by iL<; This O.'i.flllI/plio" is IISed throllglwllt all tilm .'fhell
middle surface. a//{//t'Se.~_

(2) The rndiu') of eunBturc should be takcn as

the nominal rndius of eun.ture. Imperfcctions
should be neglected. e~ccpt as sct out III Section
8 of EN 1993-1-6 (LS3 buckling limit state). or
Chapters 8 and 9 oflhcse Recommendations.

(3) An assembly of shell segments l>hould not Whe" a IXIrl of a .,·hell .HntClllre i.\ eXll'tJc:ted
be subdh'ided into scp:.lmte scgtnetns for annly- frolll the II'IIOII! for design pllrposes. care IIIl1sl
J;is unkss the bounffiuy conditions for each seg- he 'akell Ihal the adjlcellf .{('gmellts IIdlher (IP-
Illent are chosen in lIuch a way as to rcpl"CllCTlt P~I' tllle.\1x'CIC'tJ loall... 110/, prol'ide /I/I(·x/X.'cted
intemctiOlls betwccn thcm in a COllllcn'uti, c re.\·lromt.l' 011 thf! wUllysed segment,

'stcm with EN 1993- 1·6) arc (4) A base ring intended to tmnl>fer locall>up- A INlse rillg is pcl,·ticlllor~l" impol'tOIlf ill keeping
pon forces inlO the ~hell ~hould nOI be sepurutL'd (I .dICJI bO//lJdw)' circillar, ali(I OIlt-af-roIiIltJ dl't-
from the shell It suppons III an a!>scsslllent of pllK.'CIIIl:ms al a bolllulan' N!JlIte\lrfmg~lt to It\'-
limit 1I1ale LS3. illl IIlf!mbmm' slresses in lite shell.

(5) Eccentricities and steps in the ~hell middle The dt:"imioll of 0 /ille of 1111'1151 III tllf! ..hell
here they occur. surfacc should be included m the analysis model CWI.H.',J bl' a'ftep in the mielelle .'fllr/{U:t> mdlICI'S
if thcy mduce significant bending cffects as a Jignijical1f local bending. III relation 10 the e/fect
vhere. except in Ch:lptcr tI on rc~ult of the mcmbr.tnc !>Ire!>!> l'Cl>ultnnl!> folio\\'- of 'Well ~lIfriciti(!S on hllckling. rl.'glllllliolis
ing an eccentric p:.lth. mat· he f(Jlllld ill SecliOIlS 6.3.3 and 11 .3 of IIu·sI'

(6) At juoctions bcl\\ccn ~hcll !>cgmenL<;. any Af(lhol'f!.

eccentricity betwccn thc middle lo urfacl,.'S of the
shell segments should be considered in the mod-

Buckling o/Steel Shell.v · Ellropmll Desigll Recommemlllt;lJflS

(5) The buckling

(7) A ring stiffener should be treated as a Where ring.\· tll'e IOCllled clos('r 111(111 1.5 ..r;:;, 6 lIhould nOI be
separate structural componcnt of the shell, ex· the shell alld rillgs tlCt integro/~I' alld may be
cept where thc sp.1cing of thc rings is eloser than Ireatetl us;lIg a smellrctl rillg model ralher II/(II/
1.5 Jrl. liS discrelr l·t;fJimer.~.
(8) A shell that "as discrete stringer stiffcncrs "'''ere ri/Igl' fire foc(/l(!(1 closer Ih(1II 5 Jrl.
attachcd to it may be treated as an orthotropic shell tllltl slijJellt'rs lJ(.·1 illtegrolly alld mar he
unifonn shell. provided that the stringer stiffen· lrealed usillg a sml!(IIwl sfijJeller model mther 4.4
ers arc no further apan than 5 In . 111fI1I a dist'rcfe .\·fijJellers.
(I) The
(9) A shell that comtgated (vertically or
The dime"siull 0.5..r;:; is" .\'mall INIrI 0/ the should be
hori.lOntally) may be trented as an onholropic be"tlillg IKIJf 1\'(II"elellglh (if lite sllell so IMOI
unifonn shell pro\'ided that the comtgation belldillg of lite coml~aliofls does 1101 influellce
wavelength is less Ihan 0.5 Jrl. Ihe l'/I't!SS /x lltel'll sigllificllflliy. buckling ,"1,"I"i'm~
to 4.5.
( 10) A hole in the shell may be neglccted in the A hole smalll!r Iltall lhi.f limit mlly be regllrtled
modelling provided its largest dimension is (U' all imperjeclioll II'hil:h is COl't!lT!tI by tltl! im-
smaller than 0.5..r;:; . /X'rfi-clioll retlllClion concepf lor h"cklillg Ctl/CU-
( II ) The ovcmll stability of the complete wuc·
IU~ should be verified as detailed in EN 1993
Pltns 3.1, or 4.3 as approprilllC.

4.3 Rules or EN 1993-1-6, Section 3.2, on design values or geometrical datil

( I) The thickness t of the shell should be III general. the lIomillallhicklless oJtlte plllle is
lukcn as defined in the relevant application St:III· IIsed ill mlcklillg clilclIllIliollS. IIOIl'l.'\·cr. ;1
dard. If no application standard is relevant. the .fltoufd be nOletl thaI local thicklle.u I'OrimiOIlS
nominal thickness of the wall, n.."<luced by the (e.g. ctllised by 1I /NlrticlIl"r jilbrictltioll prace.u
prescribed value of the corrosion loss. should be or by "brasiOIl or/rom selecliw! corrosion) may
'sed. play il significant rofe as all imperfi'ctioll/orm
Jor soml! s/lell bllckUng cascs (,vee 6.1. I).

(2) The thickness mnges within which the For ,fhell bllckling, a limilation a/ll relllli"1!
rules of EN 1993-1-6 may be applied are dcfined thickness IXI/·tIllIC/er, s lich 0 .\' ";t. Is I1l11i:" more
in the reJevam EN 1993 application parts. rcle\'tllll thun a limillllion 0/ oh.vol,,'e Ihicklless

(3) The middlc surface of the she ll should be This is a basic assllmlJlion 1I.~ed in ,,1/ Ihi" .~heJJ
taken as the ~fercnee surface for loads. tll{'orie.\'.

(4) The radius r of the shell should be taken TilL, i.' a basic assumption lISt'll in (II/ Ihill .~ltell
ns thc nominal radius of the middle surfllce of IIll.'ories.
the shell. measun..-d nonnalto the axis ofrevolu-

Modelling oflhe shell

locO/ed closer Ihan 1,5 .;;:;, (5) The buckling design rulL'S of E 1993·1· In (l(ldition to lite I'el')' ge"eral limits
~s acl ilflegralll' alit} mLn' be 6 should not be applied outside the ranges of the 10 s: rlt s: 500(} W!I 0111 in 1,3.3, mort! slringe"l
'/{!ored ring model rtllher 'II/tlll rli ra tio sct out in Section 8 or Annex D of EN opplicatioll limit_~ are reqllired for ct'rtaill hllck·
.". 1993·1 .(; or in the relevant EN 1993 application
/illg design niles, These limits lIri,w~ from the
limi"'tiOll5 of Ihe al'(li/able re:.'eart:h el'idellce
for 1"D.~e conditiOll,f,
'omler.! closer 1110" J,f;i , Ihe
"S ad imc>gm/(I' (lnd mil)' Ix'
nt'UrI!d slijJelfer 11ftx.ld ralher 4.4 General rules of EN 1993-1-6, Seelion 5.2.2, on boundary conditions
(I) The appropriate boundary conditions Thoorelically, for a shell th,,' h"s bolillChll')'
s Jrl is a small parI of Ihe should be used in analyses for the nsscs.sment of co"ditiOlJS III its /n'0 end, 12 differt'''' bOlll/dlll')'
t!lellgtlt of '''e~''ell so /oml limit slates accordi ng to the condi tions shown in cOllditioll combillaliolls ure possible, /11 Ihe reo
o-rugalilms dot's nol mfllle"Cf! Table 4,1, For the special conditions nceded for s('(lreh lileraillre, Iltese (Ire IISll0l/y ahhrel'ialed
iglli/iccml/I'_ buckling calculations, reference should be madc 10 the tenllil/%gy dl.'1'isl.'{1 by Sillger: CI C4
to 4,5, (damped), SI-S4 (simply supported) Will FI
IIIIhis limit mm' he rc>garded F4 (fn-e). HOlI'ever, IIOt all of Ihese combilla·
, which is co\·er"d br the im. tiolJS 1101'(' ('qllol sigllijicallCl! for practical sltell
'n concepl Jar buddillK c{licli' stn/CII/res, The N!ilSOIl is that lilt! load corryillg
belta\'iollr of a shell (Irises from 0 mi..'cilire of
membralle alld belldillg aclions: oftell aile of
these tll'O domi/lates, bllt somelimes 11t(')' illfer·
oct ,ftrollS/),' III particlIl"r, litis jll/('rtrclioll
",elms IJWIIIO( (III pllr/S oflhe .,hell ilia)' he si8·
lIificwlt/y affected hy some felli/Ire, of lite
:!l of geometrical dala bomu/al')l cOlldiliom,

,il/al thick"es.l of lite plllte is The ideas bellilld Ille ,<;electiOlf of specified
mlclliatiolls, Ilol\'e\'('r, il bolllldary cOllditi()/L~ ,~hOlI'll ill Ttlhle 4, I ort' (tf
at I(X'"I lhicklless I'CIri(Jlioll,~ follows:
articlI/ar fabrlcatioll pr()(:e,fs 0) Tile IIIlli" ca~e,f BCI, BCl mul BC3 r.!e-
rom se/ecliI'e corro,fioll) ma)' ,f(~rJbe Ille three COIIIIIIOII pracliclIlly relemllf
'Ole as all impeifc.'Ctioll form combillatio/ls, These illl'O/I'e Ihe Ihrt'e col/lii·
ring cases (fee 6,3, I), liol/s for the axial displacemellf II alld lIormal
displacemelll W {II (I cylillder or coile edge: ei·
a lim;le/tiol' of (I rt'llIlil'e Iher hoth displacelllems are reslraillt!d or ollly
1",SlIch us rll, is milch mort' Ihe Iwrmtll displacemel1l I\' ;s reslmilled, or
italion of aruoillte Iltidme,u else lleill,er ofthem is reslroined,
b) Tlte re.ftrailll of lite third displacemf!1II I'
(If (I cylillder or coile edge is \'t'I')' closely reo

mpliOIl IIsed ill all Ihi" .fhe/l 10100 10 lhe re.flrai,,1 of I\' becOIlSI.' praclical
COIISIn/Clioll details lead 10 litis cOllplillg, .fO il
is Ilml('CI!,uory for proctical desigll pllrposes to
PIPlioll IISL'll ill "lItlti" shell idemify its comliliOIl separalelyfrom Ihal of w,
c) rhe meridiOl101 rolatioll P# (II a cylillder
edge ltD.f oilly a millor illflllellce all Ille ,f/wl!
:.'wbiliIY. excepl ill l'el')l short shells, "is there·
fore illellided only as a delail by lise of lite
ack/ed charoc'ler , for "restmilwd~ alld f for
"free" IIsed lI'ith I"e classificatiolu' BCI (//ul

B"dding ~(Slt!eJ Shells - Ellropctln Cksigll Rerommendt~"~":'":':..-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

(3) Suppon
For 011 11m!" of IIIC.51.' d('(ormmiom; /I, It· {lful p., chl."(ked to CJ'I!>urc
if .~/,m/ld be 'lOti"I IlwI if il i-; lIssun,,?d ill t/('.\igll
th'" liI(') Orl! restroilll.'cI, the ctmSlntctioll de/tlil-
jllg IIIlIsl "'lSlIrI! tllat thi.-; rewroim i.~ reliah~\' middlc surfacc.
(I('lIi("I'('(/. Por schelllmic t'Xtllnl)le.~ of hmmdary' rclc\ nnt EN 199]
('(Jlldilioll.' , ,\·ee '·'ig. 41 in Seelioll 4.4. Where tnilcd ,p"h,,,,;o. or ,h!
tIIl.I' dOl/bl exi!;/\ cYlllce/'llillg Ihe r"strailll of II
()I' p., t-ach sho/lld be (ls.mllled 10 he frt't!. (4) When a global
Where there if douht c·nncemill8 IY'.~/roi", of the boundary
,,,,, IlOr"",1 displacement w. (I check .fOOllld IN! ment ". should abo
petforml'd to ('wllml/f.' the raJial sliJlhe.u of the tml disploccmcnt 1".
rt!Mrlllllillg collstructioll eil:mt'III (e.g. till elld "tanel.."S make this I
rillg). The m;II;IIIIIIII .I!{fJII"S,-; rt'qllirl!d /()
(lchicl"I! tffcclil'l! rl!.\lroilll d(!pell(l~ fm Ihe Inm!
c(lse; forllllllllS for thew! .~/iffm!ues (If'(! Illere- 4.5 Special
(ore gi\'rn ill Ille reil!l'lllli C"lWPI(!rs or !!('f.'lIml.~ cunditiuns
q/lhese R«ommeIKhlfiolls.

Table".I'. Boundary condlllOllS for shells

(1) For the b",',"'.
lion should be pmd
Boundary Simple l:>a.criplion Nonna! diS- Merldlonnl Meridional which arc rclc\ unt
condition '''m placements dlsplncements mtlltion Tllents of bu,kl;' g
""'0 mdllllly rcstmmed
d isplacements).
condllions arc
.. • , •
Bel, Clamped Illcndlonally mtrnilk.'1l
roIallon mtmmcd
P. • codes ofTablc 4.1

rudillily reiolrumcd
BClf mendionally mtnuncd .. • " • p. ••
rotallon free
mdially n~tminl..-u
1)(,2r meridiunally fn.-c
\"'OIallon rc:.tnunOO
. • I/ltO P• •
radially rotmmcd
I'mned mcridiooaUy free
mlallon free
.• " ,,0 {J~., 0

nKlilllly free
I ree edge
Bel mcndlonally free I\' "to 0 lilt 0 {J,lt 0
mtatlon free
r-oOl E: l'he Cllcwnfcrenhal dlsptaccnll:tll , is \CT)' c~ly Imled 10 lhe dl.splact'ltllml ..
IIOI'IT1at to til.:
surface !iO '<f'3n1I"o: = r y rondlUOOli arc 1101 IdcnllfK.'d for lhot 1"0 p;lr.unc\l.-nI (!ICe ("n. bul !he \all.lC!l m
oolunm" ~Id be 00 for dl~L,ccnICl11 I

(2) Rotational restraints III ~hell boundarics 11I~"ellf Illal ore l'ery ' .\II0rl. Ille Iwo h()Jllldllry
lIlay be neglectcd in modelling for plaMie limit rollliition.~ c(lci, ex(,rt (III efJet.·1 IIwl l'lItillrC'.\'
state, but ~hould be included in modelli ng for III/'flllgllfllli the lellglh of IIIl' !;/wll. UI/tler tllc.\e
cyclic plllstieilY and fatigue limit ..tates. For shon comliliun.\. Ille rolllt;rlllal re.vlroilll 1II Ihe ('IId
shclls (see anne" 0 of EN 1993-1-6). the rota- IIfI.f (I .~igllificalll cffi·(·t uti IIII! memhr(llle .w 'cu
tional restraint should be included for the buck- field withi" tire .~"ell. 110\\"('I'('r, thi!!' tloe.~ tlOI
ling limit MatC. tll)l'l)' to Iht! primary.' .t lreu field (lssocill/£'" Ililll
111(' plastic Iimit~llIte. WI the<;e rolllliOlWI re-
.~/rt1illl!! //Illy be iglloredfor liIi.~ em/llmit",.

Modellillg oflhe .dudl

(3) Support boundary conditions should be St.'('U/IM! the .\hell is lhill, il is slIsceptible 10 w-' dt'furnwllmu II, II" wId PI-
crn.-cked to ensure that they do not cause exces- I'CI'C local belldillg if the membrane fort'e}j' ill il
L'J 111m if it U tl.ullmed ill lh'l'igll
sive non-unifonnity of trunsmiued fon."'CS or in- arc 1/01 cO//Cel1lricaf(I' slIpportt'd by Ihl.' hollnd-
.truinL'fi, III" C'OII.iIn/C'lillll dell/il·
troduced forces that are ecccntric to the shell l try. Where Ihc bollndOl)" £."Olldilioll may pm-
t' Ihul IIII:~ rl!f(mi", i.1 rdilll/h'
middle surface. Reference shou ld be made to the ddc tI ,fli~""y ('(.'celllric SIIPIH)rt 10,. rhe mem-
" h<'lIIalic e:m"'I"I'.1 of holll/(/m;'
relevant ..::N 1993 application parts for the de· hnl//(' lo,.ce ill the sltell, care sholiid be flIkelllO
Fig. 4, I ill Set'lioll 4.4 W"e/~
luilt:d applicution of this nile 10 !oilmi and tunks. l'l'lIltlllte rht, l"OIISl'qlll'IICes Olll,l' re,mltillg local
~ wI/,'emillJ: lilt' re.I/I''CIilll oj II
.\"'ell belldil1g.
limld he> //S!jl/I//('t/ II) he> Irl..'e.
(4) When a global numerical analysis is used. This sftlletlt('111 is dis('u,uL'(1 iI/ Ihe Cl)lI/lIfclIl
dollhl cone-"nlinx rl!l/milll of
the boundary condition for the nonnal displace- ahOl'eoll(I).
IUt,t'lII/:m 11', a che("k .rhould he>
ment 11' should also be uSl:d for the circumfercn-
all/dil' Ihl! rudial flijJlIl',fS of Ihe
tial displacement v. except where special cireum·
11n«:lil)lI clt'II/('/11 (I'.g. UII elld
stances make this inappropriate.
"ill/um slilrnt'll rt'ljllir('d tu
• "".\lr"illl tit'pelliis UII 'he load
(or Ihel" ,\Iiqm.'ut',~ IllY! Ihat'. 4.5 Spt.'Chd rules or EN 1993-1-6, Seclion 8.3, on buckling-relevanl boundary
, rt'1t!WIfII cllUfJll''''' or SL't'liUIIS condi1ions
(I) For the buckling limit state, specinl nllen- II is I/(llIlrllllltlll tlte bolilldar), colldiliom for It
lion should be paid to the boundary conditions sllell .,hollid be thollsltl of as IlIIcitollgellble Ix..
McndlOllal Mcrnhonal \\hich are relcvanl to the incfement:ll displace- IlI'('f!II differl'III fK'rt.i of the sll"IIclIlral r(-'spolls(-',
JI"J'II~b fOIallOll 1I",-"lIb of bU1;kling (as op(JOSl.'tI 10 pn.:-oo1;kling 1/0II"el't.'r, bet.·mue Ihe b/lckll/lg .wrc/lglh If
displacements). Examples of relevant boundary .wm/l'timc..f INlrliclllarly sl'tlSitiw: to 'he fIXifl' tlf
, 0 /1. 0
conditions are shown in Fig. 4.1, in which the
COOl'S of Table 4.1 are used.
,Ill! hollllt/llries. if is particlliarly importttlll Ilwl
the.(e condWolIS .iltould be asseS.fed ill a COli·
0 PI~
" 0 Comml'llts all tilt' "C()(/ijit'(/'" bolll/dllr)' cO/u/i-
lioll ("(IlIIbiIlOtioll.f lI.fed i ll Fig. 4. 1 olld (/(1;11(.'-(1
.. 0 in Toh/e 4.1 aN! gil'ClI ill 4.3 (I) .
P. 0
/;"lIrlher disClIssioll of Ihe boundary c."(Il1diliulls
11"'0 PI'" 0 ;s gil't.'l1 ill Seclion 4.6.

"",0 /'_",0

" nunnal 10
bullhe 1.1Ul., In

l"t'rl' shorl, lit" 111'0 boll/It/un.
ncrt (III cqa'i thai ('IIl/lIr~.~
~/h of ,Ite shclI, tllder IIt('l'e
nuliollal re.flrui"t UI thc elld
r/ft'd Oil the mcmbrw/{' ,\II'cH
/wll. 1I001'(!1't'r, Iltlf does III}/
fry' ,ftre.ujidd a.I.W)('i(lf('d lI"illl
~fflll',m Ihl'.I(' rotlliioll(li rt'-
Ion·Jforlhir ""·(",Il/Iim/.
BIIt.'klilfg u/Slf!el She/!!,' - Elllvpemf Design Recomllft!lfdflllmfS

Although the aboH~

OO f
Ben Bor

BC lr
clastic cnilclil \tre~\
i~ truc for bolh I
siclll formulas lor I
tlmt arc obtained
a) tank withoutllochors b) silo withoutaochOOi c) tank with anchors

___ .L... __ lu\,

___ -1. __
I Bel KOf 4.6.3 The eITects

Fixity genemlly
nClr Bcn
_ _ _ J.. _ _ _
l>tresscs may be

..nIN fiwn buill ....

---+--- culculation. Thu~ it
buckling and b",'kh~
d) open tank .... Ith anc hors c) iabonuory experiment I) section ofiotlg ring.
stiffened cylinder Many commcrcial
"'I~ure 4. 1: Schematic c:'(ampics of boundary conditlon.~ fOl'" the huck ling limll ~In l c
of .~':~:':,.::~,::~!'~
~ign>tance is
4.6 EXlcnded commentary on boundary conditions
sumed boundar)'
ling anal)':o.C\ arc
4.6. 1 Ge neral nllal)'),e~. it ~hould
the hund "'~"'.,,,ooj
Shell struCIUrI.'S prescnt a particular challcnge in the identification of conscrvative boundary condi· calculation. This
tions. Real boundary conditions on 1111 structures are never ei ther ideally free nor ideally fixed. so muhts to eslabli.,h Ihl
these 1\\0 simplifications are nlways intended to be chosen in a manner that is eithcr conservative or
unimportant to thc design. Finally. il should be:
conditions for bolh a
4.6.2 Historical background
A more dcnulllding
in Section 4.7. SuitD
In the carly dc\'clopmcnt of thc analysis of the buckling of shells. it was difficult 10 produce IIlge-
brait buckling solutions for conditions in which the prebuckling stress slate was anything othcr than
a unifonn mcmbranc stress stale (sec, for c:'(amplc Tirnoshenko and Gcre. 1961; FIOgge, 1973). 4.6.4 Bounda'1 l
The boundary conditions required to achieve purely membrane pre-buckling stress stale nre ralher
special. and these usually involve no restrninl at thc boundlry against displacements nomlal to the As notcd the COlT
shell surfnce (e.g. rudiul di ~p laccments at the end of a cylinder. nonnal displacements at the cnd of a rcsi~tancc.",hit..t it
cone). Such boundary conditions are gencrally unrealistic. bUI they do produce simple prebuckling '" hich might rcdur..'C
stress states. By contrast. the buckling modes generally require radial constraint of the displace-
IllCnlS at the ends ora bucklcd 70ne (otherwise the buckling strength is very low). so in the histori- Where a flcxurally f
cal de\elopment of this field . different boundary conditions wcre adopted for the incremenlnl dis- boundary. \\ohich le~
placements in the bifureation modc from thc boundary conditions used in the prebuckling stress an LA unal)"i, (thai
analysis. The fonnulas resulting from this methodology nrc referred to as the "classical" expres- n.-duction in assessc
sions. elaMic analysis Will
translallonnl rcslmiT

Mcx/eJlillg o/the x/,ell

Allhough the above may appellr completely hiSlOrical and no longer relevant. il is imponant 10 rec-
ognise ilS cOlllinuing place within Ihe design o f :.hell Siructures. Both hand calculation designs lind
Belr : hllnd buckling checks made using stress analyses undertaken by computer usc Ihe classical elastic
critical stress condition to provide u relcrence buckling resistance. This rcferem:c value i ~ Ihen
I modifiL-d to account for thc effects of imperfections. geometric nonlinearity and phlSlicilY. Funher-
Bell more. most of the [ileroture on shell buck ling (e.g. Yumuki. 1984) relnlCS all other findin gs to the
elustic critical stress condition. so il is entirely nPI)ropriute to retain it in all hlllld cnleulalions. This
is tnle for both the results of more accumte analyses and the inlerpretation of test dalu. But the clas-
sical formulas for elaslic critical stresses nre only able 10 be wrinen as Ihe very simple equnlions
Ihnl are oblained because Ihey nre based on a prebuekling siress field Ihal assumes pure l11embrnne
c) IlInk wilh anchors slrcsli'-"'S. which nrc often constnnt over the shell surface. Thus the elnstic criticnl stress fomlUlas
used here include the misnullch of boundary conditions Ihal lie within the classical reference fonnu-
___ .L...__ _ la~.
___ .J. __
8C2r 4.6.3 The ('fleets of boundary conditions on ass('Ssed clastic buckling slr('ngths

Fixity genemlly leads to higher induced "tresses in a prebuckling LA calculntion (these higher
_ _ _ J... _ _ _
Slresscs may be S(."Cn as detrimental), but fixity can also cause higher buckling strengths in un LBA
---+--- - calculation. Thus it has long lx."Cn common praeliee in shell dl..'Sign to dislingui:.h bel .... l.."Cn the pre-
buckling and buckling boundary condilions.
IsectIOn orlong nng-
sulli:ncd cylinder Muny commercial FE puekages thm muy be Uq -d for bolh a Siress cn lculmion (LA) and nn eigen-
the buckling limil Slate value analysis (LBA) do nOI provide any opponun ity to ehllngc the boundary conditions from one
of these calculations to the other. Care should therefore be taken to ensure that the calculated de-
sign resistance is nOi sensitive to the cho ice of boundary condilions, or to guarantee Ihul the us-
lo umed boundnry conditions lire fu lly rcali!>Cd in the final constnlelion. Where numericlll shell buck-
ling analyses are undenaken using the Slime bounda ry conditions for the prebuckl ing and buck ling
nnnlyses, it should also be noted that these calculations will probably not provide n perfect malch to
the hand calculntions bccllUSC of the change of boundnry conditions used in the fonnu lus for hand
f eonscrval;"·e boundary condi- calculution. This should be kepI in mind when numerical results nre checked IIgainst classical for-
:lcal1y free nor idcally fixed. so mulas to establish their ueeumcy.
Icr that is eithcr conscrvllti ve or
Finnlly, it should be nOioo againthnt sometimes it may be unconservative to usc the same boundary
conditions for both analyses.

A more demanding silualion. where u boundary condition cannot suppon tensile forces. is dcscrilx.-d
in Section 4.7. Suitllble procedu res to 0\ erconte the rcsulling difficulties arc also presented there.
I was difficull to produce alge-
~ state "as anything other than
jKt Gerc. 1961; FIOgge. 1973). 4.6.4 Boundar~' condilions and conscT\ulh'c cslimatcs of r('Sistanec
<buckling stress slate arc mther
1st displacements normal to the As noted in the comment abo,e. additionlll restrai nt of clastic buckling may increase the buckling
al displacemenls at the end of a resistance. whilst il muy ulso lead to higher stresses in Ihe prebuckling slate. causing curly yielding
-do produce simple prebuckling which might reduce the assessed strength.
dial constraint of the displnce-
• is \cry low), so in the histori- Where II nexurally fix,,-d boundary is chosen. many shells dcvelop high bending stresses close to the
oopled for thc incremenl3l dis- boundary. which lend 10 u reducl..-d assessment of the plllSI1c strength if Ihm assessment is b:lscd on
used in the prebuekling stress nn LA analysis (that is. unless all MNA or GMNA annlysis is used to detennine the strength). The
:d to as the "classical" cxpres- reduction in assessed strength is genern lly spurious. since the high local stresses calculated in un
clastic nnnl ysis will o nen be remo vcd by plasticity. But where the high SlrcsseS nrc inducl..-d by
tmnslalional rcstrolilllS, the problem becomes morc complic:lled.
Buckling o/Steel She/b., - £lIropeul1 Design Rt!CI)lIIlIIell{lotiom

Givcn thai boundary conditions will always lie somewhere betwccn the limits defined by the
simple descriptions. difTerent possible boundary conditions should be invcstigated as pan of the
design process. Ifthcre is any uncertainty about which assumed boundary conditions k...d to a con-
sen uth'c cstimate of slrength. both the fn.:c and rcslmincd limiting cases for any dcgn..'C of fret.-doll1
should be cxplorctl, and where this leads 10 significant difTerences, considenation should be ghen to
assessing the true stifTn<..'l>s of the ooundllry condition :lIld modelling it with an appropriate elllstic

4.7 Example: A nat botlom tank

A nat bottom tllnk is a Iypical example in which it is necessary 10 pay sp(.'ciul allcntion to the mod-
elling of boundary conditions whcn a numcrical buckling analysis is undertaken. Onen these tanks a)
are built w itoout anchors into a concrete foundation to restrnm \ crtical displac~ments of the bolloll1
of the wall (or with only weak anchonng for the erection condition). Thus. BC2f is a proper bound- B,v
ary condition for the lower edge of the cylindrical wall in u buckling analysis (LBA). But the free
mcridional displacement condition 11 :1- 0 which is required in BC2f(Fig. 4.2b) cannot be used in an
LA analysis of the prcbuckling condition. as it would not resist vertical forces at nil (thus "iolnting
equilibrium) (Fig. 4.2a). There is no simple solution to this anonully.
The first of thc-.c
the phenomenon of
In pruclical tenns. thcre are two choices a\'ailablc to the analyst. First. ifthc FEM (':olllputer pack-
\'dnd loading). In I
IIgethut is used permit!': it, the meridionlll displacement boundary condition should lJc ch;mgcd rrum
lower edge \\ould 'I
"restruined" (BC If) for the LA stress analysis to "free" (BC21) for the LUA eigenvalue analysis.
b;l!>C detail,
Altcm:uively, whcre thc software docs not penni! such a boundary condition change. two scpanate
be n.'Cogni'-l..-d i
calculations must be carried out. In the first calculation. the design action combination under con-
only linear I
sidemtion (including the panial fuctors 7F) is analysed with the boundary condition "rcstnained"
tact or spnng
(BCll). TIlis analysis delivers the meridional reaction forccsA. along the base supponed edge (Fig.
calculallon~ in
4.2a). In Ihe second calculation, thcse reaction forces nre applied as an e)(tenlul linc 10:ld, giving an
equilibrium system together with the other cXlemnllo.1ds. In this second calculation. the appropri- analysi~, and ~~~~~
is obtained. F
ate boundllry condition Ue2f can be uS{.-d in order 10 deJi\'Cf a COlTCCt LBA result. It may be not<..-d
thai must be _pplied
that in the st:cond calculation three nodes must be \ertically r;:stnalOcd to prevent rigid body tnansla-
lions (or possibly singular matrices). and these mUSI be chosen with carc to avoid constraining the
buckling mode.

Mocklling o{l~ sltclf

lv.ccn the limits defined by the

I be imcsligmcd as part of the
Jndary conditions lead to a con-
:ases for ally degree of fl\.'(.'dom
:onsidcratlon shoultl be given to
IX it with lin appropriate clastic

ay spL'Cial allention to the mod-

i undcrtnken. Oftcn these tanks
a) b)
:al displacements of the bottom
Thl&. Be2f is a proper bound- a,V
19 analy~is (LBA). But the free
:Fig. 4.2b) CanllOl be used in an Flgu~ 4.2: McridlOlllll dlspllKrl1lCfll condItions al the Iov.~ edge of a flal boilollliank Willi WIthout ancbor-
mg. a) rrebuckhng analysis (LA). b) bud!;n& anai»)1.s (LBA)
ical focces at all (thus violating
The first of these two methods may also be affected by another typical femure of nat bonom tanks ~
rsl. iftht;' FEM (''Ol1l pulcr pack the phenomenon of uplift under linear .. tress conditions (e.p;. v.hen the empty talll. is exposed to
,dlllon should be changed from v. ind loading). In this cnsc a simple LA analysis lhal adopted the BC I f boundory condition at the
. the LBA eigenvalue analysis. lower edge would yield some tensile reaction forees .~, at the basc v.hich cannot be resisted by the
condition change. 1\\0 sep.1mtc baltC detail. Instead, the tan!.. base rises (uplifts) in a limiK-d region oflhe base perimctcr. It should
action combination under con- be recognised immediately that this is a non-linear phenomenon. and is not ca!<tily caplun.'d u!<ting
oundary condition "restmined" only linear analyses. 'Iowe\icr. this problcm may be o\'ercomc either by imerposing nonlinear con-
g the base supported edge (Fig. lnel or spring elcmcnts bct"ccn lhc tank wall b.1!>C and thc foundmion. or by pcrfomling n series of
calcu lutions in which all nodes that de\'elop tensile meridional reaction forces are freed 11\ the ne)(1
an eXlcmal line load. giving on
:tond calculation. the uppropri- analysis. and repeatedly applying this procedure until n comcrged solution with no tcnsile reactionlo
is obtained. Figure 4.3 lohow. nn CXllnlplc III \\hich the final compl'\."'SShe reaction forces are !<thowl\
f t LilA result. It may be noted
id to prevent rigid body trunsll1- Ihnt must be applied as UP" aTd nodnl force ... in the s(''Cond c.tllculation (Schmidt et al., 2(03).
care to a\oid constraining the
BI/cklillg a/Steel Sheff.f - EllropeOlr Desig" R("COmme"dnlio".~

': .":. . '. [§l

Principal authors:
zero support

. .. .. .'~-
5.1 General

..... '- ;r-.. :~.:~,8' Ise2f1

"---'~;'--: 211' The prinl!ipal ru.,um~
the rule .. of EN 199
.....:t " ideally clastic-plasti
Poisson's mlio I'arc
tension fr is also requ
Pan II of these Re
I1lcchanieal beha\io
Fi~urt 4.3: Modelling BC2fboundnry conditions althe suppor1td cylindcr edgc ofll nal bottom ta nk in 3n ThUli. EN 1993-1-6
uplift loading Silualion (sc: lf~eight plus .... ind)
commented belo.... L
Section 5.].
4.8 References
5.2 Rules of
FIOggc, w. (1973) Stresses itr Shells, 2nd edn. Springer-Verlag, lJerlin & New York.
( 1) The materi:lI
Timoshenko. S.P. and Gerc. J.M. ( 1961 ) TIr('Ory 0/ Ela\'!ic: Stability. 2nd cdn. McGraw-JliIl . New
obtained from the rc

Schmidt. H .• MOiler. B. lind Sehiborr. M. (2003) "Shear buckling a linllt stntc 10 be COllliidercd in
cylindrical stccltllnk designT'o Proc. Int. Conf. on Design of Cylindrical S{(:cI Tanks and Pipelines.
Prague. Czech Republic. Oct. 8-10, pp 102-108.

Yamaki. N. (1984) Elastic Stability o/Circlilor Cylindricol S"efl~. Nonh Iiolland. Elsevicr Applied
Science I)ublishers. Amsterdam.

(2) Where materia

curve... are inn)l\l.-d
carried out under ,t
1993-1 -6). the imtia
nlodulus t: ~houl~

Material asSllnlpliOlU

5 Material assumptions
Principal authors: J.M. Rotter Dnd A.M. Grcsnigl

5.1 General

The principal assumption concerning the behaviour of the rnatcrillls of construction thtll undcrlic~
the rules of EN \993-1-6 is that the material uniaxial stress-slmin relationship may be treated as
ideally elastic-plastic. Under elastic conditions. Ihe two pammelcrs of Young's modulus £ and
Poisson's mlio varc needed. For calculations 100'" 01'o'iog plasticity. the yield stress in direct ulliu.,ial
tcnsionJris also required. This means that the hand calculation rules in EN 1993-1-6.35 well as in
Part II of these Rccornmend:ltions. arc 011 based on a mther simple thrcc-pammeter model of
mechanical behaviour (only two of which. the elastic modulus and yield stress. M\e a strong
er edge or I flat bottom tonk III on
od) Thus. EN 1993-1-6 contams only a few statements on mlllcriul behaviour. These arc repeated and
commented below in Section 5.2. Enhanced advice for computnlionai modclling. is gi\cn III
Section 5.3.

5.2 Rules of EN 1993-1-6 on material properties (Section 3.1 )

in & New York.

',2nd cdn. McGm\\--lI il1 . New (I) The material propcnies of steels should be This nile COlleems fhe WI/lies of yield slress
obtained from the relevant applicution stundurd, (,/lid II'llC're appropriale for EN /993-/-6, the
IIllimole lefl,l'ile ~'Ire.u) for each '\1H!Cijied ,I'leel,
~_ limit Siale to be considered in The rule imfllie.f thaf Ihe standard i.f limited ill
real Steel Tanks and ])ipclincs, ;Is tJl,plictiliOfl 10 sfl.'e/ shell SInIl..'IW'eS, hilI litis
;l' 1101 Ihe case: ;1 is mlid for shells afld shell
segmellfs of lIf1iform lhieklless fabr;clIIed from
ooh lIollnnd, Elscvier Applied allY i.IOlf"O/Jie malerial II'ho,W! m('Chafljeal
/)(-/",..ilJllr mUI' be represemed as ideal etaslic-
pitlslie, Mosllrealmellls ofolher meWls liSt! Illis
_mll/e /IItHlc/, so Ihe rules presellled heN' do
htn't' wider rdl!'l'{lnee,
The assumed material behm';our i.f geflemlly
aJmmed to he characlerised by 0 ,fimp/e
e/ru/ic-plrulic mockl in lenus of all elaslie
mOl/II/I1,1 E, Poi.Hon '.f ralio I: and yield .flreu
j,. hul more preci,fl! models are also adopled
where approprilile.

(2) Where materials with nonlincur l!IIrcss-strnin The rll/e ('oncerttl' mlllerilli.~ Ihal rna)' begi" 10
cur\'cs arc involved and a buckling unalysis is (li.~pft'I' p/a,~/i(" .~/ra;flS al slres,l' lew!!.I' helml' Ihe
carried OUI under stress design (sec !tS of EN flOtiol/ol ')'ield ,~tres.\' ". "'here Ille maler;lIl
1993-1-6), lhe initiul lungcnt value of Young 's t/OC.f IIot IWI'c (I II'clI defillcd yield pailll, lhi.r
modulus E should be rcpluccd by u rcduci.'d yield Wreu ;,f cOfll'l'lllioflally lake" (IS Ihe 0,2"0

BIIf;/JIIIg ujSJeel Sht!lis - EIlFUpeun Design ReOOHlme,tdoJWt"

...alue. If no bener method is a .. ailnble. the st."Cllnt prou{.flre.u. 5.3 E \lended

modulus at lhe 0.2 0 0 proof stress should be used
when 1lSSCSS1IIg the ela!>tic critical load or clastic The reaStm for '''is~/Jt-(:itll nile 1.1 ,"m plaslic 5.3. 1 Buclding
critical ~tress. .flraillS Ihal (J(·('lIr aJ/OlI'crf/reu It!w!/.\' IIIlIII Ihe
yield stren in .wcll mllll!rialv a" UOCOlIIlNHlil!d
hy 1I reductio" in rhe lal/gent nlOt/llll1f, This The a~umption thllt
reduc,ioll If! l1I{1(ed,,1 sliffncss lIIaI' ('"use ha.!. nn ideal ""\;'-P
premalllre hudding Care! sll(},lId be raken ill IIssumed in unillxinl I
assessillg 'he "redll(wll'O/l/(!" 10 CIlSllr(" ,hal il ...on Mises is eommon
i.f aplwollriare 10 'he (/(-sigll "'re.\\' lel·el.
It i~ also commonly I
Th,s rule oll/~' (VIIC:crnv sireu de.f;gll /lsillg
under stlllie condilion
either IUlI1d calclIllIIiow; IJr LA wuJ LBA
increasing lood~ on th
cmalrsl!J jur SInK'wres 1II(J(le of""'Ierl(lls other
may be expected to be:
Iholl slrllctural ("lIrhon sIn/. II slHJuld be
is be1ic\(~d 10 kaJ III
untkrslooJ Ihal "lIlhe rule.f gn'ell Iwre wuJ i"
£,V I99J-I-6 ar~ based OIl OIl ukal elastic.
Sincc most computCT
plastiC model of maler;al behariollr.
necessary to take care
Thif ru/p IJr·(JINl.f~ 1/"" thl? modulll~ be reduced Yo ilh rcspt"Ct 10 I~ rc
to the St'(·alll \'ulue til IIu> 0,]°. prooj .~/re.'iS.
This it (I I'CI)· cnuk ntle imleetl The ntle
prol'ides a l"rry' tlppro.ri"",le al/mwIIICf' for Ille
IOS!J· of nUllerial SIiJ/nt'Sl' II'hell Ihe .{Ireu 1f!1'e/ is
Fllrlher JisC"lIssirm is gil'ClI in 5.3.3 below.
(3) In a global numerical analysis using Thil mle ;I1dicale.ffonlml/l' Ilmlihe O.2tJ Qprooj
material nonlinC:lrity.the O.2~D prooflilrcss should Slress is 10 Iw lI.fed as Ihe "ferellc-e "yield
be used to represent the yield SlresS I. in all slress" ill Ihe simple Ih,-ee-pal'flme/l'r model
relevant c,,"prc!>sions. The stress·strnin eurve I10led abOl'e.
should be obtalm:d from EN 1993-1 -5 Annex C The strpss l '/mill ('lIn'es gil'etl 11<-1011 are
for carbon 'Iteds nnd EN 1993-1-4 Annex C for co/u'istem ll"ith lilrue u{ 'he idemifiell
stainless steels.

(4) The Illaterial properties apply Where 3 material h:b

to AI
e/emled lemperulllre.\', oolh YOllng:r
temperatures 001 e~ceedmg 150"'C. sc\cral altcmalilc Yo
modI/IllS lIIuJ Jhe yield siress dt!r:lme jor 1II0S1
matcrial bc::hli\iour, a'
melllk The rale oj ck'CIil1{! is slighll\'jasler jar
NOTl: Thc Nntional Annex may gn'c Ihe modlllllS Ihall for lite yield Slrl!SS. for calculation.!. in Yo h
infonnation about material propemcs at CalcultlllOlIS for shelJ.{ III cleW/led the O,r,. proof stm.~
temperatures exceedmg J50"'C. lemperalure.f \·holild n-cogllise the N'lel'tll/t be used Yo hcre thcre i
the !>i1'C!oo!> bello in th,
I"f!(h,ccd \"Ullie of ell(:h pmlH.!rIy at Ihe de{Ign
critical. Nc\ crthck"-·
lemperuture. Whert! eleWlled lemperu/lltes
beloit' 150"C lire illl"O/l-ed, COIIl/O"~"Olild be
below lhc O.21!. proc
tangent modulm; al bt.
ererr:il'ed, as some melll/s (r.g. lIlISlellitic
Siailliess .\I('Cls and (lllIlIIillillm) do dilp/tlJ'
.~ignific(lnl properll' I'O/lle reduclions ill lhil
range. Itifomlllrioll UII these IIwlfers lIIay be
fuulld ill F.N /3084 -7 (1(}05),
Mull.>rial ussumlllHNu

5.3 Extended cOlllmcnhlry on nonlinear m:lterial belul\'iour

· ,hil fpt·(it.11 rule I.f Ihal plastic
53.1 Buckling allol)5e5 using an idcal cll1Slic-pJlIstic model
our III 10llL'r _f/ress lel'el\ IluIII fhe
I/lell IIII/ferial, are lXXQIIIIXlI1ied
, ill the IIJl/gent mot/llllls. Thi~ The assumption that is used throughout most shell buckling analyses of metals is thm the muteri,,1
mUlt'rial .\liO'll..,.'(S I/UII' CtlU!)'f! Ims an ideal clastic-plastic response, with Young's modulus £ and yield stress,,~ Symmctry is
Wng Curl' should be' wkel/ i" ru.~Ull1ed in uniaxial tension :lIld compression (Fig. 5.1). Thc multi-axial stress yield criterion of
redlR'eJ Wllm'" to ellSllre ,htll il \-on Miscs is commonly assumed, with a nonnal now m le for plastic strai ns.
'tIlhe dC_Ii/.:" slrt'fS lewd
It is also commonly assumed that the stmins are always increasing. since the load path 10 failure
C:Oncerllf flreU design It~illg
under static conditions is undefined. As re\ of the din..'Ction of strains (under monotonically
-a/nllaliOIlS or LA all" LBA
inerca~ing loads un the ioImeture) lelld~ to nn c1l1stie modulus responsc in those parb. the structUI"C
'!If.:lures made ofmalerio/s OIll('r
may be e.,,:pccled to become more stable if thc direction of straining re\erscs. Thus. this as~umptioll
I carbon 51«1. " !J/ttJu/d ht!
is believed to lead to a conSCf"atlve treatment of the stability of a structure under most conditions,
r IlIIIM ruler gi\YII hen! ami ill
In! hal!'" Oil WI idhll dllstir.:-
Since most computcr Ilnalyses of elastic pllLSlic buckling adopt this simplified model, il is always
'"w/erial m'ht.1I"/OlIr,
necessary to take care in intCTpI"Cting the n..'l>ults of ~ueh calculations in a manner that is L'OIlscn'uli, e
.'e~ /rul th" modulll~ /It! n!dllC't:d \\, lIh respecl to the real Stress·strain responses of the 1113terials of construction.
oal",. '" tlw 0.10. proof ,ftres.f
cnuk nil,. illd...'('(I. The nile
UPl1I"0.:cimule allmo,ance for the
stiffnl!SS IIh"1I11w f/reH Il"I"(" is
ioll if giren in 5.3.3 he/Ow, Tension
Il'S fonl/ull"lhalIhe O.:r' 0 proof
used Uf Ihe rc[erelll.'e ')'il'ltl
sllIIple three-purClllle/er nuxlel Stmin c

aill clln-es gil"(,11 belall' are ry

~ those of Illp idclllijicd
Figu rt' 5. 1: Ideal elustic-plU!olic ~tn:~!o-wll in rcsponloC

Where a ITWtcrial hus a significantly diITerent stress strain cunc from this ideal model. there arc
reRlperCltllre.f, bolh Yow/g '.\
SC\ ernl altcm:llin~ ways of devising a simple conl>Cn ath'l! clastic-plustic n.-prescntution of thc
e yield stress dec/in,. for IIIO,II
IT\3terial behaviour. as indIcated In Fig. 5.2. The representation shown in Fig. 5.2a is gencrully sufe
of(/edilll' is slightll" faster for
for calculations in which plasticity dominates and the diITerence betwccn the proportional hmit and
Ihon for lhe I'jeJd Slreu,
the 0.2~. proofstrcss is not great (c.g. pemaps 2oo.). The representation shown in Fig. 5,2b should
jtwfhells al dem/('tI
be used where there is II large dilTerencc bet\\,ccn thc proponionallimit aod thc 0.2". proofstrcss.
/timId n'rog/lise Ihe I"W.'It!WIIII
the stress le\'els in the structure: significantly exeeed the proportional limit and stability elTccl!; are
if each propt'rl\' 01 '''e de.fign
critical. Ne\crthclcss. it should be noted that a stability flU lure that occurs at a mean stress Just
Where ,!lnuted lemperalllN!.f
below the 0.2"/" proof strcs~ is gcnerdlly not I.:onscnutively represented by eithcr choice, as the
'"t' inm/l't'd, cclll/ion shollld he
tangent modulus at buckling is lo\\-er thun the secant valuc shown in Fig. 5.2b.
,oRlI!' meWls (,..g_ austenitic
and alllmillllllllJ do dupla)'

r~I' l'lIll1e red/lclivlIs il/ ,IIi.\
'01/ vn these mullen lI/f1y he
4-7 (2005).


~ ---
Blick/illX urS/cd Shcl/:J - Ellropcall Design Recommellt/lIl;oflS

elastic-plastic treatment

Where materials .... ilh

under !tlre!>s dl'Sign
initial mngent \lIlue
elastic-plastic treatment al caeh point in the
Proportional limit Where the Slrcs\C" in II
modulus should be rep
o 0,2 o 0,2 imc.'>Iigalion. " here no
single \ ulue of Slre~~ n
a) Young's modulus ....,lIh 0.2-_ proohtrcss b) reduced modulus with 0.2-, proofsu"Css
modulus Er at the rele'
,,'IAure 5.2: Itleal clll~tie·plll"lIe representations of nonlmear stres..~~! rllln mponse
rolher unifonn membral

5.3.2 Buckling a llul)ses "hcre the load path ill\ohcs rncnaluflitrain direction
For more complicated
of the buckling reS!,tan
Where the lood path to failure is known and somc parts of the structure may experience a rc\crsal in reduced \ulue COfTC'opo
Ihe dlreclion of Ihe strams. Iwo effects occur. The pennancnt plastic sirnins Ihal hn\c de\c\oped arc
Ihe Commenmry abO\
retailll.:d. leading to residual stresses that may later influencc the beha\ iour. and the local modulus 1993- 1-6 to be conS!"
dromatically increases as the Ilunerial becomes claslie (Fig. 5.3). In genentl. this situalion Icads to conditions where the g~
an increase III Ihe buckling lood. as illustrated by the diffcrence bet""":en the langent modulus tlnd
5.2b is le~~ Ihan the ;,
double modulus Iheories of column buckling. lIowc\cr. where Ihe slrains are considerobly reduced
Ilo\.. ever. '" hilS! it canf
from the plastic condition. funher account may need to be t.'1kcn of the Bauschinger effect. which
com;crvali .. c treatment
causes carly panial yielding in the re .. erscd Slntin din.-ction palh and leads 10 a n.-duction in tangent
modulus belo"" Ihe elaslic valuc al stresses smaller Ihnn Ihe yield siress.
In a global numerical U'
from one of the followl

It "hould be noted Ihal

/1.1 part or Ihcse slress slm
,, \ Sinun dm:cuon plaslic strains III Slresc;c
" I
from 1II!n:

"" 5.3.4
The namc "Rambcrg-l
uniaxialtcnsion may b
zone. folloy,cd by lhe I
&U!'iChingcr dfa:1 "train-hardening mOOl
Ramberg and Chgood (
of behaviours. 11 pen11
modelled with n..awnal
Flgur" 5.3: EIIIMIC unloadmg I'C!otorcs the clllStic modulus. oot IS latlT subJcct to the l1au!.thmger cffect
Whcre residual strains due to cold working may be present In the us-built stntcture. consideration
should be ghen to the possibility thut Buuschinger em.'Cb may cuuse a ehnnge in the Cffl"Cthc c,
stress-slnun curve of the matcrial.
in which c is Ihe unia
paramctcrs "hich ma)
ell is given by

8 11 Go E

Material assumptiu/ls

5.J.J Buckling IInal)'ses In\'ol,'lng materials "ith cun'llllIcar stress-Slnin cunt'S

Where materials wilh curvilinear stress-slmin curves nre used and II buckling analysis is carried OUI
under stress design (sec EN 1993- 1-6 SL'Clion 8.5 and C hapler 9 of these Recommendations). the
initial tangcnt value of Young 's modulus £ should be replaced by a reduced val ue ER approprill te
elastJc-plastic treatment Ilt each point in the structure to the stre!!os level nt lhlll point althe in!'Otant of buckling.
-' Proportionallimil
Where the s tresses in the buckling region of the shell pass the limit of proportionality, the clastic
modulus s hould be replael.'(! by the tangent modulus Ilt the appropriate stress le .. cI. For further
E investigation. where no better method is lIvlIilnble lind the stress field is reilltively simple so that a
du lus ~ ilb 0.2-. proof Sircu single value of stress may be used to charoclcrisc the majority of the structure. Ihen the tangent
1~51roln r\"SpOIlllC
modulus ET at thc relevant stress level should be adopted. This is the situation for shells under
rather uniform membrane stress fields (u nifonn compression. unifonn external pressure etc.).
)fslrain dirft'lion
For more compl icated situations. where a very rupid buckling evaluation is required. a first cstlmale
of the buckling resistance may be obtained by replacing Young's modulus in nil fom1Ulns \\ith the
re may c\:pcricncc a fe' crsnl in
slr.I.ins that ha\C dc\c\opcd are reduced value corresponding to the secant value at the O,r,. proof stress (Fig. S.2b). A':> notl.-d in
\3\ ,our. and the local modulus the Commentary abo .. e. this is nonnally a .. cry eonscrvmive assumption. and is adopted in EN
gCTICrnl. this sl1unlian lead!> to 1993·1-6 10 be consistent with other parts or EN 1993. but it could be uneonscrvall\'e under
conditions where the general siress level exeeeds the stress at which the t1l.ngentto the eune in Fig.
""cen the tangent modulus and
mins arc coru.idcrubly n.-duced S.2b is less than the slope of secant line 10 the 0.2°. proof stress (typically around 75'/. or J.).
the IJauschingcr em.oct ..... hleh Howcvcr, whiisl il cannOI be guaranlced to be always conscr.aliH:, ill mu~t \,:~~ thb will be a .. cry
leads \0 a reduction in tangent conservative treatment for shel1s !!oince the MresS levels are oncn well below yield.
In a global numerical analysis us ing material nonlinearity, the stf(..'SS-Slruin curve should be oblllincd
from one orlhe rollowing sections, according 10 the melal rrom which the structure is constnlc tcd.

It should be nOled that buckling ruilurt.'S in shclls ge nentll y involve s tresses Ihnt lie below J.. so the
pmt of Ihese stress strain cur.cs Ihat s hould be uccunnc1y repn.."SCnll.'(i is Ihat associnted with slIlull
plastic strains at slresses below"..

5.3.4 Ramberg·Osgood

) The name "Ramberg...Qsgood- is used 10 indielltc thllt the stress-strain behaviour or any malerial in
unin.'(iultension may be represented by a non-linear relationship thnt models an initial linear clastic
zone, rollowed by the progn..'Ssi\oe dc\oelopment of increasingly large plastic strains, but with a finite
slrain·hardening modulus throughout. A ~p'-"Cialised .. ersion of the model was pro~ by
Ramberg and Osgood (1956), but it is now cOlll1l10nly generalised (Fig. 5.4) to penmt a wider range
or bchaviouni. It permits stress-strain eur.cs Ihat represent austenitic steels and aluminium to be
~et:t 10 the IklUM:hmgcr effect modelled with reasonable accuracy.

r. buih structure. con... idcrallon ... (5.1)

lbC a change In the cm.'Cli ... c

in which J: is Ihe uniaxial slmin. q is Ihe unia.xial stress. 0'0 is the proof stress, and a and 1/ are
p.arumetcrs which may be modified 10 lit an experimcntal stress strain curve. The rererencc slrain
eo is given by
... (5.2)


BI/ckling o/Stcel Slrell~ - Ellmpean Oesi~1I R~nmmelldlltiQns

\\ here E is the clastic modulus. Ir 0"0 is taken as the 0.2~'o proof Stll$!>. then

1I "" O.OO2{ £/0",,) .. . (5.3)

This model is oftcn implcmcmed willi the dcfonnalion theory of plasticity. Fur Co

It is common practice to delennine the value o f the parameter II from the proofSIrCSSCS:l1 0,0 1°. " /,
:lnd o.r.
plaslle stram (0"0 and UpO.OI rcspecll\cly). \\ hich gi\c the \':llue of II as For c. c
111(20) t1 !. + hE(&
n - .,' (5.4)
In(uolupO.O t) in which h ;\ the ratl\)
Ilowcn.:r,lhe JXlrameter /I may also be simply obtainl..'<l by ])Crfonning;l direct best lit 10 the poin of
the cune that the user needs to de line acc urately.
c" c. IJ.. J.)

--- --- ---- ----

Thc value of hE I'"n,,,,,,
---- ------
.. - ...
{ /0&,< £,
• 0.8
E hut In ~ limte

0.6 -11 - 100
n - 20
5.3.6 Strc~s-S"lraln

•• 0.4
c 0.2-_ proor stre.~ n - 10 The Rambc....i!-O good
•E 00
0 -5 accurate 1
i5 C. 0. , E.
E" mlllal 1.1n£c.. modulu~ 11 -3 pro\'idcd the pla.,\ic
0.2 repn.'SCntalilln lI:nd,
11 - 2
cunc thu!> o"".Ni'''.~
0 0.5 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
l)imen~lonlcu strain £Ie.
Flj,!urt' 5.4: Gencndiscd Rambcrg-Osgood stress-strum cuncs

5.3.5 Stress-strain cuncs (or structural curbon ~tcels

For structural carbon steels, as for exnmple S235 in EN 10025 (2005). the following .. implc modcl
IS widely used. The uniaxial stress-stmin materi:ll definition is go.. cm(.'<i by the clastic modulus E,
yield stress;;. and ultimate tcnsile stress };,. A plastic pl:ltcau may be employed bcmccn the yield
stmin l?' and the struin hardening onset strain t;. LlIlcar hardening is assumed bct"ccn (he struln
hardcmng onset .. train c.- and thc ultimate tcnsile stress};,. The ultimate tensi le stress};, occur; at the
!.Imin Cu.

The totullllrain /.'a t any instant is the sum of the clastic strain (- attl and plastic stnlln.

\lal.:riuJ a.UllniptiOlU

... (5.3) q Ec ... (5.5)
tbticity. For G < cSt; (the plastic plateau)

from thc proofMrcsscs til 0.0 11.. (T -. /y ... (5.6)

\alue of II as
For &., < c"::: c.,

... (5.4) /. + hE(t: - G.) ... (5.7)

In which h is the rotio of strain hardening modulus 10 elastic modulus and
mg a direct be:.t fit to the p..1n of c.. h E ... (5.8)

t; + (f,. h.J (hE) ... (5.9)

The value of hE for con\cntional ~ tructurnl carbon steels is commonly taken to be 600 MPa .
.-:;-.- .. - - - - . - The length of thc plashc plateau is \'cry "ariable. I-'or structures with one-dimcnsional stress fields
alld mad.: from structural carbon sleels.
- /0 G· < t; < -J5t;. . .. (5.10)
bt.u in some finite element calculations. II may be appropriatc to ha\ c no nla<:Iic plateau.
-n - 1oo
_. n - 20 5.3.6 Stress-strain cur\\~ for uustenitic lind stainless steels
--- ' n - 10
The Ramlx:rg-Qsgood expressions. in the implernenlation described in 5.3.4. provide a reasonably
"- 5 accuratc representation of the stn:ss-strnin curvc for !lustenitic steels and aluminium IIl1oys.
"- 3 provided the plul>tie struins lie within the rungc 0 < 171 < O.02~... lIowever, at higher slruins this
11 - 2 representation tends 10 overestim:ue the Slress at a gi\cn slrain (Fig. 5.5). The Ramberg-Osgood
curve Ihus ovcr--cslimlllcs bolh thc <:trcss and the tangent modulus at higher plastic strains, leading
to uneonscrvalive strength c\'aluations for both plastiCity and buckling.
3 3.5 4

,,5). the fol1o'>'ing !.Imple model

rmed by the clastic modulus E.
be employed bely,ccn the yield
• is assumed be''>'ccn the "lram
:lte tensile stress/" oceul"> at the

and plastic Mrain.


----.---- .-...
Buckling ojSfl'el Shells· EIiTupeanlJa'lgn Recommcndations

a Stress

Ramber&-Osaood CUrve ~ ______ ' ultimate ~t rc!.!..

-- ---- -- 0.20. proof ... tl'D~.

---- ---- --


The \ alu ... of EJlI'"

0.0001 0.002 fO,l
Fi~ u re 5.5: Errors in the Rnmbcrg.Qsgood representation Ilt higher Slrt'S.'i le\-els (after Rasmussen. 2(03) 1+ nE,c

To address this problem without too much complexity. Rasmussen (2003) developed the following
equutions to represent the behaviour of austenitic steels at higher plastic strains.
and 1/1 i ... dl," I ".."",,
The stress·strain curve up to the 0.20: 0 proof stn.'SS a., - o'(U is still rcpn."IiCnlcd by Eqs 5.1 to 5.4.
To cover conditions at highcr strains. the curve was extcnded 10 become thc fo llowing. 111 _ 1+3.5[: )

. . . (5. 11 )
Ra!ltl1u~n (200J)

. .. (5. 12)

and. whcre m.'\:c . . "'-II)'.

with 'P 0,002. 0;, is the 0.2°~ proof stress. E" is the initial tangent modulus and Ep is the tangcnt
modulus at the proof stress. The strain at the uitim:J.te tcnsile strcss 0'.. is 1.;..
. O.2+IMS - (u

A 1110r... rn..-cis"':;;:::.::1
5.11 \\ilh th ... c

II II" II/ "

in "hich the ""''''''''9
run~ ...

\fa/erial tl.ullmplioll.f


. .
ultimalC stress. 0 "
0.211" proof stress. 0"

0.2~. str:lln
Strain ultimate Simin. c..
Figure 5.6: Defin1t1on of m1tial tangent modulus £ ...
o.r. proofstrt"is a... uit1matt' !t'"sile stress <T. and tangent modulus £,. at O'v

The value of Ep is gin:n by

E = ~ ... (5. 13 )
5 k\'CIS (lifter Rasmussen. 2003)

2(03) dc\clopcd thc following

,. (1+";:')
.t1C straIns.
and m is closely approxilTlalcd by
represented by Eqs 5. 1 to 5.4.
orne the follo ..... ing. 111 : 1+3.5( : :) . .. (5. 14)

.. . (5. 11 )
R:lsmusscn (2003) also oITcn.'d u simple cxpression by which I:" might be estimated us

... (5 . IS)
.. . (5.12)

modulus and Ep is Ihe tangcnt and. whcre necessary. the following cstirmllCS for <T"
'ir is &".
~ "' 0.2+185( <T.) for aus tcnitic and duplcx alloys ... (5. 16)
o'. E.

a 0.2+185(0'.. E. )
~- for all ferritic alloys ... (5. 17 )
o'. 1- 0.0375(,, - 5)

A more precise relationship was dcwlopt:d by MacDonald ct al. (2000) which is cxpressed us Eq.
5. 11 with thc exponent /I gin'n by

" I O +/l/(~ r (all vnlucs of c) ... (5. 1R)

in which the p..1mmctcrs y • /l "I

and k arc a ll cho~1l to provide all accumte fit to test data for thc full
runge of stmins for the chosen material.


~- .. ---
BI/Ck/III1: a/Sleel SltelL~ - f:urope(m Dc.vigll RecullmJe.'lItialiOlIS

5.3.7 Stress-slnin cunes ror aluminium IIlIo)s In Furocodc 9 (EN

mechanical "ntpC.",~
Some typical Mrcs!>-strdln CUr."CS for aluminium alloys art' shown in Fig. 5.7. For genentl Mruetunll
applications. the alloy E AW-6082-T6 is thc commonest choice. ",hilst EN AW-2024-T6 i.. 5.4
commonly used in aircraft application!>. Bccau.!>C of ib high copper content. EN A W-2024-T6 is
lell!. re!.i~tanl to corrosion than other alloys. Muny ... ilm IIrc constructed using the IIHoy EN A W- EN 1993- 1- 1
5754 (AIMg3 WI9 ill 1S0 Icm11l1ology). Its 0.2!! .. proofSlrcss depends on the temper u... ed but is in
the mnge tOO to 270 MPu. A commonly used grnde hus an ultimate tensile strength of 1RO MPu
and a 0.2.... proor stress ubove 80 M Pu.

Stress I MPa

7075T6 EN 1993-1-5

v 2024 T6
",tllbilityof 1

3004 Hx9 '6082 T6 EN 10025 (2005)

200 LN IOORK·' (2~05)l

5005 Hx9
EN 13084-7 •••.•• ,
100 fubrications 10'U""
__- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -12000
V MucDonald M.. Rhl
chllnncb" in LaBel
°OL--------------~~~~~~~~ Coldfomted Sleel Sl
0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.38 0.4
Strain Ra~mu!.~n. K.RJ.
COll!olructional Steel
"-i~urc 5.7: Stress-stram CUf'\CS fOf SC\l'fU! IIluminiurn alloy~

The clastic properties orscvernl alloys arc ghlen in Table 5.1. The 0.2.... proofstrcss and ultimate
tensile stress depend on the gnlde used.

Titbit' 5.1: AlumllllUm alloy elastic moduli ~nd I)Oi~!oO'~'.~'~"'~';~"'~3~E~

70500 0.33

Marerilll ass"'''/'fiOlu

In Eurocode 9 (EN 1999·1·1. 2(01). very few stress·strain diagrams are presented. but the basic
mechanical propenies for some alloys muy be found there.
-'ig.5.7. For gcrlernl structural
:. whilst EN A\\ ·2024-T6 is 5.4 References
r cOlilem. LN AW·2024·T6 is
Ictcd u!omS the alloy EN AW·
EN 1993- 1- 1 (2006) Eurocooe 3: Design of steel Structu res. Part 1.1: Genernl rules and rules for
ds on thc tcmper used bill is in
buildings, CEN. Brussels.
e tensile strength of INO MPa
EN 1993-1-2 (2006) Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Pun 1.2: Structures exposed to fire.
CEN. Brussels.

EN 1993-1-4 (2006) Eumeode 3: Design of slL'C1 slnlcturcs. I'un 1.4: Supplementary rules for
stainless steels. CEN. Hrussels.

175 T6 EN 1993-1-5 (2007) Eurocode 3: Dt.... ign of steel structures. Pan 1.5: Plated structur,d clements.
CEN. Hrusscls.

2024 T6 EN 1993-1-6 (2007) Eurococle 3: Design of steel structures. Pun 1.6: Genernl rules · Strength and
stability of shell structures. Eurocodc 3 Pun 1.6. CI: N. Brussels.

EN 1999·1·1 (2007) Eurocodc 3: Design of aluminium structum.. Jlan 1.1 : Genernl structurnl rules.
CEN. Brussels.
5082 T6
EN 10025 (2005) NOli-alloy structurnl stl..'Cls. CEN. Hrusscls.

EN 10088·1 (2005) Stainless steels. List of stainless steels. CEN. Hrusscls.

EN 13084-1 (2005) Free standing chimneys - JllIrt 1: Product specifications of cylindrical sh.'C1
12000 filhricllliolls for usc in single wall steel chimneys lind sll..'Cllincrs. CEN, Ilmssels.

MacDonald M .. Rhodes J. lind Taylor G.T. (2000) " Mechanical properties of stainless sll..-cl lipped
channels" in LaBouhc RA. Yu W·W,I..' ds. I'TOCI..,."dings. 15th International SpI..'Ciulty Conference on
0 .4 Coldfonned Steel Structures. University of Mi!>!IOuri-Rollu. pp. 673- 86.

Strain Rasmussen. K.R.J. (2003) "Full -mnge stress slmin curves for stuinless Sled alloys". loum:tl of
Constructional Steel Rcscllreh. Vol. 59, pp 41·(, 1.

,20 • proof ~trcss and ultimate

.. ·s milO!>
U~ MP. POI~'~ milO
, OJ]
, 0.]]
I 0.3]

GooltI('lricu/ to/eral~es alit! impetfi'Clioll.f

6 Geometrical tolerances and imperfections

Principal aulhors : J.M. Rou er and II. Schm idt

6.1 General

The principal toJcrunees that arc defint"<i in EN 1993·1 · 6 conCCnl deviotions of the shell surface
nonnal to its nominal middle surface. The only exception is the empirical interface flatne"s toler-
ance in 6.3.5.

Othcr S":OlllctriC de\ iotions may aiM) be imponant in the construction of shcl ls. and indeed do IIffcct
the shell strength. Ho" e,er. the current state aCknowledge limits the extent 10 which other geomet-
ricaltolernnces can be specified.

Tolernnces on dc\ iations nomml to the nominal surface are specified in EN 1993-1-6 in detail be-
cuu~ they ha\ e a major influ;:nee on Ihe strength of the shell. The smne tolernnccs are also definl"<i
(but wilh less completeness) III the druft execution standard EN !090-2 (2006) Table L.I.8. The~
loleranees lire thercrore 'itt out hcre in Sl'Ctions 6.2 and 6.3.

6.2 Rules of EN 1993- 1-6 un geomelrical1olcrances and geometrical imper-

fections (Sec1ions 3.3 and 4.1.3)

S('('l ion 3.3 orEN 1993- 1-6 The t/£"'illfieJn'l t/l1ille(/ here (Ire ul/ IIorlllal /(j
( I) Tolerance values for the deviutionll of the II,e .\lte/l .\/IIjtK·e.
gl.."ometry or the shell surHlcc from the nominal
values urc defined in Ihe eXL"Cution lItrUldards due rltt' 11I,."e forms of t/"l"iatioll an~ ,feparale~I'
to thc rl.:quircmenlS of scrvicellbility. Relevant it/entified with diffe,.en/ maximllm ali/pUll/de,,·
ite11l~ are:
The /lOIC illllieull's Ihal Ihe IO/l'nmct's c/('./il/ed
• out-of·roundncss (deviation from circu-
Il('rl' IWI'c beCII mlo/Hed ;1110 II,e slll/It/(m/ 01/
c.tOC/llioll (colISrI"llClioll/. hili III,,), are pre.fe,,'ecl
• eccentricities (deviations from II conti·
Ihen' iI/ ollllille ()Ir~\'. They ure .fel tllli ill EN
nuous middle surrace in Ihe direction
199)·/·6 ill fliller t/etail bec:ul/.~e of Iheir lit.'.,·
nonna! to the shcll aeross the junctions
role ill cOlI/rollillg slrcllglh. It should"" IlOlecl
bemccn plates).
Ilmt il ;~ 1101 Oll~" the lIlI/plilllCk of Oft ill/pt'rfi'c-
• local dimples (local nomlUl devilllions li(m Ilwl CI{ji.-'l:I.\ IIIeHrc!IIglh of II ,hell. hilI Iltf!
from the nominal middle surface). \/H.'I.:i{ic: furm (ureu und .I/rupe) of Ihe' illlfJc!r{t..'C-
~OTE: The requirements for cxecutlon are set 1;011 Ihul is of crilicuf importul/ce. rhlls. Ihe>
out in E:'Il 1090-2. but a fuller d..:scription of lolerwlf.·c \'I.llue.f for Ille impeiff!Cliol/ oll/pli·
thc»C toler.mces is gh en here because of the Imle.f cJl'fil/(>(/ here> ca" ol/f,· 11(11'(' meulIlIIg ill
critical relationship between the fonn of the ,lie ,·mllexl of lite melhod of",cent/rillg Ihem. If
tolerance measure. its amplitude and thc u clifTerc!1I1 met/uxl of fIIe'll5l1rl'melll is Ilse,/. III('
evaluated resislllncc oflhe sh..:ll structure. rt!.'iIIIr~ of Ihe measllreme/ll "'"SI be CfIUhrClled
o/llu Ihe> ",elluxls defined here to ('II.H1re (Iwi
111e' rc!lmio//\"ip helweell Ihe differell/ cl'alutllecl
all/plill/dc.1 ellll be detcrmi//ed.
(2) If the limit stllte of buckling i~ one of the Tulercmc('lIur lite bllck/ilrg /imit ,ftale> "re> idell·

Bllcklillg ofSleel Shells - ellropeall Desigll RecommendaliOI/.v

uitim:IlC limit stalCS to be considcred. additional lifh'(/ tJ.v reql/iring IHlrticlilar/y cUrli,,1 defil/i- on Ihe ..ufel}' of the
buckling-relevant geometrical tolcrunccs have to lioll bt'cllllse lite hllcklil/g ~>Irenglh of mOllY
be obscned in order to keep the geomctrieal im- .~hell gr"cllll"('S is tlCllteJy .~eltfiti\·e to \"el)'
perfections \\;thin specified limits. These buck- slIIolI dt!\·iariol/s froll/ the idelll geomelry.
ling-rclevunt geometrical tolernncL~ urc qUllntified
in Scction 8 of EN 1993- 1-6 (and SL'Ction 6.3 of
these Recommcndat;ons) or in thc relc"ant EN (2) The
1993 application pans. should he cho~en
according to Ihc
(3) Calculation values for the de"iations of the Where geometrica/(l· f/of/lilleor fillite elemelll 6.1 10 6.4 of
clIlclI!t"iollS are "sed Iu oblai" bllcklil/g scnpll0n of ea..:h
shell surface geometry from the nom mal geomc-
.\irellgllts. the el/'lil'lllcm g(.'OlI/err;c imjJetfec- c\alualion .
try. as required for gL'Onletrical imperfection us-
s umptions (ovcrnll imperfcctions or local imper- liollS ellas·ef/ Wilhill rhe jillile efemelll motiel ~OTE, Th, 10)"",01
fections) for the buckling dcsign by global mllst n.:/l('C1 Ihe IHHelllial imperfi.·etioll.~ alld
GMNIA nnalysis should be derhed from the IOlermlC'e restriclialls oflhe filial COIISlructioll.
specificd gcomctrical tolernneL'S. Relevant rules rdul ii,o~'~":~~h.ii~P:,:,~~~ '~~
arc ghen in &.'Ction 8.7 of EN 1993-1-6. Chapter and tl
8 of thcse Recommendations and in rele"ant EN
1993 application pans. (3)
cI,,\~ified ""'"''''''
cronce qualit)
Sec.-lion 4.1.3 or EN 1993-1-6
high tolernnce.
(4) Because the strength under the buckling Three lliffe,...m qllu/iI;e.,· of COllstm(·tiOll are
limit stmc LS3 dcpends strongly on Ihe qUlllilY of permillcd wilhill the c()(.lijied rilles. Ih'll 1"('51111,
cOII"lmetion. the strellgth assessment shull IlIke a rdllli l"fdy lUll r,jel"/!II(:e 'Ire"glll f.~ IIS('l/
(4) The different
account of the associated requirements for fabri- lI·heN! tllen! i.f 1m gllam"'ee Ihal the qilillilY of
cation tolernnces. colISrruelioll will he high. hili II'here Ihe design treated
NOTE: For this purpose. Ihree fabrica tion if P(lrt of (I n'pctili1'e pnx:e.,·.,·. rite t/('sigll C(l1I
quality classes are SCI oul in Section 6.3 below. helUjil from 'lte ('xtm ~/rellgllt allrihmahfe ta
SlnlCtlll1'.f hllill wllh righllu/erallces.
sample checks on
thc mcasuremcnb
6.3 Rules of EN 1993-1-6, Seclion 8.4, for buckling-relevanl geomclrical tol- lion.. !olay "ilhin
eranccs Mipuhll\.-d in 6.::\.1
6.3.1 General
(6) Sample
!thould be u",len"" ,
(I) Unless specific buckling-rcle\allt geomet- Tlte to/(.mnce.~ slx'Cijiet/ here lire .f/x'Cijiml/y (except for ~clf
rical tolerunee!' lire given in the relc\ ant EN collcerllt'd lI'illt Ih(' sC'IIsitil'ity af ~ltell hllckJillg \\llh Ihe operalional
1993 application parts. the following tolerance stre"gth~ 10 Ihe fimll mrt/ lmiplillll/e of Ihe
limits should be obscn.ed if Ihe bud.ling limit g('Omelrictll imperfections in rhe shell .miface.
slate LS3 is one ofthc ultimate limit stutes to be
considered. Tlten! is {f l{frge liler{flure 011 litis s/lbj('cl, hili it
is~till difficllit 10~pecifY to/erimces Ih{fl make
NOTE I : The charncteristie buckhng stresses
detennined hereafter include imperfections that relewml mem;ure~' for all .~/lclls. rite lo/er-
nre based on Ihe amplitudes and fonns of alice.,· Ilml (".e imporlcllli c/elJel/d fJll lite .Hress (7)
geometric tolernnc~ Ihlll are expected 10 be met state ill Ihe sltel/. hili tlte dnif/illg Projet:l Team fCCllons
during execution. decided tlwl it 1I'01ild he too complicated 10
make Ihe reqllired IOlertlllce delJl!IId emin.'l)' Oil mel1dlltion~.
NOTE 2: The geometric lolernnces given here
II,e de.lign ~tress cOllt/itiol/. As a reslllt, O"~I' tlte !>Iroightening.
are those that nre known to hnve a large impact
dimple ImperjL'c:liOllS lire lIppliL'li lI'ilh some cided indi\ idually.

Geonlelril'1I110lerallCe!llllld imperf«IIons

illg parlicllftlr/l' cUr(jul dt'filli- on the safety oflhe structure, (ICCf)Iml /x'iIlB wh'II of Ihe slrl'J.s slllie. Oil,,:,..
',e hltcldillg flrt>IIglh of 1II1I1II' Ilife. tI/I .fhe/l~ tire reqllired to lIleel tI/I wIer-
. is (ICII/e/l' femilil'(" 10 11.'';' tlll("c~, el'e/l whel/ Ihef/Jecijicd wlemm'e may
'from Ihe idelll gf..'fJlIlell1', /101 IUII'e a gre(11 bellrillg all II/{> hllckllllg
slrellglhlor lilt, fXlrtlclllur ,~"el/,

(2) The fabrication tolemnce quality clu~!!o 8C'f'(lfI.It! lilt' shell hlleldillg rt'.... i~ta/ll·e if wry'
should be choscn as Class A. Class B or Class C ,Ie//,Ii/il 'c IV Ihc Cllllplilllde of Ihe geolllerri{,ltl
Dccording to lhe totcrnncc definitions in Tables imlJelfi'Clioll, il is m/l/ablc 10 ha\'t! di/Tere",
1Ctl/{1' //cJIIlillem' jilllfl' ,'Ielllem 6.1 to 6.4 of these Ih,'COITl/nendution~. The de- c1lt,ne,~ ollabrictlliOll, permitting Ihe higher
'e IIsed Iu uhlajll hltdlillg scription of each class relates only to the ~trength CJllality (\/llaller illllX!rj'ecliom) 10 he defiglletl
qllil'fl/elll gl'OlIlelril' Im/X!rfi'(" c\'aluation, /() higher Slll.'IIglhs,
1tlti" lite jillile eft·lltem mOl1e1 NOTE: The tolerances definl..-d hcre nUlIeh those
• polemial imperfi'(:liollS allli specified in the c.''l:ccution standard EN 1090. but The lime ill(licales Ihat (Ilrhollgh sOllie illlormu-
liolls oJlhe jill,,1 cmtllml'lioll. arc set out more fully here togi\e the detail of tile rioll i.~ cOlI/uilled ill lite eYeclllioll Slltlldllrd £,V
rcllllionship bcl\\ccn the imperfcction amplnudes 1()9(}.1 (1006) ill relalioll 10 ,~hell ,~rMlCr"res, il
and the evaluated resistance, is gin'" ill fillh·r derail here OCCU/I,\ t! of il.\' criti·
cal role illihe srrellglh '!'IVllllt/jOIl process.
(3) Each of the imperfection types should be "'/tell tit" lolerances relemlll 10 tI higher qual-
classified sepanllcly: the 100\cst fabrication tol- il)' doss cmlllot be (1CItierN/lor all the cliffer('l/t
cronce quality class obtained, corrc!>ponding to a ~pt'Cified lolerance m(!(lSUrt'.f, Jhe qlwlill' c1clSS

q/wlilie.1 of cmulmaioll 1Irt! high tolcrance. should then gO\ em thc entire flJr delign ItIII,W he wke'l (I.~ Ihe lowel't dast,
Ihe codifit'll n/ft·\, At (/ I'('sllll, design,
rljcm.'lll'e sirellgll, is IlSeel
J gllorOl//ee Ih(l/ Ihe quulill' of
(4) The different tolenmce tyIX"S may each be £(1C1t lolerallce metlSllre is dcemed 10 be II sill-
be Itiglt, hll' where Ille de{ig/l treated independently. and no internctions need gIl' ,fe/xlI'me lIIellSllre.
"ilil'(' prtX'e.\'.\', ,Itt' tlesig// C(1Il normnlly be considered.
e:r:ml Slrt'IIglh (fllrihl/whl" w
'illt lighIIOll'nmct•.\,. (5) It should be cstablished by rcpre.c;cntntivc Ti,e ICI'III "represellfatil'e sllmple che(:ks" is
sample checks on the completed stnlcture that IIWtl 10 illdic'(lre 111lI1 it is 1101 1Il'Ct'.UlIl)' to
the measurements of the geometrical imperfec- II/e(l.l/ll'e el'el)' /Xirt ol,he ,fllell, prol'ided 111(11
rch~\' anl geometrical 101- tions stay within the geometrical tolernnces Ihe slml/)Ie ICtkell lllleqlllllely ('CI/Hl/reS II,e \\VrM
stipu lated in 6.3,2 to 6,3.4 of thL'SC R,.'commen- jmlX!Ifi'Cliolls,

(6) Samplc imperfection measurements The gtVlllelric illlJN!ifecliOi/s shollid be 1II1!tJ.\'-

should be undertaken on thc unlO:lded struClllrc IIred II'he" Ihe stnlCtllre is fmlOlJ(ktl /x'CtllI,fl!
pedjied here are ~'IH'Ciflcally (except for self \\-cight) and, "here possible. ftJllI.lillg II/a)' eith{'r increase or dct:rease tire
Ie lellSilil'il)' ofshell b//{'klillg "ith the operational boundary conditions. metbllret/ umplitllde 01 imperfi'('(iollS, hili Ihe
Jonn (flld umplilllck' 01 ,lte sirellgih assessment is based Oil Iltese iIllIWifec:-
r!eclio/ls ill the shell .wifllce, lio"s ill tll(o fmlOlKkd slttte. Where self-lleigitl
reprt!,fellls a significolII complmellf ollhe lolal
lerolll" Oil rltis slIbj('f:I, bill it 100ul Oil Ihe shell. il is 1101 pa,u ihle 10 meel Ihis
specify lolerrlllce.f IIItll lIIake colldilioll.
lor till ,IIIellv. Tht, wIer-
~al// tlt'pelld 011 'lte 1"/r(',H (7) If the mcasurements ofgcomctrical imper- Allempl.f lit Hraigillening ca// uften le"d 10
blllihe dniftillg Proj('{'1 Tell/II fections do not satisfy the geometrical toler- more .\'eriolls illlJJetfecliolls, a ,f tl.ueued Il,fillg
wJ/lld be 100 compliCilled 10 ances strlted in 6,3.2 to 6,3,4 of these Rccom- Ihe lIleasuremelli s),slems de.~crihed here,
'1Olerallce depelltl ell/irely all mcndmions, any correction steps. such as by Siraighft'llillg (/Ctil';lie:o' oftell c/l(lIIge ol/e lorm
vlldilioll As tI resllll, O/l{I' lite strnightening. should be inve~tigatL-d und dc- 01 imlX!ifccli(JII illlo (IIIOIher: lite lorm rhar is
toilS are (Ipplied IIltlt ,,'ollte cided individually, mO.~1 t/(IIllagillg 10 Ihe strtmgllt de/x,"ds 011 rhe
Non ·:: Be fore a decision is made in fa ....our of .Hress romliliOl/s ,har lite ~ltellll'i11 C,\7H!rie"ce,
!otmightcning to reduce geometric impcrft'Clions. fa it is "o1 tl/lI'(lYs delll' 1/1(11 Ihe (mumdedform
11 should be noted Ihllt this Clln cause additional IIHf fJrtll'i(ic- 1I MlIl'I' SIl'IICIIII'I: thtlll Ihe origi-
residual stresses. TIle degree to which the I/al. III lIdditirm. II-/,ere gl'Ollll'tricul illlpeift.->c-
design buckling resi~tanees arc utilised in the I;OI/S tlrt! redllced h,l' straightening. lhis I/WI'
design ~hould also be considered. illstead ;1It/lice /'('.\'itilwl .l tre,He.I' II'hil'l, cOlild
film he de/e/('riom to IIt(' il/1'1!1IJ:lh of till! ,III'/IC-
IlIrl!, bw u-ltlch lIl'l! 11!,\'.f \';~ihle Wid II/UI'I! dilJi-
clii t to lIIetlsure.

lli'(·i,\i(J/I.~ rl/l the lIppropritlfl! cO/mie lytlClioll if

1I f)ltell doe,f 1/01 meet lite tlesiJ{1I tolera//ce us-
slimpliolU should Ihe/'(>(ol'e all(\' he lakell lI'illl (3) The out-or-rour
expel't atll'ice.
suti .. ry thc condition
6.3,2 O ul-or-roundncss lolera nee Ur S LJr,nllu
\\ here Ur, ml1.~ i, Ihe
(I) The out-of-roundncss should be as~scd 0111 of round impetfi'(:limu h(1l'e I/ot beell parnme\er for the rei
in tenns of the pammeter Ur (sec Fig. 6.1) gi\cn Ilide~I' sflle/it'e/ fbI' 1IIMI ICHIe/ ctue,~. alld Ihey
quality cla!i.~,
by: nppenr /Q he moSI SC'I'i(m.~ III/dcr l'XiL"n1(l1 pref)'-
,fIII'e 10001;lIg 1H.'(·tl/I~e II,e IHIIII of Ih(' I'esliiting
' OTE : ValUe!> for
u, ... (6.1) cirrlm!f"rl"'lia/ (·ompre.llicm j.~ lig"ifiC(III/~I'
anee parnmetcr Lr.r,
tiel'in/eJ/rom th" ;d{Ial,
the "alionnl Anne,
\\here: arc ghen in Table lI.
The ;//creu.\'('d /tl('(1/ mdi/l.\' (If ('un'tlilire IIllIy
d"'f is the l1la)(imum mcn~ured internal diamc-
also affi'cl the resislallce ItJ lIxitlli'O/l/pre'uioll
h/li-kiillg. hlllihif i~ 11,\11(1/(1' le.\.\ .\·el'ioll.\ .
dm1tl is the minimum Illcallured intern!!1 diame-
ter. 71,e pa/"tm/t!lel" Ur make.1 Ihe toleral/ce di/l/ell-
is Ihe nominal intern!!l diallieter. .\·iol/le.I.I, .I't) Ihal it cal/ he apl,/i{'(1 to till ,\be,~ of

(2) The melbun:d intern:11 diameter from a nle mellmtl dtjitllid h"re if) prohah/l' Ihe .fim-
gi....en point ~ hould be taken Ib the largest distance p(e.w wal' of d('lenllil/;I/g the (:ffi't:til'l! Olll-O!-
Tlble 6
across the she ll from the point to any other inter- rolllulll('U of lite sltd!. II 11lL\" .m /l/C distltil·lIl1·
nal point at the same axial coordinate. An appro- lage."i hectl/lf)e il fni/.\' ItJ d('(c('/ some .~;gllificalll
priate number of dinlllctcrs should be measured to compOl/elll.v of 101l'-mQ(le drclllllferelllilll im- Fabricallon
IdentIfy the maximum and minimum values. petfet:IIOIIS. II0we\'(·r. /1O hell('r .I·i/l/ple method loil'-r.II1CC

Ctlll \'el be aqeretl qualuy cln!.



Geomf.'lricollOlertmces lIIId illlJN!rj"eCliolu'

Ihtll Ib" ,fh,,1I11'i1l e.xperiel/cf.'"

.J" c/t"ar Ihm Ihe umellded/brm
("tlcr slmc'llIrl' Ilmll 11/" origi. \,
where g("olII~'lriclll imlN'tji."C- ••
'd hr wroiglllt'IIillK, 1111,1' IIm\' •
-l'sidulIl .f/rl'.Ut.'.f whid, ('(JII/~'
IU 10 II/e .l/rt'II#III ()f lilt' SI"" ,·
,,.,.. leu I'isihle lIlId /l/orf.' diJIi-

b) unsymmclrical
upprOpri(1/1' ('OIlrse of (<<:Iiun if Figure 6. 1: Mc:t!oUll!II1Cnl of dllunclcn. for as!tCSSlllcnl of O\Jt-of-l'O\lOdni.'SS
meet lite d<!siRII lolertlllcc' IIl'-
I therefore 01111' he WI.:CII lI'ith
(3) The out-of-roundnl'!>~ pammctcr Vr ~hould TIl(' Inlertlllce \'lIll1eS V r.WIUX ill Table 6.1 "N.'
sutisfy Ihe condition: hll,l'f.'d 011 well-esflIblishf.'d trtl(liliwwl I'lIllIes.
TIle), lire illiellded In o\'Oid lite OCCllrrellce of
... (6.2)
loco/ =OIl(! S of SigllijiCUfII/" n'tlllcf!d Clln'CIlllrf!,
"here Vr •maT is the out-of·roundness lolcnancc which l1Iighl be deleleriOIlS to Ihe slrenglll of
mpf.'r/t"(·tion.f Illn't' 1101 /Jeell th" shell.
par:uncler for the rcle ...ant fabrication lolcmncc
Ir most ItxJJ '·U.fe.f. (/lid 11/1'\' The NtlliOl1tl1 Alml!.'C 10 EN /993 -1-6 lIIay spt'C-
quality class.
t ,feriou.f mult"r eXlernal Prf.'.~. if)' Ihe wler(ll/cf!1j' 10 be IIsed Tuble 6. 1. II'IIidl
JII.1t' Ihe POll! of Iht" re.III/lillg dl!fillcs n'COmm('f"led i'll/lies, is purl uf the
~OT t:: Values for thc out.of·roundness toler·
"umprcuwlI iSfiglli/kalli/)' 11011.'" (II1l1 is 1101 .uric/(\· port of,he sttmd"rd.
'th·u!. '
ancc flo1rnmctcr Ur,mlLl: may be oblaincd from
the National Anncx. The l'C1:ommcnded valuc!! II fila),be see" tlml differelll alii of rtJIIII(IIIe,H
('(11 rotliliS ()f ('lIn'lItllre mm' arc given in Table 6.1. loit'rlmc('s are sJX'cijied fur shells of rehllil 'e~r
risltJllct' 10 (('fial cumpn'.uio~/ ,Wl/mll diameler, These IO/CrtJIICt' sJX'CijiclIliOlU'
;.f /lsl/alh·/el.1 ,f('rimlf, come mo.~t1)' from ch;"",,'y cOllstl'llCliOll, whihl
ll/Use for Ihe larger di(lmeter.v (/erjl'e m()~lly
"'lIl.:e,~ lit" tolerance tlilll('l1- fru/II (m/k {/lid .\·i/u CUIIMI'IICliulI. TilesI.' prm.'li-
WI/ he tlppliedw all li=e,f of cal ()I'igill!)', alld IIIl' fabriealion melll(xil
ot/opl('d ill tl,('sf.' illdustries. ,vhol/ld be kepI ill
mimlwhell .\/H!cijyillg IIII.' reqllired mlerallct's.
I'd hC're i.~ Jlmh(lh~\' th(' si",.
rmillillg Ihe ''ffi'l·til·<! (JIlt-of ..
Tabll' 6 I " Rl"COmmclllk-d \ alucs for oul-or·mundnl~ tolcmnce pammclcr U ,-
l"ell. II has some eli.we/wlII- DIameter ,I ~ 0.50m O.sOm < (J < 1,25m 1.25m '" d
lill 10 (It-tul fa"" , Siglli/iwlI1 run~e

\1-mo.4o drclllllfeN.'miai jm. FabriC'Jlioo D•."sc."riptlon Value of Ur .max

I'rer. I/O betler .~imple me!luNI lok-raocc
quahty class (In these e"p~Ions d IS In m)
Class A Eu::dle-nt 0'()()7 + 0'()()93(1.25
0.014 0,007
Cla;,s U IIJgh 0,020 0.010 + 0.0133(1.25 0.010

CI~C N""",I 0,030 0,015 + 0.020(1.25 0.015


BIICkUlIg ufSle," Shells - Elln)lH!ulI Desigll Recommelldutiolls

6.J.J Unintended cccclliricil) lolcrljncc th icker plall'S ut

(I) At joints in shell wllih. perpendicu lllr to UllimCl/ded ('ci·emricilit'.f III jolllt,\, ure geller-
membrnne compn.~~i ... c forces, thc unintendcd (l/~1' 1101 us ;o,'('r;IJjIJ as dim/Jle im/X'rfi.'l't;ul/J,
ececntricity should be cvoluated from the measur-
obiI.' totlll eccentricity I!/<H and the intended on'sct
There ;s crJllsitierob/e I!\'idcllce Ihal IIl1illleill/ec/
e'M from:
r!CCelll";ci';es do 1101 /UI1'C' a rlll/ielil effioct Oil
... (6.3) _~hC!1I ,vlrellglll (E.ulillger fllld Geier, /977; Rul-
ler ali(I Tr!llg, 1989: G,.e/ller alld Yallg. 1996.-
whcre: Roller 1(04). n,e reas01l is llral 'he lou of
elfH is the ea:entricity bet'" cen the middle sirellgill dlle In geometric ;mperfi'<.'lioll.f of Ihe
surfaccs of the joined r lUles (see dimple type lIl'C! gel/C!mll\' nIllcll gl'eale,. Ihall a) unintended
Fig.6.2e); those Clf/IS('{/ hy IIft.'se ('<.'('C'IIIridlies. Illoug/, Ihe VI lito there
f!1ItI is the intendl'ti offset between the middle error.; of .flullH! rIf'C' IIIl1ch le,\.f ,~Irikillg to the 1
surfaces of the joined pirltes (see lIak('" e),e, If {I di/llple illlpel'fi'ctioll (){'Cllrs
Fig, 6.2b); adjocell/ to a jO;III f!Ccemricily, {IIId all Ihe op-
e" is the unmtended eccentricity between the pro/Jriult! sic/e, Ihe jO;III cerlllill/Y does C!,"((Icer-
middle surfilces of the joincd plalcs. bale Ihe effeci of Ihe dimple (Roller alld Tel/g.
1989). but lhi, circ.mU/al/ce is 1/01 I'ery' prob- (4) Tho "",""".kdl
should satisfy the
V" S; VI',"""
Where a shell does 1101 1I1(.'('t these 10/ertlllCe where:
(2) The unintendcd eccentricity e" should be
less thall the maximum pcnnilled unintended ec- reslrictiOlls, il i.!J eOll.w~n",/il 'C lu Ire{lt if a.\' {j V ......," is the ""'''''"'
cenlricitye... _ for the relevant rabricl1tion toler- ,I'hell lI'ith lap jO;I/I.\ (.{I~e EN /993-/-6. A,lllex
ancc quality class, D3 atld Chapler /1 of Illese Recommcllda-
NOTE: VlIlues for the maximum pcnniltcd un- NOTE I : Vlllues
intended eccentricity"......... may be obtained from The Natiol/ol AIIIlI.'x wEN 1993-/-6 IIWI' SfX'C- toler,mce parnmeter
the National Annex. The recommended vlllues arc if)' Ihe wiertlllces 10 be 1I.~C!d. Tahle 6.2, which the Nationlll Annex.
ghen in Table 6.2. dejilll!.\' f1!(:olllllle"dt..'" \'(lIlies. is IXlrt of the given in Table 6,3,
1I0le, {lilt! is 1101 slricl(I'IHIrI oflhe slt/lldurn.

Titbit' 6,2 : Iteconllllcndl'ti "ulues for mO:r(imnm pcrmined unultendcd cccentrieitie:. treated within OoptcrJ
Fabncllllon toleroncc quality I.>cscnptlO11 Rl'COmmcnded values for nlll.'(1-
clll!I~ mum pcnnitll'ti
unintended eccentricity I.'
Class A Excellent 2mm
Chl.u 0 IIi h 3mm Fubrication tokro
C11l~C NOntlal 4mm C IllS.~ A
Class U
(3) The unintended eccentricity cQ should also TM,f IHlrtlmeler V" "'likes 'hI! lo/eraller! dime,,-
be assessed in tenns of the unintendt'd ecccntric- s;ol/II!.\.f , .YO IIIlII i t ellll be applied 10 all ,fi=e.v of Class C
ity parnmcter UfO gi\ cn by: !i/,e/l,

6.3 .4 Dimple IDler

... (6.4)

(I) A dimple meaS

used in every POSitIon
1m is the mean thickness of the thinner and meridional and eircur

Geomerricallolertlllces (lIId im/X'if«tions

thicker plalcs at Ihe joint.

<l1lri("i/kl III j(lillh art' gl.' l/er- I min I~

IS as (Iimple illlper/i'llimll' I
1'--->\ 1'-1: co -- .."tot - c·Int
r~Ji .-p.
pcrfl'Cl joint :;
I ;rS,o",,"'1'
geometry ~:
., .;
'"lIb/(' ('1'id(,lIcl' Ihar IIl1illlt'llded :1 i\...perfect join
IIOf "ave (I radical t'f fi.'ct all gcol1¥:try
u/ingw alld Geier, 1977: HOI- Ie,
!i ~c.,1
)<~9.- Greiner olld Yang, 1996:
t,C reason if Ihot rite loss of ~ I' ;iC1n;1 1

I' 1mn' -I
reo/l/£'Iri(' illlperfet:lio" .. of lite I n".~
genera/~I' nUld, greater IhOll Il) uninlendcd ecccntncll), b) intended olfsctllt a c} lota1 eccentricity (unm-
'h ..u! etUlllridlies, thougll '''1' when there is no ch.,nge or cha ng~ or plllt~ thick~ tended plus intcnded) al
a~ milch leu flrikillg to lite plote thickness "ilhout unintended eccen- change orpllltt thickness
) dimple ill/perj«I/01/ ()(Xurs tricity
'7t f!t'C'e/llrici~I', (Illd OIl Ihe (IP- "' igurc 6.2: Un1lltcnd~-d ecCCfllnclt)' IlOO mtended offset Ilt a jomt
re joilll c('noil/~I' (lot's e:w cer-
lite dimple (ROller tllld Tel/g,
Ir"Cmns/tJIH.:e is 1101 1'('1)' prob- (4) The unintended eccentricity pamlllctcr Uc The laleraflees UI!,ma.~ giwII ill Table 6.1 are
should satisfy the condition: based Oil long"i!Stablislted IrtNlifiOfl(l1 m/lles.
Tlte)' UIJ/X'C/f 10 be hlIsed more Oil a ql/(Ilil), of
U" S U~. _. .,. (6 .S) Uppe(lrtIllC(' for lilt' shell Ihllll Oil llll)' (USt'S!>'-
rJeS 1/01 1I/l.'I!1 10lerlllICe where: mem of ri,e eDecr all ti,e sllell bllck/i/lg stre/lgll"
cons('n'a/il'f! Iu treal 1/ (n (I U~.-u is the unintended eccentricity tolcrnnee
'/liS (\t'e EN 1991-1-6, AllI1e;r parnllletcr for the relevant fitbricntion Where till illll'lml (Jimple illlfJeifl.'Climl OI.'CII'"
. I I of t"es(' Heco",me",la- tolernnee qUlllity clIISS. jllSI (Ibo\'(' u joillf 1I"ilh Imil/tellded ('ccelllricity,
thi.~ is lite mO.~r deleleriolls a/"l'(l1/gemelll for the

NOTE I : Values for the unintended eccentricity sllell (ROller alit/ Tellg, 1989). J-Jo\\,('lW, '''i~
fe"( to E.V 1991-1-6 111(11' \/N.' I.:- toler:lIlce pamllleter U,..lmlf may be obtnincd from ('ollclitiull i~' c;o l 'CI'Cl1 by II,e dim/lIe wiertlllce
10 he IIs('(l Table 6.2, ,rhiell the National Annelt. The recommended values arc mea,\/IN!nle,,1 gil'ell below,
nc/t'tl I'lIllIe,\'. i, IKIrI of tlte given in Table 6,3.
ric/~I' I)(/ft oflltewllIllJlIrd. The NlIIiOfWI A,,"e\' to EN 1993-1-6 "'")' spec·
NOTE 2: Intended offsets and lapped joints nre ify the loler(lfl(:es 10 be IIsed, Table 6.1, which
ended CCt"t'fllriCIU~"S treated within Chapler 10 of these Rl'Commenda- dejine,f f('COmme"ded 1'tI"le~·. is pan of Ihe
ltd Hl hJC!> ror malll- tions. These two ca'iCS are not treat/,.'(! us impcr. 1I0ll', and is 1101 striclly (KIN of Ihe sUllldartl.
n pcnnm..-d rcctions within EN 1993-1-6.
ttCCIltntlt t'
2mm Tablt' 6.3: Recommended vlllues ror unintended KCrotricit)' tolcrunces
J~ Fllbricntion tolerance ualit closs t>escnption Rcc:ommcnded \'3l u~ of U
'mm Class A Exeellenl 0, 14
~ ma/.;es Ihi' tolerallce (limell- Class B I-ligh 0.20
J CiJII bt' olJplied 10 all si=e.f of ClassC Normal 0,30

6,3,4 Dimple toll'Tlln("ct

( I) A dimple measurement glluge should be Dimple im/X'ifl.'Clio"" rome ill (I greoll'tlriel), of

used in every position (sec Fig, 6.3) in both the fol'lllS. and mry (vi/sit/erabl)' ill Ihe effi'l.·llhe),
meridional and circumferential directions. The 11l11'f! 0/1 the bllcklillg s/n'"gtll of Ihe slructllN!.

Bllckling ((Slee/ She/If - Ellrop<'<111 Design Rl.'COmmen{klfioffS

meridional gauge should be stra ight. but the To/eran{,l!.f {I I"(! 5p<'Cifled ro In' 10 CO/)(II1"(! lllOse
gauge for measurement" in thc circumferential illIlJf!t/«liol/ fiJrll/s IlwI are /Xlrtklilarll' 5eri(JlI.I
direction should hale a eun'ature equal to the for Ihe bolit' 1(){1l/ W ,W .\' of {u'ial rompn',\ ,\ iml
intended radius of curvature r of Ihe middle sur- (lIId ewert/al f)re,\J,lIre,
face of the lohell .

(2) The depth l\1I'0 orinitilll dimples ill the shell The guuge.1 ore del'i,\'e(J to /'('/ole 10 III(! ,\'i=e of
willi should be melNlred using gauges of Icnglh buckles tlwt are '-'XP('l.'lt!t/ to fOl"m W IlIe /' each of
'g whieh should be taken as follows: Ihe different Ixll'ic 1(){1t/ cme,I', The lel/glh is
dIOse" ill the liglll of the le/u'itil'itl' of huckli/lg
a) Wherever meridional compressi\e strel>3Clo stl'ellgtlt~ to illlpetfi'Ctimu i/l Ihe fOl"'" of the
are pn.'M:I1l, including across welds. measuremcnts lowesl elaS,l inl1 eige/l/luxle. 17,;s "'{~I' /10 1 /x.,
the most seriOIiS ;1II/JCrfi'(-'tim/, hili it i.f mw of
of Ihe depth l\1I'{h should be madc in both the me-
lite IIUl.ft serious, lO pruric/c:> a m(){/crareJ),
ridional and circumfcrentilll directions, using Ihc
goo</ cOlllrol.
gaugc of length 'p gi\en by: a) Mca.;,urtme
AIIIIOIlglt the radil/:> r i ,\' dt'jim~d as
lite imellt/et/
... (6.6) radills of ('11n·tllur(' of 'he shell. IIhich is gen-
eral for till tlxi~)'m",elric shd/s. l/tese e-rpre...-
b) Where circumfefCnlial L'Ompressi\c slresses
SiO/ll' "m'e reaNr OI11y heen dC'\'e/oPNI by COI/-
or shear stres:oCS occur, measurements of the depth
6wllllshouid be made in thc circumferential direc-
.fidering cOllditions reil.' I'(11/I to a cyUndriccl1 '"'&,
fhell, Whl!n' olll(!r shell gc'Omelrie.~ are il/- -+
tion ulting the gauge of length IJlII given by: mil'ed. approp/'i{l/{'~" dlosel/ gauge shape.f c/lld
lengths should he u.w!d,
but ... (6.7) ,
where: The basis of thi's mle i:> Ollllilll:ti i" Sdlmidt and
Greiner (199.Y),
, is Ihe meridional length of the shell seg- ,
ment . <>--'
e) Addilionally. ncro!>s welds measurements of
the depth 611'0. should be made, in both the
c) h~tlnclllol
eircumferemial lind meridionul directions. using
the gauge lenglh 'J(K given by:

'go. 25t or ' ... - 25Im ill'

bUI wilh/,....S 500mm ... (6.8)

Innn is Ihe thickness of the Ihinnest plme 31 the

Geometric,,, IOlertmce., (lilt! imIJerft,<-'liull.\

Vlf!r:ijit'd 10 Iry to C"Upflil'/! I/IO.te

'1'tf,hul (lrt! parlindarll' serimll
1<ul ('tJle.\ of luiul co";pre~~io,, inward

u('I'i.\'('(11O relme 10 Ihe si:e of

'erlk'e:lt'll 10 Jorm Imder etlcll of til'
tlie 10IIt/ CtlSl!S, The lellglll i~
.:ht of the tellsitil'ill' of bllddillg
pt!r{i.'Clio/l.1 ill the form oJ Ihe
'eigellfllode, Thif IIUII' 1101 lx-
S illlpetj(Xlioll, bill it olle oJis
tu, .fO proriues a mrx/ef'(lU!iy

a) Measurcment on II ITK:rithan b) First measurement on a circumfercntial eircle

:/ills I' i,f ckjilll;od u.~ Ille i lllellffl.'ti
lure of Ihe shell, l1I1id, is gcm·
ty",ml'lric ,fhells, '''esc {'xpres'·
:r oll/r /lcen Ik".,./oped hy COII- inward
Ions Nit'WlII1 to U C"),/illdrical
)Iher _fMII gcomclri{;.f tIl'/! ill-
iute'" cOO,fell gauge S/UlfJe,f lIIul
t! llSed.

nile is Ollilillt'll ill S<:h",it!1 (/fill

e) Firsl measurement across II weld d) &.-cond mCllsurcment on circumrerential em:le

7 ~I

e) Second measurcment aero!lS a we ld I) McasuremcnlS on circu mfcren tHl I Circle across

with special gauge weld
FiJ.:u r e 6.3: Measurement of depths 6\\ 0 or IIIll1al dimples
HIICklillg ofSlc.'C1 Shells - Europe"" Del'iXII Recommell(klliolls

(3) The depth of initial dimples s hould be as- Thi.f parame/er II/(Ike,\' Ihe tolerance (#111£'11-
sessed in lenns of the dimple pammcters V"". UIi/Io ,\'iall/e,\.\'. .~o th(lt it ellll be "I}IJlied 10 (III si::e,f of
VOw given by: l'IIell.

... (6.9)

(4) The value of the dimple panullctcrs U/h. The \'(lIlies of the.\'e p(lrt/meters lire Ihe dami-
Voo. U/Jw should s.1lisry the conditions: IIIe(lSlire rel,,'illg tlte fohl'icorioll 'IlItllily
cI,,,(.\' to the sIIell strength. The m/lles gin'lI
Itere are ,Jm relaled IU IltUle gil'f!lI ill &'Clioll
8.J.1 (18) of the.{e R(''COlllm{'lIlkll;OIl,~ COlleen/-
Va.. s: Uo..,; . . . (6. 10)
illg Ihe all/plill/de,\' of IIlIpeifecriOlIS 10 be 0.\'-
where Vo._. is the dimple tolemnce pannncier for slimed ill globol II/lmerical Ulmlysi.f ossel'l'-
the rclevam rubrication to lemncc quulil y ChL<OS, mellls of sIre II slrellglh /IIuler a GMNIA or .\';mi-
lar 'm{/k~i\',
NOTE I: Values for the dimplc tolem nce {XI' 6.4 [~tc nd cd
rumetcr Vo._. may be obtained rrom thc National The Nmiolllli A,l/le:r to EN I99J- I-6 mlly SJX'C- ricaliolci
Annex, The ",'Commended values arc gh en in if)' lite IrIlerallce,' to be IIl'ed. Table 6.4. which
Table 6.4. t/t:/iIlC.\' r{'L'm,,,,,c,,,led \'(lIlies, is pUrl of Ihe 6.4. 1 Imperfect
IIOle. (Illd is IIoll'lriClly IHlrl oflhe sumdard.

Tillie 6 4' Rl'COmmended vnl ues for dimple loit'1'W1CC p:1mmclcr 110
Fabriclltion tolcruncc u:ll~cI:ls.<o IX~~,on
Value of U,,-.
EN 1993-1-6 S\.'Cti
following potcntlill
inclusion of !lnpc
Class A Exccllent 0.006 reqUires Ihat arrTOP:
Class n lI igh 0.0 1 cannot be 3\oidcd iI
a) geomctric Iml
ClassC Nonn.11 0.016 _ de\ 1311<1
6.3.5 Interface Oulne!iS tolerance irrcguhu
(I) Where another structure continuously sup- Thl! ill/l!ifuce betll't'f'1I OIl{' SlnK'IIIn! alld all-
lack of
ports a shell (such as a foundation). its deviation other or lite ,wnlClllre (lIfd lis fOll/lllalio" is the
from OaIIK'SS at the interface s hould nol include a me(lI/,f lI'IIl?N!by membralle force.f are trallsmit-
b) material iml'Ci
loca l slope in thc circumfcrcntilll direction greater ted
limn Ptl
Whert' Illesc II/f!mbrlll/eforces arc IIol/ralls",il-
NOT E: The National Annex mlly choose the Ic{1 ill (I mallller Ihal leads to {j relatll-eJy /111;-
Further possible
valuc or Pu 1be value Po - 0.1% 0.001 ro· fonll .ftress ill the strllctllre. local higlt ,~tresses
R(i'\l\l~. such as
dians is recommended, call ari. "e. {II"I Iltese C'III Ic(uJ to buckling.
imperfections," t
TI,er(' is relUlil'ely lillIe research ill this {Irea
(Essli//ger ('/ al,. 1977). bill thc effects of SIII'-
Whcre appropriate l
purt sClllclllellt are qllite simi/ar 10 Ille effect of
impcrfl'Ctions rrOlf
Imel'f!II .\'/lI'I)(Ir/, alUl the l"i'Cc/l1 ,~tlldJ' of Ilol,ft
alld ROller (100J. 2(04) illlI,flrtlles thaI I"e
problem is l'Cry comp/e:f:. bill 1101 so seriOlIS.

T"e 1)(lrmneler 0/1 wlllch lhil' tolerance is {L~·

GoomelrlmllOler(lIfces (Illd Jmperfa'''OILf

m(lkes Iht' lolenmce dimell. ~eu('(/ II"(I.~ de\'i.w!tl by Ihe PmjL'C1 Tcam Iltal
I W1IIN.' uppli{'d 10 {III si=ef of draft(·t/ EN 1993· / -6, bm it is idemim/ to that
m;ed by Es.flillger el til.. (19 77). III the Com -
",('nUlry' /(I the tflt Edilioll (if the £CCS Rcm",-
",ent/alifllls, lJ brief s ta/ellle m 011 thi.~ nlt/ller
",t/icate.f 11/01 mllle.f of PII of eilll(!r 0.000/,
0.0007 or O,M/2 mig/II he lIppropri{/te ill dif
fcn!1If l"irclllllsUmces. HOII"('\'er, rl'CCI/f CXIJIfJ-
mlioll;o. of the pmctiml sign{ji{'{Jllce of '''t'~e
St' ptlrrlllleters ure the domi- m/lle.f (Greiller, 2(08) .fhow that Ihe.l' {I/'i.' afll'lI
tlti1lK '"l' jilhrictlliull qua/itl' qllite imprllclim/{v sl/wll. The ,hcon!lic(11 htJsi.\·
sfrength. rhe m/llt,;o.' gil'e~, of thew! ,·tlll/e.f IIIl1st therefore he N..'Collsitlered
'led 10 Ihose gil'i.''' ill !i<'Clifm (Iml /'el'iell'('d ill 'he light of ,/,(' work of Ilo/st
, Rn·fm,,"e/u)utiofl.I' en/teem.
ami Holter (2003, 1(04), (llId 'he NatiOllal AIl-
S o[ imperfections 10 he (IS-
nexe.f may he expl'Cted 10 he IIIIICh le\·.~ .\ Irici OIl
""merit'tli ul/a/,'s is (l.He ... ~­
'1Ii~ to/emllCe.
'lgth untler (I GAiN/A or sin;i-

6.4 Extended commentary on geometry, geometrical imperfections, geomet-

'X 10 /::"N /993-1·6 /tim' .\]>ec- rical tolerances and other forms of imperfection
o he J/Sed Tuble 6.4, \Illicit
tied m/lle.f, is /)(Irt of 'he 6.4.1 Imperfection form!!
'C/~I" purl ofthe stwu)art/.

EN 1993·1-6 Section 8.7.2 (8) (repeatcd in Section (9) OflhL'SC Recommendation!!) li!>!!. the
lalueofUn_ following potential sources ofimpcrfection as rcle\'antto numcricnl glob..,1 modelling using explicit
inclu~ion of imperfection" (GMN IA and GNIA. see Section 8.3 of these Recommendations). It
0.006 rL'quircs that appropriate IIliowance should be ineorponlled to cover the effects of imperfections that
cannot be avoided in practice. including:
a) geometric imperfections. sueh as:
0.0 16
deviations from the nominal gl.:ometrie shape of the middle surface (pre-dcfonnations,
irregularities at and near welds (miTIor L'eeentrieities. shrinkage deprc.~sion.!>. rolling
curvature errors):
t'4!11 0111' slnIClllre (111l1 (//I_ deviation!! from nominnl thickness:
re ulICl it.f [olllum/ion Is Ihl! lack of evenncss of !>uppons.
rrbrutl(! forces are trulls",il-
b) material imperfections. such 1lS:
residual stl'CSSC!l caused by rolling. pressing. welding. straightening etc.:
inhomogeneities and anisotropics.
11'''' forces aN! 'WI trims",;,·
II lellds tu if reftllil1!(\' Imi-
,rK"tllre. IUClII high SIn'.ues Funher pos!!ible ncgathc ml1uenccs on the imperfect clastic-plastic buckling rL~istancc mtio
!re am le(1l1 10 budlillg. RGMM1 • such as ground SClllements or Ilexibilities of COllnections or suppons. are not classed as
riftle rest'arch i/l litis WWl imperfections in the sense of these prO\isions.
77). blllihe ejfi'CIS of St/p-
rUite ,fimilar to tlte ('ffi'C1 of Where appropriate. a global numerical nnalysis of the structure should include all possible relevant
, the recent study of 110/sl imperfections from the abcne list that may be significantly deleterious to thc strength of the
,1(04) illllstrates ,!ttll Ihe structure.
"ex. but /101 so serious.

?Iich thi;o. tolenmCl! is lIS-

Bllck/illg ofSleel Shell.\ - Europca" Desigll RL'CQI1II1II.!1ld(llioR\
6.... 2 Thickncss imllcrfections lind tolerances
The e\alumions of EN 1993-1-6 ure based on the nominal thickness of the plnle. Where the plate is
relathcly thick. this poses fc\\ problems. 1I0we\er. where \ery thin pillte construction is in\'ohed Bomscheuer. F.W,.
(e.g. < 3nlln). the lower limit of the thicknchlI that is Ilcceptable under production requiremcnt!> mny Rundsch\\'ei!.!oniiht
be below the \ulue . . required for buck ling design.
DIN 18 800 (19901
No restrictions have been placed on imperfections Ihm nre local thiekJII..'SS variutions in the shell. Institut rur Normung.
This topic has been the subject of one known mujor !>Iudy (Gllsic et at.. 1998: Gu!>ic. 1999). but the
delcteriou!> em.'Ct nppcars to be co\ered moderately \\cli by the reqU1rements rel31ing 10
ImperfectiOlb of shape. FCCS (19Igg'8~:),~:~~:;
European C

6.4.3 'Vcar and ctJrrosloll

Where the shell structure is in contact with other materinls that may either cause mechanical or
chemical degradation of the material of the structure (mechanical damage as wear: chemielll
damage as corrosion) proper allowance should be nlUde for the expccK"d effecl o\er the lifetime of structures. CEK
the structure.

nle commonest case of both wear and corrosion is in si los. Some silos contain rough and IIbmsive
solids thut slide IIgainst the wall during discharge. clmsing considerable wenr. Although scverul EsslinQer. M. lind
examples exist of silos being so badly worn thnt holes IIppearcd in the cylindricn l walls. no failures Axi!tymmetrie Irrcgu\
are known due to this em..ct. and no research studies are known that ha\ e cillplored the reduction in Dowling. J.E. ilardi
buckling strength due to local wear. Corrosion often ari"C5 where there are eorrosi\e subSlnnccs
within either a stored sol id in a silo or a stored liquid in II tank. Esslinger, M .• Geier.
concerning I!.otropie
Rules concerning wear and corrosion in si los may be !bund in EN 1993-4-1. Liege.

Greiner. R. (2008) ..
6.4.4 Non-uniformities of IOllding, fore~ transfer bet"ccil shell segments IIl1d force lransfer Rotter. Feb.
10 boundaries
Greiner. R. and Yan
No restrictions hll\ e been plnced on imperfections that arise from minor non·unifonnilies of the stepped wall thiekn
applied loading and support. Where the shell is subject to membrane forees from other structural Measurement. Charoc
clements. thL'SC may be significnntllTld cllre should be exercised to eTlloure tlmtthe 1I0n·unifonnity of
forees applied to the shell boundaries is appropriately considered. Guggenbcrger. W. (\
process and coru.i~tc
6.4.5 Residual slr('Ss('S Workshop on Impcr
C A-Silo. Lyon. F
No special allowance has been made for rcsidunl stresses in the shell structure. A few studies of the
Gusic, G. (1999) " F~
development and consequences of residual stresses in cylindrical shell s have been conducted d'epaisscur" (Buekli
(Guggenberger. 1996: Rouer. 1996: 1I0lsi et al .. 1999. 2000). These gcnentll y lend \0 the imperfections). ThCi<
conclusion that Q consistent residual stress field (onc that sntislies equilibrium lind can be present in
thc shell in its final imperfL'C1 gcomctricul fonn lind docs nOI increase the amplitude of the
geometric imperfcction when the shell is unloaded) is usuully slightly beneficial. in Ihat il increases
Gusie G .. Limam A.•
the buckling rcsiSlllncc of the imperfecl shell. Some earlier studies of the problem (e.g.
influence of loca
Bornschcuer et al.. 1983) reached a different conclusion bllt were conducted without using a Mechllnics Ad\'aoce!'
consistent residual stress field .
liolst, J.M.F.G. and I
Metal Shells. cds 1.G

Geometric,,1 to/erCI"Cf.'s u"d imperfecfioll.\

6.S Referenc es
,f thc phllc. Whcre the plate is
platc construction is invoh'ed
Bomseheuer. F.W .. IUfner. L. and Rallllll, E.. (\983) "Zur Slabililfil eines Krciszylinders mit einer
r production requircmems may
Rundschweissn5h\ unter Axialbeillstung'·. Ocr StllhlbllU. Vol. 52. I left 10. pp. 313-318.

DIN 18 800 (1990) Stllhlb..1lJlen: Stnbilitlltsflll1e, Schalenbeulcn, DIN 18800 Part 4, Dcutschcs
ckncss variations in the shell.
Institut fUr NOnllUng, Berlin, November.
/.. 1998: Gusic, 1999), but the
he n:quiremenls relating to
ECCS (1988) European Recommendations for Steel Construction: Buckling of Shells. 4th edition,
European Convention for Constructional Stcclwork. Brussels.

EN 1090-2 (2006) Dmft: Execution ofstccl structures and aluminium structures. 2006 draft. CEN.
}' cither cause 1l1<.'Chanical or
damagc as \\,car; chcnucal EN 1993-1-6 (2007) Eurocodc 3: Design of stccl structures. Part 1.6: Strength and stability of shell
too cm.'Ct o\cr the lifetime of structures, CEN. Brussels.

l:.N 19934-1 (2007) Eurocode 3: Design ofstccl structures. Part 1.6: Silos. CEN. Brussels.
)S contain rough and abrasive
)blc "car. Allhough scvernl Esslinger, M. lind Geier. B. (1977) "Bockling Loads of Thin-Walled Circular Cylinders with
cyhndrical \\'alls. no failun.'S Axisymmetric Lrrcgularitics··. in Steel Plated Structures: An International Symposium. Eds PJ .
a\ e elCplon.'d the reduction in Dowling. J.E. Harding and I).A. Frieze. pp 865-888.
'!ere arc corroshc substanccs
Esslinger. M.• Geier. B. and Wood. J.G.M. (1977) "Some Complcmcms to the ECCS Dcsign Code
concerning Isotropic Cylinders". Prelim. Rpl, 2nd Internal. Coli. on Stability of Stcel Structures,
,-4-1. Liege.

(1:III ... nts and force Irllnsrcr Greiner, R. (2008) "Tolcmnce valuc uf unc"cnness uf foundation", Private communication to 1M.
Rolter. Feb.

Greiner. R. and Y:mg. Y. (1996) "Effect ofimperfcctions on the buckling strength of cylindcrs with
inor non·unifomlitics of the stepped wall thickness undcr axial loads", Proc. Int. Workshop on Imperfections ill Metal Silos:
forccs from other structurnl Measurement. Characterisation and Strength Analysis. CA-Silo. Lyon. Fr,mce. 19 April. pp 77-I«J.
rc that the noo-unifonnity of
Guggenb.crger. W. (1996) ··J::o.ffcct of geometric imperfections taking into account the fabrication
process and consistent residual stress fields of cylindcrs under local axial loads". Proc. Intemational
Workshop on Imperfections in Metal Silos: Measurement. Characterisation and Strength Analysis.
CA-Silo, Lyon. France. 19 April. pp 217-228.
Ucture. A few studics of the
hells ha\C~ been conduct,,'d Gusie. G. (1999) "Flambage des coques eylindriqucs sous pression externe: innuence des dcfauts
h~ gcnernlly lead to the d'epaisscur" (Buckling of cylindrical shells under external pressure: the effect of thickness
Ibrium and can be present in imperfections). These de doctorat. L'lnslitut National des Sciences AppliquCcs de Lyon. Lyon,
il:aSC the amplitude of the
eneficial. in that it increases
dics of thc problcm (e.g. Gusic G .• Limam A .• Jullien J.F. (1998) "Buckling of thin cylindrical shells under external pres~ure
conducted without using a - influence of localized thickness varilltion", 11th International Conference on Experimental
M,,"Chanics Advances in Design, Testing lind Analysis. 24-28 August. Oxford.

Holst, J.M.F.G. and Rotter. J.M. (2004) "Settlement b.cneath cylindrical shells". in Buckling of Thin
Metal Shells, eds J.G. Teng & J.M. ROller, Spon, London.


- .. _--- .- ....
Hl/dlillX IJISI('c/ Shell!!'· Ellropeall DesiXII R('(Y}/ml/(!II(JatiIJllS

I-ioist. J.M.F.G. and Roltcr. J.M. (2005) "Axially CompresK'(I Cylmdrical Shclls \\Jlh Local
Settlcment··. Thin-Walled Structure!>. Vol. 43. No.5. MIlY. PP HI 1-825. 7 Rules
1I01st. J.M.F.G .. ROllcr, J.M. and Calladinc. C.R. (1999) "Imperfections in Cylindrical Shell"
re'lulting from Fabrication Misfit~". Joun131 of Enginecring Mcchanic... ASCE. Vol. 125. No. 4.
Principal aUlhor:
April. pp 410-418.

Iioist. J.M.F.G .. Rotlcr. J.M. lind Calladinc. C.R. (2000) "hnJX=rf(.'Ctions and buckling in cylindricill 7.1 General
shclls Yo Ith con .. i~tcnt residual streioM.'S". Journal of ('onslnlctional Stcel Research. Vol. 54. pp 265-
282. 1.1.1
Rolter. 1M. ( 1996) "Ela!<ltie plastic buckling and collapse in internally prec;surisc<i axially ioilo cylinders with measured axisymmetric imperfectIons: interuetionc; bet\\ccn In the tnillihonal
imperfections. residual stresses and eolillpsc". Proc. Intcrnational Workshop on 11Ilperf(.'C tions in used and a h;~~:t:~,~
that material
Metal Si los: Measuremcnt. Charueteri'Wltion and Strength Analy:!ois. CA-Silo. Lyon. Fnmee. 19
April. pp 119-140. preach i.. known as

Roller. J.M. (2004) " Buckling of cylindrical shells under a'(ial compro:ssion", in Bucklillg 01 Thill In the period 1940-1
Metal Shells. Spon. London. complete stnlctu~
pend on '" hcthcr the
Rotler. 1M. and Teng. lG. (1989) "Elastic Stability or Lap-JointL'(I Cylindo:rs", Joum:ll of structures the '1
Structuml Enginco:ring. American Society ofei\il EnginCCfli, Vol. 115. No.3, March. pp 683-691. which the most

Sehmidt. II. and Greiner, R. (199M) "Erlautcrungcn 7U DIN 18 800 Teil4" in Slahlbaulen. Eds 1
Lindner, J. Schccr, and II. Schmidt. cmst & Sohn and Bculh. Berlin. pp 333-422. istic assessmcnts
mine. so simplc safe
is widely taken as the
par.unctc.... (ideal
ioIrcsses may be ""'''i'~

In It stnleture ":~~:.::.~
the beha\ lour I
collapse or plastic
axial compression.
In It simply supponcd
beam represents an
any rearrangemcnt
and cross-K'Ction~
that is far below

slnlcture cannot
plifying the analy .. is
that the strc<;<; state in
tions, local vurilltions
These simple methods
10 great dlfficulues if
finite clcment "~~I,~~~
Ihan the simple I
lem becomes more

Rille.'r/or Ihe pla~/;c Umilwate ttlI(11)/tlSlic rejerellct! loud assessment

Cylindrical Shclls \\ nh Local

25. 7 Rules for the plastic limit state and plastic reference load
rfcction~ in Cyhndricul Shcll~
lnic~. ASCI'.• Vol. 125. No. 4.
Printilmi llulhor: 1.M. ROller

ons and buckling in cylindrical 7.1 General

teel RL~arch. Vol. 54. pp 265-
7.1 .1 T he s ig nifica nce or the plnslic limil load
internally prcssuriscd a:(illlly
Celions: intcractions betuLocn In the trac.litional approach to struetul'lll engineering strength evaluutions. clastic culculntions ucre
WOIhhop on Imperfeetions in used and a limitation wus placed on the maximum calculated stress. This was inlenc.lcd 10 ensure
s. CA-Silo, Lyon. Francc. 19 Ihat malerial brcakdoun did not occur at thc design loac.l. IUlgmented by a SllrCty margin. This ap-
proach is known as the -pcnnissiblc stress" or "allowllble stress" approach.

.pression". in Buddillg (if Thill In the period 1940-1980. great Prob'fCSS was mac.le in understanding the conditions under uhich
complele structures truly rcaehL'ti their nUlximum loac.l conc.lition. These conditions naturnlly de-
renc.l on whether the malcrial from which the structure is T1Ulc.lC is c.luctile or brilllc, but in metal
:>i01OO Cylinders". Journal of 'Itructurcs thc c.luctility or thc malerial leads to II substantial reserve or ... trcngth beyond the loml 111
5, '\0. 3. \iareh. pp 683-697. \\hich the most highly stressed point reachcs the malcrial strength limit. Howcycr. the s ize or the
strength reserve is \ery sensitive to thc typc or stmeturc. thc geometry. loading and boundary condi-
Tcil 4" in Slahlbaulcn. Eds J. tions. In a modem limit statc phi losophical rnullcwork. stmcturul eyaluntions are nil basec.l on real·
pp 333-422. istic nsst.'"Ssmcn ts of the tme strength of the stmeture. This s trength is somctimcs difficult to dcter-
mine. so simple s.'1fe eonscrvntivc Ilpproximations to il may be USl'd instead. The malerilll strength
is widcly tnken as the yicld s tress, since this penl1its Cllch mllleriulto be eharucterised by just two
p.1ramcters (ideal clastic-plastic material with clas tic modulus and yield stress) evcn though largcr
str<.'SSCs may be sustained at large stmins.

In a stmcturc made or ductile idcal clastic-plu.'Itic m:lIerial, anc.l where no stability phenomel1n am.'Ct
the behaviour berore the maximum load is rcaehL'd. Ihe IIInximum 100'1d or the stmcture is the plastic
collnpsc or plastic limit load. [n very simple stmcturcs. such as a \'Cry shon column unc.lcr unironll
axial compression. there is no difference between Ihe attainment or !'irst yicld and the plns tie limit.
In a simply supponcd I beam. the first yicld load is also close to the plastic limit looc.l because the I
beam represents an efficicnt d~ployment or matcrial anc.l the detenninate structure docs nol pemlit
any rellrrangcmcnt orlhe load carrying stress path. By contrust. structures that are highly redundant
lind cross-sections that are solid (as in 1m isotropic shell platc) both usually reach first yield at a load
that is far below the plastic limit load.

It is nmul'lllly desirnblc that seriously conservative estimates of the strength or a structure are
u\oided. since this leads to uneconomic design. In com·entional design. the conclusion that thc
structure cannot survive a load targl.... tl1:m the very low " first yield lood" is avoided cither by sim-
plifying the analysis (e.g. using membrum: thL'Ory instcac.l of linellr bending theory). or assuming
thm the stress statc in the Slructure is relatively unironn (ignoring the effccts of boundary
tions. local vnriations in applied lo.'1ds. s tructurnl details. local IIl1achments and pcnctl'lltions ctc.).
TI,CSC simple mcthods of avoiding a realistic assessment or thc true s tress state ofthc structure leac.l
to great difficulties ir computational models nrc used to Ilnll lysc the s tructure. Even the simplest
finite clement analysis uses linear bending theory 1ll1d I)r<.'tiicts first yield to occur at lower loads
than the simple mcthods. As progressivcly more realistic fini te element IInlllySl'"S arc used. thc prob-
lem bccoml.'S more and more serious. The only solution to Ihis problem is 10 use a relllistie assess-

HII(.'klillg o/S/('e/ Shells - Ellru/wull lks;g" Recom",e"d{lli()/I.~

ment of the true strength of the n.'dund:mt ductile structure. The realistic nssessment of strength for
an ideal elastic-plastic structure is represented by the plastic limit Io.,d.

Notwithstanding the above. it should be remembered tlmt the extent to which the !irst yield assess-
ment is conservat i~e depends strongly on the gt.'omelry and lood case of the structure. For example.
a cylindcr that is carefull y unifonnly axially compressed has little rescn'e of strength beyond the
!irst yield condition. By contrast. the !irst yield criterion mlly estimate the Mrength of a cone-
cylinder shell j unction at only 2()o,. of its real value (Rotter. 1985).

7.1 .2 Ruptu re li nd bending collapse Illechllnlcs

The plastic limit slate in a shell cm ers two conditions lhat are normally regarded as distinct First it
covers tensile rupture or eOl1lprcssi~e yield through the full thickness (membrane yield) along an
extended line through the struclure. S(."Cond it covers the development of a plastic collapse mecha-
nism invoh'ing bending (the achie"ement of a classical plastic limit 10.1d). These two stnlCS ellnnot
be easily separat(.-d for shells because bending of the shell always in~ohcs associated stretching.
nnd ,cry few load conditions involve only membrane (pure stretching) stn.-sses. Bccau..c the I
slenderness ).. and
The plastic limit state represents the st1lle of extensi~e rupture or unaecepltlbly lurge plastic defor- limit 10.1d always
mations in tension or compression. but when stability phenomena do not imen·enc. The simplest lunil 10:ld i~
and clearest expre!osion of this cond ition is the classical plastic limit load. which is derived from an
ideal clastic-plastic tInulysis using small displacement theory. This type of anulysis is tenned MNA
in EN 1993-1-6 (sec Section 2.2.7) and inlhcsc Recommendations (sec Section
7.1 .4
7. 1-3 l'llistie:: Iimilload and buckling limit state assessments
The plastiC limit
... tnlcture \\ hen
In a !oimple axially 10.1ded column. stability effects intervene in slender members. but the plastic
limit (yield stress) limits the strength of stocky members. The relationship betwccn the plastic limit The plastic limit
load and the elastic criticulload is used to define the relative slenderness o f the member. The same confused \\ ith the
generalised definition o frclat i\c slenderness is used in EN 1993- 1-6 for shell structures eeptiblc to I
nomena pennlt
... (7.1)
hr"t. no material
where RpJ represents the plastic limit lood and Rcr represents the clastic criticul lood. It may be ,tre'i~ belllg
noted thai Rpl is referred to in EN 1993- 1-6 IlS the plastic reference resistance and Rcr as the critical An appn'Pnate
buckling resistance (Fig. 7. 1).
The second
be I (so
tion may be
changes to .... anls a
•. geomettrr:;c~:,'~1.Ct~~
it is not p

B(."Cuusc thl'<;C t\\O

quantify. neither is
limit load is I
RlIle\ jiJr III('II/uslic limil !;/(Ile lllld plaslic reference 10lJd assessme"l

~istic ~sment of strength for R", j,mall displacement theory

"'. plastic limit load (MNA)~
t 10 \\-hich the first yield assess- Lotld faclOr
e of the struelure. for eXllmplc.
rcsen'c of strength beyond the
~jmale Ihe strenglh of n cone-
on design
!/ lL_ _ _ Elastic-plastic behaviour

, _ - - - - - Rpl l..'S tilllatc from linear elastic analysis (LA)

ally regarded liS distinct. First it

css (membrane yield) ulong un Defonnation
en! of II plastic collapse mechu-
load). These 1\00 0 Slates cannot Fi~ur(' 7. 1: Plusllc rererencc l't.';,l!>t:mcc Npl mid simple ~limat c using LA
jmohcs associated stretching.
Because the definition of the buckling strength in the clastic-plastic regime dcpends on the rdati\'e
siendemt'Ss).. and the plastic limit load is uS<.."<i in the definition of slcndem~ (Eq. 7.1). the plastic
]J9cceptably large plastic defor-
limit load always remain!'> rclevllnt to a buckling strength assessment. For Ihis reason. the plastic
do not intenene. The simplesl
limit 10;ld is carefully defined and described in th~ Rccommendmions. e\'en though the focus of
ioad..... hieh is derhed from an
the RI..'COmmendations is on the stability of shel ls.
MX= of analysis is t!;'nned MNA
7.1.4 Effect orstrllin hardening and gl..·tJIl1ctric ChllllJ.:I.'lI

The plastic limit load is simply 1\ reference load. y.hieh assists in identi fying the strength of the
struclUre when slllbility plays no significant role.
roder members. bUI Ihe plastic
jffiship between the plastic limit
The plastic limit load is currently defined only for an ideal clllStie·plastie material. It should not be
ness of the member. The sume
confused with the real strength ofu Mocky structure. as outlined below. If the structure is not sus·
for shell structures
ccptiblc to stability phenomena. its tnlc strength is not limited by the plastic limit load: two phe-
nomena pennit additional loads to be carried .
... (7. 1)
Finot. no material is perfectly elastic-plastic. so struin· hardcning o f the material leads to higher
Jastic critical load. It may be stresses being sustained locally. which in tum leads to higher lo.'1ds being camed by the structure.
esistance and Rcr as the critical An appropri:ue ··failure loao' is more difficult to identify. since no clear maximum load is attained.

The second phenomenon is change in gl..'Omctry. As the structure deforms. the change of shape can
be dcstabilising (so recogniM!d as pan of a slllbility effect) or stabilising. An example of stabilisa-
tion may be considered as a circular flat plate under transverse pressure. whose shape slowly
changes towards a hemispherical shape. with steady increases in the pressure sustained. This
··gl..'OlllClric hardening" effect (ROller. 2(05) is present in many plastic collapse conditions. but IIgain
it is not possible to define a clear maximum load.

BI..'Cause these two phenomcna both lead to changes in the plastic state that arc rother difficult to
quunt ify. ncither is included in an assessment of the plastic limit load. In EN 199)- 1·6. the plastic
limit load is defined in a unique manncr by associating it with a material behaviour that is ideal
clastic-plastic and Ihe kincmutics o f small displaccmellllhcory (Rotler. 2002a& b. 2(05).
Bllckling o/Sfeel Shells - Elllvpeall De~'ig" Recommc"mllions

7.2 Different methods of estim:uing the plastic referen ce resistance

7.2.1 T he formal plastic limillnnd

In EN 1993- 1-6.lhe ideal clastic-plastic limit load may be used in "direcl design" ".. here II fonnal
limit load is known algebruienlly. Where an eluslie-plastic smull displacement numerical analysis
(MNA) is used. Ihis may also find the plastic limit load precisely. pro\ idcd thlll the rcloUitS can be
appropriately interpreted (see Section 7.5.1).

When simpler analyS(.'S lire used. the plastic limit load must be estimalL-d with a lo\~ er bound up-
proxim:lIion. The simplest ofthesc 100~er bound upproximations is the (lltainment of first yield. but
as noted above this often undereslimat(..'S the strcngth very eonsidembly.

7.2.2 Estimation based 011 m embra ne theory clllcuhltions

Where a membrane thcory analysis has been used to detennine the stress stale in the shell. first
yield (II the most highly stressed point in the shell according to \'on Miscs criterion is used as an 7.2.3 ESIil1llltion
estimate of the plastic limitlo.,d. This gives the simple internction bctwCCl1mcmbrane stress resul-
tants according to von Miscs eritcrion (Fig. 7.2):
Where a linear shell
on the surluee at the
... (7.2) be u~-d a!> lin "",m''''i
true pla!>tic limit load
where II/ and 111 are Ihe principal vulues of the mcmbmne Siress Tl..'Sultnnts. recognising thai Ihe gen- yield on the surfllce i..
enal mcmbrune stress slate will involve the three mcmbrJnc stress resultants II... noand " \(J.
than design ba~ on
that are cakulatcd
equilibrium of the
If the stress stale is entirely axisymmetric (11.,0'" O).lhis crilcrion may give a close upproxim:lIion to
tircly (it is difficult
the true condition at plustic collapse. because the full plastic state is achic\ed around the entire cir-
cumference. though this sti ll does not neeC5S.'1ri ly uchieve a mech:tnism of failure, I lo\~e\·er. where
c1a!>lic anal} ..i .. to
the stresses are significantly unsymmetrical. this criterion often provides a very conservntive esti-
lound In Seclion fLU.
1l1.1te of the plastic limil load: yield 31 a point does nOI pennit development of the cOTllplete plastic
mechanism required for collapse (Ihe kinematic requirements of collapse are not satisfied). In par-
ticular. whcre the Io.,ding produces a local peak in the tnCmbmnc stress distribution. this method of In lenn!>
with the 11
estimuti ng the plustie limit load can become extremely eonservalive. MOfCO\·er. then: is no simple
sires, .,WI". \\hiht
manner in which Ihe conservatism can be alleviated empirically using notions of phlStic rcdislribu·
tion. hct:ause equilibrium will be violated,
it is not possible to II linear elastic

In an attempt to n.'SOh
"Ulte, EI\ 1993·1-6
ing and n, ~;~::b::,~,i
criterion finol 1
mtemellon that i~ !>!Ife
action. It i, slilll ~.~~~
pla .. ticity oflhc S4



RlIle.\ '/or Ihe plmlic h"'il~tale all(/ plaslic referellce lomi lJ.ueument

!DCe resislance Second principal membrane

stress !\!Sultant "1
Safe stress !\!Sullant
eombinaaions inside
this envelope if. L - - ,
'direct design" \\here II fonnal
splacelilent nurnericalullulysis
rovidcd Ihut the results call be T·T First princiIXl1 membrane
-if. C·T st!\!Ss !\!Suitanill/

nMed "ith II lower bound ap- T.c if.

e attainment of first yield. but
T TcnSloo
-If. C Con~sim
f lgur!' 7.2: 111&SlIe slrcngth mll'mCllon bct"een membmne ~tress resultants
Sires!> stale In the shell. first
Mi.scs criterion IS used as an
7.2.3 Estim a tio n based on linear clasti( s hell be nding theory calcula tions
tween membrane stress rcsul.

Where a linear shell bending thto'ory analysis has been u'\Cd to detennine the stress state. fil'\t yield
on the surface at the most highl y stressed point in the ~hcll according to \'on Miscs criterion \:ould
... (7.2) be used as an estimate of the full plnslie rcsistnnee. but this lends to an e .. en lower estimate of the
true plastic limit loud than the membrane stress e\aluatioll of Section 7.2.2. If the criterion of first
Ints. recognising thai the gen- yield on lhe surfllee is ndoptoo. design D:1Sl.-d on lincnr bending thcory becomes more conser-uli, c
Innb 11,. I1nand 11\1J than design based on membrune theory. which S/..'CIII!> inapproprintc. Howc\er. thc bending actions
thm are calculated u!>ing linl'ar !>hell bending tln:ory are sometimes necessary to suppon the static
gi .. e a close approxima tion 10 equilibrium of the stnleturc (Rollcr. 1985). Consequently. these moments cannot be ignored en·
~h ie'ed llround Ihe emire cir- tirely (it is difficul t to define geneml crileriu tlml identify when these moments are imponant to
1 of failure. Uowcvcr. where slmic equilibrium and when nOI). Tlu:sc difficulties all arise when an allcmpt is made to use u linear
(lcs a very conscrvutivc csti. elastic anlilysis to idcntify the plastic reference resistance. Funher discussion and advicc may be
1"1CTIt of the complcte plns tic found in Section 8.2.3.
F .are nOi satisfied). In par·
In tenns of the definitions of EN 1993-1·6. Ihe stl\.'SS s tatc in the shellthnt is required to cquilibrnh!
dlstnbution. this method of
Morem'er. there is no simple with the louds (irrespective of \~ hether clastic or plastic stresses are involved) is tcnned the prill/an·
:flre.U Sf(ll(? whilst the stresses arising from compatibility considerntions are tenned S(-'COlldt,,)'
notions of plastic rcdistribu-
Slrf!.ue.~. J-1owe\-er. although this conceptual difference is very imponam in the pR.'SCm discussion.
it i~ not possible to idcmify cU!>ily Yo hieh strcliS/..'S belong in which class \\ hcn lhey nre cnlcullm.-d
using a linear elastic numericalnnalysis (LA).

In nn allempt to rcsoh e the unfonunate scriou~ con'iCrvatism of the abo\-e assessment of the linut
statc. EN 1993·1..() uses Yo hat is commonly temlCd the Ilyus hin yicld critcrion for combined bend-
ing and membrane SI.rcSSCS to provide a measure of increase in the enlculmed surface stresses. This
criterion first combines the hcnding moments and membrane forces in cach direction to produce an
internction that is sufe for uniaxial bending. and then combines them into a biaxial von Miscs mlcr-
nction. It is still e\'aluali.o'd in tcnns ofstn.'SSl.'S. but the outcomc represents a closer approueh to full
plasticity of the section than can be obtained using surface strcsSC!> (Fig. 7.3):

... (7.3)
BlId:/i"K n/Slul SI,,>/'s - ElIrtJl)t!{II/ De.~igll RecommclldtlliollS

in which: 7.3 Rules of

UO ·
!!JJ.. ±-,-
InO ... (7.4)
I r 4 7.3.1 Design

!!JJl.. ±, (I)P Allhough

m \0 . ". !l..!!L
I r '4
'" , ... (1.5) clm.lie unalyloi~ and
predici the pla~tic
the ba!>is of the I
This criterion now pennits the full phu;tie moment of the shell to be dc\elopi.."<i lit II point. but gi\(~s
II linear interaction bch\-een moments and membmne forces. when the tnJC full plaMieity interaction a con\Cr..-athe ''''''~
rcsi<.tallee \\ hieh j.,
is parabolic (Fig. 7.3). It is therefore still a very conservathe criterion. This is e\en more evident
limit state (sec EN
\\hen it i!o T"CCOb'11ised thllt plustie hinge fonnalion III one point is far from the development ofa plas-
tic collapse mcchnnilom. which here mUM in\'ohe both bending Ilnd siretehing. This erilerion is
commonly more con!oCnllli\'e than Ihal used for membmne theory analyses.

.. ""
-j "

II "
~l "
•• 02

", (2) The Ilyulohin }'

, 0.2 G. GI 01 as detailed in (6). tha
UnIaa'-l_I'''' pMMk _ _ _ (""""-" plastic collapse .. tatc
facc slress e\alulltion .
•' Igur(' 7.J: Uniaxilll plastic strength inter.action bct\\,"'Cn mcmbrnnc force per unit width lind bending mo-
ment per Unit width (clastic limIt. llyushllllllK1 full plasticity)
(3) At each point
value of the strcs~ a
7.2.4 Estimalioll bused on g('omclriclIll} nonlilll'llr clllcliialions highe~t primal)' .. tre.
analysis that eon'iid~
If geometric nonlinearity is included in an analysis to detennine the plastic limit state. problems between imposed do
urisc over whether the s tructure displays geometric hardening or geomelric softening. For gL'Olnetri- forces und momcnh.
cally softening s tructures. the distinction bcm·ecn the plllStic lint It and buckling is lost. and the peak
load is the same as that for plas tic buckling. unless bifurcation occurs. In geometrically hardening
structures. the plastic limit depends on Ihe maximum pennittcd defonmllioll. which is not si mple to
define. (4) The primary loti
maximum \'alu~ of
The relati .. c slenderness used ill the buckling cvalUlUions that occur later in these Recommendations equilibrium \\lth the
is thereforc only defined wilh respec t to a small displllccmenilheory analysis for eVlllualion of the along un axisymmetr
plustie limit (MNA). and gL'Omelrically nonlinear allalyses (G\.1NA) s hould not be used when dc- ture.
tennining the slenderness (Rotter. 2002b. 2(05). This is discussed further in Chaplcr 8.


___________.-:.R:::"/cJ [or 'he ,,1"Slit" Iim;1 ftllle lind plastic rejerel/Ct' load aues:",IIcm

7.3 Rules or E 1993- 1-6, Section 6.2, for the plastic limit slale usi ng slress
... (7.4)
7.3.1 Design "a lues ofslrrsscs

(I)P Although stress design is based on un The pftmic limilflll'" shollld .ftricl~I' be Jomul
'In ... (7.S)
clustic unulysis and therdore cannot accurately jiV/1/ a 1IU1/edt/lly nOllfj"etlr (l/IfI~l'fis. wllich
predict the plastic limit stutc. it muy be u!oocd, on lI'ould liSt' 1I m mplete "Imu;e ('ollap.\c mcdl(l-
JC\c10p!..'<Illl:J point. but gi\-,.."S the b.1sis of the lower bound theorem, to provide lIi~m to dejine the lilllit sU/te. III a ,Ihc/l .111'1/('.
: true full pta~licity inlcrnclioll a consen'ative assessment of the pl:1Stic collupse tlll'C, I//ch a IIIL'Clwllism ;m"Q/I'e,f both be/ulill}.:
)fl. This is c\cn more evident resistance which is used to represent the plastic al/d l'''1:tc:hillg dfj"ormotiolL\", so 111lI1 Ihc pitmit'
om the dc\'cloprncnt of a plas. limit statc (sec EN 1993·1·6 &"-ction 4.1.1). eo/lops(' mt'C/wl/ism im"Q/I'c.~ 1101 Oil/I' Ihe lor.
J stTCtching. Thi~ criterion is 111(11;011 01(111 adcquate Iwmber 01p/astit.' hillge.1
lyses. ("ic!d lilll!.~), bill e.T/ells;I'(' IIIembral/e slre/t'hing
to (K'hiel'e eml/polihilit)'. /11 lhis COllleXl, III!,
(KlopfiOil 01 u failure criferioll haved 01/ fhe (II.
wi",IIe", of.fllfjal'e yieldillg at a sil/gle l)(Jilll ill
f"l!f"I!/lIISII("~I' l('lIdv 10 a porlil'lllar!,' COlln'r·
,'alill' tl.ueumellf of Ihl! Ii",it load, TIr(' (Iiffer.
cllce be/ll('ell this emde e.l/lI/llIte of thc limil
10(1(1 from eluSlil' (lIIalpil alld fire (K"'lIratl!~"
I!l'(fhllllet! mIl.' from MNA grows CIS Ilu· /ollf/ill.l:
tm Ihe .Ilrefl becolllef lIIore complic(lfcd.
Thi,\' lrealmelll i.f II/erefore 1I/()lkrafe~I' ClCCllrll/l'
for cL\iSl'mmelric(l/~"I()(IC/ed slrell.f. bllt hecome.f
"('1)' COII.fCn'lIliw for IlIIsylllmclri("a/~I' or hI-
C"/~I' loud!'" l·"d/s.
(2) The Ilyushin yield criterion may be u,cd, The 1(l"lIlhill critt'riOIl is Ihc l'imfJ/~1 plmlid/l"
• us detailed in (6), that comes closer to the true
plustic collapse slate than a simple eluslic sur·
£Tlterilm fOi' u .fllell. II is (uloptt..'d to pr/wide (I
("f"ileriflll Ihat fl' alll'ays safe, hili il is often 11:0'
ruee stress evuluution. mle, It i.f, hOlI'ell'r, leu co/lseM'atiw! t/"III the
c:r unit \\ idth and bending 11K).
bW:ily) aileriOIl offinu yield ollihe slrelllllrjt.lCe.
(3) AI eaeh point in the stmclurc the design To "I/sl/I'e IIItII el'l!lI Ihe simple.11 ("cues arl!
\ alue of the stress C1;>I.I:J should be takcn as the trctlted eOfls('n"CItil'e(,', Ihe limil lillie i.1 UI··
highest primary stress detennined in a stmctuml fe'ned 011 Ihe hasi,f ofSlrt'SS"S at Cll'illgle l)(Jillf,
analysis that considers the 11m:. of equilibrium TI,/'I i.1 hcl.fed 0/1 the fOIl'"r bolllld Iheorem of
plastic limit Slale. problems between imposed design load and intcrnal plul"lil"itl'.
:tnc softening. For gcamctri- forces :md moments.
TlI/.f dell/.fe (Il.w illdicale.f Ihot the QlUI~\"fi.f IIsed
iJUCkling is 10!01. and the peak
I/{','d flOI he all elastic {lIIo~\'sis: materi(lll.l' 11011·
• In geometrically hardenmg
/illear (J//CI~\".f(,S lIlso Slllis!)' Ihese colldiliom.
alion. ~hich is nOI simple to
(4) The primary Slress may be Iliken as the This d,lIIse i.f agai" t:lellr tlrtll if " St'l 01
maximum value of the stresses required for .wN'.ucs call he fOllnd Ihlll eqllilihra/(' Ihe /eN"LI
jr in these RccommcndnllOns (,"quilibrium with the applied loads at a point or tI/lt! do 1/(11 exct'l'li lire yield aileriQ/I, II",,, tllt'st,
nalYlois for c\'tllualion of the ulong lin axisymmetric line in Ihe shell struc· II/al' he IIsed in Ihe p/uwic limi/ftate aue'nll/em
oould not be used \\ hen de- ture. (lI.fillg Ihe 101l'{'r bolllld IIIc:or..:",).
fr in Chapter 8. The tenll ",,/mlg lIli u'(isymmelric lille ill III"
~lrcll stmctl//'('" r{'/"'e.f fo tlxisrmlllf!tri<' ,/fit!
.\';lIIi/or load conditions, II'I/el'e the slime llre.u
Bucklillg ufSIt'f.'1 Shells - £lIrolJellll De.~igll R(.'(·UllJlllelld,lIiom

\I(l/e ilia), he ohloim.' lI %ng a IIIIu/e lille 7.4

Iltmll~h IIIl' WnlC'lIIre.

(5) Where n mcmbrane theory analysis is The eqllil'lliem ,h'Si~" .ftreH it; htuecl 01' the 704.1 The "" .,''';
uMXf. thc resulting hH)-(hmcnsional field or ,'pplicmioll of mil Mise", yield t"rire"ioll to the
~tress re)UltaIlL<; II , ~J, " IIU and lI ,au may be colelilwed strl!.n es. II hert' lite slreH" SUlI(' i.f As noted abo\'l:. the
repre<,entcd by the "."qui' alent design .. trcfo.!> ,wmillaled by I//('mhnme str('sses. lite Crilf,,.ioll EN 1993-1-6 and in
a"'lhl oblninl..'(i from : g;l'(·s WI lIl"!:lIrate ('I'"hwt;Oll of first thrulIMh- vcry safe.
Ihit-Ime.\ \ rielcl (II a sillgle poillf ill III(' fhel/.
It is difficult to

... (7.6)

(6) Where an LA or GNA annlysis is used. II here ", I,ell hellclillg\lreues. tiS ll'el/ m 11/('111-
the resul ting two dimen)ionul field of primllry hl'fllll' strefses. are prell'lII. the problell/ of de-
.. tresses muy be repn.-scnled by the \on Mises finillg a ('01111'/('1('(" Melleru/~il1lpl(' ,.lIle tllUl is
cqui\ulcnt design stl'CloS: ,,/lm),s sure bill is 110/ s('riuII.dy Clmsen'tltil'('
herom('s qllife difficult (e.g. Gre",'lIigl, 1986).
, .1:.(/
. +aO./UI - a . ,&1 a 1I, TlI(, betldillg sireue.'i ill sl/t·/Is "1'1.' colI/l/lonly
... (7.7) wiJOciatl!llll'ill, Ille Mllisfactioll of COIII/XllibililY
+3( r~o,F., + r;n,£J + r,,".F
.d ) t'()ll(lili(Jt'.~. UllcI ("(III be cli\regan/Cl/ ill " piOMit"
lilllil uUeUllle/ll, bill il i.\ 1101 (I"I'(~rl' /I'lle Ihol
in ",hich: the), UN! 011(" reqllired 10 suli4\' C"IIIIXllibiliIY.
III ,~O",(' g'.-'OlIIetries {lIId looding cOlldilium', the
bel/ding sl,.esses pl{./\' tI I'ilUl role ill meelillg Ihe
eqllilibrilllll relillircmellt.~ fO"IIIe .' ilnlClltre (RUI- rI '
ler, 1985). Siml,le e.wlI/plt·", urI.' 1I lip.lolltleel
(,llIIlilew", plure, IlIId 1m a-cilllly /oat/('l/ cuniclIl
.\hell 011 mller ",111'1)01'1\ Ih,,' ,I.·lide IIO,.I//a/IO Ihe
... (7.K) she/l aX;'I. III \00

"-i~urt' 7,-': BlII"l:ial

Tim er,,('rioll i",' IlI/fUrl/lIIlIle ill thai a lIIure W1-
pllislicalttl {'//10~"~is (LA ill ploce of IIICn/brlme
T 0 J:.d _ _"_,0_._""_ ± _"~
' .~0=.Ed",,
· Ihool)') Ihat gil,(,.\ (I Miler N.'prc.\'CIIUllio/l of Ihe
:t. - t 12 / 4' IH!hm'io/l1' alld (:ulllpalihility ofiell IC(lds IrI (.Iff More scriou!>ly. the

liol ,ttl liOn.I:.(1

e,'ell more ('Omen·,l/il'e ,~/re"glll asse.umelll
(IIJi,\' is !Hx'(lII.\"(' Illc ///(llerial model has IWIIx:ell
nism that is':;~~~:::~
T:t" ,I:.'(1 =--,- . TOn.F.t1 .. - -,- ... (7.9)
imlJl'Oll!tlul all). /11 Illese CUles. Ihe desig/ler in\ oil. e a complex
dwuld Ihe bolil/dury cOlldilioll.f 10 fee non-symmctric
NOTE I: Thc abo\c cxpressions give u II"Clher Ihc)' hm'e Ix'f!// de.\'iglleel /() be co/xlhie much highcr loads
simplified conscn'ativc equivalent stress for of earn'iffg Ihe /()(I(/s elllire~I' hy ml.'lIfbnme (1('- cntcnon.
design purposes. lioll,
A reiu:cmio/l of Ihe slricl crilerioll of Eli, 7.7 7,4.2 T he pl:ulk I
NOTE2: The values of TUI,eJ and Tlkl.J are
usulIlIy \-cry small und do nOl afTcct the plastic 1OII'Ortn' II/al of Eli. 7. 6 fila), be ('fmsiderct/ if
resiSIIIIICC. so they lIlay gcncrnlly be ignored. I"i.f lesl for membrolle lIctiOIl ul Ihe boll/uillries The plastic hmlt 103
i", IIIcl. rcfcrl!lIce rc!>istllnce,

Whcnc\'Cr the clastic

resistancc i!> rcqum.'(\
tancc should Il!\\uy ..

Rilles for tire plustie limil stale olld plastic refere"ce loud t.lS1esslllelll

OhWlIIl',1 alollg U IIhole lille 7.4 Extcndcd commenlary on plaslic reference load assess men I

JI!\igll f/r('.H if hem."/ 011 II/(' 1.4.1 The Ilyushin ~ield critl'rion
011 ,\Ii~C_\ .rielcl uileriOIl 10 Ihe
.fI!f. Ifhl'rl' Ihe ,llreu ware is As noted nbove. the Ilyus hin criterion is Ihe simplest plllslicity criterion for a s hell , It is ndoptr.:d in
('lIIhmlll' ,slreUt·.f. Ihe Uiler;(1II EN 1993- 1-6 and in these Recomrnendulion~ 10 provide a cri terion that is always safc. but it is onen
'It' l'I'ulltltlioll l!f first Ill/'UIl811- \'cry s.,fe.
, (I sillKle pO/III illlht' shell.

It is difficult to draw this yield criterion as II 3-D imnge. even for n simple case. Since e,'en under
axisymmetric conditions there nre Jour lItrcss rcsultmlls, 11,.110. m~ nnd III(J, the simpiL'St case requil'L'S
a 4-0 image. which is difficult for the reader to assimilnte. An example image. for conditions under
which momay be eliminatl"<i, is shown in Fig. 1.4. The complete \'on Miscs yield surface is shown
dilrn ,lIrt:ne,I, In lIell (If "'t'",-
in Fig. 7.4a and the redueed Ilyushin surface in Fig. 1.4h.
Jl't' pn'It'III. lite problem l!f de-
d .. gt'm'rol fimple nile 11101 i.\
is 001 leriolls/l' colUen'{lliI-e
fTjelt" (e.g. Gre~mgl. /986). fn z ,

eHt'J in sltell.v urt' co",mOIlI .. n,
he Solisfo(:liu/f uf rom/kllihilill'
'un he dilN!gllrtu.,,1 in u plo.\lic
hili il i~ 11m ('/I\'tl\'_f Irllf! Ihat
'1flim/ tu ,fali.lf... ~lIfXltibilill"
ref olld loading wmJili(m.v. the
.• --- m, ---....
plm' a \'ilol role in mcelillg 111(' :. '/I"
Ihe ,ftructlln' (Rot-
lrenlC'III,I' (or v·
)/e e.r:ulflp/e\ ore (I tip-Ium/cd D
1II1t/ t/ll (niulll' Irliuled ('ollical
}/JOrtf thaI ,vlitk· nu/'lIll1lw Ihe
11) von Miscs pla~l ic inter".1etion b) lIyushm plastIC intemctlOn
!I."(Orfimllt(' ill Ilwt II lIIo/'e .m· "-Igure 7.4 : l1iaxial plastic strength mtemctlOfls between t .....o membmne forces per unit \\ idth and onc bend-
. (iJI ill pluce of melllbmlle
ing ,,\Oment per unit \\ idth (,on Miscs lind Il yushin)

~ heller n1JrI!.lelll(llioll o/Ihe


patihilllY uftell lelKLI' to lIli

en-dtm! flrellK,h a.ue.v.""ef//
",u/t'riul mollelhus 1101 /leell
More seriously, the criterion is only applied to the stl'L"SS state at a single point (oosed here on an
elastic stress evaluation). Thus it docs 110t allow for the de\elopment of a complete plastic mecha-
nism that is necessary for a true plas tic collapse to occur. In IIhells. such mechanh.mll generally
III lhese ('uses. Ihe desigller imol'e a complc:< mix of bending nnd stretching even in the simplest a;~isymmetric cases. but in
~ hollllck'n- eumlitiOlu /0 Sf'(> non-symmetric cases thc nN.:cllunism can be \cry involved indeed. These full mechanisms lead to
ilt'en desiglll'd to he capahle much higher loads being sustainl"d al the true plastic limit load than are found using the llyushm
0Js entirell' h." II/l'lI/hrtlf/e (JC- criterion.

te .llrit:1 crilerion of £q. 7.7 ' .... 2 The plastic refercnct resistance in buckling strength alllll~sis
r.t/- 7.6 mal' he collsiden,,1 if
.,-une aeriOl/tll Ihe "OIlIIthlt'ies 11IC plastic limit load. assessed in this chapter. s hould be secn only as the ideal "alue of the plastic
reference resistancc. The plastic reference resistallce is always a 501fe estimate of the plastic limit

Whcnever the elastic-pl:,stie stnbility resistance of the structure is assessed. the plastic refcrence
resistllnce is required us II formnl p.. rt of the clastic-plns tic buckling strength assessmcnt, This resis·
tnnce should always be evulualed u.'oing I smnll-displnecTl1cnt titl..'Ory rigid-plastic or elastic-plastic


~ .. ---- ---.
Buckli/lg ofSu'C!l Shell.~ - EllrolX'(1II Dc,\'ig/l Recollllllemk,l;mu

analysis (MNA). Such analyses give a clear and unique maximum load, but this IS only a reference Biological Structures,
load. TIlis 10.1d may be found from classicul plasticity analyses (presented ill EN 1993-1-6 as Direct 3SS-37R.
Design) or from finite element or similar numerical analysis proc(.'(iun..'S. Wherc lIumerical allalysis
is us(.'d. it may be difficult to dctcnninc the plastic collapse load accumtc1y and special proc(.'(iures Rotter, J.M. (20021,) .'Aj
are recommended to assist in this process (see Chapter 8 und Ilolst et al .. 200S). It should also be temational Conference
noted tlmtthis plastic collllpse 10.1d may invol"c severe local plastic straining in pans ofthc shell. so 42.
pan of the difficulty in finding a clear collapse load may be due to the use of a mcsh that ;s ade-
quate for clastic and mildly plllstie eulcullitions, but canllot follow the SC\iere straming involved ill a Rotter, J.M. (200S)
plastic collapse mechanism. Analysis". m Shell
Tuylor and Franci!>.
7.5 References and Bibiography for C h:lptcr 7

Annen, II. (1979) "Assumptions. Models, and COIllI)utational Methods for Plasticity", Computers
and Structures, Vol. 10. pp 161 - 174.

Oa\ic. J" Elsharkawi. K . and Taylor. T. ~ .• (1978) "Plastic Collapse Pn..'Ssures for Conical lnds of
Cylindrical Pessure Vessels, alld their Relationship to Design Rules in two British Stlllldurd SJX.'Cifi-
cations", Inl. Jill Pressure Vessels and Piping. Vol. 6, No.2. pp 131-145.

ENV 1993-1-6 (1999) Eurocodc 3: DeSign of sted !>tnletures, Pun 1.6: General rules - Supplemen·
tary rules for the strength tlnd sttlbility of shell structure!>. CEN. Urusscls.

l.N 1993-1-6 (2007) Eurocodc 3: DeSign of !>IL-cl structures, Ptln 1.6: rules - Supplementary
ruks for the Mrength and stability of shell structures. ('EN. Brussels.

Gn..'Snigt, A.M. (1986) "')Iastic design of buried steel pipelines in settlement areas", Heron. Vol. 31,
No.4. 113pp.

I lodge, P.G. (1963) Limil "'llIft'J;S of ROllltio"(l/~I' S1'I1/I11('/";C PllIIl!J lIml SII"I/.o;, Prenticc Ball.

lIodge, P.G. Jr. (19S8) Plaslic II"all·.\·;'\ of S'r/lClllrl'.\', McGraw-llill Book Co" Inc .. New York.

Holl>!. J.M.F.G" Docrieh. C, and ROller. J.M. (:W05) "Aeeurale detennilllltion of the plastic col-
lapse IOOld!> of !lhells when using fintte clement analyses", Proc .. Founh IntenllltiOllll1 Conference on
Ad,ane(.'S in Steel Suuctures. IC ASS'OS, Shanghai. July 200S, pp. 1789-179-1.

Kalnins. A. and Updike, D.P. (1998) "Plasticlty and changing geometry in pressure ,"cssel dc ..ign",
PVP-Vo1. 360, Pressure Vessel and Piping Codes and Standurds· 1998, American Socicty of Me·
chanical Enginecrs. pp 91·99.

Massonnet, CE. and 53\ e. M.A. (1972) Plaslic Aml/I'Si.f am/III(' DesiX" of Pltlt~.'i SlII'II.\· tllIIl Disks,

ROllcr. J.M . (198S) " Analysis :lIld Design of Ringbcllllls". in Dc!oign ofSteclllin!o for the Stornge of
Bulk Solids. edited by J.M . Rolter. Un;\er..ity ofS),dncy, pp 16-1-183.

Rotler, J.M. (2002a) "Shell Buckling and Collapse Analysis for Structuml J)c.,jgn: The Ne\\
Fnllncwork of the European Stllndard". in Nc\\ Approaches to Structuml Mechanics, Shells and

Rideslor lite plastic lim;t slt/I£' utld plastic- refere"ce lood assessmellt

ad. but this is only a referencc Biological Structures. Eds II .R Drew and S. Pellegrino. Kluwcr Academic ]'ublishcrs, London, rr
'mcd in EN 1993·1·6 as Direct 355·378.
In.~. Where numcrical analYliois
lJralcly and \pecial proccdun.~ Rotter. J.M. (2002b) "Advanced computer calculations in the design or shell struchlres". I)roc .. In·
ct al.. 2(05). II ..hould also be ternational Conference on Stnu;:tural Steelwork. lCASS'02, lIong Kong, D<.'Ccmbcr. Vol. I, pp. 27·
:rainmg in pans of the ~ hell, so 42.
the usc of a mesh that h, nde·
'SC\crc Mraming invol .. ed in a Rotter, J.M. (2005) "The Pmctical Ocsign or Shell Structures Exploiting Different Methods of
Analysis", in Shell Structures: Theory Ilnd Applicntions. Eds W. I)ictraszkicwicz & C Szymczak.
Taylor Ilnd Francis. London. pp. 71 ·86.

Sawezuk. A. & Hodge. G.P. Jr (1960) "Comparison or yield conditions for circular cylindrical
shells". Journal oflhe Franklin Institute. Vol. 269. p5.
)(b for Pla.o.ticity", Computers

~ufC<l for Conical Ends of

t\\O Briti ~h Standard S]X.'Cifi.

:;: Gcncrnl rules· Supplemen·


leneral rules· Supplementary

emelltarea.o.··, Heron, Vol. 31.

JJ Shel/s, Prentice Iiall.

Book Co.. Inc.. New York,

Fination of thc plastIc col·

~ International Conference on

p.: in rTC!>5ure \essel design"'.

f!. American Society or Me·

i" of Plule.f SI,C'lIf tIIld Di.\k.s.

SI...'!!I Bin!. ror the Storage or

llructural Design: The New

kural Mechanics, Shell .. and
Rull',\ jiJr Iltl' huddi"g limil \late tlHt'Ulllelfl IISillg glubal "umerical (II1(I11 ·,\·i5

8 Rules for the I>uckling limit state assessment using glol>al

numerical analysis
I'rincipal authors: II. Schmidt :lI1d J.M. ROller

8.1 Gcncral

8. 1.1 Int roduction

A Ilumber of din-erent approache~ to the dc!oign of shells against buckling ha\ e been proposed in the
past. but most of these call ooly be applied to a Imuted range of SlruCIUres and are difficult 10
generalise. For the Furopcan Standard IoN 1993-1-6. a COll.!oiderable en-on has been pUi 11110
dc, ising quile general proc\."<Iure!o that .. hould nrrly to all geomelric:.. an loading condilions and all
nUllcrial conditions '" ilhoul inconsistcncies or ambiguities. E~ 1993- 1-6 specifics. as briefly
outlined in 1.2.2. Ihree approaches Ihal art appro\ed for use in the assessmenl o f buckling
- Dc:.ign by means ofa global nurnerieul GM IA analysis:
• Design by means ofa global numerical MNA LOA analysis:
- Design by means of buckling stresses.

The third of these three approaches IS desenbcd 111 Chaptcr 9 of these Recommendations as
··buckling stress design". It should be U'iI."<I "'here the dL'Sign is OOSl."<i on :1 membrane Ih(.'ory or
linear bending tlK'Ory analy!ois (LA) of the !otnlcture. and where the eillstie erilical buckling lIIrcs!>l"ll
mlly be evaluated using the e.~prcssionJ, ghen in these RL"Commcndalions. This procedure is ulso
termed ··hand calculation" within these Recommendations. It is nlso pemlincd to usc a numerical
linear cigenvalue nnalysis to dctenninc the clastic criticlil buckling stresses in plnee of the si mplc
algebruie expre~ions. Where this evaluution is uscd. the eigen\aluc shou ld be interpreted "ith
care. Advice on this subjcct is gi\ cn in Chapter 9.

8. 1.2 G loblll num (' ric llllllllll ~siJl

The fi rst two approaches are both b.1sed on a globa l nUII1('rical a nalysis of Ihe shell struclure in
question. The procedures ha\ e been de,'clopcd with much carcfulthought about the great range of
possible bcha,iours in !ohell struetun.-s of din-erent geometries with din-erent load cases. din-erent
boundary conditions and different imperfL"Ctions. In the eOlitexl of Ihis gl'C'.1I r.lI1gc. the methCKb
h:l\e been selecled to Iry to ghe a conscrvatl\e and consistent outcome to the calculations for all
shell structures exhibiting :til hchaviours from clasllc to plastic. nnd from geometrically perfect to
, cry imperfect. The C1Ilcululions in\'ohed in these t"'o appro.1ehes are set out in this C haptcr 8.
They may be used either ror shell structures for'" hich no e.~pres!oions are available for Ihe buckling
resistance. or in situations "here the designer belie\cs that a more economic outcome can be
achie\ cd by replacing the nccessnry eonscl'\'mism of a hand calculntion "lIh more accurate
numerical e\uluutions. lIo"e\'C r. cure mu!>! be !ukcn "'hen using globul numerical analysis. because
geometric imperfections play such an importunt role in detennining Ihe buckling re!>isllll1(:C of shell
struCIUres and the army of possible din-eren! detrimental imperfcction fonns is so grcallhut it is not
II IriVi1i1 mUlier to achieve 1I robustl y Slife design. based on II numericalnnalysis nlone.

Buckling ofSleel Shells - £lIropetlll Desigll Rt..'COIIIIIIClltk,lioru
into this category. Si
8.1.3 MNA I LUA approach has been adopted hen.:
and materially nonlin
The loimpler M"IIAILUA approach. set out in the Section 8-2- muy be secn as a generalisation of tile
stability reduction factor appro.lch used throughout many parts of Eunx:odc 3. 11 is recommended Where the anal} ..1.. I~
by the editors of these Rccommendntions for many applications. and it has essentially the same modelling of impcrf<
basis as the trnditional stress design buckling appro.leh. Its methodology is explained in detail in plui>lie buckling rcsii>l
8.2.1 and cxtcn\i\c additional comments arc mude in 8.2.3. ..hell is sct out in S
perfonn because mun
8.1.4 Gcomctricall) nonlinear IInal)'ses must be related to to
the fully nonlinear d
.. trueturcs. and for Iili
Where u gl"QIIlCtrically nonlinear clastic analysis is used without taking c"'plicit account of
lolandardiscd shell hu
geometric imperfections (GNA). the result can be used to identify the possible occurrence of snllp-
through buckling. Apan from this rolc, it is difficult to makc grc:ller usc of a geometrically
nonlinear ehlJo,! lc analysis of the perfect structure (e.g. a bifurcation analysis from a nonlinear
The GMNIA allalys
prcbuckling palh). because this result docs not til easily into the philosophiclll frnmework of EN
methodology in any
1993-1-6. The chief reason for this is thai the clastic impcrrection n.-duetion ractor a has long been represents II con~idc
used 10 account ror the effects of both geometric imperfi.'Ctions and geometric nonlincarity on the not be taken'" ithout
elastic bifureation load in such ~hel1s as axially compressed cylinders and eoncs. If all shell
through the usc of SI
geometrics and load conditions are to be treated in a conSistent manner. the effects of geomctric
nonlinearity must be placed in the same position for all CUM$ . One consequence of this choice is
that Oil onalysis that includes only one of the 1\\00 effects of geometric nonlineari ty and geometric 8.1.6 Sumnllu) 0

imperfections but excludcs the other is (Iuite difficult to exploit. A comparison of the result of II
geomctrically nonlinear da:.tic or the perft.'C1 structure (GNA) with 0 linear eigcnvalue Summansmg th ...'<;C
analysis (LBA) can thus identify the value of the "clastic imperfection reduction fuctor a" that numerical anal)':.i~.
deri\ cs from snap-through buckling. a~ standardis...--d shell
the..c Rccommendati
Where a geometrically nonlinear analysis is used including explicit modelling of geometric of the laller are u..cful
imperfections (GNIA). the result cun be used to identiry the innucncc of imperfections. by
comparing it with the result ofGNA annlysis. This analYlicaltrcntment hAS also not been explicitly
included in 1:.N 1993-1-6 because it is only valid for shells thnt always remain elastic. Howc"er. for
many cases of thin shells. the buckling behaviour is cntirely clastic. nnd lhe outcome of GMNIA
and GNIA analyses are identical. 111e clastic imperf(.'Ction reduction factor Q may be detcnllined
using a G IA unalysis. but all the precautions relating 10 imperfections ror GMNIA analyses
(Section 8.3.3) must be obscr. ed.

8.1.5 GC(IIl1etrielilly lind l1ultcrhtlly nonllncar =llIal)'5(,,5

Where 0 g...'Ometrically nonlinear analysis is used including the material nonlincarity. but still
",ithout taking explicit account of geometric imperfections (GMNA). the ~sult defines the strength
of the pcrf(.'Ct ~tnleture. This is an imponant result. and is .Iways nceded for comparison with the
GMNIA analysis to dctennine the importance of geometric imperfections (note that these
Imperfections relate 10 definllble construction tolcrnnces). This fully nonlinear analysis of the
perfect shell is requircd by EN 1993·1-6 as pan of the full GMNIA trclllmenl.

But a GMNA analysis is not used independently of that full GMN1A treatmcnt because it can only
be valid for shells that are relotively insensitive to geometric imperfections. and it is not easy to
define genernl classes of shell configurations which ha\e this insensiU\IIY. Ln general. such
inscnsiti\ c lohells are relatIvely thlek-wolled, with u collapse mode thnt IS dommnted by yield but
with minor ~tability effects. 11 o", c"er. there are also many cases of instllbility in thin shells that filII

Rilles for the bllcklillg limit st(l/C' ,w'C'ssmC'tlIlIsiflg global fllImericul 'muluis

into this category. Since it is difficult 10 gener.llisc concerning such situations. Ihc safc approach
has been adopted here to demand that a full GMNIA analysis is alway~ used if fully geometrically
and m:llerially nonlinear analysis is to be exploited.
)C!iCCn a~ a gcncrnli~tion of the
Eurocodc 3. It is l\.'Commended Where thc analysis includes nll the effects of geometric and materinl nonlinearilY with explicit
and it has essentially thc Slime modclling of imperfcctions (GMNIA). the IInlllysis mny be uscd to find the ehllructeri~tic clastic·
odology i~ explnined in detail in plastic buckling resistance ofa pructieal shell directly. TIlil. fully nonlinear analysis of the imperfect
shell is SCI out in Section 8.3 liS thc GMNIA trealmcnt. However. this analysis is difficult 10
perfoml because many different imperfection fonns must be investigated. and the imperfections
must be relutL-d to IOlcrnncc mcasun.'li thut will be set for fabrication or manufacture. Noncthc1e~s.
thc fully nonlincur design uprrooch is purticularly vulunblc for prestigious. c."<pensive. or high risk
)Ut taking uplicit account of stOlctUres. and for failure invtStig.1lions. In this siluation it has been included in EN 1993·1·6 as a
he possible occurrence of snap- standardised shell buckling design fonna\. and hence the relc\'anl OIles are also included in these
greater U!>C of a geometrically Recommendations.
lion analysis from a nonlinear
~hilosorhical frame"ork of EN The GMNIA analysis design procedure encapsulates the most advanced calculation de~ign
methodology in any structural cnginccnng standard to date. and its fonnulation in EN 1993·1·6
eduction factor a has long been
repn..'SCnts a eonsidcrubJc advance on codifk-d methods of the past. 110\\ e\ er. such advances should
J ~eometric nonlinearilY on Ihe
,I\dCr.l and cones. If all shell not be laken without some caution. so the procedure rcquil'C!> u thorough' erifieation of each stngc
anner, the effecls of geometric through the use of simpler reference analyses.
=COnsequence of IhlS choice is
tric nonlinearity and geometric 8.1 .6 S ummary of p('rmltlt'd d('5lgn proct'dures using global analysis
~ comparison of the result of II
jNA) "Ith a hnear elgen\aluc Summnrising these introductory statements on buckling limit state assessment using global
:-Clion reducllon faelor d' Ihnt numerical analysis. both the slmplL'St and the Illost '\.Ophisticated IheoreticaltrcatmenlS arc pcnnillL'<i
as standardised shell buckling design fonnats in the European Standllrd EN 1993·1·6 (and hence in
these Recommendations). while mosl oflhe intenncdiale le\els have becn omitted. 1I0we\·cr. Illany
'llieil modelling of geomctric oflhe Inlier arc useful for specific problems in which particular phenomena play no significant role.
,nucncc of imperfections. by
ent has also not been explicitl y
remain clastic. IloweH~r, for
and the outcome of GMNIA
faclor Q may be delennined
fecllOns for GMNIA analyses

natcrial nonlinearity. but still

1 themoult dcfines the strength
bled for comparison wllh the
~rfeclions (note thai these
lily nonlinear analysis of the

treatment because it cun only

!fection~. and II is not easy to
sensili\ity. In genernl, such
hm is dominated by yicld but
tability in thin shells thul fall
Blldlillg ,,(Steel SII<'Ils· EIIIVfX't1ll I)I.-'sip,II R('COlIIlIIl'mJat;ollS

8.2 8uckling design by glob:.1 numerical MNAILBA analysis

8.2.1 l)"signl)rOccdurc
In Ihe follo\\TTlg.
As alre:ldy ~I:llcd. the MNNLBA design melhodology for ~hcl1 buckling strength assessment plUYIo a MNA LilA fom131
ccntrol role in the European Standard I~ N 1993· 1-6 u~ well n.!> in these RI..'ContTocOOations. II in thc ri},lhl column.
in\ oh cs the follo\\ ing loteplo. illustrotcd previously in Fig. 1.1. and hcre repealed as Fig. 8.1: executed and the

fo, thcbucklin" 5"cn~

Geometry EIII.'>Iic criticlIl Plastic reference
resistance Rcr fC'iiT<,lnncc Rpi The reason \\ hy the
u ~d in I.N 199]· 1-6.

Load case M.2.! Rules orE'

Ehlslic impcrfl..'Cl
Uoundary buckling rcsislllnce oR, ... Slendeml..'SS A.
M.2.2.1 ncslgn
inlerllclion 0.. p. )>()o I

membmnc Iot~!>Cl> .
Quahtyof Chnructcrislic chllolic.pln~tic
laken into !lecount,
fabriclliion Q buckling resisltll1ce R.

lX'Sign elaslic-plaslic
Partial "safety" factorY\1
buckling rt.'Sistnnce R,/
Figurr 8.1: Step:; Tn budding lolrcngth ~:.c!>smcnl uSing design by global numencal MNAlLlJA analYMs

(I) Dctennine the clastic critical buckling resistance R1'r of the perfect shell:
(2) Identify an upproprintc value for the clastic nnperfl..'Ction reduction ("knock.<Jown") faclor a and.
hcncc. deduce Ihe elastic buckling resistance for the imperfcct shell as aRu:'
(3) Cnlcuiute a lo\\er bound 1..'SlimU\e for Ihe plastic limit load of the perfcct shell repres{.'nllng Ihe
pl!l'itic referencc resist,U\ee R,,,ofthe shell; M.2.2.2 ncsign \3Iu"
(4) Deduce the relnti\ c slenderness A of thc shell \\ hieh eombmes R,.r and RpI:
( I) The dc<oign hllc
(.5) Dctcnninc IIlc buckling strength reduclion fuclor 1. as a function of dimen~ionlcss lolcndemes!<> .t dclcnllil11xl from the
to account for plasticity effect!. and apply il to Ihe plastic refcrence resistance Rpl' In lenns of applied to the
buckling. this accounts for m:lleriul nonlinearity by n..'<Iueing the clastic buckling resistancc of the combination of acti
imperfecl shcllto gi . . e the characteristic buckling rcsilolance HA: ea!>C.
(6) Apply the panial safety factor rH 10 deducc the de~ign \ lllue of the buckling resislUnce R tl.

II is possiblc to U~ this proccrlure hased only on a lincar clastic analysis of the lohcll (LA). Ihough il
may become rather con~l'\ati\e for thicker shells. From un LA tll1ulysis undcnuken using Ihc
design values of Ihe aclions (factored by n-). il is fi~t possibJ.: 10 c'ltrocl an c:.timale of Ihe plastic

RIIll',\ for Ihe hmMillR lilllllll(l/(' (1.\'«('''''111('111 "'(illg gloht,llllllllericil/ (///(//ni~

anal) sis referencc resislance Hpi by uSlIlg Fq. 8.1 directly. Thcn by pcrfonning a ... upplcmcntary cigcll\aluc
unulYl>il>. the c1aslic eriticu! m.i~lancc R" may be found. An FEM program nmy easily be urr.mgcd
10 gi\e Ihc eigell\alue as a load faclor on Ihe applll,:d load~.

In the following Scclion 8.2,2 the mles gl\ell 1Il1:N 1993-1-6. Section It6. for the global numerical
ling ~trength a~sc<ismcnt pllly~ a
MNA LIlA fomml are rc(X!<llcd \~ord for \~or<1 III the lell colullln. with a comlllentary on each mle
n Ihese RL'Col11lllcndations. It
in Ihe right column, It should be no ted thm in the EN fonnul. Ihe ubo"c SICP (2) ili not cxplicitly
're repeated as Fiy. 8.1:
executed and the clastic bucUing rcsbtanee 01':111 im(X!rfec l lihell d(X.'S not IU1\e its O\\n nOllllion.
Ho\\ever. the clastic buckling rCliilitllllce of the imperfeel shell. aRn .. i... implicit in Ihc expressions
for the buckling s trength reduction fac tor X. IUld explicitly appears us XRpI for slender shells,
astic reference
"CSlstance Rpi The reason why the notmion R \\11 .. udoplL'ti here 10 reprc-.cnt re)oistunce. in place orthe nolnJion rR
uS(,.-d in EN 1993-1-6. muy be found in SI..-clion 1.3, 10.3.

8.2.2 Rules or EN 1993-1-6. St-ction 8,6

Slcnderness l Design \ alul.' ur IICliOIl'l

, (I) All relevant action combinations causing

compresshe membrnne siresses or shc:lr
Shell imwbilill' phl..'tIo"Jelw are p/n'\icalli' c{III.le,1
hy cOlllpre~';1'(' lIIembrane foret's mlher Ihall
eplaSlie mcmbr:me stl'C"SN in Ihe shell WIlli .. hould be reI/rill· forcer or Nmdi11g I'JOIII(!"'~ T"~'rt'fi'rt·.

nee Rt laken inlo account. Irhell cmllIH,.\illg 11/" aClio/l c(jmhilU/li(j/l~, II,,'
(OUI,I IIIII~I he Ihose lK'tioll..l lIlIll itHJt.A II"IIi£"l1
(lel'l!ioIJ Cm1lIJrcnil'c lIIelllhra/le fim:e.1 "'/llmr
Ih('lII" IIWlllbrtll/(' forces, II ml{I' lx- IIO/ed 'h,,' I'
Ihc'al" melllhralll' force lilli)' he lIlrerlllll;I'('~I'
ce Rt! repre.lcllfed ;" fenl/, of a IXlir (~( prill("iIHII
CmnIJI't'.\·\-;I'C and If!II!)ile forccs,
numerical MNAfLUA Il IHlIY51~
8e("(III,lc WI eige"l'OllIe (llIah·.I·;.\' IWI I/J he
t shell; 1H:lformed, I/O slI/H:rpo.\;lhm 'if m:tioll.\ (01' IINItI
W.H'.f, re'iJx'(:liI'I!~rJ is po.Hih/('. Thcre/bre
, ("knock..doy, n") factor a and. ('Olllplel" comhill,,'iollS of {K"Ii01lS h,,1'(' to he
aR"r. {'omitiered
~ perfcct shell rt.'Prcscnllns Ihe Dcsign \ aluc or resiJtance
and RpI:
(I) TIle design buckling resistance ~hould be III lIlII' n'ahl/il' complelf! lIrllcllIre,llId, (I..I miJ.:/1/
f dimcnsionlesl> slendenu.'SS l detennined from the ampllficallon factor RJ hi, wll//pn.! IIsing a global c1tu/~I's;s, Illl' 10",1 (',I.\{'
R.~i ... tance R"" In lenns of applied to Ihe design \ alues of Ihe /lnl(l/~I' Wllfisl.f of mallY d;fferelll ptJilll loods.
tic buckling resistance of the combination of action!> ror the rele\ unt 100Id lille !tN/elf WId di.nrihllled /O{/(lf, pl"e.nllre (III/I
case. olher at'lioll,\, \I"'ieh mm' mryfrtJIII P"K'(' to pftK"('
Oil Ihe\lrm:wr(', "i~ Iherefore I/ot ptJllihlc f()
_ buckling rc<;i.lolance HI"
gil'/! (I 'failure 10(1(1" or rC>,fifr{IIICC> {/.~ a .~;I/gle
\'(fille, Ti,e re.f;.wlI1ICe CUll OIl~I' he tI(',\ lTihed III
,is ofthc ~hcll (tA}. lhough il lerm,l IIf 'he ,xlfI('rf1 of 100,d 111lI1 IHI.I appli('d 10
naly~is undenllken using the Ihe \fI'llCfl,,'e, A.\ (I reslIlt. ;t i.f e:qH:cled Ihal
net an L~l illlate oflhe pla~tie (/{'.~igll lomb; l\·iIIlH.' IIsed ;11 flll!w (1lI(/~I'.I("\' tllld

Buddillg ufSt('f!1 Shellf - Ellropeall {)e\igll R('COmmClldaliolls

111(11 IIII! mlen/lIIioll Il'iII fint/ the /tn:tur hi' whidl

Ihese alii he (1II8mt'IIICd before /tlilllre. Thi.f
f(tclOr Ihell 1H..'Co",e.~ Ihe clim(!fU'ioll/C'u re.fis/afl(.'c
R 0/ the strtu.'llIre II'hell sllbj('C't /(J Ilml SCI of
desigll loods.
nil' IIUlI/IK.'r ill which thi.\,/al'tor ma)' be c_Hill/tlled
frum em LA lII/{//Jsi~ i" OIIII;'l(.'d ill lite
rommt'lIItlry' 011 (4) heloll',
(2) The design buckling n.'sistance A small/)mhlem of tamillu/(JMY ari.fe., here. n,l'
FIfJ = RJ' FI:J should be obtaincd from the IIolllti(J1I of EN 1993-/-6 defilles rRd {IS "Ihe
plastic rcrerencc resistance F /(pi = RpI , F £J ('a/cllit,led 1'lI11Ie., of the uctioll set {It the LoarJ
lind the ela!>tic critical buckling resistance "",xim"'" resi.'iflmct! (,(Jllt/ilioll uf Ihe stn/clur(' 0" d
f 'kr" R.... , Fu. combinmg these to lind the
chumeteristic budding resi~tanee
(desigll \'oll/('s) ", {II lite I£'..'(t of lhis /Xlrtlgrap/',
thi.\' is .\i",!Jlijied /() "de.\igll bucklillg r('si~'IUf/('C ",
Fn. "" R~ 'F,J. The partial factor rm ~hould hili thul t('rlll if rew!n'(!t/ here for lire Ix/remreter
then be used to obtnin the dCMgn resistance. R,,. 7'/rrtmg/rolll thest! Recommelldatiolls, R is
re,fenw.ljor the re_\'i~ulllce of the stnIC:lllre.
Tht" s/(/U'"e,,1 of this paragraph is " brief
del'criptioll of 11'//(/1 II(I.~ he"11 set alii ill more
clewil ill ILl. I . II is i/llI.Itrmed ill t:ig. 8.1, which
is n.jernx/ to i1l thl' fol/oll'ing (.'mll",elri(lry.

(4) Where II is n
l1l:lterinlly non-lin
Jlla~tic reference
con~r\ otil ely c,li
anlllysi~ (LA) con
,alues of the appl!
using the folio" ing
membrane ~tm~ rc
lI.flU al any point'
to e:.tunme the pi
f'ixurf! 1J.1: BIISlc nJlrcepl of 111(' slwll brld.lirrR tt"igrr
hi' g/o!>tllm,,,,('ric(/I MNA 18A 1111(111'.\1$ R =...,...,-........:j
(3) The plastic reference resistance Rpj (sec The pltutic nierl'fIl'e lomi l/(j~ beell de.\criht·d ill
fig, 8.3) should be obtained by materially non- dewil III Ch(l/lter 7. nlf.' reader is referred 10 Ihm
linear analysis (MNA) tIS the plastic linl1t load lexl for ufir/l de,fcriplioll ofiu tktermi1lalia1l,
under the applied eombmatlon of actions, This III IIII' MNA I.BA bllt..'khllg de~igll tIPPNHlCh, tire
load Rpj may be taken as the large!>t value ffl"'enllillaliQlI of RpI is sQmetimes olle ~f the nw,w r-.:OTI·; A ~fe ...-,.111
auailll.:d in the analysi~. ignonng the eIT._'Ct of c-/1(I/I£'IIgiI/8 deml'l/lf, Strit:tll' speakillg. Rpi obtained by opfll~ in
~Irain hardening, .fhOllld be deu'rlllllled tIS Ihe pluslit: limit lood of the three poinh in t
the perfl'clr/,ell, /lsillg ,111/(111 dispitl(,(·lIIl'lIIlhc.'flry' three buckhng-rel
(fee C/llIplC'r 7). rc~ullllnb oUnms lb

For ~o",e itHW c(lses il 111(1.1' be simlJle /t) idemify the IO\lcst ofthl..-..c t

Rules for tilt! h/l('k!illg Imllt wate as!it'!(Wllem IIsillg globol mllllerical U//CI11-sis

will fill,1 the fuctor hi' whi('h H,oI, tllld Ihe plastic collapst' s/r('IIgths of mall)'
"'emt·d ht!forc fuilllre. rhbi .. hell strut·tllrt'S are docllll/('/lled ill AlII/ex B of EN
$ the diml!nsifmless rc.ristllllce 1993-1-6. Jloll·I.'I'C'r.for more ('ompll'x Cllfe.r. 'he
Il'he/l $//hjl'ct 10 tlwt w·t of formal determilllllioll of Rpi may be too (J/Ieroll~
for the desigller. III Ihese ca.~e.~, a 1011'1.'1' bOllllclllJ
II this fuclor he e,ltimlltet/
Ihe pl(l~tic filllil load IIIay be ewillwled frulII WI
f!!~\"fiS i.f ulli/illt'd III lite LA (///(/I\'\i5. 0$ c/e.\crilwc/ ill Ihe 1Ie.'(1 paragl'Clpll.
I£'mlinology urise$ here!. The RpI s1l11111 dispillcemcm thL'Ory
3·/-6 t/ejilla PRJ CIS "lite pln ~ ti c limit load ----_~
of Ihe lIdiollret Cit lite Load ractor
('olldilioll of Ihl' sln/clI/n' on design
ln 1"1' text of t"i.f INlrograph. actions !\INA
·d•.'sigll hlld-/illg re.~i$lallce ".
n'ed "I!N' for Ihe ptlr(lIIlell.'r .J.,-------- Rp cstllnatc rrom LA
CIt' Rerommemkltioll.r. R is

\/"/t:(' oft"efln/c:lllrt!_
11m pdragroph i.f 0 bri£j ~lBA "-- rrom linear
clastic birurclltion
hus ht'ell .n'l (Jill ill more LA
i/"(flral(',1 in Fig. 8.1. II'lti{'h
lowinK ('(I1I/1II('lIltlf)'. Dcronnation
""'gun' K.J: Defimtion of pla)lic reference n.'!>I~tancc RpI aoo critical bud:ling resisi:lrlee R.. demcd from
globul MNA and LOA unalyM.'S

(4) Where it is not possible to undertukc II All I.A {II/ClIy.I'i\' ,\hould be petj'orllled OJI tll/ .f/wl/s
materially non·linear annty~is (MNA). the Ilml tire! Ctl/clllllle,1 using cOII/plllers. 71/1' LA
pillstie rererence rcsil,tnnce RI" 1I1uy be (///(/~I'l'is is Jleeded for Ihe mhl'r lill/il Wlllt!~ of
eon'\Crvllthcly eloolimated rrom linenr .!.hell fatigllt! alld Sl'I'\'ict!lIhili,), ami i.1· CI /1(1//11'(/1 fir~1
unlllysis (LA) conducted using the design (/l/tlll'\·i.f. The 1'1.',\ 1111,\ of LA llllll~J'$'e$ (Ire! Iherefo/'e!
\-alues of the applicd eombinnt ion or actions gt!tIl'ra/~I' I'ery' Clcce$$ible to '''e desigller. This
using the following procedure. The e\-aluated II/('thml of ('sti"Wlillg Ihe plastic referellce
membrnnc SIres.!. resultants "O J . flIlid and r('~irta/lce Rpi ir cOII.fen·olil'e. hilt it I/UlI' rn' "en'
II, (U.J at nny point in the shell should be used coIIsen'atil'C' I.-here lfX'al IO(lCh or geollle/ric
to estimate lhe plastic rererenee resistance feclllln· ..·/('ck/ /(J high 10(:ClII), elemlcd Mrc.\!ie.\,
rrom: Se,:tim/ 7.1 of the_fe Ret:(JIII/IIem/CIIUJII.f c/e,\aihe.f
0.1'1 oftho. ,IIId' hl/cklillM clefi';"
Ihe pa/ifjculilJ/l for IIsillg all U w1Cl1I·,Ii.~ 10
R = ~______~
t,\'.~ LB.4 anolni.f I~f,~"~__~~ ... (R.ll
e~tim"t(' R"" This paraerupll gin·.f Ihc forll/CII
I J,,;,LI" ,.,.,11",." + II':,l + 311;' TJ
ftatC///l'/11 Ihat al/oll'$ the desigllu lofjllc/ CI 101\I!r
I.' loud"~ ht'l'lI dt'fcrihe,1 ill hOlmd cslimate of Rpi from linellr _fllclI (1II(1/l·,fi.f
n,.· rc'uJ.·r i$ re/t'rre!d 10 111lI1 The lo\\-cst \alue or pl3.!.tie resistance so (/.. 1). 1I0Ire\'C'r. Ihe plostic reftrelk'l! rl!_li\llJ/ll'e
IliOIl of ils ckU'nrliIlUliIJl/. calculated should be taken as the estimate or deji//('d in Chap,er 7 mH!.f lIot fWrll/il the helll/i//~
the plastic rererenee resistance Rpl. IImmelllf III he igllored. .fillce il il' INJuihie Ihtll
,eldillg ,I".figll uppmoc:h, the
""IU/illg II ill he a primary' /mld-carrying Pd/h ill
iffOmetim.'_f Otle of the mO.rl NOTE: A sare estimate of RpJ elln u.!.ulllly be .Wlt/t' vx'Ciul .thell.r. lIere. hy {·(lIIlr"st. (m~\' the
'1.1. SlriC'/~I' ,f{Jeakillg. Rpi
obtained by applying exprcs~ion R,I III tum al /I/l'mhrll/I(' .\' freH re.mltclllt,\, ill thelhell are lI.1{'d,
d Cl.1 ,ItI! plm/ic limil fOCld of
the thn.'C points in the shell whcre each of the le(l(/lIIg to (I len {'ollsen'alil'l! e.Himafe of Rpl.
"g ,Imull ,1i."plut..'cmclIl 'heor)'
three buckling·rele\lllnt membmne stress Thi.\ ill('OIISi,\'I('IICI' i.~ 1101 gOCJt.!. hilt the rille gil'l!lI
resultllnts attains it.!. highest \lulue, nnd using here i.I' pro/HlMI' a sClfe choice II'hell shell
-' i, mt~I' be sillll)11.' to idelllify the lowest orthcM! thrL'C estimates or Rplu!t the bliCklillg cOlldi,io/ls "fOliC are heing camidel-ed


IfJII/.11 II! ,1110= '''IIIII!,11 11!'/lI/O!JlJI,),1 I",J/.f ,tif(/ iJl'Op

v ,),\/111 1'/'101/1. 1'8 ''':if OJ :fmp,ul.).lt) Pi)I'JIII'},I,)
l] fdN '):Jlltlllf.I·,lJ ,)11/ 1I,)!ll" /" JII!(H/ ,'III '/",/,1,,,,3
II/ 1),JSI/ ,1q 0/ I"MII ,1/11/1 11I,11ll,18p".f :tU!J,),'lIIill,}
,)1lI0\· 0\ 'l'S,J.NUd llill 8/1/\'11 "',).11 01 I/IIJ!//lP
<1.10 l.lm.' 'rltls "II,l'/~· ,Jill III ~;},JtJI(IIlI;)J"-ff!P iJ/.lllb
II! ,Jft/,m 01 iJlHJIII :f1ll1_y.JllII ,Jill pllV ,J/H)/II ,}!,tlIJIIO')
.1!/I'''ld ,lI11 JOj "/II'lW(/ 1·1 II XolJIIJ.)IUll ,1/uO~- II/
.,J.' !II'. U,'fIlO:J ,\.t,).\ ,liltJ.1.JI/,1X
~'I •. " " J:!III tI! pJ/tJUII/1,' fdN ,).l/ItJjS!S,1.I ,);J/Ii1.J"./.u
J!ll'lllt! ,l'll ,l.)/I!!.· 'IUiJ.1lIo.J I{JIIIII 001 ,JSIIOJ
1011 1'1'1(11/\ IIltrld .U,),I,) y.JJ11-' 01 IU,J11I.l.1!lIh.l.J
PfJIS ,1'1' jo IIt11JtJU)JiU Ulll. .,,,,/,1.\ '1IrIllIl,\JI/II l11
1iI1/r>,m ,,,·.JI/I jo ,J//U ,1.MII" "JI/PII,IIS ,)111 II! MllltHl
iJ,WII ;JIll ,Y·M'!-) OJ IIl.lfJ!/J"., 'IJItJ.1,11I.J;t S! If IlJIll
IPII.JIII/Uo.-,;U ,JJnj.l.J,J111 "ION ,J/II ',J/'U "Irllufl' tJ .ry
'piJ,I/O,IlI! l! /1'/1 .ItJ ""'f} II.1o .... ·"11 '_,/lI;)IIOCltU(},}
~q Jr.ILlII" ,([[U:lI\,{I[d
,1J,wj ,1ItlUl/lllo"1111 llIt},I"I,l.1-3u!/_y.llll( ,),1.1111
IUll!iill [~III,ll lll"I[lm~
RU1~11 100 p"~n:l
,)111 ji) ,1110 I l"IJ,l1 JI) ;J,M't" ,J.fiJ/11 ,loll) J',l,/iJPI.I·II(I.)
i')tj~ atjl JO Jnol\U\pq ')(1 fJI P,),J/I IIJIII l /ll!IXI "1"0 '''II '-Y·),)I,., :t11!P/.)IIl/
II ft."! .I·!III ,1,JII!~ 11Il! JlIIIlIY ,1q 1\·///11 (f·R '''3)
UI Ja[[IlJ II U!I!\qo
""',"U;)ih;) JI;')III pun ndJI,I· ,JIIIUqlll,111/ ,),I!I.).-'.//iJ II"')//,'j!fl ;}III 111!.11 1I;}1/1'

'Iqnop JO S;)'iU:I III '''II II! III!tHl,l'll III/II 1',1111/1 ,J<I ,Iilllll! ,li,),IfI1Jl1,t.lIIV

r no'l \Il111 ;'1(>01.1111;'181;)

n ~I 111111 IUllllJol1lu
A OX! Plnoq" II (9)
,rlll!oo 110 OJ I"'!lrkln i1q 'IItJ!IIIt);J.ud IJ W 1Jf/WI/I
, '8 'h.'1 1'I,)!f ,u,lOf ,Jlm,II/1I1.J1IJ 1')/101l"IM/U!P
-11."1 II l·t ,l.J.lIll ,).1"'1-" 'l·,HOJ /IlJ.11I.lX , "I
';).1111,)/1./11' ;JIll "!

T8 '(",,(,6 i),u") llfiu-,)p

v'nq [II~IIIU :lII~Up
lW.1/~ Xlllp/,mlf ,lOf IIJIII 01 fIJ.'!III'1fn 1'! I{J!'I"
(lJ POOl uOIlu:unJ'q)
;tr.Jl ,.,
{V'i1l1;)Ij' I3.)JJ:x.i
~~JJIS p:l1t:ln~lll~
(.I'Ii) ,..
r'J ~ " '0

(I (Va1) <;!~,(ICUll
:lPP XI Plnoll~ J'N noD M'D
~ :'111'11[;'1 ailL (S) ---
r'f - ' N '0 r'f :: "'N

III,JII/,1ml" /'JII()!m,Jillip
-,1110 I'}!·I!,II II Dill! _\iJIIJ.I,)tt,J:ti1/} f'8 'h3 'S,)JUII!WOP
.1;iJM/dlllO,J "'/I ,J.).I~r ,W'''I' .10 1/1/ .10 'II ~·,J.J.lOf
,1.lIn,J,U/llm.» I/IIIJI/""J.I .I\"",II' ,1111J.lIIW,1'U 11II1.I,l/,I.I
-811!/,y,Jllq ;)iJ..lIII ,1'1' fll ,JlI/J ,),I.l'l II '.I·,Jm;} ,J/dw!~ II/
',l/Nllll ,).JlIll'if,t.ltIlll!.Ir/ ,Jil' ,., XII!/,y.mqfi
".).JOII:f! .ii,Yil., i1q ,m,} ')!""II IVlIII;)!ldllll IIII.Jlt/OlIl
ts'II!/J/l.Jq ji) ItrI!H!IIW '''11 ."IN ji'I"/mll!/~')
.MfJtJ.uiJmoJ OJ plMI OJ ~p/l,ll 1I0!IVlllo,l,) IlI/or/-.llf
-11110(/ 1"'/1 0\- '1II1lWJI/.,.,1I/ 1/"/11 .\-,J.\/f),III! ).\il.II/"
IWIU/" ,1.1111111/ .mnJlr/ /J 'Iillm/II" '/I,JI(S ,'III II!
/IIwd ,UiM,' m p,l.,/drl" ."><//1'11111 Y""{J ,J/II '.liP!.IIS .I'IN JOJ :lnIU\ Iu\H;)[~

IlW1flJIJII,JIUIlIO.liJN 11811..."0 Im;)(/ruIl3 \lI,JlIS /,MIS Jo :f1ll/y-'lIfl

RIlIt'lIur 111(' bll(·Hillj: lilllil SIIl/I.' tlllt'UfI/('IIII1Sillg globell 'fllmeriwl U"(I~nif
III1M /It.. upplied til ('wn· 1J(lilll
hl/(·klillg i~ pn'dic·Il'd 10 OC'Cllr.
",gh tJ p/wli' (1111111·(> alll/tHI
jllllllln:lulIIl.\//I, \0 '''i~ poillf- If 11111.1' (llw he lIppropri(lll' fo lI.ft' lhif 101l"('r
, It lid! 10 Icwl to cYJI/.lelTtlliI'e hoI/lid estill/lIl(' of Rpi from till LA (m(lll'.\·i~ (
The omi.Hioll u/ JI(·l/tilll~ /II1·,elul of Ihe Ilwor(,/ictll/.\' corre(:1 plaslic limit
'tIf Iht'~" mil he .~(l(d, ' i~lIor('d /rHld), i" .I·illlaliom lI11er(' approximale m/llc.1 (i)r
·iflwfT/llih,ll- //Iotit'. Ihl' fiml· 01'('1"011 Imc4/illg Iwrtllllel<'rl au,. I~",
,at' Olll' 0/ fll,' Ihre(> Jl/lddill~­ ..l.... o ",/(1 'I", IIl11'c /() he udopled IIIIicil IU/I·I.' lIof
/)('('11 ('(I/iI'1'(/Il'd 10 Ihl' smull di.I/J/tl('l'lII('1II pluslic
Wt'.u n'l/llImlt1 (cllm/lr{'.H·il·(·
Iimi/ lOl/(l of IIII.' l"('/c\'(l/ll shell caw' (.fe('
• .\!tcctr lorn' 1I,1i COIl/lllt'Idl·
IKlrtlgrtlph II J. 71li~ prohlem ;~ di~{"/IH('d ill
d<1C.·llt'ruln illto (I "il';lIl 01/("
IIfor(' (/emil ill Ille EXlellded CUmml'lIIt1r), 8.1.J.5.
More tlellliled ('OffllllcmS (lI/ RpI~ee X.l.J.4.
(5) The clastic critical bockling resistance III mO.fl F£M progroms, i/ is a relnlil'ely silllple
RCT should be dctemli nl'(! from an cigell\lllue lIIaller /(I perfarm a filletlr eigelll'llllle anal)'.fis
analysis (LOA) applied to the linear elll.. tic fullUll"ing 011 LA UIlt/lysis, su Ihis i.\ IIul all
calculated stress state in thc geometrically Olll'rollS demalld,
_ I"~
R , ---,. '" (11.1·) perfect shell (LA) under the design \alucs of II .\Imll/tl he 1I0(('ti Ilw l Ihe progmm II·ill onlr
r (oJV] the load combination, The kmesl eigcmaluc delermille it relM'alll eigel/l'lIll1e if compreuil't!
(bifurcation load factor) should be tukcn Il!<t the ml!mhr(lIIe \·Ire.UI!.~ ((II le(l.u (Lf principlil .flre.ue.f)
10 11t", fur ",«:klillg Mr('.\.\ clastic critical buckling rcsistllncc Rr,.. sec Fig, exi\1 IIi/hili Ihe ,~/nlclllre,
oUS".I, II//('rt' II/£'r(' if tI III·U·
Irdl/l' fon·(' (h'M, £1/ H.I (6) It should be verified thai Ihe eigenvalue Jfglobol tllla~I'.~i.f if used, if is I"('ry' imporUlllllliat
lIioll. ht· (lfJPIi('I./ 10 all IJOill'" ulgorithm that is used is rclillblc al finding Ihe Ille .Wffll'llI"(, if I"('/iahle. £igellmllie l'.,·'mclioll
cigcnmodc Ihal leuds to thc lowc!<tl cigcnyuluc. ji"(lII/ 1(111:l' eqllolioll syslem.1 (·t/f/ .\oll/clill/i'.\ hc
In cases of doubt, ncighbouring cigcllyulucs (li/liclIll, .\0 ('''I"efill ,·IIeck.!· mlu l lx, maclt' 10
hI' 1((lIl'd Ih(lf lilt' puillf ill Ihe
and thcir cigcnmodcs should be cu1culnted, 10 l'lIsm'C ,lIal Ilic "Igorillim 111m i.l" u.l"e(/ i ll Ihe
'.\I(,/(I.'Uil"l' 1II('mhl'(lI/e .I"II"I,!.I.I·
obmin a full er insight into the bifurculioll ,1·OftW(I/'f! Iw.\· "OIm;ued Ihe Cril ic(lIIllOl/e.
JOl/lul B", fill(,(' llli.l· il 11
oll~r puillil Illal lIeeti to Jw
behu\iour of the !ohcll. The unaly!<ti~ ~hould be II i.~ illlPOI"((1/I1 f(l aflprecitlle 111m till LRA lIIw(l'fl~
carried out using software that has becn should he lI.\'e(/ 1/(11 tlllly 10 exl mct Ihc IOIl'f!fl
t' II"h.'r(' III It',ul m/c of Ihe
I('\w/I lIIemhrllll(' force
:1uthclllicaled against benchmark cuscs with eigelll'llille. bUlend, sel·erol eigellm/lles lhollid
physically similar buckling chanlctcrislics.
or I/~ or 11,,1 i.~ illl'O/I'f!d lx- l'xlmcted (perhaps 10), all(/ II", II/rx/efor e(l('/,
\ i1ft' I",'n1Im.' n'(:olllmclltis plolletl f(l detent/ille its forlll alld IOClltion
$/Ilfkit'l/I to /"IIt'c·k 'he '"n'c Whel"(' .R'l·l'rtll cigclII'allll!S I/(/I'e similor 1·011/('5 ill
IIh,'1"r? 011(' 01 ,".·ff! tmlll/If
II/O(/e.f tIl Ihe fUme local ioll (tLf ON:IIN ill axillll.\'
nIU rl'IUWfioll of 11I('IIril·' ('{)It/llr('uet/ (I'/illtlers), IIIi.f dlOuld he ta'CII ll~ a
., t'l .•'n" poilllillollid mil
lI'ammg Ilral ,Ire imper/ecliull seluitil·ih'
conn"" .Iinc·t' Ihe pillS/it.:
ret/lloioll {tH·ror a m(lY he 1011".
RrJ ('Uiml/lt'd ill ,hil II·(~' i.f
r·um·... Wh('l"(- Ihe 100\"l'.~Ieigelll'tlllle C()rr("ifNmtl~ ItI (l
m(J~/e Ihul tN.'CIII"'I ill 1I
wry· differ('1If ItN.·Oliwl (I'fHII
~, if IlOllihle fur 'he pl(wic
Ihl' lIeXI IIWll('.\, c"r(' .\hOllld he wkell 10 ('lI.mrl.'
t'hllddillg II/(}(Ie 10 m·iIl' ill
tllIIl II,,· highcr eigenl'tlllle IIIrxle.f tlo 1101 OCCllr ill
i, ill 11"'111.,1/ SlId, caWf an'
ill.': fhi.~ 1'1'fH.·eH, Wlf(lll/('
=mle\ wilerI' Ihe 8('OlIIell")' (tIul.\lre.H t!i.llrihlllirll/
I('ad It) high illl/K'lft'Clion sel/silMly (loll' a).
til 1I1d.1· m'(,,1 fIJ he IIl'cd III
r. II"hich III(' n!liMallce Rpi i.I' (III, III(' IIS(' of till LBA llfltl6'.\·;s 10 prl'dkl
, f/'OI '('
10 £q. N./I·hol/ld IIm'l' tl Ihc hl/cklillg sIrcllg,h of imper/ecl .~I""Cllfl"r?f ("(III
,,,shipll illl III(' =m/(' ill which ht! qui/e lI·icky. tllIll il i.~ ill/p0l"Uml /(I ohlai" II/(,
BII('k/illg ofSu..'d Shells - European De,<;ign Re("()IIIIII,-'I/t/miom

he" pouible iI/sight illlo tlu: dijJerellt /)()Wn/ial

III(N.Je,,· if the \INA LBA process is tu be IIsed.

(7) The O\'crall rclallvc slcndcOlcss Aul'l} for TlII_~ defillitioll is adopted to be ill filiI' willI Ihe
Slelld{'rlle.'.1 dt.1illitioll l/.fl'd fur\lnlClllml
and 'I
the complete shcll should be dctennincd from:
c()IIIIIIII.~. II-!wre it h(ls a more physicalllleullitlg. imperfection
... (8.2) nonlinearity and
shell buckling
these pammeters
(8) TIIC ovcrall buckling reduction factor Till' Io:lohol IlIImeri(:ul wIU6'<;is melll()d heillg compari-.on '" Ith
de,{crihcd here relie,<; (111)" otl LBA wId MVA (sec annc~ 0 of
,ro>' should be detemlincd as X.., - J(Ao., .t..d)'
a,.., P- 'I,,.) using (4), in , ... hich au, is atlll/Y~£',~ (llith I.A (1II(1~I'.<;is al.~o (lI'"i/ah/£'). 0" similar~~.'k~:::~:;,~:~
the ovemll clastic imperfection reduction the ba.\;.f of these atwlne.f (110111'. it i.{ nawml(..
1IU1 /x},\sihJe to de/ermine //011' seluitil'(! liIe similar y',,'d',"g
factor. P, .. is the plll... lic range fnctor, Il, is the
r(',f;SI(IIICC /Jf the shell mo\' he 10 KL'Ott/elric poslbuckhng
interaction e~pone nt. and .t..,1} is the squash illllH!ljl'ct;ons, gL'Ott/C'tric 1I0nlinearity. yield al ~ hoold a\\O take
limit relati,'c slendcOlCSs. lUll' 101m I('\'(.'I.~. or simi" Iwrdenillg i/l the fubricution 10""",,,,1
mtl/er;el/. Come'l"em/y, alllh"_H.' foctor.f nllm he
a.uessed Sep(lmle~I" /lsillg liIe pl"OCeS!i/!.~ of Iii£'
NOT1~; Care"~:~~:rl
appropriatc \;
/Ilmd Cll/CII/al;OIl of ",<;tress de!'Jigll "
used on shell
These aspL'Cls ort' cowred h,l' lite "bm:/dillg
IHlrtlmeters·' a, P. '1 (md hI II-Jt/ch ",IISI be wherl! ~~~:,:::.~:
Such caS(.~
e.Himatcdfor liIe glohol ,<;rslelll miller 111(' lomlillg and domes undcr
t),pes felllllrilll; jll Ihe tIc.dgll_ For l1Ie syslem. suppor1S that can
11/(.')' (Ire g ll 'tll the slIb.fcripl "0\'" /0 illdicale Ilwl
appropriatc ,alue
they refer w the whole slnll'lIIm/ _"'ystem lIlId 110/
with care when
mIl' compollem.
case produce
The bl/('klillg imemctiull III whklt Ihe.\e
Iklrtlme'ers /ea/llre i~ .~I't olll uXelill here so Iha'
sen ...iti,c to
unJ.tilTcm..-d JIl
'he Wi'-' I· doe.f 1I001I('('dIO njer to conical
compressive loads
x. \Ihell ~, S";".o ... (H.3) commonly
load... for thc'>C ..
based on gl'Oml!t ·
applied to a perl",,;
A ••
=1 which pn.-diCh the ~
By contra~t. the melit
the linear bifurcati
whell ..t,1I'.O S..t,1\ S Av"p ... (S.4) clastiC critical budd
often much higher t~
Thc dc~ign ealculati
twO source<; of
II"hell ..t,,,,p SAo,· • (8.5)
appropriate choice
imperfection reductio
where: must include the efJi
nonlinearity (that e
A. [a '(I·p »)" ... (8.6) and the additional ~t
gcometric impcrfl'Cti
The /l(u..-kXnJIlIU/ 10 'hese c..'fprenioll.f IIIl1\' he
fill/nd ill Ruller (2001) which 1,,/lI' generali5ec/ Ihe
Rilles/or tl,c bllckling limil _flatt! (lsseumt!nlllsillg g/obal,lllmcriwi (1I/"(1'5is

II i/llo Ihe dilen'lII ptJll.' ,,'ial ellrlicr prolJOsal and concepllllll dt!\'elopmellt of
BA pmCl.'H if 10 be IIseel Sdllllidl (1991 , 1994).

i/npll"/IO k ill lille lI'illt Ihe (9) The evaluation of Ihe raclors ..t... I/o a.,., Silfcl! Ihc IH/rtllllc/ers a. fJ. ,,1I1Il1 A 0 C(IIII/Ol he
lioll 111'e,1 for .UI"IIl"lliral /1... lind '1,,, ~hould tuke account of the cmllllllt'd fUl"l1wll)" for II,c glolNll ,fysl('m IIIIder
t\ u mort' phniraf 11I(! lllli"g imperfection senSlt)VII)" gcometric thl! 10(/(/i1l8 'YIJCS fCll/llring in the dcsigll, it i.1
nonlinearity and other aspects of the particular imp£'r"'iI'e Ilml thcy {Ire c(JIIsen'alil'fd.l' e.willll/lcd
shell buckling casco Conscrvutive \ulues lor hased 011 II,e de.~igll/:r 's best e~'lim{l/e of Ihe
these pammetcrs should be detentlined by l'tI"/C~i Ilwl (Ire like(I' to be relel'{lIIl. This d{II/.\('
'ell CIIw/niY 11If! f/UN/ heillg comp<lrison with known shell buckling cuscs indicat('s Iltm Illc choice shollld he mllde
c("'C'f"/~I" ttlkilfg i/llo (1£:£'011111 tiS mllclt rC'lcl'll1l1

"I 01111' ( )II LB.-' and MNA (sec annex D of EN 1993-1-6) that hnve
lIafni!> also an/illlhle). 0" similar buckling modes...imilar imperfection dewi/ (1.\' cml he gaillered in re/lIliunlo Ihe Iype 0/
af\"\(',f alOIl(', il is " " lllralfl' sensitivity. similar geometric nonlinearity. h/liMillg helUlI'iOlir 10 be eXpt'Clcll
,·tl.'mllllt' hmr 'iellfi/il'(' 111(' similar yielding sensiti\ Ity and Similar II is imlHJrlmll thai the gt.'OIIIctr)" domi""", slrt!u

J/:II lIIal' be 10 gl..'(Jllletrir pDStbuckling bcha\ iour. The \ alue or a... IHII/em alld bollll(/(lr), cont/i/ioltv ill Iile partf of
~tri(' "{)IIli"t'llri~\', yield al should ulsa take account of the appropriate the SlrllClllre IlllIt hOl,(, beell idemijied {I.\ critical
(tmlll Iwrck!lfillg ill the fabrication tolcrance quality class. ill Ihe LBA alld MNA e\,a/liutiollS shollid be used
III', all th,' \e factors II/11SI he to m{lke " c{Irejill choice fur lite m/lies of Ihesl.'
u.\II~ I/'e prrJ(·I!.ut',~ of Ihe NOTE: Care should be taken in choosing un IHJrume/en . n,is is whul is IIIeallt hy
Itn'ss d,'si£II " appropriate value of (J,,, when this approach is Tt.'CUmml..'mlillg " comparisoll wilh 10/(111'1/ dwll
corl'n'd by 11K' " hlll'41illg used on shell geometries lind loading cn!>CS blicirUlIg cases". The choice is rclllliw~I' eas..-
whcre snap-through buckling may occur. wilell a cl'/imlriclIl or col/ical sltell pc,rt //tllier
'1 WI,/ -4, )\hid, '1111,\'1 he
Such cuscs includc conical lind sphcrical caps pllre clrclII,,!erellliul ('"u"'pr~",iull 0/' pl/re 5"1!(II'
I.fy~t.,,,, III/tier thl! hHIdillg
and domes under extcrnal pres.-;ure or on is (:offsit/erell, since l ilt! clllcliiated eigel/mtHl1!
~(! d"fig" for 11,(' syslem,
suppons that can displace r.adi:tlly. Thc 1004.f .fi",iltlr to the correfJJO"din~ ",ode of Ihase
~hl'("TIpl '.0\'. ' 10
mdicat(' tllllt
oIl! Iin/etural sntem (lIId "0/
uppropriate value of an.. should also be chosen from Ihc rc/el'llllt ba~ic 10l1f1 ClUCS, III litis "{lSI.' It
with cure when the shell geometry and lo..1d i.\ tI remOlwble choice 10 adopl the buckling
case produce conditions that arc highly /HJrwllcl£'rsfrolll Secl ioll 0 .1.3.2 of EN 1993·'·6
emdiOI/ 11/ I\hiell Ihew! scn~iti"e to changes of geometry, such as :11
far circulllferemial COII/pre,u ioll ao POliO mill
IS .f1!101/1 aXllill hcre .\'0 Ill{Il unstifTcllcd junctions belween eylindric:tl and
'clIO n~fi-'r 10 92.1.2(4): conical shcll segments under meridionnl ..tID or from Seclioll D . I.4.2for shear a,. P,. 'lr
compressi ....e loads (c.g. in chimneys). The (llld A.rQ. tiS Ihe I'llftle.~ of Ille ""croll bl/cklill~
I ~'" S ~".o ... (83) commonly reported elastic shell buckling pcW(IIIIcte/'S a.... fJ"., '1", alld ;"', ,1). if lum'CI'Cr
louds for these special cases are nonHally meridiollal comprcssion i~ imv/l'ed, or Ihe ~1t('11
based on geomelricnlly nonlinear unnlysis luIS {/(mb(I' C/ln'L-d pc,rlS (spherical, ellipsoidal,
l applied to a perfcct or imperfect geometry. tomidfll, hY/JerboUc), a reasollable choice i.f
which predicts the snap-through buckling lo.1d. morl..' difficult.
By contrast. the methodology used here adopts
" .lhOllld be IUJ/('(/IIIUI the lIon/illeflr hi/llremioll
the linear bifurcation lo.1d as the reference mOlie (lisillg a GNA or GMNA mfOl)'.fis) mo)'
... IH.4) clastic critical buckling n..'Sislancc, and this is
somelimt's be qllilt! dilJerem fmlll Ihe 101\'('$t
oftcn much higher thull the snap. through lo.1d.
/iI/car bijllrr.:otioll (LBA) mode tllld 1I1(1)' ('I't'"
The design calculation must account for these
occllr ill a differellllHlrl of Ihe stnlClllre. so cal"('
•. 18.5) two sources of reduced resistance by an sllOliM be excrcised 10 t!IIsure that the )'lIll1e_1
appropriate choice of the o\'eral1 elastic
chosell hcr€' are cotlSen'tllil,(, i/l all IHlri.f of the
imperfection reduction factor a.". This choice finlClllre, (llId Ihal Ihe)' are similar 10 Ihos(' tIJm
mllst include the efTl.'Ct or both the geometric woult/ (Irisc i/ the desigll II'CTC IlIIdertakell IIsiflg
nonlinearity (that ean lead to snap·through) Mres~ design.
r ... IH6) and the additional sirength reduction cuuscd by
geometric imperfcctions. II ~1tu/lld be 1101('(1 Ihat lite shell bllckling
rcsislllllCC is /101 eqllally sellsilil'C to all of Ihe
/he.11! I!xprt'.nioll.1 maj' he
fOllr hlll' kling p{lr{lmeler.~, TIle qllfllil)' of Ihis
ZI II'hidl/IIIII' Kcnemliwd Ihl..'

JJIIt'AIiIl~ of SII..'('I SIII'lIs - Ellmpt.y.1II J).. ~igll R{.CUllllllt'"dll"C

(' (/im(//l',1 m/llt, muW hc.' "ighc.\/lor a. .. hili the (I:!) The I
\'(/IIIe.~ of fl ,,, Ar ... , ,~ '/. mlly hi! eHilllllled Irilll .. hlluld b..: obtained
h'u pn'('isioll 1\/lho/llH'riUl/3fl' ad\Y.'r~('~1'
II/{l'(:tillg tilt' UII1WI/I(', Tilt' prilllar), jiU'- ",\ ,\hOilld R, .lUI Rp/
11f.' Oil Ih" (II'erall ('/cu/i(' impl'rledioll 1'('lll,U/tll/ \~heT'l!:
jil('/(Jr 0. .. I,-!tid, t'xc/mil''''''' cOlllro/., Ille ellII/ii' R, is th~ pla~tic
bucklillg hehal'iollr. tim/lillie" rmfl' 11m il lIIillor
roll' IIh('lIllJe on'rall n 'h,lil'f.' ,\/elldl..'nwu is .\/11,,11 (11) I he tk-.lgn
(Mmdul"{'.\ "1/(-4/illg illllu' plmli(' rt.'gioll). bo.! ubtnintxl fmm:
(10) I f the prm 11I1On!> of (9) cunnot be WilerI' Ihe dlt)i<'" af 1'(1111(:,\' of Ihl..' IJell'lIlIIc'len iL" ..
aehie\ t-d bc)'ond reasonable doubt. appropriute Po... 'I, ~ tIIlll ArlO " ('W/lIU! Iw "~lOhli51/('d Il"i!II
tests lohould be cumed out. fN 1990. UI)I)mpriflfl..' CfJll{it/"rlCt', 1I IllOrollgll GMVlA \1 here:
Annciit 0, ;'1I'''Sliglllioll ()f Ihl! proh/{'''' dlOlild Iw rill I~ thc panial
IlI/dent/A('11 h{'e 8,3 heloll'/. Where gr,'{/I budding ",,"d~
I/I/{'ertail/~I' t'Xlll.1 am/IIII' mHC(II//(' is 1)(lrliclI/llr'"
(·rilicul. I/Il' fiflll/llrbiler mml Iw all IIpproprime
I('.fl programme (~ee 8.3.3,6 heloll'),
(II) If lIpL'Cific valucs of a, ...fl. .., '1,. and If a GMV/A flll(I~nis afld /{'w~ ('lIImol ht.'
(I) It !>oould '" "nl
Ar",11 are not a\uilable according to (9) or (10). IlI/den"J.efl. wid douh, r('m"II/,\' tm ,11('
the value.. for an uiltiully compressed approprillll' m/tle~ of '''''.fe p(lrame!"I'.\·, 11,;1' mle F fJ S r,u ~ RJFI:J
un~tiffened cylinder 11l.1y be adopted. sec ~il'e,\' dt"lI/llIm/II('.\' 11m/ are det'med 10 he WI(e{(1r
10,2,2, Where lInap-through is known to be a mool h"lIIm ~IIell hllckling (y.llldilioll.(. I, is b(l~cc!
~ibility. uppropriutc funher reductions in Oil ,''(' plaw,i"'!' (/.HIIIII/"iofl ,lwll/()f"ell huckling
a. ..hould be con!>idercd. case cafl be imal!inec! to he more impl'lf('('I;''''-
,\emilll'l! ' '(111
WI /l1/.\liffened circillar C.:I'lilld"r
u"d"r lI11ifimll (u;ol c()mpre.Hiflll (ll'hich bd"n't'l
sllllilClr(1' 10 WI eXlenwlfl' pn''ullri,w'll '~P"{"·I..,). H.2.3 r,dendl'ti eel
Ollt! 111lI1 (l1)lllring Ilf btlckling IHII'(II/Ief('l'S
a" /Jr, '1<, ~ 10 any mher she/l blldding l'll~e 8,2.3.1 Kc~ rCliturH
,Ihol/ld 111t'rifore be olllhe all/sl'n'll!iI'e ,I'ide,
The aho"I! proIHJ:J'ilioll (Irises from cOllsideration The MNAIlBA pnx:
of elm'/ie bllC:klillg alld jmlH!rjecliofl ,\ etu·itil';t.r shcll struclUres undcr
pl,el/Ome/Ill in\'hells, II sllOllld therefore be "ulec! long been nceded to
Ihal wht'rl.' ,11f! comlil;ofls "rise ifl nhid, lite ~/I('II "~tn."SS design'· proc
i.\ slIhjecl 10 e.I'lellsiioe yieldillg bejiJre bl/dUng the key differences be
(tlml 11111,\' le.f\· Impeifecti()11 ~ell.\·ilil'e), it IIWI' he a rigorou.!> and
,ha, Ihe mllll! of A. tJ!isoda,ed Idllt lite
III/Sliffefled cyliflder is 1101 a/lI'ayf COtaen'(llil·e.
The second of thc'>C t
£"en for e/elSlic b/lcklillg $;IIWlioIlS. ,he
bound estlmatc uf the
proPOSitiOIl Ih(II ,he (t\'loll), cOlllpreu('d cylim/er
Ihen the outcome ror
COli IX! IIsed U.I IIIl' t!xtrl'lI/e of .\"ell jmlH!rj£'Clicm
!>tn."l>!> pattern ineh~\;
l'ell,~;!i\';/.I' n'li{'~ 01' 11m k(,)' a,5slImpIiOlU". Tlte,5e
identical), but it enn I
are e/i,\"{~lIssed ill Ihe Extellded COIlllllelllal)'
because II finite Tone
8,1,3,6, II;s recolllmelllkd Ilmi. lI'hell appl)'ing
mechanism. Where
,he apl)roxinulle mil' ill tI,ls ptlragraph, the
del'igller slloilld calY.1"ully cI,e,,!>: hi!> parlit'lIlal'
procl.-dure e...aluUles I~
"rue tlgllillSI II,,, bad.grolmd sel 0111 III Ihe
consequently leads to
('xlelldetl romRlet/lul)',

Httlt,~ for lite hlld lillg limil \1lI11! a.I It'l ,m('''' II I iflg glohtll mill/t'rinli Ullull'lil

I /Ie hi.~/u',' (or a. .. hili Ihe ( 12) The charnc teri ~tic buckling n.:si\lllnce R, 1II .\ /n:lIglil rt'dllcliU/u dlle to ,Jillen'f// ,'I!('U\ 11/"('
,~ " WI' /1.... ell/maled lI'ilh .. hould be obtained from: illelm/ell ill lite t'\'(I/tllllioll of Xu.'
flholll wrioll\/l' adn'I"'t'~)'
't' n,.'prillllln' fix:uI ,/multl
.. (R.7)
III/it· illll''''''/t',"lim, rn/ll('lilm
11I1"iI'.,~1' nlllfmll II/t' daHi/"
Hri is the plastic reference rc .. i<;tllncc.
1II1t} Ilhid, (11/)' hal I I 11111/01'
! rdalil'(, .l'it."";,,.,,(,,H i.1' wlI/II
(13) The design buckling resiMancc H.I ~ hould rllt' 1'''/11(' 01 lilt- parlial facwI" ru lI/e/Y Iw e/e/illl.:c/
illlh(' pla.l /i,· I"f'Mitm).
be obtained from: ill III(' Nulimllli AlIIl('x. WI,e/'(' I/O applinllimt
I <1/111'1" of lite ptll'cJllle/t'r,\ «.. , ... (8.8)
\/uml"l'(/ ('xi\I.\' fbI' Ihe form o( coml/'II(/iIJII
H" H~ r ift ill\'()/I'ed, /II' lite "1,,,!it'lIlioll s/(/IItJard dUC!1 1/01
("(111m" ",. estahiil/lt'd lI'ilil
nn', 1/ Ihomugh G \/WA where: defille IIt£' re/t-I'IIIII 1'/I"U',f of n~ it ;,.
,II,' pmhlem ~/101I1d II/.' )'\.11 is the p.1l'1ial factor for re'ol<;tance to r(,{'OInlll('m/t'c/ fltal lite wIlle u( rvliloll/(/ 1101 h<-
J beiOlI'). II11t're gr,'(ll buckling according to W4e"cl.f,ml/ll/er llt(m I'll 1./.
Ilht' 0111, ollie il I",rliclilarl,'
il.r mUll he liII IIppl'OIJrillle
8,2,2.3 Buckling str('n2th \('rificAtlon
IU.3.6 "'' 011') .
IiI 111,,1 Il'f/f CIIIII/Ol he
(I) It should be\erified thm : rhi~ \'('l'ificlIlioIlIllCl)' IIppC!ar (Ilitl/ewrtlllg(' \1/,(,,,
!kJllht n'lI/lIlIIl 011 II/{,
jir\1 W'('II, hili il i, corn'ct. ",/r,.11 111(' de.,iMnlo(J(L,
IlIt'ft' P<lrI.lI1/{'/('n. , Ilti~ nlll' 1',;'1 S FRJ = Rd F&1 or Hoi ?- I ... (8.9)
(Ire ClJlf)lied 10 ( I Mmctllre hl'ilIM lI/w/I's(-d, lilt'
r WIIJfl! d",'/1/t'(' 10 lit, ,Illfe (or
jill(/I r('qllirelll('1/1 i.( 111m the 101111 fllCtor 011 I/um-
,;J.illr,.: nm,llII(mr. II is ",,,'>t,J
(Ie,figll 101llb; Cli Ihe IX)i", of de.~igll mIlle o( Ihe
Iplioll tllaillf' I/wl/lmd.lillR
ane.ned ful/llre l 'u"daWII ,~'IOII/d he grf'tlll'r I//tlll
I to lit! more imperll'r/irm-
lilli/I '.
UliUt'nl't./ circlliar tT/imlt'r
cm"pref~iOl' (",hid, hehtlll',1
UJ/~\' prt'I,luri.fed ,fp/r('Il'j, 8,2.3 ": xt('ndcd t'onunenl!H) on MNAlI .HA numerical hucklin)! design
in b'RMiIlM IXlrWller"rf
mll.'r slrell l'fIeJ.iing l'lIse
8,2.3.1 K('~' fellturl's of che ~INAJ I . nA pruccdu re
illite colII'('n 'm il'e .fide,
(mm £Y)/nidermirm
III (IriSl'S
The MNA/LBA procedure is founded on the methodology of a tmditional hand calculation. For
~IIJ imfJClji.'Clioll'itl' shell structures under ull but the simplest loud cases, II linenr clastic numerical analysis (LA) has
It should 11It'rl'lore lx- 1I00e~/ long been nceded to dClenninc the stress state of the structure as part ofa hand calculation. nod the
iOlls arise ill IIltidl lire xlrdl "stress design·' procedures set out in Chapter 9 include such usc of LA numerical analyses. TIllIS
11" yil'MiIlM IN.·foll! hllddillg the key differences beh\een MNA LBA nnd Ihe hund calculution procedure arc
(a'lio" sellSilil'e), il 111(1.1'be a rigorous and accurute evaluution of the clastic criticlll buckling resistance of the structufC
fJ. anoci(II('d Ililh Ille a rigorous evaluation oflhe plastic collapse resistance of the structure,
, 1101 ohm)".'; COIISen'(llil'e.
hlld.:lilrg sillllllimlS, Iht! The second ofttk.--sc two onl) comes inlo piny ira true MNA nnulysis is pcrfomlCd. Ifonly a lower
lXiClIII' mll/pll!ssed n-limlt'r bound estimate of the MNA rcsislUnec is found based Oil an LA analysis accordmg to 8,2,2.2 (4).
rlrl'Rl~ o/(llell illlJ1f!ifeclioll then the outcomc for this part should be very close to thm of a stress design when the prebuckling
,\"0 A:~' ti5.fllllfplimu , TI'('.f('
stress pattern includes zones of rcillti\cly uniform stress (for which the processes arc almost
'Ie E:rrC'm!c.-,1 COllllllell/an' idcllIieal). but it can to significantly diffcrent results where high stn."Ss gmdiellls occur. This is
It'lIdl!d Ihal, IIIIell (lpplYillg because a finite zone of shell is rcquir"..d to de\elop both an clastic buckle and a plastic collapse
'e ill Ihis Il(lrllgrnplt. Ihe mcchunism. Where the buckle dc\'clops in a 70ne of high stress gradient. the stress d,""Sign
11t1~r dl('(:4 his IXlnil'lI/m' procedure evuluntt'S the buckling eondllion as if the sallie Slresses e-<ten<kd o ... er a large Lone and
K"4gmlllld l '('1 (Jill ill lite conscquelllly leuds to a much lower prediction for clastic buckling thun thc MNA/LBA procedure,

Buckling ojSrL,td Sitl'llf - Ellrope,,,, Desigll RL'f;ollll1ll'lIlk,lions Care "hh

A major advanlllgc of the MNAlLI3A procedure using an MNA analysis to detennine the plastic
L'OIIIIPSC resistance liL'S in the rigour of its conceptuill fr.IITlC .... oric. In future. "'hen shell buckling
rescarch results are being dcveloJX.-d for pmctical design purposes. this methodology should be Whcn a global
used. Dclililed proposals for Ihe method of extrnction of the kcy p<lrnmcters a,. A. 'I. and Ay{} from thoroughly. but
process is likely to
the rcSUltio ofGMNIA calculations nrc given in Rollcr (2002. 2(05). If this procedure is follo .... ed
by those who study new conditions in shells. an increasing number of buckling pammeler ..cIs for structures thai ha\c
various shells will be avuilable to the dcsign cnginL'Cr.
Ho .... c\er. al present. thcre is slillll shonuge ofbuckHng parnmeters calibraled to tnle MNA plastic become i l l
collapse resistances. though the ba...ic buckling caS(.'S do meet this L'Ondition. Consequently. the approprilllc choices
design engmeer may oflen fnll back on thc si mple membranc yielding criterion when nlnning a
MNNLI3A design chL'Ck based on an LA analysis of the structure.
110" e\ cr. gre,,,"~' I
criticality. The relation~hip between LOA analysts and hand (alculatlon pr()(cdurcs
locill stiffening
procedure Ilpphed
During the early dc,eloprncnt of the field of shcll buckling, it was , 'cry difficult to perform an hllnd calculation
algebraic analysis that included all the phcnomenll that were known to influence the buckling modes
resistance. As a result. mttny simplifications \~ere adopted in this early research. One of the most
imponant simplifications was thc assumption of a mcmbmnc pre-buckling stress state in the shcll .
evell though Ihis is geller.llly very difficult to achievc in prnctice wilh any realiiolie boundary
conditions. It was nCCL'Ssary to conduct the buckling analysis using more eonstrnining boundary cigcnvlllue. which
conditions (to prevcnt very low buckling stresses being found). so the conccpt of different boundllry
shells. Com"~"''''9
conditions for Ihe pre-buckling stn.'SS sillte from those for the sTn."l1i displaeemcnts of the shell thot
occur during buckling has u long history. By way
The reasons for remining Ihe distinction in the 21" ccntury relate more to ensuring thnt the buckling rchllh'CIy
calcuilltion is conser.!Ithe. The strl.'SSl'S calculated in a pre-buckling analysis ure genemlly largest mode in the
when high degrees of fixity nt boundary conditions lead to high local stresses. but the buckling impcrft.'Ction
analysis provides a more conservative estimate whcn pinned boundary conditions are assumed. The be far less Ihan
diOicuhy ofcnsuring adequate rigidity in fixed boundary conditions is a good reason to retn;n shell calcuilltion before
dcsign according to this simplcr idea. but it is diOicult to sustllin when u numerical analysis is mnde the benefits of this
using finite elements or similar procedun.-s. overlooked.
Where numerical shell buckling analyses arc undennken. the same boundary conditions may be This situation
adopted for thc prcbuckling and buckling unalyscs. but it should be nott.'<i that: a cylinder .... ith t\\O
a) these calculations mny not pw\·idc n perfect match to the hand calcuilltions because of the circumferential .
boundary condition chunge: sphericlIl ho,ds, '" ~
b) grellt care is net.-ded 10 enioure Ihllt the boundnry conditions assumed in the numerical example was first
calculation can be realised in the final construction.

One of Ihe key differences between MNAILBA and hllnd caleulalion (in thc fonn of Buckling
Slress Design uccording to Chapter 9 of these RI.'Commendations) i!> that the hllnd cillculation
e'l(amines each pan of the structure scparutcly and makL'S an independent e\'alulllion of its rL'Sistance
relntive to the design loads. l3y contmst. ulthough the MNAILBA treatment can be IIpplied 10 the
individual pans of the structure. it is mostly described in tenns of an analysis of the \~hole structure.
Problems rcillting to this appro."Ich. and remedies for them are discusSL'<i in thc following S(.'Ction.

Rilles fur 'lte bllckling li",ir~"'u.' (lSs('.~smem IIsing global lIl/merical u"u~n"i.f

lulysi; to delermlne the plastic Care "ith the interpretation ofthl' LIlA anal)sis
In future. "hen shell buckling
. this methodology should be When a global analysis is used. Ihe m~t criticul part of the structure is idcmified and trcat<..-d
~melers a~. /l.. ,/, and l,u from thoroughly. but less attention is paid 10 other l..ones thut mny be close to critical. As a result , this
Iflhls procedure is follO\~ed proccss is likcly to be lk."Cure and successful when applied separatc1y to parts of structun..'S. or to
of buckling parameter selS for structures that have a clenrly identifiublc critical zone. For such structures. the LBA nnalysis can
deli"er a considerable enhancement of Ihe evalullted critical buckling resistance R,.,.. and an MNA
IInlllysis c:m produce II huge increase in the evalualL-d plastic resistance R",. Thc dL'Sign clln then
calibrated to true MNA plastic bI.:come significantly morc economic than thai produced by hand clliculation. provided Ihat
tondition. Consequentl y. the upproprillie choices for the values of thc buckling pnrametel'S a,. Pt. 'h and lAO can be made (Sec
ing crilerion ~~hcn nlllning a

Ilowe"er, great care s hould be exerciS(.-d when the structure possesses multiple 70nes of comparable
'on procedures criticality. That is to suy. a ~truelure thot is highly optimised in each part (using thicknl'Ss changes.
local stiffcning and similar measures) s hould be treated with caution \\hen design<..-d using this
procedure applied to the complete structure. Such:t structure s hould be \\ ell underslood using II
\cry dif1icult to perfonn an
hand calculation (Choptcr 9) before Iltlcmpting to optimise it further using MNAILBA. and cnlieal
n to influence the buckling
modes corresponding to eigenvalues Ihat lie above the lo\\ cst s hould be carefull y examined. It is
uly researeh. One of the lIlost
recommended that as many as ten eigenvalues and their associated modes should be el[amined to
i:kling MTl'S!> state In the shell.
ensure that a zone that is highly imperfection sensitive but \\ h~ cigenmode is. for example. fourth
with any reolistic boun<f:1ry
from the lowest docs nOI ha\e :l lo"er impcrf<..'Ct buckling resistancc than that wi th the lo\\cst
more coostr:Jining boundary
eigenvalue. whieh may ha ve mild impcrf(.'Ction sensitivity. These remarks relate to unstiffened
toncept of different boundary
shells. Commcnts on problems \\ilh discretely stiffened shclls are ghen in the parugra ph belo\\ .
lisplacemcnts of the shell that
By way of example. a eomplclc structure <..'Ons i ~ ting of two principal componcnts. one of which is
highly imperfection sensiti"c (e.g. an llXially compR'Sscd cylinder) and the other of ",hich i~
.to ensuring that the buck ling
rc\;lIi"el y insensiti ve to imperfections (c.g. A ring in compression) ma y be found to ha vc its critical
,naiy)is ore gcnernll y lArgest
mode in the inscnsitive pan. so thAt design attention is focusS(.'<i on this aspect. By contrast. the
cal strcs~"'S, but the buckling
imperfection sensitive zonc could be quite critical since the imperfL'C tion reduclion factor a could
conditions arc assull1<.."(1. Thc
be far less than unity. By understanding the criticn l zoncs in thc structu re wen th rough hand
. a good reason to retain shell
calculation before commencing an MNA/LBA cnh:lIlcelllcnt. the designer should be able to exploit
I A numcricIII unalysis is made
the bencfits of this procedure without risking the possibility Ihul critical failure modes hA\'c been
boundary conditions may be
,cd that: This situalion may be more clearly iIIustrmcd by a sJX.'Cific example. A vac uum vessel consisling of
a cylindcr with two hemi·spherical hends is shoWII in Fig. 8.4. The cylindrical p''1n under mainly
d calculnt ions because of Ihe
circumfcrential compression is relati"ely insensiti\c to geometric imperfcctions. but the two
spherical heads arc under t"-o.dimc nsion:1i compression and nre highl y impcrfcclion-scnsiti ve. This
; assumed III Ihe numeric:ll
eXllmple was first presented by Schmidt (2002).

on (10 the fonn of Buckling

is thnl the hand calculation
'n! e\uluution of its resistance
:atmen! cun be npplied to Ihe
mlysis of the ",hole Structure.
j in the follo\\mg lk."'Ction.
Flgur~ 8.4: Buckling
modc.~ ror a vacuum pressure \csscl (schcmlllic)

Hudd;"g (~I Sleel Silt·1I1 - hl/mlN.'l'" 1Ji.-',\ig" R('{·,m",u'm/fI!ioll.\

but \\ here Ihi~ m<'lhl>dc,11I

Concerns about the difficulty of choosing appropriatc \-alues of the buckling par.unclcrs \\ hcn u!>ing
Ihe MNA LIlA procedure ha\c been expressed by Schmidt (2000). To IIddrcs!> the:.c concerns, the
following procedu~ arc rccommendt-d. StudIes by Uo!-.t l·' a/,
found b)' u~ing a pl(lt
Where thiS MNNLBA methodology is applied to an clement of a ~tnleture. the proccdure is deh.'nninatilln". Here. It
gcnerolly 'WIII"f:ICIOry and 11 i~ not nccessal)' to considcr more th:m one eigenmode. FUrlher. \,hcre Ihe load factor llrl de"i!:!n
the stres!> MUIC in Ihe ~tnlClurc is dominated by shear or circumfcrential compression. the sensitivity R" al:!i.IUht IN" 11'), \\
to gL"Omclric impcrft'Ctions is lo\\cr and this procedure can be used \\nh some confidence. lead to \ cl) prcr.:i~
Ho\\e\cr. "here the MNA I.IlA procedure i~ applied to a complete ~tnlC lure and significalliaxial result~ of computation,
comprc..sion is prescnt. it i~ highly de~irable that thc fiN len eigenvaluel> are dctcmll1led and their givc'l "ngle pmhctcd I
corresponding eigenmodcs plolted to illustrme the rnodc shape and the location. Where several
eigenmode!> occur al a Mmilar location and the elgen\-alucs arc clo-.c to each olhcr. thil> i" u !>Irong
indication tllllt the !>Inleture is likely to be ,ery scnsi th e to gcomclric impcrft'Ctions, with a
corn..-spondingly 10\\ valuc of a".. for these modt'S. Since a low value of a leads to a con... idcrable
change in the clastiC impcrfL'Ct shell buckling resistancc. II I§ \ Ital that these modes arc identificd
and used al> P.1r1 ofthc MNA LBA de~ign proccdurc.
dctenninL'ti by u"ng. an
conSCl"\ati\e prO' idcd
It i... recommended here that. '" such eircUll1lo1ll1lCCS. euch cigelllnode should be lreated as a l> to d..:\ I~e a gencral
dc::-ign casc and taken through thc dcsign buckling re~i"tnnce process (Fig. H.l) using approprime conl>Cnati\c fllr '>lIme
,alues of the par.lmetcrs a,. fl,. 'I. and Ad/ for each mode. according to its location nnd stress state. l>\ructun.... under cia'tic
This methodology will remo\\! much of Ihe unccrlainty that has been in somc of thc The ","1n1e is Inn: In
eommcnts conceming Ihe approprilllC choice or a.... P,. 'I, lind A\o :lIld should lead to reliably s,1 1c cffects ure sufficiently
designs. \\UY'" of \Cpardtmg oot
LA anaIYl>i~.
Discretely stiffcned !>hclls presenl many addilionul difficultics. Commonly. these struCIIII'CS huve
\cry nex iblc shell walls with much stitTer elemcnt:.. ns stiffeners. When an LBA analysis is
pcrfomled. the first 100 or so modc::- may all be local modt'S in the shcll wall and do not Impact on an LA IInaly~" th.11 is
the global strength of the strucmre significantly. In stich situations. the LBA outcome will greatly strictly safe if applied
tlndcrpredict the intcndt-d buckling stI'Cngth of the structure. and some special measun.'s may be system is bending is
needed in analysis to find an appropriate LOA modd that captures the glob:11 buckling mode be safe for shells in
including stiffener defomlations. stnlcturc~ in which
guaranteed to be 'tOfc
FUrlhcr form.1lisation of procedures to address thL'SC issues is an aClive l'CSC'.trch urea. but thc abO\ e
appears 10 providc a safe proccs.o; on the basis of current knowledgc. It il> hoped that the
oftcn cause ",,,,,i'''""l
mcthodology will be refincd in thc ncxt fcw years. with more pn:else inform:ttion available on the In cOl1loidcring the usc
proximity of cigenmodcs and formalised mellstlrcs to lIddress these ~ues. resistance, it i... important
separatc conditions at
H.2,3.4 C .. rc uith the interp retation orthc MNA .. na l}'sis These are:
n) Ihl 000111"."",." ~
b) the coliaploC occur;
The MNA analysis is USL-d to obtain a fomlal plastic fC.'iistancc for the shell. For simple geometries
plastic strain... cun
und load CIUCS. closed ronn unulyticlli solutions can be found, and many ofthcsc nre documented in
c) the collaJhC occur.>
Massonnet and Sa\ e (1972) lind Annex B of EN 1993- 1-6 (2007). 1I0wc\'er. for II'K)l>t cases. a finite
circle: and
clcment nnalysis will be n:(IUtred.
Where a finile clement analysis is used to obtain this resistance. the analysis must be malcrially
These are ,"d,,,dluailly di~
nonlinear and may in\'ohe high local ).IrainS at some locations. Mnny programs. c .. cn well known
commercial program!> of high quulity. ha .. e diniculty in reaching It full plastic IIlt'ChanislIl. so the
Whcre ntCmbr.lne yield
plastic resistance may be difficult 10 define pn..-ciscly. In design calculations. this is not of great
yields exactly thc same
imporlance as any load ltttained before colillpse may be udopted as a conSCI"\'lIti\e estimate of R,,,,

Rilles for the hlldlillM limit _Hilt/! II.Ue,ulllc"t II.fillg global IIlII1l('ri('ul ufwl\,s;j

but \\here thIs methodolob'Y ts used for research 'Iudles, It 1<; \ery Important that the true pla~lIc

Uing parameters \\ hcn u~ing collapse statc should be lIeeurntcly kno\\n,

) :u.ldrt."l>" IhLo;,c concems. the
Studies by 1I0ist ('t (II. (2002.2005) h:\\e ~hown ho\\ the true plastic limitlood may be aeeumtc1y
found by USlIlg a plot .!oimilar to the modified Southwcll plot for c'lpcrimcntal buckling load
~tmcture. the procedure is detemlination". Berc, it i" recummended thlllthe chnmeteri ... tic di~plncement of the !<Itnlcture II' und
eigcnmodc. I-unhcr, where thc load factor on design loads R, !<Ihould be used to ghe a gcncmliscd modified 5outl1\\ell plot of
comprL-ssion. thc scn<;lt.vity R" :lg:lInst (R" w). where" is a Ix)\\cr whIch may be taken as" I. but by more careful choice can
sed \\ I1h somc confidence. lead to \-ery pn..'Cisc estimatc~ of the pla'tie n..'Si",ulIlcc. In particular. it is rccommend{.'(1 that the
ructure and significant (lxilll results of computation:. using finite clement mc~hc.!o of dincring refincment can all be brought to
ues are detcnmncd and their gi\'e a single predicted plastic resistance by appropriate choice of fl.
he location. Where sc\cml
:> each other. this i~ a ,trong ASI)eets of the use or l,\ IInal)sis 10 obtain a lo"er bound estimate to ~INA unal~ds
.ctric imperfections, \\ ith a
of a k...tL. 10 a consIderable
As noted sc\'crai limes in the commentary abm-c. an LA analysis may be used to oblalll a lower
I thc<ii: modes are identIfied
bound e:.timate or the true plastic re .... "tance of the ... hell. the true \aluc of \\hich can only be
dctennilll...d by using an M A IInal)si~. nli~ use of lin LA :lIlalysis for such a purpo~ i...
eonse.... ati\ c providL-d that an uppropriatc critl.'rion or failure is adopted. but it is extremely difficult
ould be treated as a separate
to de\ ise a general criterion of fuilure thm is both always consc....·ati\·c and not dramatically
(Fig. 8.1) using appropriate
con..c.... ati\c for :.ome srx,.'Cial CII!>l!S. Thi~ i.. !x.'CauM: ,cry high local stresses often dc\-elop m .. hcll
, ill. loc'l1tion and .,tress Slate. Mructurcs under ela~tic condition!. and thcw are Mnootlll.:,d a\\ay by plUMicity long before railure.
n e .. prr.... ..r.'tI in '>Ollle of the Thc same is true in many OIl)I.'r MruCIUrcs (e.g. around bolt holes in bolted connections) but these
should lead to reliably '>tIfe elTcclS are sufficicntly wcll documcntcd for them to be always ignored. It is not easy to lind Simple
ways ofscparating out the important and ull1mponunt stn..'Sscs prcdictL-d in a shell structure u.!omg an
LA unllly~is.
nonly, these structures 11lI\-e
When nn LOA analysis is In this conIC'II. it should be noted Ihullhe erlteriOIl of failure (Eq. ~. I) lor MNA detennination from
I wall and do not impact 011 an LA analysis that is adopted in thi .. chaptcr and in S(..'Ctioll 8.6 of hN 1993·1·6 (2007) is not
: LUA outcomc will greatly slrictly safc if applicd to all .!otructure.!o. sincc IIny structure in which thc princip..11 10..1(I--cmrying
~ special TTK.'IIsurcs may be system is bending is trcatcd unconsc ..... uti\cly here. nIl.' critcrion gi\clI here (Eq. 8.1) i~ bclic\-cd to
the global buckling mode be safe for shells in which buckling considerntions dominate ill thc design chccks. since these urc
Slnlcturc~ in which ~tresses nre dommant. Ne\cnhelcss. this criterion cannot be
guaruntccd to be safe under :111 conditions, and all a1tenmthc criterion that is so guamlltccd would
rc!oCllreh llrea. but the above ol\en cause exccssi\e consc.... iltism.
~ge. It is hoped that the
rformation 11\ uilablc on the In considering the use of an LA analysis 10 Oblllill a 10\\ cr bound estimate or the plastic reference

i rcsi!>tancc. il is imponantto identify the dllTercnt kmds ofslrcss state that can arise in a shell. Four
separate conditions at plru.tic L'Oliapsc may be idcntifiL"tI which ean occur in an a,'1isymmctnc shell.
These are:
II) the collapse occurs by mcmbranc yield or rupture on a complete circumferential cirele:
b) the colillpse occurs by membrane yield or rupture III a limited zone so bounded that indcfinite
hell. For simplc gcometries
plastic struins (''Ull occur all around thc ..onc:
ofthcsc are docurncntL-d in
c) the collapse occurs by II combination of bending and stretching on II completc circumferential
e\er. for most cuses. u finite
circlc: lind
d) the collapse occurs by a combination orbcndmg and stretching on a limited zone oflhe shell.
which docs not extend far around the circumrerence or IIlong the cylindcr Icngth.
blysis mUst be materially
These are individually diseussed in the follo\\ ing puntgraphs.
progrnms, e,en \\-cll known
I plastic mcchunhm. so thc
Whcre membrune yield occurs around :I complete circumrcrence (II). the complete MNA unalysis
,lations. this is not or greal
yields exuctly the same outeomc as is used in the buse cases of Stress Design: the yield strcss is
onsc.... ali\e estimate or Rpl.

Bucklillg ofSleel Shells - £lIropellIlIJ.e.figll Rt..'COImllelltk"lolIs

reached through the full thickm:~s all around the circumference. 11lere;s then no dilTerence Ihllt is highly ",,,.,r.""i,,.
between a rigorous MNA computer analysis and Iltrivilll1y simple hllnd calculation. the entire
ofa I
Where mcmbmne yield occurs In Il limited zone around a part of Ihe shell (b) so 111111 inde finit e
plastic stro ins can occur all around Ihe boundary. Ihe rigorous MNA unalysis again deli\cr.. the
same outcomc as "ould be found from a hand calculation ofplastie .tOncs. A good example of Ihis
Iype of failure is a brocket support on II cylindrical shcll (Docrich el al .. 2(05). Howcver. hcre the
MNA analysis ghl:S a \cry diffcrent result from that obtained using an LA analysis and any ofthc
;altcmath c first yield criteria. Ilecause thcre is a SIrc.liS concentrntion. Ihe LA analysis predicts the
In Rulc (II) II is .
plastic reference resistunce nt betwccn 1511 0 and 2()01I of the true vnluc for a typical structure
(dcpending also on the criterion of failure used). 11lUS this C!.limate is 5 to 6 times 100 small. parameter.. a.... P- '1 .
the commentary on this
Clearly. such an estimate of the plastic reference resistance is extremely low and i!> unhelpful in
design: designers using simple hand calculations and engineering j udgment would obtain a correct simple concept. Th~
and 501fe cstimate. whilstlhosc ut-ing LA would find thai the referencc resiSlance nppears to be vcry the shcll stnbility i
low. Thus. LA lo\\cr bound estimates of the plastic reference resistance should be used with some cylinder for "hich thc
assumptions eonccrn
caution for complex stres!. statcs.
method of assessing Ihe
Whcre plastic collapse occurs (c) undcr a combinalion of bendlllg and stretching on a complete adopted. then the two I
circumferentiul cirele. the lo"er bound LA estimate is signi fica ntly but nOI so drnm3ticully
conservative. A \ery ~imp l e cxample is Ihe ring loadL-d cylinder (Massonnct and Suvc. 1972). (a) Geometric "."h~"~
panicular. special
whcre the membrane stress criterion of Eq. 8. 1 produces 3n estimntcd plustic reference l\."Sistunce
Ihal is j ust 80010 of the true vul ue. The estimated l\.'Sistance tends to fall lower as Ihe stress state
becomes more complicated. but the LA cstim.1te is not so very conservative for uxisymmetric load
only '~~":~:;;~
cascs. buckling. This
commcnt on thiS
Where plustic collapse occurs (d) by n combination of bending and stretching on a limited 70ne of
the shcll. which docs nol extend far around the circumference or along the cylinder length. the (b) The a.l[ially '."'P"o!
lo"er bound LA estimUle can easily become dmmatically conS(.TVlllivc. Unfonunlllcly Ihcre arc scnsiti\ ity "hl.'Il
\ery fewlligebrnic solutions for problems of Ihis kind. nnd Ihe d e~igller must always I'Csort to finite is therefore on the
clement anulysis to obtain a good L'S timate of the plastic resistance. Where such situations are yield in a thicker
crilical 10 the design (relathely Ihick shells widl highly localised stress development). it is value of p (i.e. i
recommended that a full MNA analysis is USL-rl. firsl nlTccts the
the \ alue of p for. Uuekling and plastic collapse in differentlocatiolls in the structure
load lind the true

One exnmple of
COlleem is sometimes exprL'SSL-d thnt if the plastic collapse (or the highesl stress condition) and the where global
buckling mode occur in dilTerent parts of lhe structure. then perhaps the above methodology might global bending).
due to the ""'"'"'""~
not be secure. It is certainly true Ihut thcre will be lillie interoction between plasticity and stability
elTects ifthcse two phcnomena are widcly separatcd. the values of the
But this concern may be addressed by considering the in thc structure in which buckling is
found to occur. If the true plastic colilipsc strength of this local region \\ere found. it would pro\C
10 be higher than thc vlllue thnt is takcn for the structure us n wholc. because the lowest plastic
collapse load is associnted with a mode elsewhere. So if thc true clastic-plustic interaction
associated with the buckl ing mode wcre used. it would Icad to higher eltlslic-plastic buckling lo.1ds
than will be obtaincd by assuming un intcmction betwccn two phenomena thnt do nol interact. Thus As noted in Chapter 2.
buckling. The m,c. ~~k~::~
the calculation procedure is conservative in Ihese cases.
the criticnl clastic
The only real shon coming of this methodology is Ihnl the LBA analysis finds the lowesl elastic analysis is always the
critical resiSlnnce of the Slrueturc. nnd this may be locllted in a struclurel clement Ihat is nol very
imperfection sensitivc. If there is a higher elnstic critical resistance in 3 dilTerent structural element

11 2
Rilles for the bllckling limit slate usses:"III('III IIsing globallllllllerical ana(I·.fi.f

There is then no differencc that is highly imperfcction sensiti... c. thcn thc eharactcristic resistance may be found to be higher for
calculation. the entire structure than is valid. For this reason. it is important that care is taken with thc adoption
of It si ngle clastic critical resistance for the structure where the structuml clemcnt concerned is not
he shell (b) so that indel1nite as imperfcction sensitive as is possible in othcr clements ill the structure.
~ analysis agam dclivers the
ones. A good e.~amplc of this 8.Z.3.7 Clue when making simple choices for the parameters a.•. fl••. 11.. and )..... (Ru le
at. 2(05). 1I0wc\·cr. here the (1\»
In LA analYSis and any of the
the LA anlllysis predicts thc
In Rule ( II ) it is indicated that. where it is difficult to determine appropriate values for the
"aluc for a typical stnlctu re
e is 5 to 6 times too smllll. p..1r3meters «.... {J.... II.... and Au" ,IIo the values for an axilllly compressed cylinder may be IIdoptcd. In
mely 10" and is unhelpful in the commentary on this rule. it is noted thutthere arc two implicit assumptions which lie behind Ihis
~ment "ould obUlJn a correct simple conccpt. nlCSC two w.sumptions depend on the simililrity bel\\ccn the basic mechanics of
I resistance appcllrs to be very the shell stability situation under considcration and thut of the unifonnly axilllly compressed
oce should be Il\.t-d \\ ith some cylinder for which the buckling parameters lire taken as an approximation. These two key
assumptions concern the role of geometric nonlinearity in the prebuckling behaviour. and the
method of assessing the plastic reference resistance. If the axially loaded cylinder values are to be
stretching on a complete adopt/..-d. then the two following aspects should be cllrefully eonsidcl\.'d.
nl)' but not so dranuuically
1assonnet and Sm e. 1972). (a) Geometric nonlinearity should not have u great impact on the stability behaviour. In
plU!.lic reference resistance particular. special attention is required with regard to the possibility of snap-through buckling.
fall lo"cr as the stress state These effects cannot be covered by the val ue of a. becausc the axially compressed cylinder is
l"\"3ti\e for axisymmetric load only mildly affccted (IS-f.) by geometric nonlinearity and is not susceptible to snap-through
buckling. This mUllcr is addressed in E 1993· 1·6 in the Note in A further
comment on this mailer is given in S.2.3.g.
tching on a limited 70ne of
long the cylinder length, the (b) The axially compressed eylinder has becn adopted for this purpose because its imperfection
I\e. Unfonunatel y there lire sensitivity when susceptible to clastic buckling (when thin) is btfC3t. Thc focus of this choice
:rmu!tt always resort to finite is therefore on the par:lmeter a. However. hccuusc the prcbuckling stresses are unifonn. first
Whcre !ouch situMions are yield in II thicker structure may be vcry close to the plastic col1l1psc lo.1d. giving a rather low
H stress de ... clopmcnt). it is value of P (i.e. lillie separation of the plastic collupsc load from the load at which yielding
first affects the behaviour significantly). Thus, consideration should be given to inerensing
the value of P for situations in which the LA lower bound estimate of the plastic reference
Irurture load and the true MNA value of the plastic reference lo.1d are widely separated.

One example of this situation is found in the long cylinder under wind loads (chimneys).
hcst stress condition) and the where global bending dominlltcs (giving a large separation of first yield and fully plastic
~e abme methodology might
global bending), coupled with an interaction with circumferential compression and bendi ng
'tween plasticity and stability due to the unsymmctrical pressure distribution. For such situations. it is recomlllended that
the values of the parameters a.... II.... and Ao~, O be taken for the axially compressed cylinder.
rueture in "hich buckling is but that the value of ~ should be iocreasl.-d from the current Pr (- 0,6) to p.,. =: 0.7 to ensure
1 "cre found. it would prove that the earlier yielding in sueh structures is accounted for properly.
:. because the lowest plastic
JC clastic-plastic interaction 8.Z.3.8 Situations thllt require a GNA IInal)"sis
~Iastic·plastic buckling loads
11:1 that do not internet. Thus As noted in Chapter 2, a shell may be subject 10 either bifurcation buckling or snap-through
buckling. The methodology of the MNA/lBA procedure covers only bifureation buckling. where
the critical elastic buckling strength may be found using a linear elastic eigenvalue anillysis. This
ysis finds the lowest clastic analysis is IIlways the basis for the reference clastic critical resistance.
Jrul clement that is not very
l different structural clement

11 3
!lo\\c\cr. for condition~ whcre ~nap-through buckling may OCCllr. thl! IInl!ar cla~tlc clgcmuluc
ilO unable to detcct the buckling c,ent. Instead the progrc~:-.i\C chungc of g...'Ollll!lry under
the applied lo.1d:o mu~1 be followed 10 dele mIme the true budding !>Irenglh of the pcrfloct Mructure.
and thi~ require)o II (iNA or more sophi .. l1emcd analysis. l\c,cnhdess. thIs Inle perfcci shell ~
buckling strength i!t not u:.t'ii II!> thc reference critical rcloi~t:lIlee. but I~ e,ulualcd I\!oo u lnocL.-do\\n
efTcct due to geometric nonlllle~lrI\) from the clastic bifurcation reloi,\lInce.

nlC cla.... ~ic e~umplc of a .. hell buckling case where snap.though bucklmg controls is Ihe shallo\\
- t ..
spherical cap. !lowc\cr. cylindrical !>hclls or panels subjeci to locttl Ill.. d~ tiT \\llh loeul boundury
conditions or SI1f1cners may also be sU.!oceptiblc to such ~nup'lhough buckling. Wlh.:n.: Ihi~ is the
caloc. it i~ Illo..t Illlporwnt Ihut the efTect of geometric nonlinearily i!t mdudcd in Ihe clustic
- t ..
imperfccllon reductIOn r.1ctor a and adopted into the design procc!;S. For Ihi ... type of nllaly~i .... thc
reader i... rcfcrred to SL'tllon IU on global nonlinear analysis.

Gi\cn its imponallcc. il is unfununute thut a eOlllprehen ... i\ e Ii ... t of con(lIlion ... thnt lead to snap·
through buckling cannot be 'Hillen at Ihe present time. 01500 Sh('l1~ oh 11'1 ing radius (rones lind doubl~ cuned shel!!)

One final aspect conccnling the conscrvuti,c "'Iimatc of a; by mcall'i of I'_N 1993-1-6 Rule Fij!urc 8.5: Sleel (hlmn~') ~ should be mentioned here. Where thc shell radiu ... \arie .... it i.. unclear \\hal \alue of
radiU',> ... hould be u'iCd \\hen thc characlerislic imperfection amplitude i... defincd for a cylinder in
tcnns of ib radiu~ (I·.N 1993·1--6 Anncx 0 Fxprcssion 0 .15 and lq. 10.15 of these Technical dat,l
Rccommcndallom). Thi .. choice influences the value of a •. and thU!. the com-sponding \uluc of 0"
if thc lVIiully compre.'>:.t-o cylinder lrealmem is used. One cxample of Ihis diffieullY is the case of a MUICrilli: StroClUml ..,,:d S 1
conical shell "here Ihe critical buckling mode e)(tends o'er a range ofnldl1. "hil"t another is Ihe 1-.: 110<
case of doubly cuned shel ls \\hcre there arc two radii of curvnture. For !luch case~ it is perhnp ... f.t ::m~

morc uscfulto formulate thc expression for Q, in tenns of the relati"e shell slcndeniL'SS i. III plnce Fabriclltion quality: ("I:h'" n
oflhe rtI.
~igTl aetl0n
In plnee of Ihe exprc~sion 0 .15 in Annex D. it is proposed Ihal thc dimensionless slendenless be Prcloading force of one ten"i
used to definc the ehnmcleriSlie imperfcction Llw. If it is rccogniSl.->d that lIlost of the data uioed 10
define thL'SC imperfcclions relale 10 steel with/. 250M?a. Ihe expression D.15 CEq. 10.15 in these
;;0 Rudi:11 strip lo'ltI of one tcnsi
RL'tollllllcndutionio) lIlay be rcplIlCL'ii by -
An LA analysis of the cyli

6". -( ~)" ... (K. IO) cqUl\,lIlcn\ .. t(l'S'" field sho'"

:malysi .. (LBA) yields the r
R.... 1.64. The de-;ig.n chL'l:1.
in "hich the \ aluLos of Q for different fabriclllion qualities remain uochangL-d.
max CT.n".J H35 MPu
8.2.4 I-: ulllplt·s of use of the MN rV LBA buckling design procedure
a",- a.. 0.65; jJ. 11: fill Steel chillln(') \\Hh encireling prl'lolid from aeri:ll attacbml'nlll'nsion hl'lts [0.65 (1~.60I['"

Mobile phone acrials arc 10 be allnchct1 10 all existing steel chimney by means of four nm sleel 0.651 ..\l ! 0.379
tensioning belts (Fig. 8.5). In order 10 e)(clude slipping of the acrinls do\\n the chimncy. il is
RJ 0.J79·2.HI 1.1 ~
intcnded to prelo.'1d Ihe lensionlng belts by means of high strength Ml6 bolts. It shall be pro\cd that
under the chosen prclO<lding rorce F, - 50 kN the cylindrical chllllney wall Will not be dnmnged by Thc plastic refercnce fC\oi~ta
buckling. maximum mcmbrJllc cqui\

Rul('f.for III(' hud./if/I:! limil 'WIt' aHt·.Umt·lIIl1sil1M g/ub"/IIIIIII('riC'lIl (II/alnil

the Imear ela~lie elgell\llluc

11\ e change of gl.'Onlelry under
rcnglh of the perflo.'Cl lotniclul\!. Be 2f
eI~...,. Ihi)' lrue perflo.'Cl lohcll ~ .!...
IS e\ alualed 11., :t lnock-do\\ n
nce. § tenslonin~ bell
140K 0

kling e~lnlmb I' the !>hullow .!...
loath or \\i[h loelll boundury a
buckhng. Where Ihi ~ i, Ihe
'I) i, mcluded III Ihc Chl'lic
1:6 ' .... :1.64
ror Ihis Iype of analysis. Ihe

cOI~hlion ... thaI lead 10 snap- ",.,..

01500 a) 83.5MPa b)

a) LA membrane cqul\'illcnt'o a-,~

b) lBA l()\\eo.l eigenmodc
all.'> of EN I99J-I-6 Rule FI):urt' 8.5: S!("-cl chimnl')' "ith tem.ion mg bells "' I):urt' 8.6: EqUI\uk'tll SII"CSlo field and fir!>!
. it I.. unclcar \\hal \o,lluc of cil;cnmodc
i, defined for a cylindcr in
- and Fq. 10.15 of tlu..'SC
TL'Chnical data
be cOn'L'!>ponding \alue of a. ..
!hi ... difficulty is Ihe case ofa Mnlcrinl: Slruclur.lI steel S 235
f radii, ""hil.,1 [Illolher is Ihe E = 2 10GPa
For such casc, il i, perhaps f,A - 235 MPa
: shell slendemess I., III pluce Fabrication qUlllilY: Class B

Pc:-ign aclion
dimcn~ionlcss slendemcss be f~•. , 50 kN
Prc\ooding forcc of one tensioning bell:
Ihal mosl of Ihe data used 10 F•.d 1.5·50 75 kN ,
sion D.1 5(l.;q.lo. I 5 in Ilu:sc Radinl Sirip load of onc lensioning belt: P~.J 75/(0.75' 0.14) - 7 14 kN, m·

An LA analysis of the cylindrical shell under Ihe rour design strip loads yields Ihe membrune
... (8. 10) equivalent stress field shown in Fig. 8.00) with a maximum of83.5 MPa. A follO\\ il1g eigcnvaluc
analysis (lBA) yields Ihc first eigclllnode shown in Fig. 8.6b) wilh an eigenvalue load faclor of
R..,. 1.64. The dLosign check now reads as follows:

,co max O". ...,.£J 83.5 MPa RpJ - 235 83 .5 - 2.8 1 R.. 1.64
a... '" a, 0.65; flu,. '" Po- o.60 Am- (2.8 1 1 . 64)o~ 1.31
~ "II t' nslo" twlls
Am.p - lO.65 /(1-0.60)f·~ ~ 1.275 < I.J I

by means of foor Om sleel 1'0\ '" 0.65/ 1,31 ~ = 0.)79

115 down lhe chimney. it is
boilS. It shall be prmed Ihal Rd - 0.379·2.8111 , 1 - 0.97 .. 1.00 OK
\\1111 "ill nOI be damagcd by The plaslic reference resistnnce Rpi was conscrYuli .. cly dClenllined according 10 using the
maximum membmne equivnlenl strc!.s wilhin Ihe lohel1 region COVCI\.-d by Ihe criliclIl eigenmodc.

BIICldillg O/S(('f!/ Shl!"-~ - £lIropetm Desigll Recolllllll!IIlillliOlIS

Because the membrane stress state is virtually pure circumferential compression and the lowest
eigenmode shows a purely circumferential waviness (sec Fig. 8.6b), very similar to the basic
external pressure shell buckling case. it is. in this case. indisputable to choose 08 as the overall stiffening clement (i.c.
clastic impcrf(,.'Ction r(,.'(!uction fnctor a.,.,. only allowing radial i
cylinder. is modelled as a
8,2.4.2 C) lindl.'r subj N:1 to local stress conccntra tions due to bracket 5uPlJOris
Culculation mulls:
From the, I
• Rpi 2.238 R,

For fabrication tolerance

Brocket s nllnet For a IIn,ifo,nnlly "0n,p,,,,'1
s upport
~I h
2. ~
a, · 1+ 1,91( ,\11', I)''"

a... a: Q" 0.319

"" The assumed \ alues of the
as follows:
p fJ,.,.. a: /J... 0,60 1/ I
Applying the calculation
"' Igunr 8.7: llru.:k ...1 :.uppunctl cylinder
~,. =JFNJlI ' FRu - R,,,
Technicpl data
MlIlerial : Struetunll steel S 235
£ = 210GPa
h.J. - 235 MPa Since "-v1"11 > Ao" > Au,.o
Fabriclltion toler-mce quality: Class A
The rele\ant clastic-pla~i
Design action
Tension on the bouom or the cylinder: F, P \ 5,46 N/mm!
F" rFF, - I's · \5.46 - 23.l9N/mml

Geometry (Fig. 8,7); RJ : Xu,, RpJ r ,II 0,51

( 10 mm The com.'sponding GMN
,F600 8.7 of EN 1993-1-6. The
l1-4r The imperfcction fonn 0
Brocket: inwardly oriented.
II/re=-0. 12 The result wa!> Ru "',.
II/d=-3 This show!> that the MN
for a case of this kind.
Note also that RGIL\U

11 6
RII/es lor ,lie bllCklillg /im;'~llIte {b.W!\Wllet!l IU';/Ig g/oballlllmeric{l/ llll{/~I'SjS

1I compression Ilnd thc lo.... cst Boundary conditions and a~sumpti{Jns~

Sb). very similar to the basic Out-of-round defonnations lire constrained Ul the top and the bollom of the cylinder to simulate a
Ie to choose fld as the overall stiffening element (i.e. roof and hopper). The bmd:eHo-columll connection is assumed to be stiff
only allowing radial displacement of the brockct. Thc bmckct. which is locatcd at mid-height of the
cylinder. is modelled as a rigid element.
eket supports
Calculation f\.-sults:
From thc fini te clemcnt calcul3tions in which I:"" WIIS IIpplied to thc struc ture

• R", 2.238 Rf~ = 3.917

For fabrication toler.mce ci:ISS A. Q 40. from which the imperfection amplitudc is 11l1"w' 0.612
For a unifonnly compresSl.-d cylinder without intcnllli pressure.
Q)l"" :---:~o,:".6-=-2--:T"-
H 0.319
144 = t4-1
1+1.91(.111".. I)' 1+1.91{0.612) ·

ao. .. a, = 0.319

~• . The assumed \'alm:s of the othcr global p.1r3mcler.; for this locally axially compressed cylindcr nre
as follows:
p fk., 'I< fJ,. = 0.60 " "" I ..1.....,,-0.20
Applying the calculation procedure

A." • JFRpl I FRrr - JRpl l R,. (2.23813.917)" 0.756 (8.2)

l,,. ..p =- [Qo1,l(I - Pm' ) fJ [0.315/( I-O.60)J°o5 0.MM7 (8.6)

Since -'\" .. /1 > 1,,1' > 1,,1•.0 or 0.887 > 0.756 > 0.20. the shell fa lls into the elastic-plustic region.

The relcvant clastic-plastic interaction is then

23.19 N mm~
"'O,.• '-P",[ Auv.p-Avl'.o
A"..- A.". J' - 1_ 0.6[°·755 - 0.2]1.0
0.887 - 0.2
0.516 (8.4)

R" "" Z(II' HpJ l r", = 0.516·2.238 / 1.1 1.05 > 1.00 OK

The corresponding GMN IA calculation of this structure was undcnakcn using the rules of SL'Ction
8.7 of EN 1993- 1-6. The required imperfection al11plimde for GMN IA analysis is 1l\\·O.rqll 0.980.
The impcrfeclion foml of the first lincar eigenmodc was adopted. with the peak displacemcnt
ill\\urdly oricnted.

The result was RGM,\"H - 1.78 so Rd """ Hc...I/\/f ' rll 1.78 / 1.1 1.62.
This shows that the MNAILBA calculation procedure is significantly conscrv:lli\'c (1.62 » 1.05)
for 3 case of this ki nd.
Note also that HG.\f~·',j 1.78 < 2.238 Hpland RG.U,\I4 ... 1.78 < 3.917 = R..,.

11 7
RI/I f

8.204.3 Ctlnicill rOtlf of II silo ~upportinJ! a eentrall~ loeuled nIler

-- 1.3
0 2000 2.'1
filter r,.t. ~ boundary
~ I cond;tlons of the « ~O.62 (I 1.91-(1.1Q\)

,f ~ FE
l..-Jh__,,&odel A.II"I'''' [0.1711 (I-0.ltO)J

eaves ring: I~
~~'td~!it -9 O.17K 1.363' 0.0%
¢'00x30 H.I :. O.096·II,K.'I 1.1 I If
A similar de,ign Chl'I.:\.. at th
the reader_ I'or th..: (l\cr.lll t
D.l5 In Annc\ DofL' lIN:
07000 • I
Filtur\, JU: Silo roofwllh filter on lIS lOp Flgurt M.9: br.t eigemnodc

T !""£hnical data
Mutcriul: Structuml aluminium A1Mg
£ 63 GPa
f" KOMPa
Fabriclllion qUlllity: C la!>s I)
Dc5ign aCllon<;
Sclfwcight filtcr: G, - 33 kN
Wind moment filt er: /II., - 26 kNm
Self\\eight roof: q, 0.30 kN/m2
Life load (one-sidcd): fl •. , 0.50 kN/m
Underpressure: Pd. .. 0.20 kN/m2
Design combinntion of actions: All actions to be mulliplied by n-" 1.35 und acting together.
Boundary conditions for FE model
The boundary conditions of thc upper edge of the truncated cone arc ntodclk-d a!> u modifk-d
slUnd:mJ combination I)C2f (sec Table 4.1). i.e. with the "ring condition" of conical shells. Irsinfl +
II"'Cos{J - O. instead of II' - 0 and 1/ 1:- O. At the lowcr bouncL1ry of the roof a 2.50 III long section of
the adjacent cylindcr is includcd in the FE model in order to ghe. togcther with the flllt CIIH.'S ring
stiffener, correct continuity conditions. At the bottom boundary or the cylindcr section pure
membrane boundary conditions. i.c. qUI 11''' -I ' /I e> O. are assunlCd.

Bucklin" dcsiw.n s:;hl,.,k

The LA nnalysis yields under the design combination of aClions mcmbmnc cquil'alcnt st ~scs with
maximum values or 6.75 MPa at the upper edge and 8.65 Ml'a at lhe lo\\ cr edge. Thc rollowing
eigcmaluc analysis (LBA) yields the critical cigeTllnode shown in Fig. 8.9 with an cigenvaluc load
faclor of R,r 6.38. The design check at the upper edge reads as follows:
Rpi !iO.O 6.75 11 .!i5
R,r 6.38
~. ( 11 .85/6.38)°-' "' 1.363

NII/I'.' {t}r Ih('/IlI(:Alillg Ii",i, .<;f(l/(-' (lH('~~lIIe"'II'lIIg glohalllllltlc!l'iwl (//w/l'~i~

". • a, q",,): p., • I~ 0,60

~ 1.363 1.199 ("0)
~, -0,62 (I 1.91'(1.199)1.""1 0,178

..t." ,,- rO,I78 ( 1.0 .60)t~ 0,667 < 1,363

X". 0.17R 1.363 0,096
N,I - 0.096·11.85 1.1 1.03 1.00 OK
A sll11llar design check at the lo\\cr edge would pron:: to be le"~ critical. ill> may ea:.ily be tcsted by
thc readcr. For the o\crnl1 eln~IIC unpcrfL'Ction reduction ractor ~ ,. a modification to c'iprc~~ion
D. 15 III Anncx D of EN 1993-1-6 hns ix.'Cn used (see lq. K.IO in,

5 nod acting togcther.

are modclll-d n~ a modified

rn~ of conical shclls. I/"sin{J +
Fof a 2,50 m long section or
'Icthcr \\ ith the flat ca\ cs ring
f thc cylind.:r section pure

IOmc equi\alcnI stresses with

c lo"cr edge. The rollowing
. 8.9 "ith an cigcn\<aluc load

Blldlit/8 ofSleel Shells - £lIropt.·(lI/lJf!sigll RecollllllC'lIe/alions Rll/u)

8.3 Bucklin g d esign by global num el"ical GMN IA analysis

8.3.1 I)csign p rocedo re OHign \ IIlul' or re\i·
This analy~is procedure seeks to exploit Ihe full power of modem numerical analysis to obtain
directly the charactcristic elastic-plastic buckling resistance of a pmcticai shcll. This is not tiS (I) The design bucklilllt rc
simple a task tiS it would be for u fmme or plated struclUre, chiefly tx.'Causc of the lurge number of determined a, a load !ill:tor
po~~iblc buckling modes 11Ilt! the sensitivity to imperfections. 'nle procedure i~ therefore mther de ... ign "alue~ FF.J of the cum
extended with many checks. for the rcle\'ant load Cil~,

The struclure mllst be anulyscd using a sequence of nnalyses of increasing sophistication as (2) The chanacteri~tic buc
folio\', s: should be found from the
Linear clastic analysi~ (LA). follO\\ed by a linear bifurcation Ilnalysis (LBA) to idcTltilY the pla...tie buckling rc .. "tance R
clastic critical buckling rl-sistancc: the calibration factor k
Mutcrially nonlinear unalysis (MNA) 10 idcntify thc plustie resistance:
buckling rc ..istancc R.J ~h~11
Gcomctriclilly and malerililly nonlinear analysis (GMNA) to identify the clastic-plaMic
u.. ing the partial factor 1"1
buckling resistancc of the perfect structure:
A series of geometrically and matcrially nonlinear analyses (GMNIA) using different
assumed imperfcction modes to idenlify the worst pmctically relevant Imperfection form .
The 10\',cM TCl>iMance dctennined from these analyses is deemed to be the best numerical Load factor
prediction for the clastic-plastic buckling rcsistllnL'C of the imperfect structure: on dc...Lgn
A calibrnlion calculation in which a strueturnl system for which a test result or well \erified 3.:1ion"
calculmion is used to check thc precision of the GMNIA anlilysis thllt is being used. This R
structural systcm l11ust be chosen in such a way that it has similar chllmcteri~tics to the
design structure, 11le eulibnation ealcuilltion compures the GMN IA unalysis with the
known result. und uses the mtio of these two values to produce a safe udjuslment of the
analysis used for the design stmcture. This clilibration is used to ensure thm the result of
the GMN IA calculation is Slife in Ihm crilical phenomena huve not been omilled lind thut
the computationul model is sufficiently detailed for the purpose.

Of all the above nnalyses. the Illost onerous is the series ofGMN IA analyses. since it is not always
cllsy to identify in advancc \\hich fonn of imperfection muy be thc most critical.

8.3.2 Rult·s of EN 1993-1-6, Section 8.7

(3) To dclcnnine the
buckling rco,i .. tance R•• ,~,,; I)esign \ lI ll1e or llclion.s
of the gl.'OnlCtricall} i
appliL'd combm:lIion of
(I) All relevant action combinations causing Because IhLv IIIcilIOlloluW' i.v oo.\'ce/ Oil out. accompanied b} an
compressive Illembrune stresses or shear
membrane stresses in the shell wall should be
IIolllilletlr ca/cIlItIl;Ol/S, lite prillcip/e of
SIIpcrposlllOlf does 1/01 apply a"e/
detect po..... ible
taken into account ~on: Whl,."fC pla~ticit)
sllperposiliolf of "cliot/.f (or ItKul cases,
mpec/il'ely) i.\ Iml po,n/hle, Therefure 'he on the buckling 1
sc\'eral 10(1(/ Cll1ieS of colII/l/e/e combillee/ to en .. urc that the
aciiOlU III11S1 he lI.fed. induce.. -.orne
the ~hear Lo,
Shell illswbilil), IlhellolllcwlI lin! phy.tica/(I' plastic ... hear ~Iruin .. , In
call.ved hy compre.u;\'e membra/le forces problcm~ (e,g, .. hear
ralher IhOlllet/sile forces or bet/e/itlg IIIOlllems, if thi~ ell'cct is otmttcd,
Therefore. when C.'UI1IIJOl'illg Ihe acliOll

Rules/or Ihl.' hucklill8 Iilllit .nate Il\·se...Slnellllu·iIl8 glohtll ""mcriclil 1"'(lk~Lf

('olllhilllllioIlS, Ihc /OCIIS should be Oil those

u('liom' (lml lollC/s which del'elop prilllllri6'
NllllprCU;I'e IIIcmhrlmt! Jbrce.f (lillI/or .\·ItCI/r
memhrane /arce.\·.

8.3,2,2 Design \ ahll' or rl'sl!llanCe

I numo.:rical antilysis to obtain
-mctical ~he l l. This is not as ( I) The design buckling resiMuncc should be TIIJ.\· requireme", lies behilld aff /luI/linear
ICCBU!IC of the lurge number of
detcnnined as a l(Xld factor R applied to Ihe L'ompullltiol/lli f!1'(IIUCllio/ls oIf/mcwrt's.
procedure is thcrefore n il her de .. ign ... nlues F£J of the combination of actions
for the rcle ...antlood case.
[ inerea!ling sophistication os (2) The characteristic buckling resistanec Rl Thi.\ is thl! IxlSic sliItemC/II ohoul ,hl' jim,1
should be found from the imperfl'Ct clastic- (/('sigll re,~i.fuJ/lCf' 10 be emluaf(!(l
analysis (LOA) to identify the plastic buckling resistance RCM'I". adjusted by
the calibrnllon factor k{,,,,,,,. 11lc design
buckling resistancc Rd should thcn be found
to identify the cla!ltie-plostic
using the partial factor n.1I.
~ (G\1NIA) usmg different
Rc;\I"1A is the lowest of
)' rcle\ant imperfection fomt.
these aitemati\'c mcasures
med to be the be!>! numerical Load factor
)('rf('('1 ,;trucIUrc: on design
;h a tcst result or \\ell \erified actions
.I}~i!o thot i!o being used. This R
similar ehufUcteri!>!ies to the
e GMNIA analysis with the
Juce a safe udJustmcm of the C3
cd to cn~ure thut the rcsuil of
n 'C not been omitted nnd that First yield
!kafe estimute
alyscs. since il is not olwuys large..t tolcmblc Dcfonnmion
!)SI critical. defonmuion
Figure 8.10: Dcfillluon of buckling n:~i!olllIICC from global GMNlA analysiS

(3) To detemline the imperfect elastie-plu!>!ie TI,i.\ j\ the chic" al/a(\"Sis requiremclI/, Tlte
buckling resistance R(,\I'l " . II GMNIA analy~is bifitn.'atiol/ ,·heck is required h«atlse tI
of the gcomelricnlly imperfect shell under the nOlllilll'ar l lllalysis IIsillg till algorilhm
applil-d combination of action) should be carried rom/Xll"lIhle lI'ith Rib roillillt' 1I1(I.\'/(lillO ,kl£'d
",('tlradolog)" is ha.~f...'li Oil out. accompanied by an eigcmalue annlysis to WI UIISWh/f' hronch und (VI/limle "Iullg tlt,-
ulmiolls. Ihe prillCiple 0/ detect possible bifurcations in the lood path. pril,,,,n- IXllh. Ihus int!icatillg ( I mllclt grl'uter
does not app(I' lmd res;SllmCI.' thall Lf oppropriall'.
UC:liOlIS (ur '00(/ cases. NOTE: Where piaslicity has a significant CfTl'Ct
IlOt possibll.'. nll!rl.'/ort' Ihe on the buckling resistance. care .,hould be taken The NOlI.' ,'Ollcc'ms clIrc that IIIIISI he eXl'I"Cisl'd
to ensure that the adopted imperfection mode II hell IlIIdcrrokillg hi/urcaliOlI calcullIli(mJ in
Ffes 0/ complele comhilll.'d
lSeJ. induces some pre-buckling shear strains. because the plaslic tkJll1(l;II. III shell hud/ing
the shear modulus is \ery scn.,iti\c to Mlmll ,\iIlWlilJlU", ;1 111m' be "ocessllry' /(} IISC Ihe
phenomella are physically plnstic shear st ruin~. In eenain , hell buckling Iheoretic(l/~I' Imjllslijillble " t!efOnllllliml
f.prcss·iI<e memhrant! forces problems (e.g. shear buckling of nnnular plates). Iln-ary' ,. af plo.f/icily (ralher thtlll fhc POl\'
le forces or bellding IIIOllle"'.... if this efTect is omitted, the eigenvalue analysis t'",or),) 10 makc (,Oll.w!n·ulil-e es·lilllale.\ of Iile
m {'omposing Ihe actioll

Blld..lillg of Sled Shelll - E"Nlpc(1II rk.~igll Rl't."()/1/IIl1.'nelaliolU

before rcaehmll- the

may gi\c II eon\i(i..:mble O\ere\lim:nc of the hlldUIIg re.\u/(mce. Fllrtlll·r il/forll/alilll! WI
claslie-plllStlC buckling rcioi\tancc. Ihis if gil""11 ill Ihe Er/l·neleel OJllIIlIelllan· Criterion 0:
dcfonnation, where
UnJbrrlllwte~I" Ihe EIII"(K·tH/c! commitlce elid //0/
loadin~ path betore
.~/wrf' Ihis !"i1'11 (lilt/ Ihe 1I00e rt' /lIIel' la 1/1(';1"
(lr a limit IOiJd.
COIU'C'/J/ uf a mfl' 1I.\tI~:e off/oil' Iheoryfor Ih£',11'

(4) An LBA analysis should first be performcd Thi~ mIl' tll'lIumd.1 thai /he de.~ig/l1'1" emlllllies
on the perfect <;tnlcturc to detennine the clastic Ihe 11\'0 /)(,.\"ic njel"t!llce l"efi.~lllllce,IIur ,hC' shcll
criticul buckling rcsi"anee R,~ of the perfect R("~ (mel RI'I li.lil1g (III 1.1111 (IIu/ AlNI! (1II0(I'S;1I'
shell. An MNA should ne:(t be pcrfonned on the I"C'SIJec/iI'f!(I'. lJCwrdillg 10 Ihc ,.,,/e.f gil'('/I ;11
pcrfL'Ct stnlelure to detennine Ihe pcrfL'C1 plastic M'Ctioll 8,1. The.\c 111'0 "",,fI'.,·C'.,· prodllCe' all
reference resistance Rpl. These two rcsistanel..'S ow'mll relmil'(' shell s/el1cJemess, If Ihe IIIOrl'
should then be used to cslublish the o,·crall comple/{' propo.m/f gil'f!lI ;11 8.1 are IIsed uml
relati, c slendenle..s 4,. for the eonlplete shell sel'f!ro/ t'lgell\"lI/lIe,~ m·e oh/(l;II('(1
according to Exprc.;sion 8.2. com'spollt/;III: /() differelll eige"l1/O(k~. sl!l"eml
tliJferem shell re/(l/il'f! .~/e",kme,"·e,1 ,,·iII he
ohwilll'd. Tlle.ft' (III(I(I'S£'$ ure imet1lkd to
('I/SlIre Ihol Ihe (k,\iglll'r (1II(I(I'fl t/t.·I'f!/aps (III
(AA'qllllle ;fl.I·;glll illUJ Ihe jimdllmelltal
dlOracteri,wics of Ihe .\·/,ell hllcldillR ca.~e heiltg
,l"Ilidied: pure6' elastic hud-Jillg, hud-IiIlR IIIleler
(7) The IU'l;e" tokrobte
heal')' pitl.l'licily, 01" hlldding mukr p"r,itl/(I' be a~..c, rdati,\! to Ih,
d"\'('lopt't/ pla.llidfl' ill Ihe I!!ILftic-pltl.~lic
indi\idual !otniCIUI"I!. If
(\\ailablc. the large't tukml
(5) A GMNA UllUly~is should then be The sm'lIglh of Ihe IJetfi't'1 .1·,mClllre i.f lIll be deemed ttl hiJ\e heen
perfomlCd on the perfect Mructurc to detennine imporllllli lII(,lIJllr(' of Ihe re.l';IWIICe lif Ihe ~realc~t lucill rotatiun of th
the perfect clastic-plastic buckling resistance .I·/,."c'llre. II, silllm;OIl.f II'here Ih" Mrellglh ;s of the ~urtilec rcloll\c 10 It
RC,"'A. This rcsisltlllec should be used Inter to relalil'ely iltSell.~ilh'f! /(J illl/JelfecliollS, ,hi1l :lttain .. the \lIlue /1.
verify that the em:cl of the chosen gL'Ometric I"CSislClllc(' is dose /0 Ihe cJllIraClerl.~t;c
imperfcctions ha!> a ~umciently deleterious clTect SII'f!lIglh. The (~/J(,CI uf diffirelll forlll.' olld NOTL: The 'ati(lnal Am
to gi,e confidence that Ihe lowest resistance has tI"'plit/lde.f of ;1II/K'Iji.'Clioll !Jhollld (1/1 be ,,,Iuc of p. Thc ,aluc
been obtainL"<i. The GMNA .malysis should be (,l'lIllItlled re/Cllil'f! 10 Ihi" illlporUlII1 ,.ejen!llce recommended.
cnrried OUi under the applicd combination of reS;SlelllcC'. AX"ill, till ('ig(',,\'(/III(, hiflllTlIllolI
actions. accompanied by un eigenvalue analysis cllcrk i.f 1I('t.'(kd bectlllse IIII! l/(J//lille(lr (II/ulni~
to detect possible bifurcations in the load jXlth. 11/0.1' filii 10 (kl t'C1 WI lIIu/tlbh' hrallch cmel
LVllli""e lIlullg Ihe p,.imory ptllh. thll!J
illelicalillg a IlIIlell gr('aler /"('.~i~tallCl! 1/1(111 ;.f
(6) The irnperfL'Ct clastic-plastic critical Thr...'(' cr;ll'riCl offailllre (lrl' ffl'jim'eI fi)r tlle.fe
buckhng resistance R('''''A should be found IlS 1I0tl/iI/Mr allo~I·,fC'S. TII('/('.tl here n{ef":l Oil/I' /(J
the 100\~t 10.1d factor R obtained from the titn..-c III" GMNIA Illla(I'.f;f. hili III('s(' WIllie three (RI .-\ con~natl\e a
following criteria C I. C2 and C3, see Fig. 8.1 0: cr;Il'r;II I·lwllld aIm he IIf('(1 for Ihe GAINA imperfect ela.. uc·pla,IH':
(lIIa(l'sil· of(5) lIIN)I't', R(,,,,,", nt.1} be ol'ot.lined u'
Criterion CI: The maximum load faelor on
the load-defonnntion-eunc (limit load); of the jlcolllctriciJlly Impc
The crileria C I lIlItl C1 do IIUI I"f!llllil"f! fllrthcr
applied combmat;(ln of a..:11
Critcrion C2: The bifurcation load factor. COII/Illt'III. Cri/eriu/l CJ i.I' fur I/rIU'lIIre.\· 111lI1
follO\\lng enlcriun .. huuld
di~plll)' either IIwler;,,1 1I /m;1I IwrdcllillX 0/'
\\ohere this occur.. during the loading path the lo",c~t 1(I>ld fiJclor R,
geulllciric I",,,klling (RolU'r. 10(5) !J'O 11"" rh('

RlIk\ fur IIII! hm:J.lill},! limil .\IIIIe! IDW.HII/c/ll IISillK global IIIl1l1t'ril"1I1 (11111/1'\i \

befDre reaching the 11I11It point Df thc lo.1d- IO(k/-difp/tu·ellll.'l11 relalionship is (,(}lIIilll/(Jm~I'
ann', ri/rther ill(onnllfifJIl UI/
defonnatiDn-cune: rl~"'g.
ill Ihe Erl('IIdcII COlI/mel/ltll'y
Criterion C3: The large.,t tolemble Ilf/lUl/lti /)(' lUlled Ihal sOllie \/I'//{'tm'e!1 1II1~\'
defonlllltion..... here thi~ occun. during the .11I!Tcr l'ery' llI/all hifurcalions "I' ,I/w/)-IIIIVIIM"
'hl' £lIrtK'(1("-' ('ol1llllillcl' did IWI
loading puth befDre reaching a bifurcation load III 101\' /rHold /el'ds, followed hy SIlIb/e
Imd 111(' 11011' rl.'lwj'.f TO Iheir
or a limit load. h('/IlII'iOllr, lIndlhal S/lclt loctll ill.fWhilily /lilly
',: IIW.f,/l' of(lml' IlImn,/ol' 1/1I!.\l'
//01 il/ll'lfere lI'ilh II,e ol'erall /x'rfbl'malll"(' of
II,e ~tnl(:IIII'l' ill sen'iee, EXllmple,\' ji,I' \/It"ll
hellcwim//' clre jiJl/lld ill local sellle!lIIellls
',dl IlIul II/(' cl",tigll<'r l'l'lI/I/C/U!.I· m'I/"1I11t II 9'lillllrica/ /(lIIk (lIolsl (lIItl ROIlt'r,
(t'rt'III:e! rt'ti.II(l/Il'l.'sfor Ille ,\'/Jl'lI 2(04) or flre,t;,t; peaks III lite cm11en' (if (III
"1: UII LB,I 111,,1 AlVA lI/w/rsi,1 o/H.'IIillg ill (/ cl'lil/t/er, G(}(Jl1 I!lIgilleerillg
'COrciillK tu Ihl' nlle.f gin!;, ill jlldMl'/I/l'/11 sllUuld he used 10 delel'mille II/wIlier
'('Ie 1\1"0 (lIIulrfeli /)fY)(III(,(! till
Cri/('I·iol/ C2 11hollld hI! flSt.'{1 ill sl/ch Ctl!ies.
{hell Jleflcleml!Sl', If IIII! 1II()rc' There lire tllw .\InlcII/ral jonlls ill IIhieh Ihe
roll gil'e!II /1/ 8,1 (IN! lued lIlId desi~lIC'r t/elihertllciy "lam Ihal .mch IMal
'IIIn/lle.f U" o/Jwillec/ hijifrcaliollS IIIll), ocellI' It';lholll dl!lrime"'lo Ihe
? cll/fi·rt·1II eigellmock.f, seWrtll \lrll(·IIII'/!. For e:r:ample, tl cie.'iigller mll\' ,kligll
'l.'lalil'f!flcllckml!s,fe.f Idll be! 1111 {'Xll'l'lIIell ' IhilHlalled silo II ilh eXIl'rlIlI/
~e ullalnc... tIrt' ;/IIclldcd 1o orlhugo",,/ sliffi'II;IIg I"m carrie.f "II Ihe
tkosigller allul\~1 (k\'C'lops W/ //fC'mhrallt' forcl!.f. 1711' loca/ hud/illg of IIII.'
rhl into III(' jilll(hlllll'lllul tllill~"ell II"tll/ .dwllftl 1101 be! "(}I/.\it/"I'~d II
If Ihetlwll hllddillg ClI,fe IH!/I/g criu'riml ofji,illire for this desigll,
'Iu.llie Imdlillg, hlldd"'g IIIlder
(7) The largc:.t tolemblc dcfonnation ~hould I! il difficull 10 filld u jll,~lific"lioll fbI' II
or blicAlillg limIer IXI/'I;"III'
lidl)' ;11 Ihl' elmlie-pitUfie
be assessed relati\c to thc conditions of the IXI/'Iiel//ur mille for Ihe larges·1 lolcl'tlble
indhidual structure, If no other value is "~1on""liuII, UI/like hllildilfg ,~II1ICI/lrt·.f ill
a\uilable, the largcst tDlemblc defommtion may which I"e ol'('rall ,HI '(I)' (if ,,,,, ~tn/('IIIrl' If{/~
r,lle pet/CCI .IInK·lIIre if till be deemed to have been reached when the {'O//liderab/" l'iMlfiji(,(IIICe, ,"e lII'l'rull
Ilre of Ihe re.riSIIIII('e lif II/e greatest local rotation Df the shellllurfuce (slope di.lplac.'CIIICIII of 1/1/),11 ,\"ell .f!I"fIC/uI'l,',1 i,\' 1101 C/
IllIlium "here II/e sll't!llWh il of the surface relathe 10. its originnl geometry) SOIll'('(.' ofCOIIC'el'1f III oWllers lIlICl IU'CIT
ilil"t! 10 im/w1fi'CI;OIu', lhis ulluiTls the '>'lIlue p 81' (,(lIIll'c/.I/, lucCI/ dct"itlliolls ~f III,' 11'"dl
O.W! 10 Ille dwr(loeriflic
llt/fllCt' )i'OIll Ihe ideal (Ire! jrt'f/"elllly "{'ry'
I:{ti.·o of tf{jfeN!1II jorm,l alltl NOTE: The National Annex m:ly choo<,c the l'il;hll! 111/(1 do {'tW,W {'Ol/{'('rl/. SIIl·/f ,/el'iolio/ll
;"'fJ\'rfe(:li(m~/101i1ti all he \olue of p, The \oluc p 0,\ rndmnll is W'l' he,ll reprt,',I('IlIC'd hy Iltl! rail! of dUIII1{C' of
10 Ihis impurlolll n,/eN!l/{'l' recommended. Ihe lIormtll ,/i.~/)Iac.·l'lIIC'1/1 of II/e .~//C'II Ili/"
'11, till ('igelll'ul/l1' hijilrc'fllioll
rl!Sp<'t:1 10 POSiliOll, which i,t c/f(Irt1cll.'ri.t;M hy
'WLfe Ihe lIolllillcur allall·I'i.,
IIII.' 1(~tll mllliioll of Ihemrjt,,:1' (till' d~J Till.'
rt·/ WI IIlIslahle brtllld, mill
Willie o( (), I r(l(liwu' has heWI IIcloPlt·c/ t/.\ u
Ihe /"'ilt/an' palh, 1111/1
},!IJod /IIl'lI.llIre of the .~/op.! tldt'c:lec/ hi' I"e
8m/ter re.lil/llll('e 1111111 i"
"u/.;,'" t:1'{' lIS s{'rio/ls (simillll' 10 Ihe! j"t"lillclliOil
ofI"e '-1.'{lIImg Towl!r of Pi.mJ
fuilllrt' tll"C' l"-iil/('d f(}r Ih"w!
.1. n,l' leu hl.'N! n'/i.,-., (ml!' 10
rJ:\'.\i~. hili Ihefl! .WIIII! litrt'l' (8) A eonsen'3tile assessment of the "'''crt,' il is desired 10 1IIIlIl.'rll/h' a GMNIA
be lI\et/ for Ihl! GAlNtI Imperfect clastic-plastic buckling resislancc
R£j,,'I" muy be obtained u)ing!l GNIA IIn!lI)'~i ..
(/II{/h'fi.~, hl/l m(l/erial lIolllillC'tlrity ('allllOl
iIK-/Iit/ed \lilhilf Ihe lII()(kl, a l'OIf.I('n'tllil't'

of the gcomctrically imperfcct shell under the /I'e(fI/lU'1II ilia), be ad/iel'l'd by u11illl{ a GNIA

c/ Cl c/o 1/01 rt'qlllrl! jill'lher
applied combination ofuctions. In this case, the "'I(l/rsi11 (Illtill11illg CriU',,;olf 4, This crill'rio"
·011 C3 ;~ for .\Irll("fure,l· "tal
following criterion should be u'oCd to dctcnl1\1lc i~ g('I/C'I"(I/~I' quill.' CO//.{I.'n'alil ·t', t'.Y:cef'/ ill 1't.'/:a'
Il!rilll slraill "ank'lIill~ fir
the lo\\cst load factor R: ,I-/ellde" W'IICIIII,(,S ,"m hllckle daslic(IIII', WIN!
!JIIK (RoIIl'r, 10(5) so Ihal Ihe

Bllck/ilfg ()/SU't!/ SheHf - Ellm/Jf!afl /Je.flgfl Recolllllle"dalioll.~ Rli/n J

it doe,f Iml IK'rmii afly plaMic:ih' to dew!!op at

- Criterion C4: The load factor at which the
all (lIdllter throllgh lhic:klfess 1I0r spa/i(//~)' 011
equi\alenl stress nlthc most highly stressed
Ihe shell sllf:fill"e),
point on the shell )ourface renclno's the design
value of the yield !>tre<;'s./)d - ./)'k:YllfJ It ;s (Il!mys Il('C('SS(II)' 10 ll'tlm 111m bijurcafioll
(fig. 8,10), e;gem'alue checb are required, .fitlce Ihe
cOII.\'e{llIeIlC(·.~ o//ai/ul'l! w delet'l II "ijIlIT'lIt;ml
NOTE: It should be noted thot GMNA. GMNIA tire I'ery' ,\eriOI/,\'. (II) The imP'!rfl..'Ction\ ~h,
and GNIA unalyses must always be undertaken introduced by menns of eq
with regular eigenvlLlue cht:cks to enloure thut any imperfections in the fom
possible bifuremion on the lond path is detected, de\'intiolls perpendicular to II
the perfect ~hell, unll"!i:-. a
(9) In formulnting the GMNIA (or GNIA) ]1,;s ;S Ihe firsl ami mOSI gelleml .\·Wlemefll u<,(."<1. TIle middle ~urfacc (
nllnlYloi... IIpproprilllc allowances !>hou ld be tlOOII' Ih" impery('("iOlI,\ ,ha' ,'wuld be impcrfl..'Ct ~hel1 ~houid
incorporutcd to cmer thc effects of l'OIIsidercd lI.\ IJUrt 0/ the de.\'igll, Mml,' a/ tl,(' !.upcrposilion of Ihe eql
imperfections that cannot be avoided in pructicc. ;tt'ms Oil IM\ l;sl IUII'(' 1I0t beell e.\'tell.fil,(,~I' imperfections on the pcrflXt ~
including: researched, lIlId mme mll)' pili)' a rery' mulll
a) geomctric imperfcction ... !>uch as: mil!, The Iisl is gil'CII 10 ell.\lIre Ihlll 'he
de\iallons from the nominal geomelric shape desigller cOIlsider.. all IHJ.Hihilitit·s I\},ert
of the middlc surface (pre-dcfomlatlOns. oul- d(-'Iernlillillg 1111(1t qllC'SliollS tltc' 1I/1(I1y.ris ,rllol/Id
of-roundne..s); midr('ss.
- irrcguhlritic"lII :tnd ncar", cld!> (minor
ccccntricitics, !>hrinkagc depressions. rolling
curvature errors):
- dcviation!> from nominal thickness:
luck of e\'CnnCliS of ~upport,\;.
b) TIllllcrial ifl1pcrft,.'ctions. such as:
l'C!>iduul !>tresses by rolling. pressing.
welding. )otruighlening 1.'11.',:
inhomogcncitie~ und unisolropies, (12) 1 he pattern of the I.'
iOlpcrfl'Ctinn~ ~hnuld be
NOTE: hlr1hcr possible neglllil'e innucnccs on
the impcrfcct chlstie-plll.o.tie buckling resistance tlml il has the mosl .
R(;"'lA' )ouch alo ground 5Cttlements or imperfcct eia'>lic-plu"lic
R(,\"IA of the :-.hd1. If
nexibilities of conru.'Ctions or supports. are not
classed as imperfcctions in thc ~n'iC of these pattern cannot be
pro\ iloions, rea.\Onnblc doubt. the
out for a sufficlcnt
(10) itnpcrfl'Clion!> lohould be allowed for in the EN 1993-1-6 I'c.'ql/irt'.\ 'hat imperfecliolls arc
imperfcction pattern... Ilnd
GMNIA nnalYlois by mcluding appropriate exp/icit~I' 1110&..'11('(/ 'IIImC'riclIlly ami ,,01 ,fimp~I'
value of R(,\{\l,d .. hould be
additIOnal quanulics in the anlllytical modcl for Irealed lI.f small perll/rhotimn to ,ItI.' pt.'r/(!('/
the numcrical computation, gt~(}lIIetn'. The real(}II i.\ 11t,1/ IH.'rwrho'iml (13) Tho c;""H",>I'-"r.~
'''('Or\' IIIUI' wlmelime.\ gil'e ,figllificWII errors at u:.\.'d unlelo~ a ditlercnt
;mperfi'('tioll amplillu/C'S Iltal appcar ill bcjustified.
COIIstnlcted .flnlCtllre.f. 'OTE: The eigcnmodc
II may m' 1I00ed that mltr!r lIpproac:ll(,.f 10 tlt(' critical buckling ~kk '
imlJf!ry('l'lioll \(,II.\itil'ill' flf ,/tell,' IIlII'e heell critical bucklin~ rc'I,Wm:c
proPfllUi. I" olle upprouc:ll, .\fK'('ifk analysllo of the pcrrl..'Cl 1
pe,.tll,.lHllioll·h<I.~ed algorithms lin' IIs('d 011 tile
peryecI ,fl,ell f() pl'(}(Ilice simi/ar .ft/'c'flgtll lou
(Krflp/ill el lIl., 19H5; IJllllder alld KIIO/.;/!,
2(}(}3), ll·ltil.~1 (J/ller." "(Il'e prol)().\ed lower

Rules for till! bllCklillg /imit slllie {IllCSSmem /lsillg global II"merical OIllllpi.r

IiI lin.\' pltl.\liC"it\' 10 den"op 01 holllld Ire{llme/ltS ftJr a/l shells (e.g. Croll ami
Ilgh lhid:tle'ss /lor SfHlliull.' ml E/liIULf. 1985). AIIII'ese aPIJrtJlJChe.f slill m.'I!d
I. to be relall.'d 10 measurable lo/enmccs, ,fo af'('
IIOt yel applictlhle ill design. For tltis reaSon,
'Hat:\,to U'Cln! Iltal hiplr(:tlliml lite neulral wordillg "{lppropriole mldilimllli
h lire' rl'qlliri!d, ,rilln' lite qllalllilie!J'" has beell dtosell ill EN 1993· 1·6.
fllilure 10 th'I('C'1 (I hijilrcatioll
(II) The imperfcctions should geneOilly be Ti,e domilllllll ftm" of imlX!Ifi'Climl Iltal is
illlroduecd by means of equivalcnt geomctric knoll'n 10 Ital'c a dclele,,;olls 'ffcct 01/ sltell
imperfcctions in thc fonn or initial shlll)C slrc"glh is a {Iel'ill/ioll oflhe slwpe from i/~
dcviations perpendicular to the middle surfacc or ideal forlll , I;'urlher, more research IIlL\' bel'li
the perfect shell, unless a bcller tcchnique is I",denakell 0" IIIi.f form of illlperfi"'lioll IIt(III
IIlId mO,fl gl'/Il'nll SUltt'IIIC'1I/ used. The middle surruec of the gCOIllI:tricully {lilY otltcr. both ill rel"tioll to lite !Jltell
'1t.'rji.'('liul/!J 11t"1 \'hollld !H.' imperrcct !then should be obtained by gt.'olllclric fOl""'s, Ihe 100ui cases alld tlte
In of III,' tks(e.II, \I(IIn' of tltc' superposition or the equivalent geometric holll/dm}' co"diliolls. Geometric impeifectiOlu
\! huw.' 1/01 !H.'c'n C,I'lemil'e/I' imperfections on the perfect shell geometry. of llti.f form are l!terefore Cllrrelll(,' b)' for lite
10m.' Rlm- pltll, tI \'('/)' ,s1//all be.fl choice for lise lIS represelllalilY!
;s gin;1I 10 t'lI.ntre Iha/ the' imJJ4!rfi'Clioll tyIX'.
it'n all po.5.fihiliti,''\ II-I/e",
HOlI'el'Cr, tlte desigller/allalysl sltolild 1101
I qllntiOl,.f Ih.' lIflcl~\"!;i.f .\I"mld
forgt'l IIt"1 Ihese shape del'illliol/S are
"royj\'(lfCIll" impeifecliollS. {Illd Ilml lite\' nllISI
al.w COIY!r lite effect'i of all other '-'7N!.f of
gcometric illllX!rfi'Clion (e.g. mCIIlbr{me lad of
fil, bolllllltl'J' errors, fad: o/foodillg aligllml'"1)
and all types of material imlX!ifL'Cli()l1S (e.g.
re.\'idllal wreues). as indicated ill lite liM ill (9),
The IImllre of l'lillimiem imlX!ifL'l.'fiOll.1 i.\
disclls,l'cd il/mOl'e dewil ill 8.3,3,3 10 8.3.3,5 ..
( 12) The pancm of the equivalent geometric A,\' a IIItllfer (If prillciple, Ihe forlll of lite
imperfL'Ctions should be chosen in such a rorlll tL~Sllmed geometric imlX!ifecliolls .fltould l"fI'e
Ilmt it hns the most unravoumblc effcct on thc lite mOSI IIII!m'OlIrtlble l1J"ect Oil lite hllCklillg
imperfect clastic-plastic buckling rcsistance r£'sisttlllce of lite .ftrllclllrC'. Tlte cltil1 rea,I'OI'
R(,""IlA or the shell. If the most unravoumble \l'h)' {III Iltese forntf IIeed to he cO/I.~ider!!{1 is
pallcm cannot be readily idelllifk-d beyond ,It", illllN!rfi't:lioll!o; ojlIIa"y clifferelll sill/IX'S alld
reasonable doubt. the analysis should be carried form!J' al"e foulld ill real shell cOllsln/clioll, alld
out for a sufficielll number or different a reliallcc on (III as.fllmed f0ntl of illlpeifecliOll
imperrection panems, and the worst case (Io"cst is lII/SlIfe IIIIII.'SS il i.f a l'e/)' tmftn'OlIrtlble form_
/lin'.f Ihal illlpt'rfi'dimu arc:
value of R('~L'lA) should be idl.:ntified. Ne\·erll,eleu. lite strici reqlliremelll giI'C.'I/ ill
I/IIR1t'rit'a/~r IIrre/,wl si"'IJh'
lhi!>' principle is .fOfielled ill laler dlll/sf!S.
p.'rtllrlotJliOlI\ 10 Ihe paft-oct
Tl'U)()1I i.1 Ih"l pertllrhalio/l (13) The eigenmode-affine pallcm !thould be Tile mode Ihal is fOlmd ill all LBA tlllairsis is
'ml'~ girl' _figlli(it'tllll e:mJrs al used unless a diffcrent unfa\'ournble pallenl can ofiell 11,(' mosl mt/m'Ourahle, til snmll
'Plilllt!..,'j Illal appt!ur 11/ be justified. amplillldc.f, 10 lite elastic bllCklillg oj
In'f. ,fltelk TI,i.f dttl/se Ihere(ore ,flllte.f tl\ill/ple
NOTE: TIle cigcmnode affine pallem is the
llep l!tal call he etn'i~)' takell 10 uscerwill
,/ldl Ofha approtlChes 10 lite: critical budding mode associated With the clastic
whelher lite stru('{lIral cOII{tgllrtllion i.f likely 10
ili\'j,\, o(llrd/l hm'e hel'" critical buckhng resistance RN' based on an LUA he I'ery' imperfection sellsitiw.'.
Ollc.' tlpprudc-II. VH.·ci(ic nnalysis of the perfcct shell ,
jilalgorilhRl!J m¥.' lI.fe:cI 01/ Ihe: 110II'L'l'('r, lhis simple impeifel'tioll fon" i.\
rcJdIlI·elllllllaru/,.'IIRIIt /0.1,1 IIIIICit less reliably de/eleriO//.~ IIt{lIl il i,1 for
1985; DillJ.ler mill Knoke, hellll/, COIIlIllIl alld pfme ,flrllCfllr!!J. Ti,er!! are
rht'fl han' propo.lI'd 1(}II'c'r lIIallY sltell fmcklillg exall/ples where litis lillem'
Bl/d,lillg 0151(-'('1 Sltell.1 - E"'"fl/Je.-'illl D"_ligll R{'C(III1111elldc,liom

I'/gl'II1111H/e 1.1' 1/01 Ihe IIIO~I IItlfill'OlII·lIh/l'.

('.\/x'(:i(ll/\' IIhere lite Imdlillg /IIfNle if /tN:III
(SOftg "I tIl, !O(}5) or 1I11I.'re Ihe prehm'4/illg
hl'hol'iollr is high~l· lIunlill('tll" (Greill('r tlml
/J('r1er, 1995: f)fH.'rk/, ('( a/., 10(5) or "hen' (IX) The illllrhiude Ilf
plc,.lIicil.\' IIUlI' olIO ul[e('/ IIIl' fmU'Oflll' geomelrie imrcrkcti\>Il f
(St:hm'idl'r. ](}04). II i~ IllI.'njh/"(' illlpo/"/tI1If dC(lCntlelll on the t
Ihal Ihe ill/IIIY.VI doc:. 1101 place too /llIIcli cla...... I hc ma .. lmum
re/i(I//('t' Oil calc"lalioll\' Iltllt ".Il' IM~ mud"
alolle. F'lI"lht'/·l1w/·e, corefltl t'fl//I'lderalifm
of the cquiHllent '''''''''f,,,,1
... hare ,\11',..., ... hould he
:,'lIoltld ht, WI'l'lI Iu hij.!/lI.'/" I//IHie.\ fillllld ill (1/1
nnd .111' '. ",here:
LHA (l/Ia(I·~i;, .5illce Ihell.' ,\'olllelilll(,\ are /l/O/"('
c/"iticul IlwlI III(' 101\"('51 t'igclI/l/ot/e (set· (Ilso \11'"...,., - I l.,
8.3.3 ..5 ami R.3.3.6).
(14) The pallem of thc equivalcnt geomctric The IlIIper/eeliall fanll.f Ilwl ore /l/a.~1 criliclIllO t1, I L..
impcrfl."ctlOns should. if prncllcablc. reflect the lite dc_\igll lire Iho.\"e 1i/tIi l\'ill lwife ill prtll'licl',
conMnlctional dctlliling and the boundary so lhis ~lal(''''elll i.\ ('/"itic(11I1' i/l//Nlrlflltl_ II
condition ~ in un unflllournbic manncr. /l/oy he diffkllil to delel"l"itle II'hal 1)1X'l' of i~ all rclc\ ant ~au~e I,
imper/t'Clioll lite fllhricllliall ami COl/slmClioll
IJ/"()ceue.~ lI'ill elltlSe, hili )I'here Ihif i.f pauihie,
i ... the local shell" alit
Ihe,\e illI/Jt-'/fccliO/I.\5/lfmld he tKiupled illlo Ille
II, i ... a muhlplil'f to Jeh
tolcrance 1c\el;
(15) Not"'ithManding (13) And (14), patterns FolIOIrillg '''1'abu\'e gt'lle/"(Il ,H(I/(,lIIell/f, il il {, ., and l,'.... are the dimple \I
may be eJ(clud(..-d from the il1lc!otigation if they permiltl'd I{J igllo/"(-' IIIIIW,!i-l"lic forms o( amplitude parumetcr..
can be eliminated as unrealistic bccllUSC of the imperfection ely.'" if IIIc~I' IKllcmially "m·l' 1I rabricatlon loler:lnl-c q
method of fabrication , Illanulncture or crection. \'e/':t' lkleleriolls effi.'(·1 WI hlldr,lillg re,fi.f/(IIIC('.
Ollt' eXlilI/ple of ufoI'''' IIltll COIlld he idemified ,on I The l'atiunal AI
he/"e is lite eige//l//(xle a.Bo!'illled lI'ilh high laluc of II,. Thc \ulue II,
~hl'llr sm'ues (IOl".fioll), 1I'/IIdl il /1II!ik£'lI' W be
Icell (II a re,\'II11 o//(lII";('(lli(1I/ p'·(N·(-'HC'f. Non 2: \'alues for th,
( 16) Modification of thc adoph:d mode of The jim" dcfined ill (14) i.f he/"e c!(II"ijit-d ill' pammctcr U~I and l '.... may
geomctric imperfcctions to includc realistic I"f.jerellce tolpel"ijk ((1/"//1.1' ,hal (II"(' A·llml'l/ In he Nntional Annc ... The reelll
~t nlc dct!!ils (such as ax isymmctric wcld u-ide(l· jiJllml ill pra{'lit'lIl C'O/Ml"llclimt, One gi\cn in Table 8.1
dcprcM,ions) ~ h ou ld be cxplon.-d, itle/llijied /ol"m 'WI lIIelltimlt-'d here il Ihe
dimple WIISl'd hy iIllIN.'Ifi·{·1 Jiltillg 0/ phlll"~
NO II'.: I he Nat ional Anncx may definc additional (HoI.\! el aI, 1999), 11111 rhi5 i.f mort'
requirements for thc 1I!<~ssmcnt of appropriate {'olllplit'tlied /0 dt'luilN.' IfllIlI Ihe \\'elt/
pallcm\ of impcrfl"Clion ... depressiull IlOled ill Ihe 11.-'.\1. A furlher IHlllel"ll
is Illl' cheqllerhtH.lrti JXlllem of llei,1
d('prenimn jiml/d ill largt'~il(-,-II'l'ldl.'d Um!.s
olltili/oo\' (Huhller el a/., 1006)
(17) Thc sign of the equi\alent geometric III gellt'ral, ~h(lIH.· tie\"i(lti(lII.f Ilml IWl'l' Iltdr
impcrf(.'Ctions \hould be chOM'n In such a manner lIIa:cilll/lII' omplill/de 100nlrtll lite ('l'//Ire of
that the ma:< llllum il1itial \hapc dc\ iations arc CllnYllllrl' of 111l'1/,ell lire mure ,kleleriwn /(J
unfll\ourubly oriented tOllard" the ccntre of thc hllt'klillg f/l·..nglll II/(III Ol/lll'llrtl Imlj.!f!.I. Tlte
shcll cUJ"\'atul'e. /"e(I.WIII i\ Iltlll Ihl' W·""811t n( IIIl' "ltell arises
from ill' aln'lIllI/V ami iml'w'd dell/f h(/\"I'
I"('dl/('ed (·lInnllln'. 11001'e\'t'r Ihi,1 ,Iimpl(' rille i.1
/101 qllile IIIlil'(,/":,'"I, ami sOllie e.wlII/Jle,\· u(

Rli/('.\jur lite bllddillK lilllil.\/(//(' UB('.HIllf!IIII1Sillg g/obul ",mlt'rim/ ul/,,/ni\

nol Ibt' 1II011 Im{invlllru"'t', e/mlic-pItUlic "IIlMi"g muy lx' fOllll" i" II hidl
'.' lIlt blld,lillg /I"xll' ;\' 1(I('al 1IIIIII'1Ird hlllg('\' are IIIore I1l1fill'Ollrahle,TIll'
If}J} or .IInn' Ihe preblldli"K ntle j,\ Ihen:/iJrf' tI gelleral gUide rull'l'r 111l1I/ (I
igh~l' /I(mlillt'tlr (Gr.'illt'r tlllt! I/l'kl ill.\lI'lIt'tiOIl,
)o.rid, ,'I til, 2(H)J) or II'hel't'
(1M) The :unplirl.lde of the adopted cqui\alellt /I il I'illl/ Ihlll lilt! gt'O/l/elric illlllerfeUiof/l'
(l1.\() IIfli.·t:1 IIIl' mlleOI//{'
gl'OlIletric imperfcction fonn ~hould be mkcn liS lIIslIlfIt!d by lilt, slrtlelllr(li ell/.:illt'(!r 11/ hi"
14/, /I i.f III.'r"fill'l' illl/H,rltllll
dependent on rhe fllbriemion toler.lIlee quulity del'igll al'e recognised hy Ihe ('lIgiIlC!'I','
)1 titk!,f 1101 "I(/('t' 10() /IIl/cll
class. The ma.ximum deviation of the geometry illmll'ed ill Ihe /al(!1' COII.lfntcti(1II lmd
Im/llliell/l' Ihfl/ IIW IlIlt II/()(Ie
of the equivalent imperfection frolll the perfect t~I('t'lIIioll, Fol' lhis 11!(/SOIl, Ihere! h (I £"Im't!
WI/IOn', t'urt>(l1/ t'(II/~it!.'ruliOIl
shape AII'll.", should be the larger of nll'fl"vl /Y'lflliomhip lx'/II"t!e!1I lilt· si=t· of lilt· (u.\II/l/ed
t IIJ hiMher m(xl.',1 /iI/lilt! ill UII
and n'I "~"i":' where: /IIIlleifl!CliollS Will Ihl' roll!rtlllCf> I1Il'll,1 1tI'C'ltIelll\
illn! tlw,W! ,fOlllt'limt',f urt' 11101'(' Iltal II/II~I be tI/{u/e Itller, This nile prtll'id,,-''1
1111\<'\/ l'igelllll(l(k· (\('(' allYl ... (8.11)
" U.., 111'0 WlIlllillldcs of gt!omelric illllleife(:liOlI, III
IN n 'llll(' 10 I},t· lolerall£'(' IIIl'(lSltrt'lIIelll.f ikl('rilH.'d
J 1(I",l~ 11'"1 art' mrul l'rilieallO II, I UIOl .,. (8.12) i" C/ltlpu'r 6.
ww IlIuI will ariW" 11/ pmdiee,
"here: 11,c /11'0 amplitud('s rellllt' to lilt! 8(lIIg(' 1t'l/glII
'!III i.1 tTilimll\' illl/HJNflm. /I
of lite III('lLflirillg ,' O·flelll of Chap'er 6 1lI1l1 10
I 10 (J..'ll'nllill(' IrlllIl 11]Jt!\ of (~ i~ all rc1e\ ant gauge lengths according to Ille ,fhell,ltidlle,H. III gellertll, lite forlller will
f<1hrkuli(J/I allti l'OllHrlleliUlI
6.3.4 (2): he lite lIIore important ill l/till sltell.\' Iltal
111.\", bill Il'ht,rt' Ihi,f i.t poui"'e.
is the local shell wal1thickm:sl>; expericllce clastic bllckli'18, (md lite lallt'r ill
?IIJ slwllltI "" (Nfo/lled illlo Ihe
II, is a multiplier to aehie! e an appropriate Iltil'ker~/Ie/ls where plasticit), is illlporltllll
lolerance le"el: TI,e I'lIltle.t of lite parttllleler~ Un/, Un! mid III
,IIfJI\' gt'lIl,rtlf ,51C1Il'IIICIIII, il il' U~I and UII ,' are the dimple imperfcction I/C/I'e IIlJ/ 1H..'e1/ eXlensil'e(1' wrifled by
'glltm.. IlIIr('(I/iSlk form.1 01 amplitude parameters for the relc\ ant clilclI/alio/l or le,\ ling, so Ihese mllllhers ,\ IIlWld
l'lI if Ilu'I' IHllelllio/ly ful1'c! C1 fabrication tolerance qUIllity c11bl> he regarded (IS gllidelines 10 he ful/owed ""d
t'l/l1.:1 all hlldr,lillg /'(',\;~tlmce. e:qxtllt!('{/ 011, 1I/11i1 1II0re (!I'it/cllcc il'
II /onll Ilwl ell/iltl he it/elllijied NOTE I: The National Annex lIlay choose the (I{'(' /1111 II fm et/.
('IImod;> (lS\ol:iu/{'d lI'illl high value of II" The v<llue ", '"' 25 is recommended. Tlte amplilude of Ihe equil'lllelll gt'OI//('lI'ic
niml), wllidl if IllIlikefl' W /N:
illl/H.!lfi'elioll 11(IIIII'{II(1' t/ellelld\ Oil ,lte
{{c/hrim/jlm prtK:('\~(',t, NOTE 2: VItIUl'S for the dimple tolenlllce Fabricaliull Tolcrallce QualilY Ow's (we
I ill (I,/) i.f hen! dari/it'd hi' par.ulleter U~I and U.. ~ may be obtainl..-d from the OWI)ll'r 6) 10 hi! rt!a/iset/ ill COIISlrtlctioll w,,1
iiit- (cmlll IIIlIt art' kllOIl'II 10 hi! National Annex. The recolllmended values are 1!.Y('l:lIlit)tl,
pnXlit'ul nm,llnll'litlll aile gi\'cn in Table 8,1
/t\'/lOuld he IIOf(!{llltol Iltl' SIOlllktrdi:ed l'lI/II('S
lit)( 1I1t'lI/illllt'(l htTe i\ l!tt'
of Ihe dimple imlH.!tft'l:lio/l (lmpliluties ill Tablt·
y imf't'rji.'>CI jillillg of plall',1
S,I (lrl' abolll6f1',,/arger Ihan '''e~llllllklrl''=etl
1999), bill l/tit if II/ore
Wlllt'l of lite dimple lolerallce /l/l'tl.\lIrf!\ ill
tit.'luiht' II/all 11Ft' In'ld
Tilhle 6.4 10 \I/tich lilt,' ure rl!lulcd. T"t'
ill Ihe le.I/. " llIrlllt'r lH.iltem
allll'fiji('lIlioll is pro,·idcd ill all lI/telllpl 10
erMtlnJ l/(tIIL'm of weld
{1C"(.'(J/tIIl jiJr ,ltose ilJl/leifec:lioll.v whiclt are 1/01
~ in /11'11.' file-wellkd tauh-
sl/C/JX' d£'I'iaIiUJls alld I,/tiell ill geller,,1 are 1101
el u/., :!fK(6)
mea.fllr"h/e, As Ihis alllpli{ielllioll i.f II
(J..'\'illliOlI.f 111m /t",'C! Iheir fllh.Wllltlefor relll,tlllll('a.fllr{lhle illlpetft'('liOlu',
",tit., IIIII"</reil Iltt' t:elltre (!f Iltel' ore! ('jJeclil'e/y "'equil,tllem " iIllJH.'ift!t·litllIS,
.~hdllln! 1II0r" (h.'/f!I('rimu' to
For furtlll'r (Ii.~cl/.uio" of l11e amplitl/de of III"
~ 111,/11 tJ/IIIl'11rti hIlIMe,\ ,TIlt'
iIllPt'tfi'C: liOttl, .\'f..'l! 8.3.3. 7.
~, Vt'I."IIgllt ~f lire J/tell arisel
lire 11/1/1 11/11"</1'(1 dellt~ lit/I'('
~. /lowt'I't'r Ilti\'limplf! ru/e i\'
III, lim/ sUllie ('xC/lI/plt'\ of
Bllddil.g 0fSleel Shells· £lIropellll Desigll Rf'COInnumdllliolls

Tllble 8. 1: Recommended '1Ilues for dimple imperfcction IImplltude parumclcni

he much larger Ihan

factor a. and no closc
cxpccti.'<I, 1I0wcloer.
controlled by buckling
sub~tanlially claMic, the
should be only il little
( 19) The amplitude of Ihe geometric Si"ce Ihe "sS/mIL'ti geomelric impeifeclirJII "lid
delennmoo by hand ca1cul,
imperfection in the adopted pattcnl of the Ihe g(''OlIIelric lulerllllce memllre (we reqllired
leading 10 the higher .. aluc
eqUivalent geomctrie imperfection should be 10 be dOl'eI) relaled, Ihe illllJf!ifCClioll ,fluwld
inlcrprcted in a manner which is eonsistcnl with be illlerpreled in the lighl of Ihe mell.wN?melll
(23) Thl! 1'I.!liability ot
Ihe gauge length method. sct out in 6.3.4 (2). by me/hodfor tolerances (Chllpler 6).
delennined imperfcct cia
which it is defined.
re~istance Ru.",,-\ ,hl)uld b

(20) Additionally. II should be ..erified that an III mallY sllell buckling cOllfigurllliol/s, ( I small the follOWing alternall\e m
analysIs that adopts an imperfection whose alllpliltllk ImlJf!tji.'Clioll ClIU,~es a redllctioll ill a) by U!oing the ~mc progr.'
amplitude is I<r!. smaller than the value 6\\"~", Ihe b'lCklillg .f/rel/x,iI, bill a l't'I')' deep RI'\I'I~.<'iIod for other h
found in ( 18) docs not yield a lower \ alue for the imperft'Clioll Clm lutl'e a sliffen/ng (md which characten... tlc
R(,,,,,,,.If a 100Ioer value is obta;m:d. the proce- therefore slrrwgtllellillg effecl, The amplil/Ilk \aluc ... R~ an
dure lohould be iterated to find the lowest value al whichflrmglhelling IH.-gim is I'e,)' pmbletn c~ 'hlluld u...c
of R(,\",,, as the amplitude is \'lIried. dependent, lO 110 gellerul gllid(mee CUll be imperfection 8S$.urnpt'
gilWI. lloll'el'Cr, il is I't'')' imporlalll 10 Ihelr bud;,hn& contmlhn
cSlahlis/, tlral tire _~hcl/ lI'olild ,,01 he wcoker if rclllli'e ...hdl ,,\em,\erne
Ihe imlJf!rfeclioll ampliwde were wlUllfer Ih(l1l \iour. impcrf"'Clion
Ihe assuIIIL'li I'lIllIe. ,finee lire 10leratICe nonlinearity and matena'
mellSllremem call/WI cOllirol litis (II (III, Tht, b) by compari,on (If
GMNIA or GNIA wIll6'se,~ mll.{1 find dlher Ihe (Rl,,,,,,,.dIeQ.) a~run
sirengih rcdllcti(m {I,Hoc/lIred lI'ilh Ihe (R.,...,.~ ...............,.),
'I hc ~
IOIerllnce mC(Lmrl!, or Ihe mill;III/1111 re,I' i.~llIl1ee s..1tisfy the 'illme simllari
if 1/101 i,5 less 111,11/ Ille \'1I111e lIss(){'ialed with Ihe (a).
tolerallce metIS/Ire.
"sOTl.I: Other ,hell buck
(2 1) If follower load effects ure possible, either Follower load effi."'ls nicr 10 l(}luls whose thl! chamcteristic bucklin
they should be incorporated in the analysis. or it directioll chtmges liS Ihe sintclllre dliorm.f Ru,-.dIod at\! kno .... n Ill.
should be .. erified thllt their inOuenee is (I\'al er i,l',miltgfrom a hose pipe beillg 0 c1a.ulc scientific literature on .. hcl
negligible. example). One e:culllple j,r u cylillder or rillg be noted thai the "hand cal~
Imder eXlcmal pres:mrl! where follOll'er cffecls 9 and 10 are dcri\cd u, i;cr
Call "m'e 0 sigrlificlIlli ill/pacl ill redllcillg Ihe tc-.t rc-.ulb. and thc~ son
resistance, low ~sed \aluc, fo
(22) For each calculuted value of the imperfect Sillce imperj'ecl iml se/l.{ilil'il), is slIt'h Otl buckling n.... i~tancc Ihal tl
eillstie-plastie buckling resistance RC,M""" the crilicul(\' imparlUlli aspecl {if Ille ,1 /N?lIglh of u llblainl..-d numcricall)
ralio of the imperfect to perfect resistance shell, ulld Ihis )'ories so nIllch from olle 'OTE 2: \\hcrc t .....1 l't.'Su
(R{"."" R{,,,,,, ) should be detennined and geomelry lIlId 10<111 cllSe 10 (lIIOlher, lind is so be e,tabh,hl..-d that the gl..'(
compared with ...aluL'S of a found in sellsitil'e 10 it/emijicltlioll of Ihe mOSI presenl in the h:M may
!-.N 1993-1-6 Annex D or Chapter \0 of these IlIIf(1l'OlIrllhlr form, il if I'illll Ihal -wille check i,r represcnlall\e of IhO!'C
Recommendations 10 .. erify thut the chosen made to e1l!lIIrt> 1IIlIIIhe alilCOllle of Ihe GMNIA practical con"trucillm.
gcometric imperfi.'Clion has II delelerious effect ealcllft/lioll h(ls pl'(}(Jllced all iltlJJf!ifCClioll
setlSilil'il), 11I1I1 is appropriale 10 Ihe t'1I.fe ill (24) Depending on the rc:
Ihol is comparable with that obtained from a
lower bound 10 lest results. qllesliml. check ... Ihe ealibrnli(1n tile
Thi.r check agaill.I'1 " hlllld clllcllllliioll lI.rillg evaluated. 0' upprcopri!llc. Ii

________~R~,~,'~e:.'fo~'_'=he huckling limit _filiI£' {lSSessm('m using glohalllllmerical Ulwll'fL\

~ panunctcrs U. 1 and U~ forlllllla~ for a COIIIIOI he very precise. hilI

NOTE: Where the resistance is dominated by
nde Rcwmmcndc sllOuld be IISed 10 gil'f! I},,! desigller cunjidellce
plasticity effects. the mtio (R('Ml>oIA'Rc.W'~A) will
{, d \alue of V o ' Ihlll hI! 11lI.' fOlllld all lIppropritlle~l'
be much larger than the clastic imperfection
0,010 lI11fal'lJllrtlble form.
factor a. and no c1ol>C comparison enn be
0.016 £I'ell IhOligh Ihe shell may be all ;'IIIJI!ifeclioll
expected. However, where the resistance is
0,025 ~'e/lSilil'l! gl.'tJlllel,J' tllld l(Xld ctlse. where
controlled by buckling phenomena thut tire
substantially clastic. the mtio (R(,\I",/R(;\I'''\) plaslidlY domilllltc's Ihe hudUng IJI!lulI'iollr II,C
should be only a little higher than the value imlJl!ifet:lions do 1101 plllY sllch a big role, .W
'J geometric ilflpe'fi'Clioll (lIId lhi.\ mlio will lend 10ll'tlrt/s Imity as plasfidt)'
dclcnnilll..'ti by hund calculation and Ihe fuclors
/I'raflcf' meusllre are required hct'Ome!o' ~jfeadil)' more damillalll.
alell, the imperfection ,f/WI/lt!
leading 10 the higher value should be considered.
the light of the metlSlIremell'
rI/<:a (Chapter 6),
(23) The reliability of the numerically Alt/wllg" a !ollhslcmlitll efforl haf /leell pllt infO
dClcmlined imperfecl clastic-plastic buckling ('SIC/hUshillg (I r('liable alld safe l'lIll1e for lite
resistance ~\(sIA should be eh,"'Cked by one or rf!.fistOlIt:e at lhis poill/. i t ImlSI be recognised
dlillK COlljigllrclliollS. a slIwll the following alternati\'e methods: thai there ure other I!ffecls Ihal hm'l! het'll
(fflion CtrllSl!S a rt'lJllction ill II) by using the same program to calculate values otl/il/cd or !o'implijied wilhill Ihe mode/. The,ve
RC;\NIA,docd. for other shell buckling eu!iC<; for
mm' illellle/e reali.flie bOlmdan' detailor,
1fl'''Rlh, hilI a \'ef)' dl'l'IJ
rl'Uliftic )oilll delOil,•.,lip. r!!Sit/lial stress('.'.
II' h(Jl<? a sliffcllillg and which characteristic buckling rc!>l!>tllncc
helling eJfff/_ The (ltllplilll(W values R................are known. TIle check
('ollsInI(:Iiol/ lIIi.ifj/., mId similar ilems. For tllis
reusoll. il is most desirable Ihal Ille CtllCIi/olioll
~l'nillg hegin.' if I'cry' prohlem cases should usc iXlsically similar
10 g<tIl'ral I:llitlmu.'e {'W' bt·
he "ctllibm/ed " tI~ailJsl leSI reslIIIs 10 1:/I111rt'
imperfection as:.llmptiom and be slinilllr in
IIUlI ,'lOme atijllsllllellt of Ihe ollteome is made
~. il i.\' I'en' important 10 t.heir buckling l:omrolling panunelen, (!ouch as
ibr fJ"ellOmelUI Ihtllwert' omilled.
slIellll'ollld 1101 be lI'eaker if relative shell slenderness. postbuckling beha-
ompli/lltk wet'(' smallC'r tllall viour. imperfection sensitivit.y. geometric The procedllre here is .,illlp('· to lise a
I'ob/t. .rim:e Ihe In/ertlllce nonlinearit.y and material behaviour): 'lII111erical model of simi/lIr detail (ml!sh si=e
'1//01 co/llrof Ihis al all. The b) by comparison of calculated values ele.) 10 predicI " kllo~1'II relitlhle rc,mll (~r (I
l um/~I'sf!S mllSI jimJ eilher the (R"'lNIA.dI<d.) against test results prohlem that hlls simi/al" feulI/res. alld Iu /I.\'e
·Oll anociall'd lI'ilh Ihe lite el"rUI" ill Ihis prediclion (IS a gllidc 10 Ihe
(R....u-.,.d.<'cl:). The check cascs should

f . or the millill/llm resi.~/(mce

Ihe ,"uflle (mwl.·;lI1ed willi lite
satisfy the same similarity conditions givcn in
I\OTEI: Other shell buckling cases for which
error 111U1 lIIay he pr(!,w'IIl ill Ihe reqllired
GMNJA pred;c."liulI. III ge/leml il is' he.\·1 if Ihe
clllelilmioll is performed on e:rperimclIltJl
"_mil\', hili Ihe.'l' {Ire oftell hard 10 ohmill and
lleets refer 10 1001l/s whose the charactcristic buckling resistance valuc!> t'ritiml dola. Sllt·h tJ., Ihe dellliis of Ihe
f.S os Ihe _rln/{'/lIt'I! tkfor",s R~n.dI<d are known may be found from the illlper/t'(:limu illihe le.\I, may be mi.uillg, II i.f

m a how.' pipe bemg a c/tl.uic scientific literature on shcll buckling. It should Iherefore "Iso permilled 10 lI.ft.' ,fltJlldurd
umple is a cylinder or rilll: be noted Ihal the "hand calculations" of Chapters prohlem.f for nhie" Ihe all.fll'er is 4//0WI/.
t'.\SUre lI11et'(' follower effct'lS 9 and \0 are deri\:ed as general lower bounds on
r eam imfkJCt ;1/ rL'tllldllg III(! test results. and these somctlmes lead to such The 'IOte warns Ihol. iI/ Rel/eral. Ihe halld
low a!>l>CS~ values for the characteristic ("Oleli/lIlion predil.·tiolls 0/ shell strf!IIg'" are 1/01
~n s('nsili~'il)' is sllch an buckling resistance that they cannot be easily ,\/Iilah/e for IIIIS checkmg purpose.
m Uf/Jef:1 of Ihe Slrenglh of a obtained numerically.
mril'f .m mlld, from olle NOTE 2: Where test results are used. it should

'od c,",-"c 10 tII/Olhcr. ami is so
'delllificatioll of Ille mo."
il is I'ituf Ihal wille check i.\·
be established that the geometric imperfections
present in the tcst may be expected to be
representathe of those thnt will occur in

allhe fJ/IICfJme of the GMNIA practical construction.
prOtlllccr.1 01' impeifcclioll
f oPIJropriale 10 Ihe Clue ill (24) Depending on the results of thc relinbility This simlJ/e .fc·alillg/aclOr i!o' used 10 dc/enlline
checks. the calibration factor kc,\N" should be Ihe ol'der of errol' Ilwl "'''J'
be pre!iefll ill Ihe
Wil a hand calcllialion 1I.~inR evaluatcd. as appropriate. rrom: predicti()II, Alla("sls should II0t eXJX'CI leSI

B/ld;JiIl~ o/Skl!! SIII:llf· f.'IIIVJA,.m {J.'\igll Hl"'lm"""I"laliow~

I. _ RI.J;n., ....".,h... J.
n'\11II,~ III hal'" l'(llll(,,~ of *
111111 un' do\('1' 1111111 8..1.2,3
(.i \1\/1 -
(/ /<'11 {!t'l'("'/I1 ItJ l/IIi~\', hilI kllOlm MlmdarJ
H(i \ I\"II,"",~,J. 1//(,/1 hl/(klillg IlImn'liml n'I/lII\ I/multl lit,
(I) ('he tI.:"i~n
I"l'pmt/m'c'd rllllll'l' do\('6', hi! ohl:uno:d frvl11:

1\ h.:re:
II- hero::
HI '*', """" i~ Ihl! kno\\ 11 charnclcrI:,tic 1-1l1ue; MI h th.: p:Jnt:J1
R, ...... is tho: kno\\ n 1I.",t rc.. ult; ac.:ordmg to '1.2."."'21 I
Hl.olt\ll dint is Ihe cakul:Jtion uUlcome for the
chl.'Ck buckling ea:.c or the te .. \ (2) It ~h(luld ""'''inl
buckling ca~, a~ approprillic.

(25) Where lest result:. ure used 10 dClemine Tlti\ "'\ll'ic'liOIl il illelutil'd hel:u//\/, Ihe' Inl
I.('\I"~. :Jnd Ihe ci.lculalo:d \aloe of *,.""" I'~'\IIII "WI' han flClclilimllll Ml'l'lIRIIIl'lIilll!,
cxcccd~ 1.0. the adoplcd ,aloe ~hould he 1I.'wilf 111111 aI'" 1101 prc'Il'/I1 ill Ihc' rl'al
{'OllllnlC'lioll, d/lc' 10 Ihl! rn/,.;('/('d 1IlIIIIn' (1/
1.',\1'1\ 1.0.
IlIhomwry It I/illg 11111~, 11111' IIIldl'r·prc'diclitm
of Iln'lIl!,lh lI.Iillg (i,\I\I.' 1/1fI,,1d l>t., WI.('11 al /I
8.3.3 blclHh·d
r,'{/Iiuit· /IIl'II.III/,!, of 111l'1'lnnR,h of Iht:
11/'l1l'1l1n' (.f,'1! ,,/w £.\/n/({~'" ('(IIIIIm'IIlm:1'
H.l.l.9J. 8,],],1 On numerical
(26) Where a I.IIU\\11 dllllllclcrbuc \ulue b;\~cd II IIIc' allell/Illioll o/Ih .. {"lllillmlioll {m/lll' il
011 cxi"ling c... ahli~hcd thcory " 10 <II/hide: Iltil r,,"g~', IIIl' 1111<1/.1 II ,{/IIIIIIt/IIOI /i.'j'l
Tho: (,\1'1 \ III ly".s
\c'('/lrl' ill lIil mockl mill I/mllld t'-Il'lort! Iltt"
thl!' ;1r..:-knglh method
dctennino: 1.1.0"1''''''. and the calculalo:d laluo: of
ddonl1:1lion palh of Ihe
1.(,\1"" lic~ oUillidc Ihe moge O.M· 1.(,"'1" 1,2. l'IlIIl't'f, 11'l'.I" hflllluA tire ,11'1111'1/ 1'11111"1' widl'
(///(1 {'{'I'IClIII~I' f/lOllld 11011>..' ,'xu'{',kd II) \\ cmpn.:r (1971)
Ihis proco:durc "llOUld not bo: used, Tho: G\I"IA pmlcrlul for~udl<.''i
rc ..ult ,lIould be dO:O:I1~d inlalid. and funho:r I.::JII ca .. l1~'>limll
cu1culutinn, undenn!.:cn 10 c"tnbli.,h the ClIU'CS of
Iho: di",.:ro:pancy.

(27) 1 he charncto:rislic
"htmld he obl:uncd from:
huckltng rcsi~lnTlcc Tht' dll/n/('/C'ri.llk \'allll' i,l (lilll/illC'd hi' \'f'ulill,1!,
Ihl' h..'11 1',,-'1/111 of t'l/lc-lIlllliOi/ I/Iillg Iht,
"t//ihmlioll (fl,tor,
R ... (It 14)

J "j
II here:
H"I,.., i~ the calculated Impcrfc..'Ct c1u!>tic·
plastic buckling n: .. i"lnncc; j::
1.,,111/1 l\thc cahbmtion factor.
f.. ,
'u.s "}' 111<11 an' cI"lt'r ,"all IU.2.3 lJuckling slrenJtlh \ eriricnlion
IIlIill', "'11
'/101m ,fim,k".d
• urt;1l <II rnllfl, ,,/"1II1d I ..., (I) The dcsign buckling l'C!.i\t1ll1CI,! R,/ 'hould IIhuc' no appl;l'{llioll ,fUlI/clard ('.{i.I/,\ Jor Iltl.'
'/lIItll, he obtained from: /i}r'" IIJ (YIIIHnICl;OII im'ofl'('d, or Iltt'
"ppliUllitJII ,Ifillldal"ti dOI.'s 110/ delille' tll('
. , (N. l:oi)
n'I{'\'(/II/ I'/Ilm'l of YI!, the' mIlle t~f }'I/l/tu//M II.'
1tI'('1I lI.1 110 11.'.\\ Ih,," 1,1.
II hcre:

'/111 is the panial faclor for fC\i .. wncc t{) buckhng

accordmg 10 9.2.2,2(2),
(2) II should ~ Icrificd that' 77/h I'('ril;",,'ioll mu\' "IJ/I<''''' " little ,lraJ/g.,
wilt,,, fin' ~I'('II. hili i/ ;,\ corrcx/. IrI'l'n th..
IH 16) cfl'ligll /0",/\ lIrl.' applied to CJ\//1/1"fun' hdll}.:
1n,ll/dul /In.III'\l' Iht' leU (1II1I/1'\(',," the {iIlCJI rc'fJllin'/tIt'f1/ i~ Ilml th(' 10Cld

!1<l..hlioll<l/ I/r( IIglll/'lIIlIK /in"tor 011' d"lign 1tH.N.l, lit th" pOilll o}
nor pr. It III III III. r(',,1 d"\iKII \'01/1(' I!f till' ClS,n'\WJ luillln.' ('(Jllt/ilillll
/0 IIU' n Ilrit It'J 11<11,,,.... til IfuJIIld hc.' gn'att'r thtlll lI11il.r
nlln. um 1111.1. r'prt',liC'lim,
G \1\/ ~ ,I"mld hi' ("',,,, III " 8.3.3 Exlended co mm e lll ar~ 0 11 C "'\I \ lIulllt'rlca l buckling design
0/ lilt lIn IIglll 0/ liI('
'm £'f/.lld,,/ COIIIIII.'man· O n numerical c h a llc n ge~ II lunJ! III(' C \I'\I \ Imul-ddorm alion-p:llh

0/ IIIf! t('''''''Jliml It/( tor il

,II.· tllI"I,,1 ,Imuld lIot It'd 1",: CiM IA nnaly!<>ls of a loaded \hcll \truetun: in a finite elemcnt package is usually d{)nc u~ing
kit I ,11/.1 1//l1/I1d (''f/,lor .. Ih. thc arc-length method. In thl~ method. the algorithm look~ for ,ueccv.. i,c pomts on the load-
'/111,1, <lrt d/'t/II'II rallta lI;ck'
dcfonnation path of the 1(Xltied \tnlclure, Kcy ~tep) in the d..:\cloprnellt ofthi .. method \~ere IllJdc
by Wempner (1971). Rib (1978). ('ri",ficld (l9MI) and Rmnrn (1981), TIli\ mcthud i", \cry
1M /lilt "', j'.ln'.,kd
powcrful for Mudics of shcll buckling. \\ here th..:",..: 'tiIT light .. tnlcturcs suppor1 ,"cry high lood\, but
can cUloily trnn\fonn into rolpidly coll!1I)\ing \ylotCm~ (Fig, R.II).

\tll"t ontaill."/"1 ,wlllill~

/1 ... .....
flf wit IIlulicm I/lillK ,II,'

f-::. - .... -0.1
_ .... ·O.S
_1.11: .1.0

" " D3 U D'
0' OJ . .
II) a .. iall) c(,)1l1rrc~~cd e)'lind..:~: nOle th..: ,l..,;or rU~lbuckling path

Bllck/ill8 o!Sfeel Shells - EurofJe{1II D<.'sigll RI..comme/lt!mio/l.\ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ Rill.

A !iCCOnd diml:ulty .... hen

0.35 bifurcation il> panicularly
palh as thc post.buckling r
and \10 \Imply unklad strai
3• Thi~ ~iluation i~ more dim
.!! 0.15
small pcnurbation of the
algonthm to lollow Ihe dc<
c S4R-S8R
-S8R5 wilh n slightly dillcn:nt d
~c 0.1
... S4R occur un: . I
•E 0.05
'6 0 A third problem ari~
0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0006 0.001 may follo\\ a ne\\ ~"",4
ull~table). Thu,. the
dimesionless vertical deflection on the top
of the silo w/r and the critical b,'un"';'o~
b) loc:Jlly supponed cylmdLT. notc the dewit ~uired to capture the: buckhng load accumtely the langent stljrn~s
FI~urr 8.11: Typicul1oad-displllCclllcnl CUl"'~ for bifurcating m~rfL'Clion-scns iti\e shells check for ncgati\e I
must be fuund I
Although this nrc-lenglh melhod i~ very good at following nsccnding lind dL'SCending load paths thnt
are smooth. it sometimcs hus difficulty when nbrupt changes occur. such as a bifurcation with n Howc\'er. tills bifurcation
strongly descending post-bucklmg path (Hg. It II). us occurs in many shell buckling problems. In infommtion that I:an
this lIitUtltion. il is often difficult to capture the bifurcation POint accurately. because the arc-length .... ith a positi\~ definit~
method Jumps over from the pre-buckling 10 the post-buckling p:nh. missing the true peak by some malri,", In this situatilln.
margin (}-'ig. 8.12). with a pollltl\e ddinlle
beller chance lhat the
accumtcly av'......."-'ti.
- automatic arc length control used As with the M!\A LUA
0.62 - user-deflned arc length control used Commonly, these ,"u",,~
The G\<tNIA anal)si~
0.6 nlgorithm may ha\e
::- buckling ~trength ",'u,,1
Ihrough is pas!iCd. there
~ 0.58
c\cnb. J'IllS\lbly alm(l~1
"i: nn outcomc that greatl)
a.. 0.56
mcal>ure~may b"'~', I:~~.~
buckling mode II
0.54 J'IO~I-buckhng ~trcnglh
post-bul:kling ~In:ngth
0.52 and Ihe path taken to
depcndlllg on .... hich
0.5 modification in a (i;MI";\1
0.001 0.0015 0.002 0.0025 0.003
dimensionless vertical deflection w/r On detection of
Figurt' 8.12: Arc-length method may mis!> the tnlC brfurcatlon pomt

Thil> difficulty m.ay be o\ercome by Identirying the load Ic\clthat is closest 10 the bifurcation point As notL'(.! abme. In the
on the prcbuckling path, and JoIlIrting the analysis again from IhlS pomt ulling an arc-length that is Ihe rrimary path \I.) a
constrained to be very small. Ifu \ cry small arc-length IS chosen from the start of the analysis. the definitcnc ~ 'O~f.~'h~'~·t~~:~~:j
computation will lake an c:(ccssi\e amount oftimc. so this solution must be a\oided. incremental ( I
c\cntuall)'. L'quilibrium

Rules for 111f! hudding IImil _~'ule as.fe,f,flllem Ilsmg global "'m/erical Ulw(\'Si.f

A second difficulty ",hen the change from the pre-buckling path to the post-buckling path at
bifurcation is particularly sharp is that the arc-lcngth routine may unfortunately choose the londing
p..1th as the post-buckling path (both paths hn\e fnlling loads and some similarities of dcfonnation).
und so :.imply unload :.traight down the loading path and potentially into the negall\e load regime.
This situution is more difficult to 3\oid. but t\\O techniques are potentially useful. First. a \'ery very
small penurbmion of the gt.'Ollletry in a non-symmetric mode may assist in encouraging the
nlgorithm to follow the desired post-buckling path. Second. the difficulty can often be ovcrcome
with a slightly difTerent chOice of finite clement nu.'Sh. so thut the round-ofT errors that naturally
occur are difTerently dh.poloed in the new unulysis.

A third problem arises due to the nature of a bifttrcntion pomt. This is a point whcre the structure
may follow a new secondary pmh or maintain the origmal path (even though this lancr is aelUally
unstable). Thus. thc arc-length method may pass by a bifurcation and continue on the primnry path.
and the critical bifurcation point may be mi:.sed. To ovoid this problem. it must be n ..cogni~-d that
)Utkhng load accurntcly the langent stiffness matrix \\ill ha\'e neg3l1\c eigemalu~ after the bifurcation point is passed. so a
rfcC1Ion'SCnMtl\C lohclis check for negoti\'e eigenvaluC5 is a useful chcck for a missed bifurcntion. This bifurcatIon pomt
must be found to detennine Ihe lrue buckling load. This is di'oCulosed in morc detail in .
.nd descend 109 load paths that
such Ill> a bifurcation with a However. this bifurcation point cannot be accumtely located from this first analysis. since the only
~hdl buckling problems. In infonn:ltion that can be derived from thc calculation is that it lies somewhere between the last point
ratcly. because the arc-length ,\-ith a pmiti\e definilC )litTocslo matrix and the first point "'lIh a non-positi\e definite stiffness
ni!>.\mg the true peak by some matrix. In this situation. it is again ncce:.~ry to reslan the analYloi:. some\\herc below th~ 10)1 point
with a positive definite matrix and adopt a eonstmined :.mall arc-length step. There is then a much
heller chance that the tme r"OSt-buekling palh will be chosen and the bifurcntion point cnn be

As with the MNNLBA treatment, discr..:tcly stifTened shells present mllny additional difficulties.
Commonly, these structures have very flexible shell walls wilh much stitTer clements as stiffeners.
The GMNIA analysi~ will encounter local buckling of the thin shell wall at 3 low lood. nnd the
algorithm may have dinicuhy in pl]!.. ~ing this point. which is not very significant in thc glob;!l
buckling strcngth evaluation of the structure. Even when such a local bifurcation or local snup-
through is passed. there may be other second. third and fourth simi lnr bifurcations or snap-through
e\-enll>. possibly nlmost simultaneously. All of these e\-ents can cnusc the annlysis to stop. To avoid
an outcome that grclltly undl.:r-prcdict" the intend..:d buckling ",rength of the structure, some speci;!l
measures may be nceded in analysis to find an approprinte model that can IIchic\-e th..: global
buckling mode including stiffener defonnations. lIowever. grem care must be exercised when the
post-buckling strength of the shell parts arc .. till bemg exploned in the final outcome. because the
post-buckling )lrength 10l>S i:. e:<tremcly .. uriublc depending on the assumed imperfection pattern
and the palh taken to reach II. The po!>t-buekh.:d :.tate of a thin lohell ha:. a , 'cry variable sirength
depending on which bifurcations and snap-throughs occur (Yamaki. 1984), and a small data
modifiealion in a GM IA analysis may lead to a quite different path.


11011 poml On detection or possible birurnlions on the G'A, G'IA, G\I'A and G\I'IA load-
deformlltion.plIt hs

~l~'!>tto the bifurcation pomt As noted abo\e, in the cour..c of a nonltneur unalYM". the prc..enee of a potential bifurcation from
mt using an arc-length thut is the primary path to a secondary equilibrium path can be detected through the loss of positi .. e
m the slart of the analysis. the definiteness of the tangent stifTne!>!i matrix . Usually. a NCW1on-Rnphson solution is conducted on an
6~t be a\oidc...d. incremental (step-by-step) ba... is. and during each inercment (step). iterntions arc perfonned so thnt.
eventually. equilibrium bet\\L'Cn external and internal force:'> i~ uchieved at the end of the step. In

.. uch a ea~. thc ('ItNII\e definllenes:o. of the tangcnl stiITness .. hould be ch\.'eked al Ihc end of Ihe ft •.1 ..1'" Thl' Tol,· "r-,·,,,,;;
entire stcp (i.e. upun rcaching un cquilibrium Matc).
·\s e\plained n the ~,Jt11rr
II should be al!;() notcd thaI. til cach itcrntlo n \\Ithm a stcp. a "l>IilTne ..s matri'C" i ... fOrnl ...-d (the (g\.'Om~lr1( il11rcrlc~uun )
Jileobian lllalri'C of the NewlOn-Raph'iOn inercmcmallilgorithm). (hl..'Cking the positi\ e definilene ... ' flumencal compUlallllll"
of thi ... Jaeobinn Illily rcsull in emlneou.. conelu .. ions regarding bifurcutiou: Ihis i, a "~ tiITn e ... ~ elll'Cl nfl Ihe \lul'klmg
Illatril(" thllt cOIl\!.. ponch to an inlcnnr.:dillie trial (non-equilibrium) stille and, therefore. It does nOI c'pltlTl!d than m~ Ilthu I
represent the ae tunl stillhess oflhe <;l ntClUre. iUr1hcmlorc. lhis "stilTncss Immix" (Jacobwn) is \'ery engineer hllUld rll"..:r 1
often wrillen in un Ilppmxilmne fonn (modified -":e"",,on-RlIph"')1I). As 1\ re ... ult. 10 be sure nf might h.:. rcpre,enls m
dell..'Cling bifureiLtion. il i.. m.'Cessary to be .. ure thai the exaelilingent stilTfle ... ~ 11lutril( a t 11 eOll\crgcd mU'llInphl!ltl~ I!tl\ he
equilibrium stug.!.! ~huu ld bc u!>Cd. More details ofthc stiffi1i!sS matrix fonn:ltiollllnd e\aluallon can
be found in ('ri~lic l d (1 1)97).

The ahmc chl..'\:k of bifurcatltln becomes more complielll\.-d in Ihe eOUN: of an ela ... tic-plll .. tie
nonlinear anal}si,. In such 11 ca~. upon rcaching an equilibrium swgc..... Itil sc\ ernl material point!.
in thc inela!>tic rnng!!. there is sollie uneenaint) about .... hether each of these ('I01Il\'; is undergomg
IIlcrea~lIlg or d\.'Crea~mg ~Imin~, and consequcntly .... helher the 10\\ pla!>llc lOildmg modulu .. or Ihe
high ela~tic unllXldmg nuxluh ... should be u",-d in fonning Ih~ tiUlgen! .. tiITne" matri,. Thi ... a\ 1Ilbic on the ell ·... 1
ambiguily cun he U\ ercomc h) IIdoplUlg the "compari..on ..olid" cllllc!!pl or Hill (195S). According slablTi IIlg rath!,;f than ~ I
10 thi ... concept. n:a'-Onable upper-bound birun.:ution load pn.-dictitllls can be oblninl,.'(i by adoptlOg al. 2(06). !';\\,'nh"]!';
Ihe plu~lIe loodlOg moduhh at all poin", thai ha\e already enteredlhe inda ... tlc range (i.c negk'CtlOg pnnt:lple fllr all con truck..!
the pos'ihihl) of clastIC unloading). More complcte pn:senlallon .. of Ihi .. concept ha\c (lcen al-.o pm\ je III III I
produced b)' Ilulehin-.on (1974) and T\ergllilTd (1983).

8•.1 •.15 l nlh· .... landin~ th, Bifurcatioll checks durin~ purtialillastic deformalion
\\hen l,."-IU1\1I1I~I'1 1m Ir
TIle detec tion of bifurcation in the pla:o.tie mnge requires thai the clastic-plastic materilll moduli arc IltInlinl!ilr .1\Ii1ly~t II r
cmployed 10 limn Ihe langcnt stiflness matri .... Thc choice of such moduli lor ela'>lic-plns\ie rd;llllllhhlp Ixt .... «n tl
beha\ iour is nOI uniquc. gl\cn the lilci that ... c\ eml pla!>licity theories cxi~t. I·or melUh, Ihe ciassicul Mlht of the hUge rcscarc
nO\\ Ihl..'"Ury of plu~ticit} i, II widely ucccpl!.!d model 10 dCsCribe their induslic behaviour, und thi~ C4ui\.lknt g!!OIlli,; Ii,; Impcrl
thl,.oory mil)' be u~cd 10 tmel! equilibrium path!>.
hum a hr~l\lrrlal pol
1I00\c\cr. hifurciltion prediclion, ba~ed on flo\\-theory moduli appcllr tn o\!.!rc~ll1n"te ... uh'luntiillly ;mdll,u.llJ4 11" t fir
the huck ling load \\ illl respeci to c:r<pcrirnentul dilta. Surpri~ingly. predlclions hased on Ihe 1,lrge d\;flcClllll p h t
increm\!nlal moduli of the Ie!>!> rigorou!> defonnation thcOl} pro\ idc bettl!r prediction .... much eloser ('It"Klhud..1in~ ran 'i,; S c
to Ihe c'lX'rimcntal rcsulb (Bardi & K) rial-ides, 10(6). rhe SuperiOTlly of dcfom1.1tlOn theor) 0\ cr th\.'0'1 I hcsc fundam n
flO\\ theory m bifurcatIon pn.:dlctlOn!> ha .. been attributed 10 Ihe "nonnaht)' princlplc" of thc 110\\
Imul,IIIIl\lI\.'Chnaqu.: (
Ih!.!ol). \\ hieh n.... ults in ",tirr' moduli and dncs nOI r!.!preSl!nl aco.::urutci), Ihe tnte material h.:ha\iour !i Illsllcal ml1hods n he
"hen abmpl chan~e:o. in stres' din.'Ction occur during buckling. Thi .. dilTcrenee i, sonlC\\hat
alle\ial\.-d b} considcmtion of 1111tial imperfCctions (llulchin!>On. 1974). It I" olw noted Ihal more .\11 the cI lI,;al xl I
sophi"'icillcd flo\\-I}flC plasticity models ha\e been pro]X>\'.'tI to account I(lr Ihl" dl"Cre{\iln9. ,uch i he!'!: olien display I Iy
II~ Ihe comer theory (Chi,lolTeN:n & lIutchin~n. 1979: T\e'll:aard. 19S~). '\e\cr1hcless. Ihe
C\:lmplc. muluple el
IInplementillion of such modd .. i.. nOI r\.'(;omlllentk-d for d\!sign purpoSl!S. Ilonlinear prcilul;k In
aHlid Ihc dillieu II un I
In<;lead. \\ here po.... ihlc. il is highly recommended Ihal Ihe ddonnation theory langent modulus pnlpo cd numern. JI III I
,hould he u~d \\ h\!n Ullemptmg 10 delect the bifurcation of II ,tcel shell ill the inelu,tic mng.\!. hl~her \lnk'r e4111hllnum
Ill\.'(;hilnie, hilck&round

With rer Ird 1\1 the mn 01

pll'lhueklmg p,lIh ,IS dc\ I'

_ _ _ __ _ _CRC'~",:::'~ (or Ih(' "IItMilJg/illlil\/"II..· u'\U'\\/IIf!/I/ /I\ill.l: glohal ""III"rinl/ mld/ni\

be dll.'ckcd at the end of the The role of ~equi\ alent "' I:cometric hl1J)('rfccllons ill desi~n cDlculations

A\ e\rlaincd in the commentary on H..1:!.:!1 II) nbme, de\ iations in the gcometrie lohare of the ~hcll
nne, malri'(" h fnnn ..'d (Ihc
(gcometric 1II1pcrf..'Ctioll\) h,l\e b..:en cho\en a .. "additional qu:mtitie, in the analytical modcl for the
ckmg Ihl.' fIlh.iti\1.' ddinitcne~~
numerical computation" (faCC lll.'Cau ..e they III\! kllm~nto hu\e a dominating deleterious
furcatillll : thi~ i~ a "lotinnc~ ...
cffect nn the buckling behaviour :md bccnu\e their influence ha!. been much mOl\! c:oo:tell .. j\ely
tall.' and. Iherelore. 11 doc" nOI .... :oo:plor.... d than any othcr imp.:rf.... chon. Hut, Il\ also staled in the abo\c commentary. the dCloign
, ..." m.1Im:·· (Jacohmn) I~ \cry
engineer ~hould ne .... cr forget Ilml tmy geomctric imperfeclion modclling. howc\"cr sophislieated LI
). :\, a rc,ult, 10 be ... ure of
might be. represcnts merely 3 sub~titulc imperfection. Th .... "equi\'alent" g..:ometric illlrcrfectinn~
Iin"n....., maln'( at 11 con\crged
IllU\t implicilly cO\'cr till.: cffech of all othcr imperfections .
• 1"0n11allon and e'>atuatlon can
The St."Cond mOlot e:\plorcd fonn of imp..:rfcction i, rl... ldual 'Ire~\es. It ,hould be noted th<ltlhere i!>
il \Irong connection bet\\ccn ~hapc dc\ iation~ and r.... ~idual 'Ire\'\Cs in the shell: if the mllterial of the
~ eOUN lIf an c!a ... lic-ptll'lic
.. hell i.. e'(actly loufficient to produce a pcrlCct structure, then II gL'Ometric il11perf..'Ction i.. ine\itubl)
c. \\Lm sc,cral mat ... rial poinh a,..ociatcd \\ith rc ... iduallllClIlhrulle 'Irc,,\e,. By contm .. \, if the rnale:rial ilo nol ,ufficienl to producc
(If thcsc pcnnh 1\ undergOIng
thc perfect \tmclure. the ~honfall le.ld .. tll g.... llm .... trie imp..!rf""Ctions normal 10 Ihe .. hell, but other
,1'''111.' Inadmg modulu\ or the lack-Of·fil residual M~ al!.O tk\..:1op (Hol .. t ct Ill. 19(9). There i, little infonn.1lion currently
ang ..:nl 'limlC .. malri'(. Thilo a\ililahle on the eff..-ct of these r~ldual 'tre~'\C\. but the:rc i, \Ome: e\ idence that they arc u~ulllly
;.... pt Ilf Hill (IQ5K). According
,tubili,;ng mlher Ih'lII de'tabili~mg (Rolter. 19%: Uuggenberger. 1996: 1101"1 1.'1 ai, 1000; Hobner el
, ...3n be oht,uncd h)' adopting
al. 10(6). l'e:\erthd ....", a\ long a.. thi, ilpparently 'tabiliJ"ing enCct is not prO\ed il!. a gcn .... rnl
nd III.' range (I.e ncgllXlmg
principle tor all construct.... d lomh of ~hell~. th .... 1I~"ullled l'qui\ aknt geometric imperfection .. \!muld
Ii of th" wnccpt ha\c hl:cn
al",) prm ide \ome "contingen0' rc<;el'\ c" for:1 pt)\l>ible negali\ e effecl of rc ... iduLii 'tre..........

8.3,3,5 l.i ndc .... tanding titc rolc and cfrects of R(,{)ll1clric imperfection ...

\Vhen cljui\lIlcnt ll"'omelric imperfections arc selected lor inclul>ion in an J+ model of iI ~hell for
tic'rlalollc malenal moduli nrc nonlinear analy~i .. , there remain .. II great chilllcTlge 10 dl'Cide on il\ fonn and amplitud ..... and the
ICh moduli for ela'tLe'plrhtlc rclallonship bel\\cen d ......,ign Il....,urned imllCrfcclinn\ lind tolenmce rnea\Ureml.'llb 'Ilicr eomtnlctlon.
c\i,\. l'or 111....1011" Ihc cliI,~icul
\\0" nf the huge research effort Ihol has gone into the ..eareh for rea~onablc as .. umptiom for
inda'tic bdlil\ iour. and Ihi,
e4U;\'ulcllt geomctric imperfection, lies behind Ihi~ cOlltinuing challenge.

I· rom a hi~ lorical point of ... ie\\, \on "-linn,in and ·'-..ien (e.g . \on Karman el aI., 1940; \'on "-amMn
to 11\ cn,:.. timatc .. uh"lantially and Il\u. 19-11) werc the tin;t to achic\c a clo~ .... r conl~lnllity \\ ilh e'(perimental data. Fol1tm ing their
fl. prcdictilln.. ha.\ed on Ihc IlIrgc dcncction lIppruaeh, the Im\cr 'tllbliLty lil1l1t can be d .... tenllincd by computation .. in the dl'Cp
~lIcr pn.'(iLclton~, much clo!tCr
[lO\tbuckling mnge. Sum.... yL~.t,... 11I11.'r. Koit .... r 119-15) propo,ed his celebmlL'd initial po\lbuckting
t~ of dd~mnallon thl'ol) 0\ er
theory. TheloC fundamenlal idea' abo fonn the ha~i .. for interprctmg modem computer·orientated
lit~ pnnclplc" of the nO\\
.. imulation tcchniques le.g. d)11<1mieal comrulutioJl), of jXhtbuekling beha\ iour (Rit.. .. et al., 199(,) or
I} the true mat .... rial beha\ mur
\tuti\tical method, in the cont . . ,t of rcli3bilil)' IhL'Ory (ArbocJ" et al .. 19(5»).
hll> dilli:rcnc.... i, !.Ome\\ hal
·n It Ll> also noled th:1I more All the clalo)ical m.... thotb of .. hell ..I:lbilit) anal} .. i.. arc ba....'tt oTlthe c\aluation of perfect lotrudures,
nt fllr thh ul'oCrepanC). ,uch
fhi!..c often display highly en\iti\e beha\iour in the \icinity ofhifurcation poinh that ha\ ..... for
rd. IC)R:l). 'e\ .... rthd ....". the c,ompk. multiple cigenmo(1....... Sr«ial care mU~1 al ..o be ta! for probJcm~ in \\ hieh .. ignificonl
nonlinC'.tr prebuckling changc.. occur .a.'" \'ell a .. for those sho\\ing multimodal bifurcation. To
,l\oid Ihe diffieult;e-. ari\ing fmmlhe ,cpar.ttmn ofmuillpic buckling modes. Mlme researcher-. ha\ ....
tion theol) tangent modulu,
proposed numericill method .. \\hich ntt .... mpt II dirl'Ct tnlll,ition from the primary r;.uh 10 onc of thc
I in Ih . . inda..lic rung .....
higher order equilibrium paths (e.g. Croll lind Lllina\. 191'15). .\ proper explanation of the
meehanicl> background 10 the'wC mathematical fonnulation .. is, unfonullalcly. 'Iilllacking.

With regard 10 the r.Ulge or ,atiuilY il ~hould be nnted that the a,ymptOlical appro'(imatlOn of thc
pmthuckling palh ... as devised by "-oiter (\ 9-15) lind lill .... r uloed by rnllny othcr., (c.g. lIutchi-.on ,lIld
Bllckling a/Steel Shells· £lIrolH:(1/I De.f;MII R('commenclllfiOIf$ Rill,

Koitcr. 1970; Budiunsky. 1974) restricts the application to small imperft."Ctions and allows only a cnginccring "hdl ~Iroctun:
relali"c pn..-diction ofthc imperfection sensitivc behaviour. t ran~lotcd into 0 dctcrmmL·
The highly ~nsitl\·e behaviour ofperft."Ct .. hells can be a ... oidcd by ia\cstigatmg the imperfect .. hell
directly. The firc,t idea.. in thi!> din..'Ction \\-ere fomlUlotcd by \'on Karman et al. (1940). but like The second conceptual a
Koiter they u!tCd imperfection fonns that did not changc with the proccs.s of deformation. and this is imperfcction. This ~h
an ~!tCntially limiting aspect of these theories. was often the pn nclpal 31
imperfection'> began to be
1I0we\er. from experiments (e.g. F!>slinger. 1970: Yamaki. 1984; Jullien et al.. 1998) it is known ( 17) in the 1·.N roll.... fur d~
that imperfL'Ctions progressi"cly defonn and grow as the lo,.'ld increa~es (ns was long rl"Cognised for elTorts explicitly. lIo"e\(
othcr structural fomls). This behaviour can be modelled by including the imperfection variables as by mathemotical mcans
fundamcntal unknowns in the govcrning L'quations (e.g. Oeml and Wunderlich. 1997) to cstinlllte applicability to typLcal
directly the lowest possible load le\·c1 with the "worst" imperfeclion shape. "wonot" kind arc far from
i mperf(""Ction-~s i ti\ it)"
This approach requires a fully nonlinear analysis of the '>Iructural n..~[lOnse in combinution with
sophisticntcd shelltheorics. More recently. the de\clopment ofnumcrienl solution slrategic§ within The thIrd approach
the framework of comprehen"i\ c finite clcmcnt algorithms ha\ c made such extensivc computation!. equivalent ~l'Om!trie
feasiblc. 1I0\\c\·cr. thc po\\er to perform such analyses has not yct re~hcd thc kcy qucstion!. "alholute y,OI"'ot" Ib
conccrning thc relationship between design assumptions and practical con!.truction. and much buckling behaviour. and
further research and discussion is needed to address these i!.!.ucs. similarity to cither the
de,·intion. The
eomprehc nsi,·c
In investigations of cylindrical and spherical shells. single buckles ncar the boundarie .. ure
Mlmetimcs obtnincd. This has led to the recommcndation that this imperfr..-ction fonn should also be Ihnt are obscl"\ cd in full
considered in numerical simulations and should be compared with results obtained using assumed of fabrication of I
Imperfections in thc shape oflhe finot eigenmodc. as from (13). construction ( Rotter.
direc tly comparable. Conceptu al a pproaches to d e (jn i n~ equiulenl geometric Imperfections in numeriul
design calcula tions
It is hoped that. by
geometric impcrf'L'Ction
equi"alcnt imperfcction'>
Despite the llbo\e long history and huge "olume of research. the seareh eontinu(..~ for some simple s tructu re allcr I
comprehensive and generally upplicable fonnulation of statements ubout appropriate equivalent tolcrunces III the final
imperfcction forms nnd umpli tudes for design calculations.

It !lUlY be snid that there lire three dilTerent conceptual appro.'lchcs for choosing thc equi"lIlcnt
N.3.3.7 O n Ihe pallern
geomctric imperfections thnt can be considered (Schmidt. :2000: Rottcr. 2004) when undertaking
determmistic calculations using GMNIA analyscs.
For application in d,,,.,.]
In the fiN approach the equivalent geometric imperfections should be modclk-d as "l"C""dlistielllly" liS pattern (or a fey,
possible. From an enginecr's smndpoint. this is the Il"lOSt obvious method. Ho\\cver, there art two representing the be,';',·;" J
problems here: first. this is a pnori not a fcasible procedurc because the residual stresses and adopung a specific form.
mmerilll Imperfcctions arc naturolly omitted. and whcre they arc considered they are difficult to h:IS led to the current
quantify. Sccondly. in esulblishing the eomponcnt of the equivalcnt gcomctrie imperfection that
deriw,> from real geometric imperfcctions. there arc eonsidcntblc difficultics in translating the Rcscllrch studies on
"realistic" fonns illlo equivalcnt Mmplificd fonns in a dctenninistic 1I1111l1lcr. This situntion mcan~ aOine pre-buckling
Ihat this area of shell buckling rcsc;lrch will certainly continue to be a field of intensive nelivity for s tud i(..'S of many ~ pccifie
<;ome tllne. proetical fonn~
19(8) ",hich info~ .
A notuml route to deal with these problems is to tum to ,>tochastic treatments of real and Teng. 1989: Khamlichi
characterised imperfection fonns. Ho\\e ... cr. all attcmpts to tackle the task in a stochastic manner forms 1974;
based on measurements at a large number of similar shell structures (e.g. Arbocz. 1983) hu\c found (Greincr and
it ... ery difficult to achie ... c a simple and reliable methodology thm can be applied to typical ci"il ideas

RII/~for 'he hllddmg limit JUlie (I.<;seumelllllsillg global "lI1m!ril'al (mal.l'$is

rlcction~ and allows only a cngmccnng shell structures In gcneral. the outcome of such stochastic treatmcnts need to be
transluted into a detenmnistie methodology that yields eomparablc rcsuhs. and this IlSpect is still
'!>11jp1ting the imperfcct ~hell
nnan ct a1. (1940). but like The second conceptual approach is 10 seck the "worst" gcomctrical fonn for the cquivnlent
~~ of defonnation. and this is imperfcction. This search is natumlly wilhin the context of givcn tolerance amplitude bounds. TIlis
ww. often the principal nim of rc~nrchcrs workmg LII thi!> field from the time when geometric
imperfections begnn to be ineludl,:d in their in>.Cstigations (c.g, Yumaki. 1984). The clauses (12) to
ien ct aI., 1998) it is known (17) in the EN rules for detennining the buckling resi~tuncc by GMNIA (M.'C 8.3.2,2) refll,.'Ct these
(Il!o ~ ai. long recognised for cfforts cxplicitly. 1I0we\cr, attempts to perfect the search for thc "worst" geometric imperfection
he imperfection vari:lbles as by nuuhellllllical Illcan~ (e,g. Oeml & Wunderlich. 1997) havc also not yet reached a status of
Llndcrhch. 1997) to c!ottimate applicability to typical civil engineering shell structures. Moreover some imperfcctions of the
'P' "worst" kind are far from realistic (Roltcr. 20(4). nnd cons<''quently tcnd to cxaggerate thc apparent
imperfection.sensitivity of prnctical construct ions.
sporu;c in comblOatLon wllh
cal solul1on trategle,> ~ithin Thc third approach n.'Cognis.cs the abo,>e and delibenllcly aims to choose a relatively simple
~uch c~den,i\ c eompulatiol1!ot equivalent geometric imperfection patlcrn. abstuining from making it "fully realistic" or the
~h ...-d the key questions "absolute worst". Its basic function ~ould be to "stimulate" the characteristic physical shell
ca.1 con~truction. and much buckling behaviour. and for that purpose It is only required to have a ccnain degree of geomctric
similarity to either the eriticul buckling mode or the fll1lure mode or a fabrieation-caused shape
deviation. The amplitude must then be ealibmted either to experimental evidcnce or to the results of
~ lk.'3r the boundarie!, are compreht.'nsive numerical paramctric studies and related to the imperfection fonns and magnitudes
rrtection fonn should also be that arc observed in full seale construction. In this context. it should be recognised that the mcthods
ull.:. obltllncd usmg assumed of fabrication of laboratory test specimens are generally quite different from those of renl
construction (Rotter. 1986). and the imperfl,.'Ction fonns and amplitudes are consequently often not
directly comparable.
Imperrt'Ctions in numerical
It is hoped that, by now. the reader hns n rough idca of the g0.11 of the choice of an equivalent
geometric imperfcction for a design·oriented OMNIA anulysis. It should be clear that these
equivnlent imperfections cannot correspond precisely to a mensurable reality in thc completed
continue,> for some simple structure after fabrication and erection. despite the fact that they must be related to measuruble
Ul appropriate equivalent tolerances in the final structure. The 11s~umption of a suitable equivalent geometric imperfection
features two parts: the imperfl,.'Ction pattcrn lind the imperfection amplitude. :IS described below.

for choosing the eqU1valent

r. 1(04) when undcrtakmg 83.3.7 On tht' pattern ohqui\'lILlcnt geometric imperfections

For npplieation in design enlculations using OMNIA alialyS<.'S. it is necessary to adopt a specific
Cnodcllcd as "realistically" as pattern (or a few patlerns) of imperfections and to treat these in a deternlinistic manner as
1-00. HOM'\eT. there arc two representing the bcha\ iour of the completed structure. To understand the decisions to be made in
r: ,the TC<;ldual slre'>'>C!> and
ldercd they arc difficult to
adopting a specific fonn. it is nl,.'Cessary to understand something of the historical development that
has led 10 lhe current position.
geometric imperfection that
IifficuitiC) in trnnslaling the Research studies on equivalent geometric 1mperfection fonns began with the classical eigenmode-
nner. This ~itual1on mcan~ affine pre·buckling defomullions adoptl,.-d by KoitCT (1948. 1963). continued with the very extensive
field of inten~i\ C DCti\ity for studies of many specific imperfection fonns (e.g. Budiansky. 1974; Yamaki. 1984). moved towards
pruetielll fonns exploiting measurements of constructed shells (Arbocz. 1982. 1983: Ding ct al.
1998) which infonned sc'>cml investigations of wc1d-deprcssion imperfections (e.g. Rolter and
btie treatments of real ulld Teng, 1989; Khamlichi et Ill .. 2()().1). progressed 10 stochastic studies of ensembles of imperfection
.. ta~k in a ,>tocha~tic m11nncr fornls (Amazigo. 1974: Singer et al. 2002). the usc of (J(1-I,OC fonns suitable for Jh1rtieular problems
g, ArbocL. 1983) ha\'c found (Greiner and Ouggenberger. 199H: Schneider and Brede. 20(4) and is still cominuing with recellt
~l be applied to typical civil ideas of"quasi-coll11psc'11ffinc" p:1t1crns (Schneider et al.. 2005; Getlel and Schneider, 2007). All
8/1cMIIIg (lj Stt'!·' Sh""\ - f:mvpell/l J)c:~i~1I Rt·(·mllmemlc.ltimn

oflhe ah(}\.: are. 10 gencm1. good candidale:; for an t.'qui\alenl impcrf••!ction fonn. but none can yet Yamaki. IIJIW). il IS co
be identifkd for uni\cr.alapplieatlon. buckling rc-.1~ncC'.

LN 11)93·1·6 SIX:tion 1'1.7.2 (17) ~Ime!o Ihat an im\urd-orieTlled Imperfcclion should ah\a)'~ be
ha\c ... urh Im\ ,,,,p'''",Jci
amplitudc in rigvrous
eho""n ... mce IhlS IS genernlly the mO'>l dcleteriotb fonn (e.g. Tcng and ROller. 19901. lIowcwr. Ihg. H.I"). It 10; therdor . .
thi~ i, !otr;etly only tnle for o;hclls that buckle in Ihe clulltic region. For thicker !ohello; \\here It should be nOIo..'tlth;rt Ihe
phblieity 1Il1I) intcl'\ene. il i., somelime.. IK"Ccssary to conSider nn oUI\\ard axi!oyml11etric ring hulge. gi\ en 1Il1.lhle 10\.5). 'h<>ughl
which enn become more d .... lrin'k!ntlll limn an ilmard one bccuu'tC the Yield eondilion is fulfilled !om;rller amplitude, til) nol
carlier at the centre of Ihe outward bulge (eompr....liliioll in the IIlcridional dil'l..'Ction coupled with
ten .. ion inlh .... elrcumfcrentlUl dlrecllon) (see Schneider. 2006b). No geneml guidance cun be givcn Ilere II is TeConuncnticJ
011 when dUlItic-plu!otic buckling w ill occur at a lower load for out\', ard nnhel thun ilm ard oriented SO" 0 to I00" D Ilf the '" ,,,'" 1

H.3.3.H On Ihe Ilmplitudes of cquh 1IICl1t gcometric imperfections

In g.... ncm1. II larger amplitude of imperfection will e3U~C II reduClion III the bucklmg re ... islnnce of
the ,hell. 110\\"'"Cr. some fonns ofimperflX:tion cnuse rapid rellUl..1ion .. foIlO\\I..'tI by a ~lllblh"':lIion
of the reduclion. whil'l olhers cau...c ... Io\\er reductions in liIrcni!th that continue ul1l1b;rIt.'tI (e.g.

Vllmaki. 19IN). Thu!t difT.... renl fonn ... of imperfection e:lII~ dlnerenl eh;rrocleri!ttic lilrenglh
n.'tluclion .. and II i!o not po!»lblc to iopccify Ihe "\\O~t" imperfection fllml for II particular geometry • '"
and load ea...c \\ Ithoul 31-..0 definmg the amplitude of the imperft..'Ction. An c"illmplc i...... hO\\ n 111 Fig.
1'1.13. where Ihc linear bifurcation 10\\C1>1 cigenmode (LEM). non linear bifureation 100\c.,1
eigenmoc..le (NlM). !lO!>t·buckling defonnt..'tI shape WDI) and weld depression (\VDl imperli..'Clion
fonn, arc all calculated for 3 cylinder und .... r \oc'1ll axial comprc... liion (Song ct al .• 1()().4).
1.0 lUI

-+- LEM fiJ:urc 8.14: I \iIIllrlo: ufoJc

..0' 0.8 --+-- NLM The \lIluco;gl\cn III l;rhleX
~I'DP difTercnl filbr;Cilli\1I1 Lju;rllty
-Er- WI) (I.. I..b, d I..b) the hand c;rlcuillti(ln huddin
~ Hnd 10.6). lIowever.lhe rd
"- 0.4 gi,cn in Table ItS may I'IC C"
0.2 On Ihe ca libration

TIIC aim of a (j\1\IA prell

0.0 structures onen ellnwin mall
0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2.4 2.8 lor Ihl ~ reason. II " IIIl~1 de
Imperfection Amplitude n· t outcome of a tc>;t l'I!!i.ult for
~otallon: U M LIIIC'ar ligcnmodc difTerent \Calc. It 10; ntlt nt."'\.
NI·M l'\onhnear Eigenmod ... be II rCfl'"Cl>Cntation (If Ih . . rul
PDP POiotbuckling Ikformt..-d Patt .... m
\\'D Weld Ikpl'\.~ion In prcpamtilln 10r'1I cahbrall
Figure 8.13: D1ITcfCni nnpcrfl..'Cllon <,CnMII,"iC<i for dilTerent impcrfcclloo fomb on a e}lindcr unJ . . r local (lXh!>ibly bl.lth III t. ."
a~1!!1 load wlIh r t of 500 (after Song el al., ~0(4) condition... (If the leo;l arc 11111
detemunc \\ helher MIll)!': nu
BOlh Ihe o;hllpe and the Ilmplitude of lin nnperfcction arc e!o;,ential componen" in the e\lIlu"lion of !oenMII\ e to scomctnc unIX
the buckling re,i"'llmcc. FolIO\\ing Ihe cxtcnsi\c siudics ofimperfcction !oen~ili\ity of!ohclh (e.g. !opecimen arc me;r,urcrJ. I
Rl/h·\ fur ,lit· hI/cUing lillli,\I,,'t· "nt'Hlt/Cn' 'I.\illg j!/obu/ f/l11II("rinll UI"''' ,\/ \

'.."u\m Il.nn. but nonc can yct Yamaki. 1984). it is commonly thought that a largc amplitudc imperfection Will cause a IOller
huck ling rc-.i\tancc. Ho\\cl'Cr. thi~ ~imple picture i.. o;omctimc\ only truc for imperfcctions that
hale such lOll amplitudes a~ to be impructically ~mall. The choice of a larger imperfection
pertecl1(lO !>hould alwa),!> be amplitudc in rigorou~ calculation~ II ill not always produce a IOller stability limit (on the safe .. ide)
mJ Ruller, 199(1), Ilowe\er. (hg.8.14). It is thcreforc hil!hly Udll!>..1blc to lIl\CSllgate se\eral equi\:llent geometric amplitudes.
n. ~ur Ihicker ~hcl1~ where II .. hould be noted that the rule .. of I-.N 1993·1·6 define only onc equII'alent gcometric mnplitude (as
.ard a\i~~mm..:tric ring hulge. given in Table 8.5). though u wuming i.. ghcn in IU.2.2 (20) thut the culcul31iolls .. hould verify thai
Ie Yield condition i.. lilltillcd smaller amplitudes do 1101 cause lower rcsi~tunce~.
linnal dlf\."Ctioo coupled with
'en..:ralguidance can he ginm lIere it is recommended thut the ell1cullitlons ~hould e,plicitly explore a mnge of amplitudes from
'd mth..· than imlard oriented 50"0 to IOOOfoofthe IlIluL~ gil en in Tlible 8.5.


m the bud.Jmg rc'l\tance of
n, Ii.lllow~-d b~ a .. lah.Ii..allon
thaI wntinue unabat~"tl (e.y.

0 .•
ICI\"I1I I;hanl(!~-ri~lil; !>trenglh
)nn for a panu.:ular geometry

~ 0.4
.\0 e\ample j, ,holl n 10 ,. ig. 8
m linear bifurcalion IOlle,t ~ --e-- d 051.
0.2 ~ d 0(121).. 1
ep[ ~""MUII (\\ D 1 [[1\1)1;[ 1i..·\:1 iun
~ d ).•;1
ong ct al.. 21Xl41.
0 .•
0.0 0.4 0.' 1.2 1.6 2.0 2,4 2.8
Impcrfeetlon Amplilude Ii I
Flgur(' 8.14: Example of descending lind a!.Ccnding i[llpcrf~'Cllun :.cnloJti, ity cUl'\-e~ (after Sung <:1 aL 2(04)

The values given in Table 8.5 lIere derived from the relationship to the tolemnee TIleasuremenb for
different fabrication quality elu!>scs gilen in Clmptcr 6 (Tables 6.1 to 6.4). and their relationship to
,d I.b I thc hand calcul:llion buckling curves for those quality classes gi\en in Chapter 10 (Tables 10.2. 10.5
and 10.6), lIowever. the relationship is slill u httle uncenllln. and somc modificatIOns to the values
given in Table 8.5 may be eXpL'CtL"tl as un outcome of future re ..eareh ~tudics in the next few yean"
i"'-5"'" On the calibnlion of Ihe nu IIIcriclil G\INIA rcsull b) mellns of lesl resulls
t,'"'?) The aim of a GMNIA prediction is to aceunltely forecu:-.t the strength of II real structure. Real
structures often contam many fealures that nre Ignored or simplified for the purpose of the analy~is.
2.4 2.8 For thi' reason. it is most desirable that the GMNIA modelling is soccessfully cahbmted ngainstlhe
outcome of a tcst result for a !oIructurc lIilh similar features to the real structure. albeit at II lery
different scale. It is not nece»llry for the calibration \{.~t arrangement und boundary conditions to
be a representation of the full scale structure.

rb un a q hnder under loeul

In prcparution for a ealibnlti()(l Ie"'. enreful lIleliSUremenh of the stre!.s-strain CUf\'C of thc matcrial
(~sibly both in tension and cOll1pres~ion). und careful uS:o.CssTllent of the lIetulil boundary
conditions of the test are imponunl. The load1ll8 and suppon should be e~Dmincd wilh great cure 10
detenninc whether some non-ull1fonmty is belllg IIltroduccd accidentally. If the shell structure is
ponent .. in Ihe e\ahmtinn of ,cnsitilC to gL'Ollletrie imperfections. thell il is 1I1~0 imponllnt that Ihe imperfections in the IC<,I
ion\iIY of ~hell, (e.g. speci men arc measured. These mea:.urcmenLo; cun be fcd into the GMNIA arlUly~is !.O thut the

Hllclditfg ofSrt!t!1 SluoJls· EllrolH!(lII Design Rl'CO,'",I(!fIdlltiotls

comparison is deemed 10 be scicnlificnlly justifiable. nnd not merely adjusted 10 fit the lest outcome
u~ing <lula Ihal is unknown. lIowc\cr. many allcmpts havc been madc by difTerent research grou ps 8.4 References
to aehic\-c good matches betwccn tests and quality GMNIA an:llyses. using mcasured
imperfections. and the results havc been almost always disappointing. Ne\-erthelcss. if s uch a Amazigo. J.c. (1914)"
dcscnption of the test can be made, the GMNIA analysis. including its simplifying assumptions. ed Rudiansky. Springer.
s hould lead to a l1lodemtely close reproduction oftllc behaviour and s trength ofthc tcst.
ArOOc.l. J. (1982) "The
It is nOI simple (0 define 11 criterion that dctcnnincs whether the analysis hus uchieved 11 close Bllddiflg ofS"l'If~. I.:d. I,
enough reproduction of the lesl. Some shell buckling conditions arc so sensitive to small deviations
(e.g. ncar perfect cylinders nnd spheres) that an accurnte fit cannot be expected except where Arbocz. J. (19~3) "Shell
cxccplionul control of the test configumt ion has been undertaken. lIowcvcr. under more Iypical Thompson and G,W. Ilunt
circumstances. the culculatcd strength on firsl realistic attempt. s hould lie within the bounds
Arboc7~ J. and 1101. J.M.
0.80 < ,.G.HW'-
_ R'l'ft).llOltll .chtd, < 1'0
J.. imperfL'Ctioll!<o". Thin-Wall
R GMS/A.clu:<'k
Rardi. F. C. and Kynakldl
Ifthc prediction is higher than kG.If"~ 1.0. EN 1993-1-6 Section 8.7.2 (25) requires that kGI'''f -
Pan I - e"pcnmcnl ....
1.0 be adopted in application of the analysis to the real structure. For other cases. the GMNIA
outcome for the real structure must be scaled down to allow for the o\er-predictlOn built into the
Budiansky. B. (1974) "T
finite clement model.
Advances in Applied Met O n th l.' plolling ohtresses fro nt finit e clement a n a l~·.ses in plastic rtgions Crisfield. M.A. (19MI)
Through'.- Compolers nn
Care mll ~ t he take n when interpreting fin ill.' clement results u ~i ng tt ulormnically generated contour
plots. In some eommereial finite element packages. it is possible tlmt when looking lit the \'on Crisfield. M ,A (1991) V(
Mises stresses in a contour plot, val ues larger than the yicld strc5S arc seen although an ideal ela)t1c- John Wiley & Son~, Lond
plastic material behaviour has been assumed. This is especially the case when local yielding occurs
in the model. The explanation lies in the way the plotting ailloritlull extntpolau..'S the results Christoffersen, J. and lI u
(stresses) found at the integnttion points 10 the nodes of the clement. Ifa shell element with multiple plasticity", J. Mcch, Phy~.
inlegnttion points is used. the algorithm detennines the gmdienl in the von Mises stress between the
integmtion points and uses this to extmpolute the von Mises stress to the nodes. This can lead to Croll, J.G.A. lind Ellina!<o,
volues hlrger thun the theore tical maximum being shown. It is however clear tlmt this is only a and unstiffened cylinders'·
problem ofrcprescnllltion and that the values at the imegnttion points remain reliable.
Oeml. M and Wunderl icl
buckling". Compo Mcth. J
8.3.3. 11 GCII{'ra l concluding cOllllllcntary
Ding, X.L.. Coleman. R.I
Further discussion of many aspects of the use of GMNlA analysis may be found in the texts noted scale silOli and l!Ink~". Jou
in the Reference lis t below. 122. No. I, pp 14·25.

It should be noted that an analyst undertaking a GMNIA onalysis should ha\-e a very good Dinkkr. D. and Knoke, (
understanding of the behoviournl ehnmcteristics of shell structures. Many phe nomena seen in such Thcor. App!. ~kch .• Vol.
analyses arc difficult to understand and may be anributed to the wTOng cause. A thoroug h and
detailed s tudy of such texis as Yamaki (1984) and Bushnell (1996) is highly recommended to those Docrich. C.. 1I01st. J.M.1
under1aking such analyses. supported on local bn«
Structures,ICASS·OS. Sh

Docrich. C. and Rotter . .

bmckcts", Journal orStru

RI/h'sfor Ihe hl/ddillg limit stllle 1I.ue.umem II.~j"g globallllllllerical at/a/ysis

jJustm to fit the test outcomc

, by different ~an:h groups 8.4 References
analyllCS. \bing measured
ing. ~c\cnhclcss. if such a Amat.igo. J.e. (1974) "Buckling of Stochastically Imperfect Structures". in Buckling of S'ntClI/rI.'S.
Its sImplifying assumptions. cd Budiansky. Springer. New York, pp 172·182.
cngth ofthc tCltI.
Arbocz. J. (1982) "The imperfection dntu bank. a means to obtain realistic buckling loads". in
lal)'~i~ has achie.. cd a closc Buckling of She Ill'. cd. E. RUIlUIl, Proc. Stlllc..of·the-An Coli .. Stultgan Univcrsity, pp 535-567.
, sen~It1\e to small deviations
t be e)[pccted except where Arbocz. J. (1983) "Shell SUlbility Analysis: Theory and Practice", in Collapse. Eds J.M.T.
iowc\·er. under more typical Thompson and G.W. Hunt. Cambridgc University Press. Cambridge. England, pp 43-74.
lie within the bounds
Arbocz, J. and Hoi . J.M. (1995) "Collapse of axially compressed cylindrical shells with r.mdom
imperfections". Thin·Wallcd Structun.'s. \'01. 23. 131 · 158.

Bardi. F. e. and Kyriakidcs. S. (2006) " Plastic buckling of circular tubes under axial compression,
:! (5) requires that KGUS".
Pan I experiments".
:or other cases, the GMNIA
o\er-prediction built into the Oudiansky. B. (1974) "Theory of Buckling and Postbuckling Behaviour of Elastic Structures",
Advances in Applied Mechanics. Vol. 14, pp 1-65.

)Iastk rrgionJi Crisfield. MA (1981) "A Fast IncrementaVlteration Solution Procedure that Handles ' Snap-
Through·.·· Computers and Structures. \'01. 13. pp. 55 62. 1981 .
omatical1y generated contour
lat when looking at the \011 Crisfield, M.A. (1997) NUI/lil/ear Finite F.leml!l/l AflllIYl·i.\· afSolids (/tid S'nlc'l/res. Vols I and 2.
iCCn ahhough an ideal clastic· John Wiley & Sons. London.
Ie \\ hen local yiclding occurs
thm extrapolatcs the rc~ulLS ChristDffersen. J. and Hutchinson, J.W. (1979) "A class of phenomenolDgical comer theories of
a shell clement with multiplc plasticity", J. Mech. Phys. Solids. 27. 445-487.
"on Miscs stress between thc
r thc nodes. This ClIn lead to Croll, lG.A. and Ellinus. C.I'. (1985) "A design fonnulation for axisymmctrie collapse of stiffened
C\'er clear that this is Dnly a and unstiffel1(:d cylinders", Trans. ASME. Vol. 107. Sept. pp. 350-355.
emain n:liable.
Dcml. M. and Wunderlich. W. ( 1997) " Din.-ct evaluation of the 'worst' imperfection shape in shell
buckling". Compo Mcth. Appl. Mcch. Eng.• Vol. 149. pp 201 -222.

Ding. XL, Coleman_ R.D. and ROller. J.M. (1996) '"Technique for precise measurement of large-
be found in the texts noted scale silos and tanks". Journal of Surveying Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol.
122, No. I. pp 14-25.

should ha..e a \'ery good Dinklt:r. D. and Knoke. O. (2003): "Elasto-plastic limit loads of eylinder-cone configurations". J.
\any phenomena seen in such 1111.'Or. Appl. Mech .. Vol. 4 1. pp 443-457.
long cause. A thorough and
'ghly recommended to those Docrich. C .. Holst. J.M.F.G. and ROller. J.M. (2005) "The behaviour of cylindrical steel shells
supponed on local brackets". Proc .. Founh International Conference on Ad'anccs in Steel
Structures. ICASS·05. Shanghai. pp. 377-382.

Docrich. C. and ROller. J.M. (2008) "The behavior of cylindrical steel shells supponcd on local
brackets". Journal of Structural Engineering. American Society of Civil Engineers. August 2008.

EN 1993-1-6 (2007) I urocode 3: l.>olgn of !>Ieel structures. Pan 1.6: Generul rule!> - Supplementary
rules for the ~trcngth and ),tability of),hell ),Iructure ... CI~N. Bru!>!.Cls. Jullien JJ. ll111al1l \
cylindricill ,hells
EBiingcr. M (1970) " 'lochgeschwlIldigkeitsaufnahmcn \om Bcul\orgung dl1nnwundiger b:J"!rimental ",,,ham,s.!
axialbcla ... teter Zylinder". Ocr SlUhlb.'Iu 39. 73-76. Oxfortll K.

GClle!. M. und Schneider. W. (2007) "Buckling .. trength \erificutlun of canllle\ered cylindrical Khamlichi A .• Ikna/i ,
... hell~ ~ ubj cctL-d to Irnn),ver..c 1000'Id using Eurocodc 3'". Joumal of Con.,tructionul Sleel Rc ..careh. ell;':c! or IlX"ulll('d ""'"''''
Vol. 63 II. pp. 1467-147H.
Koiler. W,I (11)4~J

Greiner. R. and Dcrler. P. (1995) "Effect of imperfection on '" ind-loodcd cylindrical ~hclls". Thin
Walled Structures. Vol. :n. pp 271-281.
K(lIter \\ I IIW,1)
Greiner. R. and Guggenocrger. W. f199K) " Buekling Beha\iour of A"ially L0..1ded Steel Cylindm Shell, under ·\\1.11 (omp'
on Local Suppon~ - "'ith and ",ithoutlntemal Pressure". Thin Walled Structures. Vol. 3 1. pp 159- Sa. BM. pp 1M·1N
I..:.roplm. n, Dinkier I>
Guggenbcrt\er. W. (1996) ··I·ffeet of gl..'On1CtriC imperfcctlons takmg II1tO account the fabrication nl.lnlinear ,tructuml ar I)
process and con!>i~lent rcl>idual l>tn..'!ol> ficld .. of cylinders under locala"ial loads". I'roc. Imernnllon:lI
\\'ork~hop on Imperfections in Metal Silos: Meas urement. Chumeteri'>l1tion and Strength Anal)"i ... Mal>~nnet. C.I and S.I
CA-5ilo. 1.),011. '·mnce. pp 217-22H. Di,k, .... onh .. lloll,d

Hill. R. (1958) .. A gcneraltlll..'Ory of uniquenC\., and stability of elas tic-plastic soli(b". Journal orthe Ramm. F 119XI)··Strato.:
Mechanics und Physics of Sohds. 6. 236-249. Filli/t· Ehlll'lll 11I.,/Iu~
Hol~l. 1M.F.G .• ROller. J.M. and Culladine. C.R. (1999) "Imperfections in Cyllndricul Shc1b
resulting from Fabrication Mi)'fib". Joumal of Engineering Mechanics. ASCI,. Vol. 125. No.4. Rih r:. (11)7!<:) \ um!ie
April. pp410-4IK. cl:L~!'C l>} ~Iem'." .\cta I e(

HolM. 1M.F.G .. KOller. 1M. and Calilldine. CR. (2000) "Imperfections and buckling in cylindrical Rik ... I· (11)79) "o\n Iner,
!,hells with COI1),i~tellt re .. idunl wcl>),cs". Journnl ofConstnlctional Steel Kesc:lrch. Vol. 54. pp 265- Int. J. Solid, Structure. I,
Rlh. I, • Rankin. « an
Holst. J.M.F.G. and Rotter. J.M. (2(1().f) "Senlemcnt beneath cylindrical shells". In HllddillX o{TItiIl Ihin-\\alh.:d ,h.:11 ~!ruClUr\'
Melal Shdk eds lG. Teng & J.M . Rotter. Spon. London. pp 129-153 pp ;1)-1)1

Iioist. J.M.I· .G .. Rotter. J.M .. Gillie. M . and Munch. M . (2002) "Failure Criteria for Shells on Local ROller. J.\1 fllJ1'!'i) ....
Support!)". in .v£'II' AppnH.KItl'\ 10 Slmclllrlll \ll'dumin. She/ls lind HiologiCllI SII"//{I/lr/.'s. E<b II.R. Procu'liing . J,lmt l S \l
Dre'" lind S. Pellegrino. Klu\\cr Acndemic Publishers. London. pp 315-327. Bin),. Tanb and Sllus. L

1I01sl. J.M.I .G .• Doerieh. C. and ROller. J.M . (2005) "Accumte detennin:l1ion of the plastic ROller. J \1 (lINO) '11
eollaJl"C load!> of.,hclls ",hcn u~ing finite clement analyscs-. Proc .. Founh International Conference compre,~d ,ill) c)!lnd\
on Advunces in Stecl Struclure),. IC ASS·05. Shanghai. July 2005. pp. 1789-1794. impcrfl..'Ctilln,. n...... dual 5t
'\klal Silo~: \ica,urel11e'
IIl1bner. A .. Teng. JG . and Stull. II. (2006) "Buekling behaviour of large .. teel eylinden. \\;Ih April. pp 111J·1411.
pullerned weld ..... Int . J. Pre),~ure Ve"'oCI .. and Piping. Vol. 83. pp 13·26.
Rotter.1\l (lq\)!<:) "Shd
lIutchmson. J. W. (1974) "Plastic buckling". Advances in Applit.-d Mcchllnie~. 14. 67· 144. \Valled Structure~. \'(11 J

Hutchinson. J.W. und Koiler. W.T. (1970) "Postbuekling lllL'Ory". Appl. Meeh. Reviews. Vo1.23. Roller, J\1 (1()(J~) 'Sh
No. 12. Dec .. pp I 353-13CKi. Fr,tme\HlTk of the Fuwr

Rlllc~ for Iltl' h/lddill~ limil\W/t' Cl!>S('S.IIIICI/I /lsi"!: g/oha/lIllma;lCl/ tlIICl/n;\

I'lII rule-. - Surrlcnll!ntary

Jullien J.I .. Limam A. and Grrn. D. (19I.JK) "An e'Cpcr;menlal approach for the buckling of
cylindrical shell~ under intemul rl'l!~~urc and bcndmg". 11th Intcmational Conference on
ul\ organg dOnnwandlger Experimental Meehanic~. Ad\ancc.. in Iksign. T~tlllg and Analysis. Vol. I p 349·J54. AugU'.t.
Oxford UK.

of cantile\ ercd cylindrical Khamlichi A .. Be7:z:;vi 1\1 .. Limum A. (2004) "Buckling of clastic cylindrical ~hclls considering the
tructional Steel Re'iCareh. eiTect oflocaliz...-d axisymmetric impcrf...'Ctions", nun·Walled Structures. Vol 42. pro 1f)]5·I047.

Koitcr. W:r. (1945) "On the Stability (If HI~tic Lquilibrillln··. (in Dutch) PhD The.. i~. Dclft
Uni\cT'ity, bee al,>o Tntn .. lotion AHDL·TR· 70·25 Wright Patterson Air Forcc Base. 1970).

Koitcr. W.T. (1963) "The EiTecl of A'Cisymmctric Imperfection .. on thc Buckling of Cylindrical
,Iy Load...'I.l St...'C1 ('ylinde,", Shells under Axial Comprc\sion". Komnkhke f'IO!,.-derhllldi..che Akadcmie Hill Wctenshappen. Proc.
liructum. \"01. 31. pp 159· Scr. B66. pp 265·279_

Kroplin. B.. Dinkier. D. and lIillmann. J (19X5) "An encrgy penurbation method applied to
o account the fubrication nonlinear struclurnl anal) .. i..... Compo \!cth. Aprl. tIokch. I· ngng. Vol. 52. 882-897.
load)~. Proc. International
nand Slrenglh Analysis. Massonnet. C.E. and Sa\e, M.A. (1972) "Pla~tic Anal),)is and the Design of I'latcs Shcll~ and

tic M)1ids". Journal of thc Ramm, E. (1981) "Slnttcgi(.'S for Tntcing the l\onlinear Rc~ponsc l\car Limit Points:' in SOlllil/wr
Filli/!' Elcltlt'lII\ iI/ SlnldlflU/ .\lnlllllli'-,I. cd) \\ Wunderlidl. L Siein. nnd K.J_ l1athe.
n~ in C)'lindrieal Shc1b
ASCE. Vol. J25, No.4, Rik .. , 1.:.. (1978) "A unificd mcthotJ for the computation of critical cquilibrium statc~ of non-linear
c1a~tie ~y~tems:' Actu Tcchnica Acudcmiac Scicntiarium Ilungariclie. Tomlls 87 (1-2), PI' 121-141

and buckling in cylindrical Riks. L. (1979) "An Incfl!lncntlll Approach tn thc Solution ofSnnpping and Buckling Problelll ~·'.
RC!oCarch. \'01. 54, pp 265· Int. J. Solids Stnlcture..., 15, Pil. 529-551

Riks, L.. Rankin. C.C. and Brog:lIl. I·.A. (1996) "On the solution of modc jumping phenomenn III
;hell~··. in Blld./illl: of Thill thin-walled shell structures". Computer Method ... in Apphed i\kchanic" and Enginecring. Vol. 136,
pp 59-92.

~ritcria for Shdl~ on Local ROller. 1M. (1985) "Stability Problcms m Cylindrical UIIIS undcr A'Cial Compre....,on...
mimI S'nKlllre.l. Eds II .R. I'roceedings. Joint US Au~trn1ian Work .. hop on the Loadmg, Anal)'si .. and Stability of Thin Shdl
27. Uins. Tanks and Sil"". Uni\ef'tity ofS),dncy. March, I'll 106·117.

1~'T1Ilmalionof thc Roller. J.M. (1996) "[laMlc plastic buckhng and collap'iC In Internally pressuri'iCd 3'Cially
h International Conference compressed si lo cylindef't \\lIh mca~urcd a'Ci"ymmctrie imperfections: intentclion" bch\!"'Cn
~9-17!>1. imperfections. residual .. tfC!o!>C" and collafN"', Pruc. International Workshop on IInperfL'Ctions in
Metal Silos: Mcasurement. Charneterisution and Strength Analysis. CA·Silo. Lyon. Fronce. 19
large .. tcel cylinder<, \\ilh April. IlP 119·140.

ROller. J.M. (1998) "Shell 'oImCltifl!": thc ne\\ i-.uropcan ....andard and current fC'oCarch nectb... Thin·
nics. 1·" 67-144 Walled Structures. Vol. 31. Nos 1-3. pp 3-23.

Roller. J.M. (2002) "Shell lJud.hng and Collap"e Analy~i~ for Structurnl I)c"ign: The Ne ....
I'rllnlcwork of the I'_urope:m SlIlndnrd··. in Nt!ll' lppmadl!'\ 10 S/rttt'/lIrtI/ \lee/nil/in. Shel/.l and
Buckling tI(Steel Shells - EIIIYJJX'{m De!iign Rl'Lvmmendtlti(ms

Biologicul StMlctllre.f. eds II.R . Drew and S. Pellegrino, Kluwer Academic I'ublishers. London. pp
355·378. Singer. 1, ArOOc/, J.
Hllclding ojThI".III,,/,/,·JSj
Rotter. 1M. (2004) "Buckling of cylindrical shells under axial compression". in BII(:kling of Tllin
Metal Shells. cd.!. J.G. Teng & J.M. Rotter. Spon. London. pp 42-87. Song, C.V .• TI..'ng. Hi.
!thcll!o !oubjcct to partial
ROller. J.M. (200j ) "The Prnctical DesibrIJ of Shell Struetures E:<ploiting Different Methods of July, pp 7155-71110.
Analysis", in SI,ell Structllres: Theory alld Applications, eds W. Pietraszkiewicz & C S;rymczak.
Taylor and Francis. London. pp. 71-86. Speicher, G. and Saal. H_
particular regard to the
ROller, J.M. and Teng, J.G. (1989) "ElastiC Stability of Cylindrical Shells with Wcld Depressions". on umJ, in ,Ill' Sc:1I
Journal ofStructuml Engim:ering. Amcriclln Society of Civil Engineers. Vol 115, No. 5, May 1989.
pp 1244-1 263. T... ergllllrd. V. (l9K3)
Walled-Structure.. I.
Schmidt. II. (1990) "Shell buckling design by means of numerically detennincd buckling loods".
ECCS TWG 8.4 Repon. May. 15pp.
chnractcri~tic~ of "tn""'rei
Schmidt. II. (1991) "The German code DIN 18800 Pan 4: Stllbility of shell-type steel structures.
design philosophy and pmetical applications". Intemational Colloquiu11l on Buckling of Shell von Kam13n. T.
Structures on Lllnd, in the Sca and in the Air. Villcurbanne. Lyon. Fmnce. 17- 19 Sept .. pp. 265-269. compression", J. A"U",,"~

Schmidt, H. (1994) " Stability of shells". Cl::N TC250 SC3 PT 3 (Masts. Chimneys. Pipelines) Wempncr. G. A (1971
Report. August, 12pp. International Journal

Schmidt. I-I. (2000) "Stability or steel shell structures - Gcncrnl Repon". J. Constr. Stecl Rescnrch. YlI11IlIki. N. 1984) H,,"ti,.~
Vol. 55, pp 159-181. Science Pul,H,h",. "m't~

Schmid!. II. (2002) "Bculsicherhcitsnach\\cisc tnr Schalen naeh DIN 18800-4. E-DASt-Richtlinie
017 und D1NV ENV 1993-1-6" ( " Blle'kUng ,o,trength (lssessmetlf for slll! lIs according to ... "). In:
Stahibau-Killender 2002. Ernst & Sohn. Berlin. pp 291-342.

Schneider, W., Timmel, I. lind HOhn. K. (200S) "The Conception of QullSi-Collapsc-Affine

Imperfections - A new Approoch to Unfavournble Imperfections ofThin-Wnllcd Shell Structures".
Thin-Walled Structures, Vol. 43 . No. 8. pp. 1202-1224.

Schneider, W. and Brede, A. (200S) "Consistent equivalent geometric imperfections for the
numerical buckling strength verification of cylindrical shells under unifornl external pn.:ssurc",
Thin-Walled Structures Vol. 43 No. 2. pp. 175- 188.

Schneider. \Y. (2006a) "Stimuiliting I-::quivalent Geometric Imperfections for the Numerical
Buckling Strength Verification of Axially Compressed Cylindrical Steel Shells" , Comput. M(,.'Ch.
Vol. 37/6. 530-536.

Schneider, \Y. (2006b) "E~tzimpcrfektionen Rlr den numerischen Bculsicherheitsnaehweis

stnhlerner Schnlentmgwerke - Stale of the An" (Eqllim/clIf Geometric Imper/f!Ctio/lS for the
Nlimericul Bllckling Strengtll VerijicCllioll of Steel Shell Structllres - State of tile Art). Stllhlbnu 75 •
11.9.754-760 (in Genmm)

Schneider. W. and Gettel. M. (2007) "Numerical Buckling Strength Verification of Cylindrical

Stecl Shell Structures Subject to Combined loading". Int. J. of Structuml Stability and Dynamics.
Vol. 7. No.2. 295-311 .

Rules/or flu! b'lCkling Ii",il Sill/€' (lSs('ssm€',,' 'ISing global numerical a"a~)'.fjs

emie llublishers, London, pp

Singer, J., Arbocz, J. and Weller. T, (2002) Bucklillg Expenmems: Experimellfol Methods iI/
Buckling o/Thin. Walled SlnlClllrl!S, 2 Volumes, Wiley·VCH Verlag.
~sion". In Bllddillg u/TlIi"
Song. c.y .. Teng. J.G. and Rotter. J.M. (2004) " Imperfection sensitivity of thin clastic cylindrical
shells subject to paninl axinl compression", international Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 41.
oiting Different Methods of July. pp 7155·7 180.
r:tszkicwiez & C Szyme/.nk,
Speicher, G. and Snal, H. (1991) "Numerical calculntion of limit loods for shells of revolution with
p:lnicular regard 10 the applying equivnlcnt initial imperfections", in Bucklillg of Shell SrnlcllIres,
~Ib \\.ith Weld lkpre)~ions", 0/1 Ltmd. ill 'he Sea alld in 'he Air, ed. IF. Jullien, Elsevier Applied Sciencc, London, 466475.
I. Vol 115. No. S. May 1989,
Tvcrgaard, V. (1983) "Plastic buckling ofaxinlly compressed circular cylindrical shclls", Thin·
Walled·Structures 1. 139·163.
dctennin ...-d buckling loods",
von KamlUn, T .• Dunn. L.G and Tsien, II .S. ( 1940) "Thc influence of curvature on the buckling
characteristics of structun.:s". Journnl of thc Acronautical Science, vol. 7. 276·289.
'f shell·type steel structures,
uium on Buckling of Shell von Kannan, T. and Hsu, H.·S. (1941) "The buckling of thin cylindrical shells under axial
ce. 17·19 Sept.. pp. 265·269. compression", J. Aeronautical Sci. Vol. 8, August, pp 303·312.

~1ru.ts, Chimneys, Pipelines) Wempner, G. A. (1971) "Discrete approltimations related to non-linear theories of solids,"
International Journal of Solids and Structun."S, vol. 7, pp. 1581.1599, 1971 .

t". J. Conslr. Steel Rcscarch, Yamllki. N. (1984) Elu.~ric Siahilil), ofCirclilor Cylilldrical Shells. Nonh Holland, Elsevier Applied
Science Publishers, Amsterdam. 1984.

188()().4, E·DASt·Richtlinie
~h('lIsoccortlin8 to ... "). In:

n of Qunsi.collnpsc·Affine
lin· Walled Shell Structures",

tCtric imperfections for the

uniform external pressure",

tions for the Numerical

f I Shells", Comput. MI.'Ch.

en Bculsicherhdtsnachweis
tric Im]Jl!rfi-cliolls for Ille
Ole 0/ the An), Stahlbau 75 ,

Verification of Cylindrical
!lral Stability and Dynnmics,
9 Rules for the buckling limit state assess ment using stress
Principal authors: H. Schmidt. J.M. Rotter und R. Greiner

9.1 General

The buckling limit ~Iatc al.l>CiI)mCIII u!.ing litre...... dc!>ign (rcfcm.-d to bclo\\ 3S "buckling '>lress de-
~ign") follo"s. as noted in 1.2.2. the So'llne reduction faclor approach as the buckling design by
global numerical MNA LilA analYSIS. \\hleb \\a~ prc'>Cnlcd III Section R.2. Buckling ;,Irc.. ~ design
may. in Mlmc <;C.hC'>, be st..ocn as a .. peeial CUloC orthe MNA LBA procedure. though there arc wille
'cry !lignificant difTerence!>. Buckling litre...... dL~ign is ci>:.cntiully the traditional hand calculation
procedure that may be found III m~t orthe lilcrolure on ... lIcli buckhng d($ib'll until the introduction
of the Eurocode EN 1993-1-6.

In buckling j,trcss de ... ign. the HlriO~ rc ... i.<.tuncc quantilil~ for the shell structure are expressed In
tenns of stresses (by controst \\ IIh the non-dimensional load factors R u!tCd in the generol
MNA LBA fomlat). As a result. for a ease 111\01\ Lng gencrol loads. the efTC(:b of all three of the
buckling-relc\ant mcmbronc stress componcnts (meridlon31 compression. circumferential compre!>-
Mon. shcar) must be mcluded m Ihc buckling 3s..cs .. ment. and 11I1appropriatc buckling faclor n ..duc-
lion found for the combination of the threc componcnt ... It i" nOI ~imple to achie\c an appropriatc
reduction for any combination in any ~hell eonfigurution. w in thc current fonnulation. each of the
three components is first treated scp.'lr.uely (finding a reduction lor cach indi\ idually). and Ihe out-
come for cach of the three component' is thcn re-eombined 10 :10 1Oter::lction at the end of the as·
.. e'~men t procedure. TIlis methodulogy mlly be irnprmcd upon ill the future . but this has Ix.:en ac-
cepted as the best genenllmethodology III pre..ent.

Although this procedure may look much more elaborme than the general MNA LilA fom1at . II has
the great ad\anlage that it can make U!,C of thc immcn'tC kno\\ II.-dgc on basic .. hell buckling case"
asscmbled 0\ er the lasl hundred yean. in Ihe fonn of c:..:pressions for elastic critical buckling
Mresscs and clastic imperfcction reductIon factors. Thus. buckling lIolrcss design is usually per-
fonned by "hand calculation" uSing fonnulas andor diagrams. and this mcthodology is commonly
found in other standards. hambooks and l'L'ComnlCndation". The furopcan Standard EN 199]-1-6
offers a considemble amount of informlltion that i~ irnml.-diatc1y applicllble for this type of .. hell
buckling design by h:l.nd calculation. and Ihese Recommendations follow that methodology In Part
II. In thIS Chapter 9, the rules for buckhng ~trcss de"ign gi\en m Seclion 8.5 of LN 1993-1-6 arc
o,ct out. lind commenls are si\cn on th\!"-C nliL's.

The design procedure for buckhng stress dc!>ign im ohes the folloy, ing steps. as illustl11ted in Fig.
9. 1:
(I) C.:.lculalc the linear elastic stress ficld mduced by the applied combllla!lon of actions. leadmg
to the complete mcmbranc stress field UtE/I- ul£d and trl£d throughout the structure (both
comprcssi"e and tensile ~t re",scs):
(2) Find the elastic critical buckling stresses u,Rlr ulMer lind 'fIR..,' for the perfect shell at any
location \\ hcre a compreM.i\'e or shear membrane stress ClIUSCS u buck ling check to be needed:

Buckling ofSteel Shells · Ellropean Design Recommendatiolls

(3) Deduce the relative slendemess parnmeters of the shell A.". A.o and Ar which relate the yield
stress to the clastic criticnl buckling stresses: