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ESSENCE - International Journal for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservation


Volume V: No. 1 2014 [72 – 83] [ISSN 0975 - 6272]
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Effect of chromium on the foliar epidermal pattern in different accessions of


Vigna angularis

Anil Kumar1, Shalabh Gupta2 and Gulshan Kumar Dhingra3

Received: February 17, 2014  Accepted


Accepted: May 29, 2014  Online: July 07, 2014

Abstract
In the present work two accessions of Vigna and 74 to 125 per mm2 on abaxial leaf
angularis V1 and V2 from Chaubattakhal surfaces. The GCI (Guard Cell Index) was
1600m asl and Uttarkashi 1200m asl found to be increased with increase in Cr
respectively) a hilly local crop were subjected concentrations on adaxial leaf surface in both
to ten molar concentrations (10-11 M to 10-10 M) the accessions of Vigna while it decreased with
treatments of Cr. The seeds were first treated increase in Cr concentration on abaxial leaf
with various Cr concentrations for 24 and 48 surface.
hours).. The number of stomatal cells de
decreased Keywords: Chromium  foliar epidermis 
with increase in Cr concentrations. The mean guard cell index  Vigna angularis
number of epidermal cells in different
Introduction
concentrations of Cr were found to vary from
571 to 759 per mm2 on adaxial and 540 to 702 Among large number of industrial pollutants,
per mm2 on abaxial surface, number of stomata heavy metals occupy considerably lethal
vary from 270 to 326 per mm2 on adaxial position because of threat to human health, owing
surface and 246 to 300 per mm2 on abaxial to their toxicity. For millions of years, rocks at
surface and number of subsidiary cells vary the earth surface were the only resource,
from 77 to 105 per mm2 on adaxial leaf surface releasing heavy metals into water and soil by
For correspondence: way of weathering caused by rain, wind and
1
Deptt. of Botany, Gov. P. G. College, Chaubattakhal, Uttarakhand. other similar processes. The heavy metals were
2
Deptt of Botany, Gov. P. G. College, Karanprayag, Uttarakhand. absorbed by living organisms and were released
3
Deptt. of Botany, Gov. P. G. College, Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand
E-Mail: singhaniya.akr@gmail.com,, shalabhgupta2008@gmail.com back into soil and water. This natural cycle in the
gulshan_k_dhingra@yahoo.com
beginning of present century was severely
disturbed with the several fold increase in
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Kumar et al. /Vol. V [1] 2014 /72 – 83

dependence upon heavy metals for fast industrial The adaxial and abaxial epidermis was studied.
and agricultural developments. Following epidermal parameters were analysed

Barcelo et al. (2005) analysed the water relations for quantifying the variability in different
accessions of Vigna angularis:
angularis
of Cr (VI) treated bush bean plants (Phaseolus
vulgaris L. cv. contender) under both normal a) Number of epidermal cells per mm2,
and water stress conditions. The distribution of b) Number of stomata per mm2,
Chromium, Nickel, and Cobalt in different parts c) Guard cell index (GCI), and
of plant species and soil in mining area of Keban d) Size (length X Breath) of stomata (µm).
has beenn worked out by Sasmaz and Yamar
Results and Discussion
(2006).
The leaves of Vigna were compound and
The legumes have been under cultivation leaflets were ovate-rhomboid,
rhomboid, 5-8X0.4-0.8
5 cm,
throughout the world since time immemorial. acute or acuminate, rounded-cuneate
rounded at base,
They occupy a significant position among food hairy, stipules suborbiclar. (plate 1). The data
crops as source of pulses, vegetables, oils, etc., related to mean number of epidermal cells,
(Khanna and Gupta, 1988). The leg legumes have stomatal cells and subsidiary cells on abaxial
a unique property of maintaining and restoring and adaxial surface is given in Table 2. The
soil fertility through bacterial nodules, which mean lengths (µm) and breadths (µm) (µ data of
are formed on their roots. India has the stomatal cells in both the accessions of Vigna
distinction of being world’s largest producer of are given in Table
able 3. The guard cell
cel index
legumes (pulses and oil yielding) occupying (GCI) data is given in Table
able 4.
about 13 % of areaa under cultivation and
producing 22-23 23 million tons of grains Species Procurement place Abbreviation
used
annually (Tiyagi and Alam, 1992).
Vigna Chaubattakhal, 1800 m asl V1
The Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & angularis Uttarkashi, 1200 m asl V2
Ohashi is known as Soonthiya or Rayans in Table 1: List of Vigna angularis accessions
Garhwal. It belongs to the family Papilionaceae.
The mean number of stomata in V1 was found
Its English name is Adzuki bean bean. It is often
to be lower on the abaxial surfaces in control
cultivated; rarely met as an escape. Vigna flowers
and treated plants. The stomata were of meso-
meso
and fruits from August to November. The
paracytic type in nature (plate 502 a-c).
a The
genus Vigna has about 150 species in tropics
number of stomatal cells decreased with
and 25 species in India (Gaur, 1999).
increase in Cr concentrations. The mean
Materials and Method number of epidermal cells in different
The foliar epidermal patterns were analysed in concentrations of Cr were found to vary from
all the control and treated plants. For epidermal 571 to 759 per mm2 on adaxial and 540 to 702
analysis, the mature leaves were fixed in FAA. per mm2 on abaxial surface, number of stomata
vary from 270 to 326 6 per mm2 on adaxial
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surface and 246 to 300 per mm2 on abaxial adaxial and 590 to 719 per mm2 on abaxial
surface and number of subsidiary cells vary surface, number of stomata ranged from 271 to
from 77 to 105 per mm2 on adaxial leaf surface 349 per mm2 on adaxial surface and 249 to 287
and 74 to 125 per mm2 on abaxial leaf surfaces per mm2 on abaxial surface and number of
in V1. In V2 the mean number of epidermal ry cells vary from 74 to 105 per mm2
subsidiary
cells in different
erent concentrations of Cr were on adaxial leaf surface and 74 to 125 per mm2
found to vary from 488 to 736 per mm2 on on abaxial leaf surface.

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Kumar et al. /Vol. V [1] 2014 /72 – 83

The mean lengths and breadth of stomata in it varied from 16.9 to 24.5 µm and 8.4 to 14.5
different concentrations of Cr on adaxial and µm respectively.
abaxial surfaces in V2 were nearly of equal The GCI was increased with increase in Cr
size. But in V1 the abaxial leaf surface had
concentrations on adaxial leaf surface in both
larger stomata than on adaxial leaf surface. In
the accessions of Vigna while
whi it decreased with
V1 the mean length and breadth of stomata on increase in Cr concentration on abaxial leaf
adaxial leaf surface varied from 15.7 to 23.9
surface. In treatments various anomalies like-
like
µm and 10.4 to 14.5 µm and on abaxial leaf degeneration of one guard cell (plate 2d, f),
surface it varied from 16.0 to 26.9 µm and 8.9
both guard cells (plate 2e) and presence of
to 15.3 µm respectively. Similarly in V2, the three guard cells were found on both the leaf
mean length and breadth of stomata varied
surfaces.
s. The distribution of various reported
from 18.3 to 23.7 µm and 10.1 to 14.3 µm on anomalies is shown in Table
able 5.
adaxial leaf surface and on abaxial leaf surface

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Leaves occupy maximum portion of the aerial Gaur, R.D. (1999): Flora of the district Garhwal
component of the terrestrial plants. The Northwest
orthwest Himalaya (with ethno
stomata present on leaves are inlets and outlets botanical notes). Pp. 302 and 662.
for gases and water vapours. Cr phyto
phyto-toxicity
Jayakumar, K., Jaleel C. A. and Azooz, M. M.
has been considered to be inhibitory for plant
(2008): Impact of cobalt on
growth.
owth. Growth changes are the first most
germination and seedling growth of
obvious reactions of plants under stress. Cr in
Eleusine coracana L. and Oryza sativa
high doses causes metabolic disorders. The
L. under hydroponic
oponic culture. Glob Jour
overall negative influence of heavy metal on
of Mole Sci. 3: 18-20.
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plant resulted in the retardation of normal
growth (Küpper et al.,., 1996) with Khanna, S. S. and Gupta, M. P. (1988):
abnormalities. Raising production of pulses.Yojana.
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In the present investigation significant decrease
in epidermal cells, stomatal cells, subsidiary Küpper, H., Kupper F. and Spiller, M. (1996):
cells and length and breadth was found in Environmental relevance of heavy
treated over control plants both in Vigna metals substituted chlorophylls using
angularis .The degeneration of guard cells may the example of water plants. J. Exp.
be due to disturbance
turbance in normal functioning of Bot. 47: 259-266.
epidermal cells as consequences of heavy Ogundiran, M. B. (2007): Assessment and
metal toxicity because heavy metals disrupt the chemical remediation of soil
metabolic pathways in plants. Excessive level contaminated by lead-acid
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and other morphological characters due to PhD dissertation, Univ.
Univ of Ibadan,
alteration in biomolecules level of cells. It also Nigeria.
interferes with the activities of many key
Parmar, N. G., Vithalani, S. D. and Chanda, S.
enzyme related to normal metabolic and
V. (2002): Alteration in growth and
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Jayakumar et al.,., 2008; Ogundiran, 2007).
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