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Seminário Regional sobre o Manejo Integrado do Fogo (MIF)

no Tocantins: Resultados do Projeto Cerrado Jalapão


Gurupi, 22-23 Novembro 2016

O papel do Manejo Integrado do Fogo (MIF) no


desenvolvimento de ecos-sistema sustentável:
Uma perspectiva global

The Role of Integrated Fire Management for


Sustainable Ecosystem Development:
A Global Perspective

Johann Georg Goldammer


Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)
Global Fire History
History of Fire Use

From stone age to late medieval land use and cultivation


Formation of open cultural landscapes of high productivity
and “low flammability”
European and Brazilian
Fire History
European Fire History:

16th – 18th Century

Land clearing and land-use systems


involving fire, e.g.

Slash-and-burn agriculture
Moor burning
Pasture / heathland burning
General remarks:
Atlantic and continental open
heathland ecosystems are a result
of centuries of intensive land use –
including the use of fire

Calluna vulgaris

Erica tetralix
Fläche 5 – Begrenzung durch Flugsand
Historic burning methods:
Denmark around 1900
Moor burning
East Frisia
1650 - 1850
The Black Forest
Example Mato Grosso: Xingú anthropological fire history
Second Xingú Expedition – Karl von Steinen – 1887-1888

The Xingú “fire fan”


How to deal with Fire History?
First Modern Cerrado Jalapão Fire Expedition – 2013
First Modern Cerrado Jalapão Fire Expedition – 2013
Landscape patterns – Lunenburg Heath

Photo: J. Prüter
Hiddensee Island (Baltic)

Historic records of fire


Land-use abandonment:

Bush and tree encroachment


in protected areas
Fläche 5 – Begrenzung durch Flugsand

Zschorno Heath, Brandenburg (2002)


Zschorno Heath, Brandenburg (2002)
Zschornoer
Zschorno Heath,
Heide,
Brandenburg
Brandenburg
(2002)
Drover Heide, NRW
Drover Heide, NRW
A Global Review
of UNESCO World Heritage
Wildfire Threats and Fire Management
in UNESCO World HeritageProperties
Pilot Study by GFMC

Final Draft – 18 May 2015


Number of World Heritage Properties by Region
Total: 194

22

Classification of the WH Sites (Natural) by fire regimes


WH Sites - where fire has been used for the management activities
USA: Yellowstone National Park

The grassland habitats of the bison (Bison bison) are


maintained by the animals and recurrent fires.
Fire exclusion in some prairie ecosystems of North America
have resulted in bush and forest encroachment and reduction of
bison populations
USA: Everglades National Park
Fire is critical to the survival of the wetlands,
pinelands and prairie ecosystems of the Everglades
Tanzania: Serengeti National Park

Park managers set fires in Serengeti National Park to keep


grasslands from undergoing succession and becoming
savannas or woodlands. Fires like this are part of the ecology of
these ecosystems of high faunistic carrying capacity.
Savanna Fire in Africa
Regular occurrence of fire in savanna ecosystems:
> Important for maintaining openness, productivity
and carrying capacity for wildlife and domestic
livestock
Consequence of fire exclusion (after 35 years) …..
Emissions research in Africa
and South America
Back to Eurasia
Trans-Baikal Region (SE Russia)
May 2003
Sustainable management and protection of forest resources are
key elements of European forest policies

For more than a century the complete elimination of fires in


forests of Russia was the primary goal of the forest protection
system
The War on Fire –
History or to Continue?
Fire Ecology of Central and Eastern Eurasian Forests:
“The Nature of Fire” must determine the Fire Management
Policy
Fire Research:
The Fire Research Campaign Asia – North (FIRESCAN)

Dendrochronology – History of regular fire


occurrence and forest stand formation
In some forest ecosystems, e.g. the Light Taiga, recurrent
surface fires of low intensity remove combustible materials and
result in an overall reduction of the risk of severe and large
destructive fires

Instead of uncontrolled Prophylactic


high-severity stand- surface fires burning
replacement wildfires “under prescription”
Krasnoyarsk 2012:
Prescribed burning
Demonstration
First Undergraduate Student Training 2015
Boyarka, Ukraine – 6 April 2014:
Prescribed Burning Demonstration
The Global Wildland Fire Network (launched in 2001)
14 Regional Wildland Fire Networks
The Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC)
and the Global Wildland Fire Network

As a global facility for vegetation fire documentation


and analysis, the GFMC is:
- Provider of scientific and technical advice to
governments, regional entities and international
organizations, notably the UN, for the development
of policies and strategies – aiming to
Reduce the negative impacts of fire on the
environment and humanity, and
Promote the safe and benign use of fire in
ecosystem and land management
The Global Wildland Fire Network – Regional Fire
Monitoring / Fire Management Resource Centers

2010: Establishment of the first Regional Fire Monitoring


Center (RFMC) – for the Southeast Europe / Caucasus
Region (Skopje, FYR Macedonia)

2013: Establishment of the Regional Eastern European


Fire Monitoring Center (REEFMC) (Kyiv, Ukraine)

2015: Establishment of the Regional Central Asia Fire


Management Resource Center (Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia)

2017-18 (planned): Establishment of the Regional


Southeast Asia Fire Management Resource Center
(Bogor, Indonesia)
Functions of “Regional Management Resource Centers”
(RFMRC) (I)

A RFMRC is serving as a regional open fire


information repository / hub:
Public provision (online and on request) of all
information relevant to vegetation fires, e.g.,
- Conventional databases, statistics
- Scientific and technical literature, narratives, reports
(often / mainly grey literature, which is normally hardly
accessible)

Science-technology interface
Provision of an instrument in the region that will serve the
need bring wildland fire and related sciences into a
readable format to policy makers and practitioners
Functions of “Regional Management Resource Centers”
(RFMRC) (II)

Monitoring and information dissemination


Through partner institutions delivering information /
monitoring
- Fire precursors (fire early warning, fire danger rating)
- Active fires (ongoing fires, current situation)
- Fire impacts (area burned, fire damage, human health
& security)

Example:
The Global Wildland Fire
Early Warning System
and National – See presentation of Alberto Setzer
(INPE)
Global Wildland Fire Early Warning System – Partners:

Program for Climate, Ecosystem and Fire Applications:


Global FWI Forecast up to 8 months:
http://www.cefa.dri.edu/CFS/fwi.php
Functions of “Regional Management Resource Centers”
(RFMRC) (IV)

Advisory support to nations and to the regional


organizations:
- Development and implementation of fire management
policies
- Support of participating countries of the region to
develop informal or formal agreements / protocols for
cross-boundary cooperation in fire management

International nexus: Regional and global networking


RFMRCs support Regional Wildland Fire Networks and
ensure inputs of regional interests in the Global Wildland
Fire Network
Scientific & Technical Social & Economic Actions;
Analysis & Prediction Fire Management
Global Scale

Global Global International


Fire Early Warning Applications Support
Monitoring & Analysis Centres Organisations
Centres
Regional Scale

Regional
Fire Early Warning Regional Regional
& Monitoring Applications Support
Centres Centres Organisations

National Sector National & Local


Local Scale
National to

Fire Management Support Actors in


Coordination Centres Institutions Fire Management

Sharing of Information and Resources within the Global Wildland Fire Network – 2001
Scientific & Technical Social & Economic Actions;
Analysis & Prediction Fire Management
Global Scale

Global Global International


Fire Early Warning Applications Support
Monitoring & Analysis Centres Organisations
GFMC
Centres
Regional Scale

Regional
Fire Early Warning Regional Regional
& Monitoring Applications Support
Centres Centres Organisations

National Sector National & Local


Local Scale
National to

Fire Management Support Actors in


Coordination Centres Institutions Fire Management

Sharing of Information and Resources within the Global Wildland Fire Network – 2015
International competency
standards for training
of firefighters

November 2016: Available in 14


Languages for the use in 50+ countries

www.euro-fire.eu
Antorcha de Goteo

Un equipo de ignición eficiente


para comenzar una quema
controlada

El contenedor se llena con una


mezcla de diesel (2/3) y gasolina
(1/3). Las gotas en llamas
permitirán crear una larga y
regular línea de ignición
Unit EF6: Ignition

Quema contra el viento – el


primer paso:

Comenzar una quema contra


el viento en el lado de
sotavento (quemando contra
el viento)

Quema contra el viento – el


segundo paso:
Ignición de franja en equipo,
Luego de que la „linea
negra“ se haya quemado, la
con fuego a favor del viento
segunda quema se hará a
favor del viento hasta que se
junte con la primera
Unit EF6: Ignition

Ignición de franja en equipo,


con fuego a favor del viento
Unit EF6: Ignition

Ignición de franja en equipo,


con fuego a favor del viento
2nd International Fire Management Training Course for the
South Caucasus and Western Balkans: Fire Management
Training Center, Antalya, Turkey (October 2014)
Activities 2016

South America – Republic of Uruguay (May 2016)

Participating countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile,


Paraguay, Uruguay
Introduction of the EuroFire Competency Standards in
Spanish and Portuguese (Brazilian)
Introduction of the International Fire Aviation Guidelines
The Way Ahead (I)

Looking back - Korea 2015: The Pyeongchang


Declaration on Fire Management and Sustainable
Development

Challenges by the UN – and paving the way forward for the 7th
International Wildland Fire Conference, Brazil 2019
The Way Ahead (II)

Obrigado – Universidade Federal do Tocantins – Center


for Environmental Monitoring and Fire Management

Thanks for hosting this meeting – and the GFMC and the
Global Wildland Fire Network are looking forward
discussing the future role of Brazil hosting the 5th
Regional Center of Competence – the

Fire Management Resource Center – South


America Region (FMRC-LAR)
Seminário Regional sobre o Manejo Integrado do Fogo (MIF)
no Tocantins: Resultados do Projeto Cerrado Jalapão
Gurupi, 22-23 Novembro 2016

Obrigado