TRANSACTIONS
OF
THE
JAPAN
CONCRETE
INSTITUTE
VOL.
A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF DEFORMATIONAL BEHAVIOR OF HIGH STRENGTH
CONCRETE REINFORCED WITH STEEL FIBER UNDER
COMPRESSION
Tetsuya ISHIKAWA “,
Hiroshi OHNUMA
Kenji IZUMO
” and Shohji OHARA ”
ABSTRACT
Based on results of a pure triaxial compression tests, ultimate strength envelopes and ultimate strain envelopes of
high strength concrete reinforced with steel fiber under triaxial compression were mathematically expressed. Secondly, a
constitutive model was proposed by applying a hypoelastic orthotropic approach and an equivalent uniaxial strain theory. Furthermore, the application of this constitutive relation to preceding concrete was evaluated from the comparison of the
experimental results with the analytical results. KEYWORDS : high strength concrete reinforced with steel fiber, triaxial compressive stress. hypoelastic orthotropic model,
equivalent uniaxial strain theory
I. INTRODUCTION
A problem
of
the
practical
application
of
high
strength
concrete,
it
is
brittleness
accompanying
the
increase
of
compressive strength. One of the methods to improve ductility of concrete is to reinforce with steel fiber. When evaluating
the effect of 
the 
steel 
fiber 
on 
the ductility 
of 
concrete, 
it 
is 
important 
to understand the 
behavior 
of strength 
and 

deformation under 
multiaxial 
compressive stresses. 
Moreover, 
in 
order 
to analyze concrete structures subjected 
to 
three 
dimensional forces, it is necessary to develop a nonlinear analytical procedure considering mechanical characteristics under
triaxial
compressive
stresses.
It is the purpose of this paper to clarify the nonlinear behavior of the stressstrain curve of high strength concrete
reinforced with steel fibers under pure triaxial compression. In the first place, ultimate strength and ultimate strain were obtained from a meridian stress plane test and a deviatoric stress plane test, and ultimate strength envelopes and ultimate strain envelopes under triaxial compression were mathematically expressed. A constitutive model was proposed by
applying a hypoelastic orthotropic approach based on an equivalent uniaxial strain theory. It was clear that this model was able to predict the nonlinear stressstrain relationship along any stress path.
2.
EXPERIMENTS
2.1 MATERIALS AND MIX PROPOTION OF CONCRETE
Normal portland cement was used in this experiment. Fine aggregate was sea sand that was produced in Mukawa, and
its fineness modulus, specific mass and absorption
were 2.87, 2.67 and 1.43
%, respectively. The maximum size of coarse
*I Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd. *’ Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering. Graduate School of Engineering. Hokkaido University
222
Table 1 Mix proportion of concrete
Slump 
WIG


Max. size of aggregate
(mm)

(cm)

(%I


_{1}_{0} 
_{(}
15fl

1 
27.0 
*: AE water reducing
superplaskizer
t: Specimen of 0 150X
200mm was used.
aggregate
proportion of the high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers is shown in Table 1. Water to cement ratio. required slump and sand
was
10
mm,
and
its
specific
mass
was
2.65.
The
mix
coarse aggregate 
ratio 
were 
33 
% 
, 
15 
+

1 
cm 
and 
44.5 
% 
, 

respectively. 
The 
mass 
of 
AE 
water 
reducing 
superplasticizer 
was 
1.0% of that of the cement. Steel fibers with 9mm long and 1.0% of the volume of concrete were used.
2.2
MECHANICAL
PROPERTIES
OF
CONCRETE
The mechanical properties of high strength concrete
reinforced with steel fibers using a cylindrical specimen
lOOmmX200mm, which was cured in water until the day before
testing, were measured. The compressive strength, Young’s modulus
and Poisson’s ratio of the
triaxial compression are shown in Table 2.
concrete at 28 days and at testing under
of
2.3 PROCEDURE OF
COMPRESSION TEST
A triaxial compression test was carried out on a 1OOmm cubic
compressive
strength
Rendulic stress plane
compressive
strength
specimen that was cast in a steel mold. After approximately several hours of casting, the surface of the specimen was finished with
cement
specimens were cured in water up to the day before testing. To minimize surface friction between a loading platen and the
specimen. a pad of two teflon sheets of O.lmm with silicon grease was used. The coefficient of friction of the pad was
measured to be 0.014 on average. The testing machine for the triaxial compression test could apply independently each
the three principal stresses. The maximum capacities of the testing machine were 2 MN in all directions.
Fig. 1 Concept of meridian stress plane and
deviatoric
stress
plane
paste,
with
a
water
to
cement
ratio
of
28
%
and
the
A meridian stress plane test and a deviatoric
Gress plane test were adopted
In this experiment. Two extreme meridian
223
0” and
tensile
The compressive and the tensile meridian planes include the
uniaxial compressive strength and equal biaxial compressive _{I}_{.}_{5} strength as special cases. In the compressive meridian test, a ,
planes corresponding to
meridian,
are
called
a
meridian
and
a
compressive
respectively.
_{2}_{.}_{5}
_{2}
maximum principal stress was increased to failure while other
principal stresses were kept as a specified value. In the tensile meridian test, two principal stresses equally increased to os
failure while the minimum principal stress was maintained as a specified value.
Tests in the deviatoric stress plane were carried out in
such a way that the sum of the principal stresses was kept _{2}_{.}_{5}
constant. Three successive stresses were firstly applied along the hydrostatic axis up to 70N/mm*. The three stresses were
Fig. 2 Ultimate strength envelopes in meridian stress planes
increased hydrostatically 
up 
to 
a specified 
deviatoric 
stress 

plane, and 
then 
varied within 
this plane along 
one 
of 
five 


loading paths 
to 
failure. 
For 
an isotropic material, 
the 

envelopes 
in that 
plane 
must 
have threefold 
symmetry. 

Therefore, it is necessary to explore only the sectors of the 

angle of similarity from
e
=

0” to 60”, and five stress paths 

were adopted in this test. The concept of the meridian stress plane and the deviatoric stress plane is shown in Fig. 1. 

3 
MATHEMATICAL 
DESCFUPTION

OF 
ULTIMATE 

STRENGTH 
AND 
ULTIMATE STRAIN 
SURFACE 

most
cc

I 
2 Jr
(
UC


0 
_{1} 

3.1 
ULTIMATE STRENGTH 
SURFACE 
The general shape of an ultimate strength surface in a
Fig. 3 Ultimate strength envelope in deviatoric
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{e}_{s}_{s} _{p}_{l}_{a}_{n}_{e}_{s}
stress
meridian stress plane and the deviatoric stress plane. The envelopes of ultimate strength in the meridian stress plane are
intersecting curves between the surface and a plane containing the hydrostatic axis with
ultimate strength in the compressive and tensile meridian are shown in Fig. 2. Firstly, the ultimate strength envelopes for
high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers in two meridian stress planes could be approximated by the following parabolic equations in terms of octahedral stresses.
space
can
be
best
described
by
envelopes
in
the
constant. The test results of
(0.76a~s1.76)
5
= 0.0634+1.355(~) 0.3689(,)'
5 a are octahedral shearing stresses at
e
_{(}_{O}_{.}_{,}_{,}_{,}_{~}_{,} _{,}_{,}_{,}_{)}
0 = 60”, respectively,
a and
0 = 0” and
o c is uniaxial compressive strength and
is the angle of similarity.
is octahedral normal stress,
In Fig. 2, dotted lines are the expressions of the ultimate strength envelopes for conventional
concrete ( plane and
normal strength concrete ) obtained by Ohnuma et al.
on average in the compressive meridian, and 4.8 % higher in the tensile meridian than values calculated by expressions for
The obtained test results in this investigation were 13% higher
conventional concrete. This is due to the increase of the relative shearing strength. Namely, the ratio of shearing strength to
uniaxial compressive strength of high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers is higher than that of conventional concrete. Therefore, it was concluded that the ultimate strength envelopes of high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers in the meridian stress planes could be estimated by Eqs. (1) and (2).
224
Fig.
4
Stressstrain
curves
in
compressive
meridian
Fig.
5
Stress
strain
curves
in
tensile
meridian
Secondly, the envelopes in the deviatoric stress plane, which are the intersecting curves between the ultimate strength surface and that plane, were provided. When concrete is assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, the envelopes in the
of
deviatoric stress plane must have threefold symmetry, and it is necessary to
similarity
defined as a part of an elliptic curve
explore
only
the
sector
of
the
angle
from 0” to 60”. The envelopes in the deviatoric stress plane may be given by the following equation, which is
The comparison of the envelope estimated by these equations and with experimental results in the deviatoric stress
plane is shown in Fig. 3. The expression of ultimate strength envelopes in the deviatoric stress plane was found to closely approximate the experimental results for high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers.
3.2
ULTIMATE
STRAIN
SURFACE
Stressstrain curves obtained from the compressive and the tensile meridian tests are illustrated in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. respectively. As shown in these figures, ultimate strength and ultimate strain of high strength concrete reinforced with steel
fibers subjected to
increase was mainly dependent on the combination of principal stresses, This is because the characteristics of concrete
change from the brittle to ductile to repress the growth of microcracking in concrete when confined stresses increase. The
compression increased to a much greater degree than that of the uniaxial compression, and the
expressions of ultimate strain surface in terms of octahedral normal strain
determined from the experimental results by the least squares method as follows.
_{E}
_{a}_{n}_{d}
_{o}_{c}_{t}_{a}_{h}_{e}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{l}
_{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g}
_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{n}
_{Y} _{o}_{c}_{l} _{m}_{a}_{y} _{b}_{e}
_{i}_{n} _{w}_{h}_{i}_{c}_{h} _{t} EU is the strain corresponding to uniaxial compressive strength, _{Y} _{,}_{,}_{p} _{i}_{s} _{o}_{c}_{t}_{a}_{h}_{e}_{d}_{r}_{a}_{l} _{s}_{h}_{e}_{a}_{r}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{n} _{a}_{t} _{e} _{=} _{O}_{”}_{,} _{?}_{’} _{n}
is octahedral shearing strain at ‘3 = 60”, and 0 is the angle of similarity.
The comparison of straight lines derived from Eq. (4) and Eq. (5)m a meridian strain plane with the experimental results is shown in Fig.6. In this investigation, ultimate strain is defined as the strain corresponding to ultimate strength. It was clear that the expressions of ultimate strain envelopes in a meridian strain plane could be determined by these equations
though scattering of the experimental ultimate strains was larger than that of the ultimate strength.
The ultimate strain envelope in a deviatoric strain plane could be provided to the same curve as ultimate strength. The
experimental results and the ultimate strain envelope
obtained from Eq. (6) for high strength concrete reinforced with steel
fibers are shown in Fig. 7. As clarified from this figure, the
expression of the ultimate strain envelope in the deviatoric strain plane could agree well with the experimental results.
4 
MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF 

NONLINEAR STRESSSTRAIN 
CURVE 

4.1 
INCREMENTAL HYPOELASTIC 
MODEL 
Assuming orthotropy of the principal stress axis and
reducing the variables caused by symmetry, the incremental ^{c}^{o}^{n}^{s}^{t}^{i}^{t}^{u}^{t}^{i}^{v}^{e} ^{r}^{e}^{l}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} ^{f}^{o}^{r} ^{a}^{x}^{i}^{s}^{y}^{m}^{m}^{e}^{t}^{r}^{i}^{c} ^{p}^{r}^{o}^{b}^{l}^{e}^{m}^{s} ^{c}^{a}^{n} ^{b}^{e}
written as follows.
I
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
5.0
I)<
P
10.0 L
gi
Ed41
Fig. 6 Ultimate strain envelopes in meridian strain planes
(7)
in which {d
strain and stress, respectively, and
E
,}
and {d
u ,} are the vectors of incremental
, if,:
In
order to work out
Eq.(7)
with
the
form
of
the
incremental constitutive relation, the seven incremental 
*=0.61

I 

hypoelastic modulus need to be determined. So the concept 
_{0} 
_{4} 

_{I} 
of equivalent uniaxial strain. as developed by Darwin and
^{P}^{e}^{c}^{k}^{n}^{o}^{l}^{d} ^{[}^{3}^{]}^{,} ^{i}^{s} ^{a}^{p}^{p}^{l}^{i}^{e}^{d} ^{i}^{n} ^{t}^{h}^{i}^{s} ^{s}^{t}^{u}^{d}^{y}^{.}
Fig. 7 Ultimate strain envelop in deviatoric strain plane
4.2 EQUIVALENT
UNIAXIAL
STRAIN
THEORY
Based on the concept of equivalent uniaxial strain which defines the variation of E,,
and E, with respect
to the
variation of stress, the relation between incremental equivalent uniaxial strain d E ,” and incremental stress d (I , for
axisymmetric problems may be written in the following matrix form.
The 
vector 
on 
the 
righthand 
side 
of 
Eq.@) 
may be defined 
as 
the 
incremental 
equivalent 
uniaxial 
strains. 
The 
incremental equivalent uniaxial strains can be evaluated from Eq.(8) in the simple form. 

dq,

= da, 
I
E,

_{(}_{9}_{)} 
Moreover, the total equivalent uniaxial strain may be determined by integrating
E*, =J%
Eq.(9) over the stress path.
The incremental equivalent uniaxial strain of Eq.(9) is the increment of strain in direction i that the material would
the
exhibit if subjected to a stress increment d
u , with other stress increments equal to zero. However, d
E I” depends
on
226
current stress ratio, and E I” and d & iy do not transform in the same manner as stress. Both are fictitious except in a uniaxial
test and are only significant as a measure of the variation of material parameters.
4.3 STRESSEQUIVALENT
STRAIN
RELATION
A description of stressstrain relationship including the softening region under uniaxial compression has been proposed
by Saenz [4]. Replacing the strain with & iy in this equation, the stressequivalent strain curve can be obtained as follows.
^{c}^{T}^{i} ^{=} l+(~+~~).(~)~(~l).(jL):
^{(}^{1}^{1}^{)}
in which
and E, is the initial modulus of elasticity,
particular principal stress ratio,
u ,c is the maximum stress, associated with direction i, that occurs for the current
equivalent
uniaxial strain, and
u if and
E
are the coordinates of a
the corresponding
point on the descending branch of the stressequivalent strain curve.
_{D}_{i}_{f}_{f}_{e}_{r}_{e}_{n}_{t}_{i}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{E}_{q}_{.}_{(}_{l}_{l}_{)}
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{p}_{e}_{c}_{t} _{t}_{o}
_{E}
the required modulus E, can be obtained as follows.
The incremental elastic modulus of Eq.(8) are known for the particular ratio of total stresses.
4.4
POISSON’S
RATIO
may be determined from the above equation provided that the parameters
Prior to implementing the incremental stressstrain relationship, it is also necessary to determine the values of
Poisson’s ratio has been determined from the uniaxial compression data of the tests by
Poisson’s ratio appearing in
Kupfer et al.
as shown in the following function of strain, by the leastsquares tit of a cubic polynomial.
in which E is the strain in the direction of uniaxial loading,
Poisson’s ratio
.
E
i s
E ,c for the uniaxial test, and
is
the
initial value of
It has been assumed that an axially symmetric Poisson’s ratio may now be applied to each equivalent uniaxial strain.
Three independent values of Poisson’s ratio 1/ , may be postulated for the following form.
However, it should be noted that a limiting value of 0.5 has been placed on for
value corresponds to a limit of zero incremental volume change.
v , as determined from Eq.(14).
This
227
Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane
4.5 PROCEDURE
OF
ANALYSIS
There are two methods of stress and strain increments in the analysis procedure. The former is convenient due to
stress path. However, it was clear in a previous study that the method
of stress increment had two faults. Firstly, the associated strain for a stress increment was considerably large with an extremely low secant modulus Ei near ultimate strength, and secondly it could not be calculated by a stressstrain curve in
determining the strain associated with the
the region of softening. Accordingly, we used the strain increment method in this paper, and conducted trials to estimate the stressstrain curve including that of the softening region.
5.
VERIFICATION
OF
MODEL
Comparisons of the analytical results with the experimental results in deviatoric stress plane tests of five stress paths
are shown in Fig. 8. As shown in these figures, it was clarified that the constitutive model applying an incremental hypoelastic model based on an equivalent uniaxial strain theory could satisfactorily estimate the nonlinear behavior of the
stressstrain curve along any specified stress path.
The preceding expressions were useful to predict the ultimate strength and the ultimate strain in a specified stress
combination,
method of strain increment could predict the descending branch of the stressstrain curve in the region of softening, although the method of stress increment could not be provided.
and
could
be
applied
for
the
nonlinear
threedimensional
analysis
of
concrete
structures.
Particularly,
the
6.
228
CONCLUSIONS
A summary of results obtained in this investigation is as follows.
(1) It was suggested that ultimate strengths and ultimate strains for high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers under triaxial compressive stresses remarkably increased on comparing with uniaxial compressive stress.
(2) The experimental 
results
of ultimate strength of high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers were slightly larger 

than 
those 
of conventional 
concrete. Accordingly, 
a mathematical 
description 
of ultimate strength envelopes 
in 
the 

meridian stress planes for the concrete was newly proposed. 

(3) 
The 
mathematical 
description 
of 
an ultimate 
strain 
surface 
of 
high 
strength concrete reinforced 
with 
steel fibers 
was 

also 
derived 
from 
experimental results. 
(4) It was made clear that the constitutive model proposed in this paper could predict the stressstrain response along any stress path, and the analytical stressstrain curves for high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers in the deviatoric stress plane agreed well with the experimental results including the softening region.
REFERENCES
_{(}_{1}_{)} _{O}_{h}_{n}_{u}_{m}_{a}_{,} _{H}_{.} _{a}_{n}_{d} _{A}_{o}_{y}_{a}_{g}_{i} _{Y}_{.}_{,} “Ultimate Strength Property of Concrete under Triaxial Compressive Stresses,”
Transactions of the 71h SMiRT,
(2) Chen, W. F., %&&L&&rinReinforced Cw,” McGrawHill, 1982.
(3)
(4) Saenz, I. P.,
Darwin, D. and Pecknold, D. A.,
“Nonlinear Biaxial Law for Concrete,” ASCE EM Division, April 1977, pp.229241.
“Discussion of “Equation of the StressStrain Curve of Concrete” by P.Desayi and Krishanan,”
(5)
Journal, Vol.61, No.9, 1964, pp.12291235. Kupfer, H. B., Hilsdorf, H. K., and Rusch, H.,
“Behavior of Concrete under Biaxial Stresses,”
Journal, Vol. 66,
No. 8, Aug. 1969, pp.656666.
(6) Ishikawa, T., Ohnuma, H. and Nawa, T.,
“StressStrain
Relationship
of
Concrete
under
Triaxial
Compressive
Stress
Conditions,” Proceedings of the 1’ Joint Symposium between Korea and Japan, Feb. 1998, pp.105112 ( in Japanese
).
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