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Power Converters. Applications and Analysis Using PSIM Index of Exercises PSIM 10.0.6 Prof. Herman E. Fernández H

Chapter II: PSIM description Keywords: low‐pass filter analysis, transient, AC sweep and parametric tests PSIM exercises: 4

Transient analysis of a low pass filter

Ejercicio2_1.psimsch

Fig.2.25

Transient analysis with noise signal

Ejercicio2_2.psimsch

Fig.2.26

AC Sweep

Ejercicio2_3.psimsch

Fig.2.27

Parametric analysis

Ejercicio2_4.psimsch

Fig.2.29, Fig.2.30

Example:

Transient analysis of a low‐pass filter with added noise signal

AC sweep of a low‐pass filter

Chapter III: Diodes and Thyristors

Keywords: uncontrolled rectifier, DIAC‐TRIAC arrays, phase control, circuit to determine thyristor state, pulse transformer, AC/AC and AC/DC PWM converters with GTO, driver circuits and GTO discrete model. PSIM exercises: 19

3.1 Single‐phase rectifier with RLE load. Discontinuous current mode (DCM).

Ejercicio3_1.psimsch

Fig.3.3

3.2 Single‐phase rectifier with RLE load. Continuous current mode (CCM).

Ejercicio3_2.psimsch

Fig.3.4

3.3 Half‐wave controlled rectifier with resistive load. Using Alpha Controller.

Ejercicio3_3.psimsch

Fig.3.7

3.4 Half‐wave controlled rectifier with RL load. Determination of current extinction angle (β).

Ejercicio3_4.psimsch

Fig.3.8, Fig.3.9

3.5 DIAC voltage‐current characteristic.

Ejercicio3_5.psimsch

Fig.3.15, Fig.3.16

3.6 DIAC‐TRIAC circuit based on an Alpha Controller.

Ejercicio3_6.psimsch

Fig.3.17, Fig.3.18

3.7 DIAC‐TRIAC circuit based on a Gating Block.

Ejercicio3_7.psimsch

Fig.3.19

3.8 DIAC‐TRIAC circuit. First option.

Ejercicio3_8.psimsch

Fig.3.21, Fig.3.22

3.9 DIAC‐TRIAC circuit. Parametric analysis.

Ejercicio3_9.psimsch

Fig.3.23

3.10 DIAC‐TRIAC circuit. Second option.

Ejercicio3_10.psimsch

Fig.3.24

3.11 AC/AC and AC/DC PWM converters implemented with GTO.

Ejercicio3_11.psimsch

Fig.3.28

Optical electronic to determine the state of a thyristor (SCR):

3.12 Operating thyristor.

Ejercicio3_12.psimsch

Fig.3.34

3.13 Short‐circuited thyristor (Failure state).

Ejercicio3_13.psimsch

Fig.3.35

3.14 Open‐circuited thyristor (Failure state).

Ejercicio3_14.psimsch

Fig.3.36

3.15 Voltage‐time characteristic determination of a pulse transformer.

Ejercicio3_15.psimsch

Fig.3.38

3.16 Saturation effect of a pulse transformer.

Ejercicio3_16.psimsch

Fig.3.39

3.17 Thyristor driver circuit design using RC network.

Ejercicio3_17.psimsch

Fig.3.42

3.18 Thyristor driver circuit design based in pulse modulation.

Ejercicio3_18.psimsch

Fig.3.43

3.19 GTO modelling.

Ejercicio3_19.psimsch

Fig.3.44

Example:

3.19 GTO modelling

Chapter IV: Power Transistors Keywords: PBJT, MOSFET, IGBT and three‐phase switch. Driver stage, losses evaluation of power devices. Basic applications. PSIM exercises: 10

4.1 PBJT driver unit. Optical isolated, pulses amplifier and simple power stage.

Ejercicio4_1.psimsch

Fig.4.8, Fig.4.9

4.2 Open‐loop servomotor.

Ejercicio4_2.psimsch

Fig.4.10

4.3 Open‐loop servomotor. Constant torque load.

Ejercicio4_3.psimsch

Fig.4.11

4.4 MOSFET gate driver with short‐circuit protection. Resistive load.

Ejercicio4_4.psimsch

Fig.4.18

4.5 MOSFET gate driver with short‐circuit protection. RL load.

Ejercicio4_5.psimsch

Fig.4.19

4.6 DC machine soft starter based on IGBT.

Ejercicio4_6.psimsch

Fig.4.28

4.7 IGBT gate driver with short‐circuit protection.

Ejercicio4_7.psimsch

Fig.4.29

4.8 DC/DC converter. Commutation and conduction losses evaluation. Thermal considerations.

Ejercicio4_8.psimsch

Fig.4.30, Fig.4.31, Fig.4.32

4.9 DC/AC converter. Commutation and conduction losses evaluation. Thermal considerations.

Ejercicio4_9.psimsch

Fig.4.33, Fig.4.34

4.10 AC starter of induction machine using three‐phase switch.

Ejercicio4_10.psimsch

Fig.4.35, Fig.4.36

Example:

4.5 MOSFET Gate Driver (MGD) with short‐circuit protection. RL load

Chapter V: DC/DC converters Keywords: Step‐up, Step down, Buck‐Boost, Fly‐Back, Push‐pull and H‐bridge. PWM (unipolar and bipolar modes), Feedforward‐PWM, One‐Cycle controller, and frequency variation. Open loop and feedback control: current controller and voltage regulation. UC3825, UC3844. Basic applications: Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS), DC drive, and UPS. Discontinuous mode current (DCM). PSIM exercises: 17

5.1 Step‐down DC/DC (Buck converter). Open loop configuration. PWM control.

Ejercicio5_1.psimsch

Fig.5.12

5.2 Step‐up DC/DC (Boost converter). PWM control and voltage regulation.

Ejercicio5_2.psimsch

Fig.5.13

5.3 Buck converter based on a UC3825 Controller.

Ejercicio5_3.psimsch

Fig.5.14, Fig.5.15

5.4 Buck converter based on a UC3825 Controller. Short‐circuit condition.

Ejercicio5_4.psimsch

Fig.5.16, Fig.5.17

5.5 Buck converter based on a UC3825 Controller. Discontinuous current measure.

Ejercicio5_5.psimsch

Fig.5.18

5.6 Simple DC drive based on a Step‐down converter. Open loop condition.

Ejercicio5_6.psimsch

Fig.5.19

5.7 Step‐up converter.

Ejercicio5_7.psimsch

Fig.5.22

5.8 Feed‐Forward PWM (FF‐PWM) controller.

Ejercicio5_8.psimsch

Fig.5.23, Fig.5.24

5.9 Current controlled Step‐up converter (discrete array).

Ejercicio5_9.psimsch

Fig.5.25

5.10 Current controlled Step‐up converter using UC3842.

Ejercicio5_10.psimsch

Fig.5.26, Fig.5.27

5.11 Class C converter (one‐quadrant operation).

Ejercicio5_11.psimsch

Fig.5.33, Fig.5.34

5.12

Ejercicio5_12.psimsch

Fig.5.35

5.13 H‐Bridge configuration. Full‐quadrant operation. Bipolar PWM. DC motor drive.

Ejercicio5_13.psimsch

Fig.5.38

5.14 H‐Bridge configuration. Full‐quadrant operation. Unipolar PWM. DC motor drive.

Ejercicio5_14.psimsch

Fig.5.39

5.15 Buck‐Boost converter. Voltage regulation based on PI controller.

Ejercicio5_15.psimsch

Fig.5.41

5.16 Closed‐loop Flyback converter.

Ejercicio5_16.psimsch

Fig.5.43, Fig.5.44

5.17 DC/DC Half‐bridge isolated configuration.

Ejercicio5_17.psimsch

Fig.5.46

Example:

5.4 Current control and voltage regulation using a UC3825

Chapter VI: Pulses generator and synchronism circuits for AC/DC and AC/AC converters Keywords: zero crossing detector, phase control circuit, phase control single‐phase and three‐ phase converters. VCO. SRF‐PLL and SRF‐PLL for three‐phase converters, frequency response for SRF‐PLL, PLL three‐phase synchronization, cosine controller, integral cycle and PWM controllers. PSIM exercises: 20

6.1 Zero‐crossing detector. Two topologies.

Ejercicio6_1.psimsch

Fig.6.3

6.2 Synchronization network using opto‐isolator circuit.

Ejercicio6_2.psimsch

Fig.6.4

6.3 Phase‐control circuit. Ramp method.

Ejercicio6_3.psimsch

Fig.6.5

6.4 Phase‐control circuit. Negative slope ramp.

Ejercicio6_4.psimsch

Fig.6.6

6.5 Firing pulses using counter method to frequency variable.

Ejercicio6_5.psimsch

Fig.6.7, Fig.6.8

6.6 Firing pulses using counter method with digital reference.

Ejercicio6_6.psimsch

Fig.6.9

6.7 Firing pulses generator for three‐phase half‐wave controlled rectifier.

Ejercicio6_7.psimsch

Fig.6.12, Fig.6.13, Fig.6.14

6.8 Firing pulses generator for three‐phase full‐wave controlled rectifier.

Ejercicio6_8.psimsch

Fig.6.16, fig.6.17

6.9 Pulses generator using a VCO.

Ejercicio6_9.psimsch

Fig.6.19

6.10 Pulses generator using a monostable circuit.

Ejercicio6_10.psimsch

Fig.6.20

6.11 Single‐phase synchronization circuit using a SRF‐PLL (Synchronous Reference Frame ‐

Phase Locked Loop).

Ejercicio6_11.psimsch

Fig.6.24, Fig.6.25

6.12

Phase Locked Loop) based on Park Transformation.

Single‐phase synchronization circuit using a SRF‐PLL (Synchronous Reference Frame ‐

Ejercicio6_12.psimsch

Fig.6.26

6.13 Pulses generator for three‐phase converter under single‐phase SRF‐PLL.

Ejercicio6_13.psimsch

Fig.6.27, Fig.6.28

6.14 Frequency response analysis for a SRF‐PLL.

Ejercicio6_14.psimsch

Fig.6.29

6.15 Three‐phase synchronism using SRF‐PLL.

Ejercicio6_15.psimsch

Fig.6.30

6.16 Cosine control scheme. Function f(ωt)=1+cos(ωt).

Ejercicio6_16.psimsch

Fig.6.34

6.17 Cosine control scheme. Function f(ωt)=cos(ωt).

Ejercicio6_17.psimsch

Fig.6.35

6.18 Integral cycle control.

Ejercicio6_18.psimsch

Fig.6.37

6.19 SPWM pulses generator for AC/DC converter.

Ejercicio6_19.psimsch

Fig.6.38

6.20 SPWM pulses generator for three‐phase converter.

Ejercicio6_20.psimsch

Fig.6.39

Example:

6.4 Phase‐control circuit. Negative slope ramp

Chapter VII: Controlled Rectifiers Keywords: single‐phase configuration. Half‐wave and fully‐controlled three‐phase converters. Harmonics analysis. Cosine control scheme. Basic applications: DC drive and battery charger. Serial converter connection. Six‐phase rectifier. Line inductor effect. Rectifier evaluation connecting inductive, RLE and constant current loads. Power Factor Controller (PFC). Applying the SmartCtrl tool to set parameters of a PFC. Hysteresis‐current controlled PFC. PWM rectifiers. Vienna configuration. PSIM exercises: 24

7.1 Single‐phase rectifier connected to current‐constant load.

Ejercicio7_1.psimsch

Fig.7.3, Fig.7.4

7.2 Single‐phase half‐wave converter connected to RL load.

Ejercicio7_2.psimsch

Fig.7.5, Fig.7.6

7.3 Single‐phase half‐wave converter connected to a current‐constant load.

Ejercicio7_3.psimsch

Fig.7.8

7.4 Single‐phase half‐wave converter based on cosine control method.

Ejercicio7_4.psimsch

Fig.7.9, Fig.7.10

7.5 Asymmetrical single‐phase half‐wave rectifier.

Ejercicio7_5.psimsch

Fig.7.11

7.6 DC drive implemented with an asymmetrical single‐phase half‐wave rectifier.

Ejercicio7_6.psimsch

Fig.7.12

7.7 Single‐phase fully‐controlled rectifier.

Ejercicio7_7.psimsch

Fig.7.14

7.8 Single‐phase fully‐controlled rectifier under cosine control strategy.

Ejercicio7_8.psimsch

Fig.7.15, Fig.7.16

7.9 DC drive implemented with a thyristors module. Cosine control.

Ejercicio7_9.psimsch

Fig.7.17

7.10 Three‐phase half‐wave converter.

Ejercicio7_10.psimsch

Fig.7.19

7.11

Three‐phase half‐wave converter with freewheeling diode.

Ejercicio7_11.psimsch

Fig.7.22, fig.7.23

7.12 Three‐phase fully‐controlled rectifier. Cosine control scheme. Constant‐current load. Two‐

Ejercicio7_12.psimsch

Fig.7.28, Fig.7.29

7.13 Battery charger under three‐phase fully‐controlled rectifier.

Ejercicio7_13.psimsch

Fig.7.30

7.14 DC drive implemented with a three‐phase fully‐wave rectifier.

Ejercicio7_14.psimsch

Fig.7.31

7.15 Serial connection of three‐phase rectifiers.

Ejercicio7_15.psimsch

Fig.7.32, Fig.7.33

7.16 Six‐phase rectifier.

Ejercicio7_16.psimsch

Fig.7.34, Fig.7.35

7.17 Line inductor effect. Single‐phase rectifier.

Ejercicio7_17.psimsch

Fig.7.37

7.18 Line inductor effect. Three‐phase rectifier.

Ejercicio7_18.psimsch

Fig.7.38

7.19 PFC based on a UC3854.

Ejercicio7_19.psimsch

Fig.7.44, Fig.7.45

7.20 Applying the SmartCtrl tool to set parameters of a PFC.

Ejercicio7_20.psimsch

Fig.7.46

7.21 Hysteresis‐current controlled PFC.

Ejercicio7_21.psimsch

Fig.7.48, Fig.7.49

7.22 Simple configuration of a PWM Rectifier.

Ejercicio7_22.psimsch

Fig.7.52, Fig.7.53, Fig.7.54

7.23 Vienna Rectifier.

Ejercicio7_23.psimsch

Fig.7.55

7.24 PWM rectifier with power factor control.

Ejercicio7_24.psimsch

Fig.7.56, Fig.7.57

Example:

7.11 Three‐phase half‐wave converter with freewheeling diode

Chapter VIII: AC/AC converters Keywords: single‐phase. Half‐wave and fully‐controlled three‐phase converters. Star and Delta configurations. Static Var Compensator. Special topologies. Control methods: phase‐control, mark‐space, PWM, SPWM, one‐cycle control and integral cycle control. Frequency multiplier. Matrix converter. PSIM exercises: 24

8.1 Single‐phase half‐wave AC/AC converter.

Ejercicio8_1.psimsch

Fig.8.2, Fig.8.3

8.2 Single‐phase fully‐controlled AC/AC converter. Resistive load. Harmonics analysis.

Ejercicio8_2.psimsch

Fig.8.6, Fig.8.7

8.3 Single‐phase fully‐controlled AC/AC converter. Inductive load. Harmonics analysis.

Ejercicio8_3.psimsch

Fig.8.9, Fig.8.10

8.4 Single‐phase fully‐controlled AC/AC converter using integral cycle control. Harmonics

analysis.

Ejercicio8_4.psimsch

Fig.8.12, Fig.8.13

8.5 Three‐phase fully‐controlled AC converter. Multimode operation. Resistive load.

Ejercicio8_5.psimsch

Fig.8.16, Fig.8.17

8.6 Three‐phase fully‐controlled AC converter. Multimode operation. Inductive load.

Ejercicio8_6.psimsch

Fig.8.18

8.7 Three‐phase half‐controlled AC converter. Multimode operation. Resistive load.

Ejercicio8_7.psimsch

Fig.8.22

8.8 Three‐phase half‐controlled AC converter. Multimode operation. Inductive load.

Ejercicio8_8.psimsch

Fig.8.23, Fig.8.24

8.9 Thyristors delta configuration. Resistive load.

Ejercicio8_9.psimsch

Fig.8.27, Fig.8.28

8.10 Thyristors delta configuration. Inductive load.

Ejercicio8_10.psimsch

Fig.8.29

8.11 Operation principle of a Static Var Compensator.

Ejercicio8_11.psimsch

Fig.8.30, Fig.8.31

8.12

Asymmetrical array. Three‐phase converter with two‐phase control.

Ejercicio8_12.psimsch

Fig.8.32

8.13 Asymmetrical array. Three‐phase converter with one‐phase control.

Ejercicio8_13.psimsch

Fig.8.33

8.14 Asymmetrical array. Each phase controlled with load in delta configuration.

Ejercicio8_14.psimsch

Fig.8.34

8.15 Asymmetrical array. Three‐phase converter with thyristors connected in delta configuration. Serial connection of the three‐phase load with AC grid.

Ejercicio8_15.psimsch

Fig.8.35

8.16 Single‐phase AC converter using mark‐space control.

Ejercicio8_16.psimsch

Fig.8.37, Fig.8.38

8.17 Single‐phase AC converter. Pulses generator under SPWM.

Ejercicio8_17.psimsch

Fig.8.39

8.18 Single‐phase AC converter. One‐cycle controller.

Ejercicio8_18.psimsch

Fig.8.40

8.19 Single‐phase AC converter. Dynamic evaluation with one‐cycle controller.

Ejercicio8_19.psimsch

Fig.8.41

8.20 PWM‐cycle‐integral control.

Ejercicio8_20.psimsch

Fig.8.42

8.21 Frequency multiplier.

Ejercicio8_21.psimsch

Fig.8.43

8.22 Three‐phase to single‐phase cycloconverter.

Ejercicio8_22.psimsch

Fig.8.45, Fig.8.46

8.23 Matrix converter of simple configuration.

Ejercicio8_23.psimsch

Fig.8.51

8.24 Reduced‐parts matrix converter.

Ejercicio8_24.psimsch

Fig.8.52, Fig.8.53

Example:

8.6 Three‐phase fully‐controlled AC converter. Multimode operation. Inductive load

Chapter IX: DC/AC converters Keywords: square wave half‐bridge, H bridge configuration, conduction control equals to π and 2π/3. Single‐pulse, uniform pulse width modulation, bipolar‐SPWM, and unipolar‐SPWM. SPWM three‐phase inverter, HIPWM, Selective Harmonic Elimination (three‐cases), MSPWM, SVPWM. Sinusoidal inverter (filter LC). Reflection effect in AC drives. Hysteresis controller. Three‐level inverter, FC‐MLI, push‐pull inverter using UC3825, delta controller, inverter connected to grid, inverter connected to resonant load, and Current Source Inverter. PSIM exercises: 29

9.1 Half‐bridge single‐phase converter.

Ejercicio9_1.psimsch

Fig.9.9

9.2 Full‐bridge single‐phase configuration.

Ejercicio9_2.psimsch

Fig.9.12

9.3 Three‐phase inverter. Conduction equals π.

Ejercicio9_3.psimsch

Fig.9.15, Fig.9.16

9.4 Three‐phase inverter. Conduction equals 2π/3.

Ejercicio9_4.psimsch

Fig.9.18

9.5 Single‐pulse or Uniform PWM generator.

Ejercicio9_5.psimsch

Fig.9.20, Fig.9.23

9.6 Full‐bridge under multiple‐pulses PWM generator.

Ejercicio9_6.psimsch

Fig.9.25, Fig.9.26

9.7 Full‐bridge inverter under Bipolar Synchronous Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulator

(SSPWM).

Ejercicio9_7.psimsch

Fig.9.31, Fig.9.32

9.8 Full‐bridge inverter based on Unipolar SSPWM.

Ejercicio9_8.psimsch

Fig.9.34

9.9 Three‐phase inverter based on SPWM.

Ejercicio9_9.psimsch

Fig.9.36

9.10 Three‐phase inverter under Harmonic Injection Pulse Width Modulation (HIPWM).

Ejercicio9_10.psimsch

Fig.9.38, Fig.9.39

9.11

Three‐phase inverter under Selective Harmonic Elimination‐TLN1.

Ejercicio9_11.psimsch

Fig.9.42, Fig.9.43

9.12 Single‐phase inverter under Selective Harmonic Elimination‐SLN1.

Ejercicio9_12.psimsch

Fig.9.44, Fig.9.45

9.13 Single‐phase inverter under Selective Harmonic Elimination‐SLL.

Ejercicio9_13.psimsch

Fig.9.46

9.14 Single‐phase inverter using Modified Sinusoidal PWM (MSPWM).

Ejercicio9_14.psimsch

Fig.9.48

9.15 Three‐phase inverter under Space Vector PWM.

Ejercicio9_15.psimsch

Fig.9.51, Fig.9.52

9.16 Filter design procedure applied to a single‐phase inverter under SPWM.

Ejercicio9_16.psimsch

Fig.9.62, Fig.9.63, Fig.9.64, Fig.9.65

9.17 Reflection effect analysis in three‐phase converter under SPWM.

Ejercicio9_17.psimsch

Fig.9.66

9.18 LC filter configuration to reduce reflection effect in a three‐phase converter under SPWM.

Ejercicio9_18.psimsch

Fig.9.68

9.19 LCC filter configuration to reduce reflection effect in a three‐phase converter under SPWM.

Ejercicio9_19.psimsch

Fig.9.69

9.20 Hysteresis controller applied to a single‐phase inverter.

Ejercicio9_20.psimsch

Fig.9.71

9.21 Sample‐Hold Hysteresis controller applied to a single‐phase inverter.

Ejercicio9_21.psimsch

Fig.9.72

9.22 Diodes Clamping‐Multiple Level Inverter (DC‐MLI) under SPWM.

Ejercicio9_22.psimsch

Fig.9.76, Fig.9.77

9.23 Flying Capacitor‐MLI inverter under SPWM.

Ejercicio9_23.psimsch

Fig.9.78

9.24

Push‐pull inverter.

Ejercicio9_24.psimsch

Fig.9.80

9.25 Delta modulator applied to single‐phase inverter.

Ejercicio9_25.psimsch

Fig.9.82

9.26 Single‐phase inverter connected to AC grid (Distributed Generation).

Ejercicio9_26.psimsch

Fig.9.84, Fig.9.85

9.27 Single‐phase inverter connected to AC grid. Power factor control.

Ejercicio9_27.psimsch

Fig.9.86

Ejercicio9_28.psimsch

Fig.9.87

9.29 Current Source Inverter under SPWM.

Ejercicio9_29.psimsch

Fig.9.89, Fig.9.90

Example:

9.11 Three‐phase inverter under Selective Harmonic Elimination‐TLN1

Chapter X: Power Electronic Systems: analysis and simulations Keywords: open‐loop DC drive, DC drive using UC3842, close‐loop DC drives (two‐cases), traction system. Fan applications (two‐cases). Vector Control. Drives: SRM, BDCM, and PMDC. Lead‐acid model (VRLA). Current control and voltage regulation. Li‐ion battery test, super capacitor simplified model, battery charger for VRLA, SMPS with UC3844, backup cycle UPS, AC/DC‐current controlled. PSIM exercises: 23

10.1 Open‐loop DC drive.

Ejercicio10_1.psimsch

Fig.10.4

10.2 Open‐loop DC drive under load demand.

Ejercicio10_2.psimsch

Fig.10.5

10.3 Current‐controlled DC drive based on UC3842.

Ejercicio10_3.psimsch

Fig.10.6

10.4 Closed‐loop DC drive. Option I.

Ejercicio10_4.psimsch

Fig.10.7

10.5 Closed‐loop DC drive. Option II.

Ejercicio10_5.psimsch

Fig.10.8

10.6 DC drive applied to a traction system.

Ejercicio10_6.psimsch

Fig.10.10, Fig.10.11, Fig.10.12

10.7 Hard‐starter of an industrial fan.

Ejercicio10_7.psimsch

Fig.10.16, Fig.10.17

10.8 Scalar‐Control AC drive. Induction machine mechanically coupled to industrial fan.

Ejercicio10_8.psimsch

Fig.10.18, Fig.10.19

10.9 Vector‐Control AC drive.

Ejercicio10_9.psimsch

Fig.10.26

10.10 Synchronous Reluctance Machine (SRM) drive.

Ejercicio10_10.psimsch

Fig.10.31

10.11 Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive.

Ejercicio10_11.psimsch

Fig.10.32, Fig.10.33

10.12

Brushless Direct Current Machine (BDCM or BLDC) drive.

Ejercicio10_12.psimsch

Fig.10.34

10.13 Generic model of lead‐acid battery.

Ejercicio10_13.psimsch

Fig.10.37, Fig.10.38

10.14 Battery charger: constant‐current mode and limited voltage control.

Ejercicio10_14.psimsch

Fig.10.39

10.15 Constant‐current charge of the Lithium‐Ion battery.

Ejercicio10_15.psimsch

Fig.10.40

10.16 Constant‐current discharge of the Lithium‐Ion battery.

Ejercicio10_16.psimsch

Fig.10.40

10.17 Simplified model of a ultracapacitor.

Ejercicio10_17.psimsch

Fig.10.41

10.18 Simplified model of multiple‐cell ultracapacitor.

Ejercicio10_18.psimsch

Fig.10.42

10.19 Battery charger based on an averaged DC/DC converter. Constant‐current mode and

floatation condition.

Ejercicio10_19.psimsch

Fig.10.45, Fig.10.46, Fig.10.47

10.20 Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS) based on a UC3844.

Ejercicio10_20.psimsch

Fig.10.50

10.21 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). Back‐up mode.

Ejercicio10_21.psimsch

Fig.10.56

10.22 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). Back‐up mode. Voltage regulation.

Ejercicio10_22.psimsch

Fig.10.57

10.23 Welding machine based on a current‐controlled three‐phase rectifier.

Ejercicio10_23.psimsch

Fig.10.59

Example:

10.5 Closed‐loop DC drive

Chapter XI: Renewable energies: Photovoltaic and wind turbine systems. Fuel Cells Keywords: Wind turbines: BDCM, PMSG, and DFIG. Solar cell model and parametric analysis. MPPT: simple circuit, P&O, HC, and Inc‐Cond. Solar battery charger and solar water‐pump. PEMFC model, PEMFC‐step up DC/DC converter, PEMFC‐DC/DC‐DC/AC, distributed generation system using PEMFC, SOFC model (100kW), SOFC‐DC/DC‐DC/AC drive. PSIM exercises: 17

11.1 Wind turbine based on a BDCM (Brushless DC Machine) and storage bank.

Ejercicio11.1.psimsch

Fig.11.19

11.2 Wind turbine based on a PMSG (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator).

Ejercicio11.2.psimsch

Fig.11.20, Fig.11.21

11.3 Wind turbine based on a PMSG. Setting I ds =0.

Ejercicio11.3.psimsch

Fig.11.22

11.4 Wind turbine based on a Double Fed Induction Machine (DFIG).

Ejercicio11.4.psimsch

Fig.11.23, Fig.11.24

11.5 Functional model of a photovoltaic cell. BP 3175.

Ejercicio11.5.psimsch

Fig.11.44, Fig.11.45

11.6 Physical model of a photovoltaic cell. Solarex MSX60. Parametric analysis under

Ejercicio11.6.psimsch

Fig.11.46, Fig.11.47

11.7 Simple configuration of a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) circuit.

Ejercicio11.7.psimsch

Fig.11.48

11.8 Perturb and Observation MPPT method.

Ejercicio11.8.psimsch

Fig.11.50, Fig.11.51

11.9 Incremental Conductance MPPT method.

Ejercicio11.9.psimsch

Fig.11.52

11.10 Solar battery charger.

Ejercicio11.10.psimsch

Fig.11.53

11.11 Solar pumping system.

Ejercicio11.11.psimsch

Fig.11.54, Fig.11.55

11.12

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC).

Ejercicio11.12.psimsch

Fig.11.61, Fig.11.62

11.13 PEMFC connected to boost converter.

Ejercicio11.13.psimsch

Fig.11.63, Fig.11.64

11.14 AC generation using a PEMFC.

Ejercicio11.14.psimsch

Fig.11.65

11.15 Distributed generation under a PEMFC.

Ejercicio11.15.psimsch

Fig.11.66

11.16 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC).

Ejercicio11.16.psimsch

Fig.11.69, Fig.11.70, Fig.11.71

11.17 AC drive based on a SOFC.

Ejercicio11.17.psimsch

Fig.11.72

Example:

11.11 Solar pumping system

Appendix Exercises: 11 (PSIM, PSCAD and PSpice)

A.1 SmartCtrl applied to design the regulation stage of a Buck Converter.

EjercicioA_1.psimsch

A.2 HID (High‐Intensity Discharge Lamp) modelling.

EjercicioA_2.psimsch

A.3 Synchronism circuit design based on PSCAD.

A.4 Phase‐control circuit based on PSCAD.

A.5 Three‐phase pulses generator using PSCAD.

A.6 DC drive designed using an IGBT step‐down converter. PSCAD tool.

A.7 Pulses generator applied to fully‐controlled three‐phase rectifier. PSCAD tool.

A.8 Generation mode of a DC machine.

A.9 Pulses amplifier. PSpice tool.

A.10 Ramp generator. PSpice tool.

A.11 AC Delta Controller. PSpice tool.

Example:

A.1 SmartCtrl applied to design the regulation stage of a Buck Converter.

//SmartCtrl parameters //Outer Regulator parameters R2 = 2.77781k Ohm C2 = 2.65267u F Vref = 2.5 V Vp = 3 V R11 = 10k Ohm //Outer Sensor parameters Ra = 9.5k Ohm Rb = 500 Ohm //Power Stage parameters

R = 10 Ohms

RC = 50m Ohms

C = 612u F

IC_C = 50 V RL = 1n Ohms L = 5m H IC_L = 5 A Vin = 100 V //Modulator parameters Vpp = 2 V fsw = 2k Hz Dramp = 800m Vv = 1 V //Other parameters fdc = 15 Hz

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< INPUT DATA >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> INPUT DATA Single loop ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Frequency range (Hz) : (1, 999 k) Cross frequency (Hz) = 15 Phase margin (°) = 122 Plant ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Buck (voltage mode controlled) R (Ohms) = 10

L (H) = 5 m

RL(Ohms) = 1 n

C (F) = 612 u

RC(Ohms) = 50 m Vin (V) = 100 Vo (V) = 50 Fsw (Hz) = 2 k Steady‐state dc operating point

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐

Mode = Continuous Duty cycle= 0.5 Vcomp(V) = 2.25

IL (A) = 5

ILmax(A) = 6.25

ILmin(A) = 3.75

Io (A) = 5

Vo (V) = 50 Sensor ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐

Voltage divider Vref/Vo = 0.05

Regulator

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐

PI

Gmod = 0.4 R11(ohms) = 10000

Vp(V) = 3 Vv(V) = 1

tr(sec) = 0.0004 Vref(V) = 2.5 Steady‐state dc operating point ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ IC_C2(V) = 250m

<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< RESULTS >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> RESULTS Regulator (Analog):

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐

Kp

Kint = 7.36863 m

R2 (Ohms) = 2.77781 k

C2 ( F ) = 2.65267 u

fz ( Hz ) = 21.599 fi ( Hz ) = 5.99979

b2 ( s^2) = 0

b1 ( s ) = 0.00736863

= 277.781 m

 b0 = 1 a3 ( s^3) = 0 a2 ( s^2) = 0 a1 ( s ) = 0.0265267 a0 = 0

Sensor:

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Ra (Ohms) = 9.5 k Rb (Ohms) = 500 Pa (Watts) = 237.5 m Pb (Watts) = 12.5 m Loop performance parameters:

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ PhF ( Hz ) = out of frequency range under study GM ( dB ) = Atte( dB ) = ‐37.146