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Experimental Results of ELF Electric and Magnetic

Fields of Electric Power Systems in Bosnia and


S. Carsimamovic, Z. Bajramovic, M. Rascic M. Veledar, E. Aganovic, A. Carsimamovic

University of Sarajevo Independent System Operator in B&H
Faculty of Electrical Engineering Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract—Investigations of electric and magnetic fields on 400 kV and the general population to electromagnetic fields. This is
transmission lines Tuzla-Visegrad, Sarajevo 10-Sarajevo 20, why it is important to measure values of electric and magnetic
Tuzla-Ugljevik and 220 kV transmission line Kakanj-Zenica are field to get a result and compare it to basic values defined by
performed. These transmission lines are important objects for the standards. Using digital measuring equipment and
operation of electric power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In
the paper measurements of extra low frequency (ELF) electric
software it is possible to confirm real values of electric and
and magnetic fields (EMF) of single 220 and 400 kV overhead magnetic field, including approaches for their mitigation
transmission lines with flat conductor arrangement but with taking into account very specific constructive changes in
different horizontal distances between phases and different overhead lines and substations. Because Bosnia and
heights above ground are presented. These electric and magnetic Herzegovina still does not have standards in this field, it is
field measurements are also compared with calculations results important to look into the situation in surrounding and
performed with two software programs (one commercially European countries and initiate the creation of the necessary
available and one developed by authors on the base of a solver). standards documentation in this field. During this process it is
Also, in the paper the parameters influencing electric and very important to take into account: ICNIRP [1] (International
magnetic fields measurements are investigated.
Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection) and
Keywords-electric and magnetic fields (EMF), transmission European Parliament recommended referent level for public
lines, extra low frequency (ELF), electromagnetic compatibility exposure in the range of 5 kV/m and 200 μT for 50 Hz. On the
(EMC) other hand according to epidemiologist studies these
limitations are related to magnetic field of 0.3-0.4 μT. As a
I. INTRODUCTION result of this, some countries have accepted or have the
intention to accept this precautious approach to implement
Electrical and magnetic fields, generated from electrical lower limits which are much lower than the specified values
energy objects are very important from the aspect of their from ICNIRP.
influence on people and other living organism, as a result of
their impact on surrounding objects (pipelines,
telecommunication lines, etc.). Overhead lines, rated voltage II. MEASUREMENT AND CALCULATION OF ELF EMF
110, 220 and 400 kV, as a very important part of the electrical
power system, are partially located in populated areas (above A. Measurement
roads, very close ot through urban areas, close to structures, The calculations and measurement of electric and magnetic
etc.). In the public there often exists a socio-phenomena fields in vicinity of 400 kV transmission lines Tuzla-Ugljevik,
opinion about the negative influence of ‘emission’ from Tuzla-Visegrad, Sarajevo 10-Sarajevo 20 (under 400 kV) and
different electro energetic objects, specifically overhead lines, Kakanj 5-Zenica (under 220 kV) on the earth's level and on the
and it is very important to register real values of those ELF 1 meter above earth are performed. There are shown the basic
EMF. On the other hand, from tha aspect of the safety of the characteristics and the way of the electric and magnetic fields
employees working in substations it is important to understand measurements, over two different measuring instruments for
the values of electric and magnetic fields produced by electric field and three instruments for magnetic field, Fig. 1.
overhead lines and equipment in these substations. Growing The measuring procedure is performed in the way that one
public concern regarding the impact of the electric and instrument is maintained in a fixed position for recording the
magnetic field resulted in the creation of European guidelines time variations and the other instrument is moved within the
and very strong standards in certain countries. All of these volume for synchronously recording the space variations [2].
After the measurement, the results are corrected taking into
documents require limited exposure of professional workers
account the data recorded by the first instrument. This allows
getting a synchronous picture of the field in the space. The The measurement of electric (Fig. 6) and magnetic (Fig. 7)
current measurements in period of measurement (per phases) fields are performed under specified transmission lines and 1
are performed with typical recording intervals of 15 minutes, meter above the ground [3, 4].
Fig. 2.

Figure 4. 400 kV tower dimensions, single-circuit horizontal configuration

Figure 1. Measuring instruments for magnetic induction [3, 4]; a) 3-axis B

meter (3-D sonde); b) 1-axis E and B meter (1-D sonde), c) 3-axis B meter (3-
D sonde)
I (A)
OHL 400 kV Tuzla - Ugljevik. Date: 21.11.2007.

Figure 5. 400 kV transmissiom line Tuzla-Ugljevik, longitudinal profile
E ( k V /m )

300 5


200 2

11 12 13 14 15 16 t (h)
Figure 2. Typical hourly load variation in period of measure ment for 400 0 5 10 15 20 25 x (m )

kV OHL Tuzla-Ugljevik ( Phase A,  Phase B,  Phase C) [3, 4]

Figure 6. Electric fields at 1 m above ground under sets of conductors; 
400 kV Tuzla-Ugljevik;  400 kV Tuzla-Visegrad;  400 kV Sarajevo
B. Results of measuring of electrical and magnetic fields 10-Sarajevo 20;  220 kV Kakanj 5-Zenica
B ( T)
Specified transmission lines are presented in Fig. 3. 8

Figure 3. Specified transmission lines 3

400 kV tower (No. 3, transmission line Tuzla-Ugljevik)
dimensions, single-circuit horizontal configuration are
presented in Fig. 4. Longitudinal profile of 400 kV 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 x (m )
transmission line Tuzla-Ugljevik, tower heights and sags are Figure 7. Magnetic fields at 1 m above ground under sets of conductors valid
presented in Fig. 5. for instantaneous load current;  400 kV Tuzla-Ugljevik(I=655 A); 
400 kV Tuzla-Visegrad (I=114 A) ;  400 kV Sarajevo 10-Sarajevo 20
(I=80 A) ;  220 kV Kakanj 5-Zenica (I=264 A)
C. Calculation and comparison -Height of sets of conductors are 8 meter.
Calculation of electric and magnetic fields using the
E (kV/m)
computer programs for electric and magnetic fields developed 10
by authors in the program package MATLAB [5] and EFC- 9
400EP [6] are performed and compared with results of 8
measurements. The first one is the program for the calculation 6
of the electric and magnetic fields called Electric Field and 5
Magnetic Field, developed by authors in the program package 4
Matlab. Electric field calculation is based on the method of 2
equivalent charges, and the magnetic field calculation on the 1
Biot-Savart law. As an example on Fig. 8a) and b) comparison 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 x
between measurements and calculations for a 400 kV
transmission line Tuzla-Ugljevik are presented. In total, for all a)
measurements and calculations correlation factor for electric B ( T)
field is 0,9573 and for magnetic field is 0,988. 60

E (kV /m )
7 40

6 30

5 20

4 10

3 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 x (m)

Figure 9. Normalized maximum values of a) electric and b) magnetic fields
0 [3, 4];  400 kV Tuzla-Ugljevik ;  400 kV Tuzla-Visegrad ; 
0 5 10 15 20 25 x (m ) 400 kV Sarajevo 10-Sarajevo 20 ;  400 kVKakanj 5-Zenica


B ( T)
A. Measurement of the unperturbed electric field
The horizontal and vertical components of electric field
7 with a single-axis meter are presented in Fig. 10 [7].

0 5 10 15 20 25 x (m )

Figure 8. Comparison between measurements and calculations for a) electric
and b) magnetic field [3, 4];  measured ,  calculated by Electric and
Magnetic Fields ;  calculated by EFC-400 EP Software

III. POSSIBLE MAXIMUM VALUES OF ELECTRIC AND Figure 10. Measured vertical and horizontal components of electrical field
under 400 kV overhead line 1 meter above the ground [7];  Eres ; 
Normalized maximum values of electric (Fig. 9a) and
magnetic (Fig. 9b) fields under specified transmission lines Under the conductors of an overhead line, between 0 and
and 1 meter above ground are calculated using EFC-400EP 2 m above ground level, the vertical component of the electric
Software on values: field is predominant and varies only slightly with height. It is
-Voltage 420 kV, therefore considered as uniform. The magnitude of this vertical
-Load current 1900 A, and component however varies along a lateral profile (depending
on the horizontal distance to the line) and a longitudinal profile
(depending on the height of the conductors). At a height of
about 1 m above ground, the influence of the horizontal
component on the resultant field is small [8].

B. Probe characteristics
With regard to the general objective of checking
compliance with human exposure guidelines, the measurement
of individual x, y, z components of electric and magnetic
fields is rarely necessary. For all these reasons, the use of a 3-
axis probe is preferred. Single-axis probe can be helpful for
finding the r.m.s. value of the major and minor axis of the
ellipse of the polarized field. This can be useful to obtain a
complete description of the field in the zone of interest with
the minimum and maximum values and also their orientations Figure 12. Vertical component of electrical field without and with operator
in the plane of the ellipse [8, 9]. Components of magnetic [7];  EVERT (without operator) ;  EVERT (0.2 m from operator); 
fields using 1-D and 3-D instruments are presented in Fig. 11 EVERT (1 m from operator)
Correlation factors between measurements and calculations
are above 0,95 and it shows a good relation and a good base to
continue analysis. Similarity of calculation of normalized
maximum values for standard transmission lines were
expected. Measured values of electric fields are some higher
than reference level of 5 kV/m for 400 kV overhead power line
Tuzla-Visegrad (7.2 kV/m) and for 400 kV overhead power
line Sarajevo 10-Sarajevo 20 (5.47 kV/m). Measured values of
magnetic fields are considerable lower than reference level of
100 PT.

This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and
Science of the Canton Sarajevo.

Figure 11. Magnetic field under 400 kV overhead line1 meter above the
ground using 1-D and 3-D instruments, I=35 A, [7];  3-D instrument; [1] ‘Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric and Magnetic
 1-D instrument Bres=
Bx2  B 2y  Bz2 ;  1-D BZ;  1-D BY;
Fields (1 Hz-100 kHz), Health Physics 99(6):818-836; 2010
[2] ‘Measurement of electrical and magnetic fields’, Faculty of Electrical
 1-D BX Engineering, Report dated 22.11.2007., Sarajevo, 2007
[3] Carsimamovic, S., Bajramovic Z., Veledar M., Ljevak M., Nuic S.,
C. Operator proximity effects Osmokrovic P., ’Impact of Tower Dimensions onto Levels of ELF Electric
and magnetic Fields of 400 kV Overhead Lines, CIGRE 2008, Paper C4-105
Measurement of the electric field strength at power >4@ CIGRÉ (TF C4.2.05) ‘Characterization of magnetic fields’, Rev. 9,
frequency should be carried out in such a way as to reduce to September 2006
an acceptable level the interactions caused by the operator and [5] Electric and Magnetic Fields- computer programs for calculation of
objects located near the probe. Operator proximity effect is electric and magnetic fields
[6] EFC-400, Manual
presented on Fig. 12. Vertical component of electric field 0, [7] ‘Measurement of electrical and magnetic fields’, Faculty of Electrical
0.5, 1, 1.5 and 1.7 m above ground level without operator and Engineering, Report dated 23.09.2010., Sarajevo, 2010
at a distance 0.2 and 1 meter from operator are measured [7]. [8] CIGRE WG C4.203, ‘Technical Guide for Measurement of Low
Frequency Electric and Magnetic Fields near Overhead Power Lines’, Aug.
[9] IEC 62110, Ed. 12009-08, ‘Electric and magnetic field levels generated by
AC power systems-Measurement procedures with regard to public exposure’