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TRANSACTIONS

OF

THE

JAPAN

CONCRETE

INSTITUTE

VOL.

221 22.2ooO
221
22.2ooO

A MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF DEFORMATIONAL BEHAVIOR OF HIGH STRENGTH

CONCRETE REINFORCED WITH STEEL FIBER UNDER

TRIAXIAL
TRIAXIAL

COMPRESSION

REINFORCED WITH STEEL FIBER UNDER TRIAXIAL COMPRESSION Tetsuya ISHIKAWA “, Hiroshi OHNUMA “, Kenji IZUMO ”

Tetsuya ISHIKAWA “,

Hiroshi OHNUMA

“,
“,

Kenji IZUMO

Tetsuya ISHIKAWA “, Hiroshi OHNUMA “, Kenji IZUMO ” and Shohji OHARA ” ABSTRACT Based on
Tetsuya ISHIKAWA “, Hiroshi OHNUMA “, Kenji IZUMO ” and Shohji OHARA ” ABSTRACT Based on

and Shohji OHARA

ABSTRACT

Based on results of a pure triaxial compression tests, ultimate strength envelopes and ultimate strain envelopes of

high strength concrete reinforced with steel fiber under triaxial compression were mathematically expressed. Secondly, a

constitutive model was proposed by applying a hypoelastic orthotropic approach and an equivalent uniaxial strain theory. Furthermore, the application of this constitutive relation to preceding concrete was evaluated from the comparison of the

experimental results with the analytical results. KEYWORDS : high strength concrete reinforced with steel fiber, triaxial compressive stress. hypoelastic orthotropic model,

equivalent uniaxial strain theory

I. INTRODUCTION

A problem

of

the

practical

application

of

high

strength

concrete,

it

is

brittleness

accompanying

the

increase

of

compressive strength. One of the methods to improve ductility of concrete is to reinforce with steel fiber. When evaluating

the effect of

the

steel

fiber

on

the

ductility

of

concrete,

it

is

important

to

understand

the

behavior

of

strength

and

deformation

under

multiaxial

compressive

stresses.

Moreover,

in

order

to

analyze

concrete

structures

subjected

to

three

dimensional forces, it is necessary to develop a nonlinear analytical procedure considering mechanical characteristics under

triaxial

compressive

stresses.

It is the purpose of this paper to clarify the non-linear behavior of the stress-strain curve of high strength concrete

reinforced with steel fibers under pure triaxial compression. In the first place, ultimate strength and ultimate strain were obtained from a meridian stress plane test and a deviatoric stress plane test, and ultimate strength envelopes and ultimate strain envelopes under triaxial compression were mathematically expressed. A constitutive model was proposed by

applying a hypoelastic orthotropic approach based on an equivalent uniaxial strain theory. It was clear that this model was able to predict the non-linear stress-strain relationship along any stress path.

non-linear stress-strain relationship along any stress path. 2. EXPERIMENTS 2.1 MATERIALS AND MIX PROPOTION OF CONCRETE
non-linear stress-strain relationship along any stress path. 2. EXPERIMENTS 2.1 MATERIALS AND MIX PROPOTION OF CONCRETE

2.

EXPERIMENTS

2.1 MATERIALS AND MIX PROPOTION OF CONCRETE

Normal portland cement was used in this experiment. Fine aggregate was sea sand that was produced in Mukawa, and

its fineness modulus, specific mass and absorption

were 2.87, 2.67 and 1.43

specific mass and absorption were 2.87, 2.67 and 1.43 %, respectively. The maximum size of coarse

%, respectively. The maximum size of coarse

222

Table 1 Mix proportion of concrete

 

Slump

 
WIG
WIG

Max. size of aggregate

(mm)
(mm)
(cm)
(cm)
(%I
(%I

10

(

15fl
15fl

1

27.0

(cm) (%I 1 0 ( 15fl 1 27.0 *: AE water reducing superplaskizer Table 2 Mechanical

*: AE water reducing

1 0 ( 15fl 1 27.0 *: AE water reducing superplaskizer Table 2 Mechanical properties of

superplaskizer

Table 2 Mechanical properties of concrete At testing ( 40 days ) Compressive meridian test
Table 2 Mechanical properties of concrete
At
testing ( 40 days )
Compressive
meridian
test
80.9
37.1
0.21
85.9
39.8
0.21
(
0=60')
Tnsile
meridian
test
81.7
5.06
40.4
0.24
87.0
38.0
0.21
(O=O”)
Deviatoric
stress plane
81.6
5.01
41.4
0.23
83.6
41.1
0.22
test
stress plane 81.6 5.01 41.4 0.23 83.6 41.1 0.22 test t: Specimen of 0 150X 200mm
stress plane 81.6 5.01 41.4 0.23 83.6 41.1 0.22 test t: Specimen of 0 150X 200mm

t: Specimen of 0 150X

200mm was used.

aggregate

proportion of the high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers is shown in Table 1. Water to cement ratio. required slump and sand-

was

10

mm,

and

its

specific

mass

was

2.65.

The

mix

sand- was 10 mm, and its specific mass was 2.65. The mix coarse aggregate ratio were

coarse

aggregate

ratio

were

33

%

,

15

+
+

1

cm

and

44.5

%

,

respectively.

The

mass

of

AE

water

reducing

superplasticizer

was

1.0% of that of the cement. Steel fibers with 9mm long and 1.0% of the volume of concrete were used.

2.2

MECHANICAL

PROPERTIES

OF

CONCRETE

The mechanical properties of high strength concrete

reinforced with steel fibers using a cylindrical specimen

lOOmmX200mm, which was cured in water until the day before

testing, were measured. The compressive strength, Young’s modulus

and Poisson’s ratio of the

triaxial compression are shown in Table 2.

concrete at 28 days and at testing under

of

0
0

2.3 PROCEDURE OF

COMPRESSION TESTat 28 days and at testing under of 0 2.3 PROCEDURE OF A triaxial compression test

and at testing under of 0 2.3 PROCEDURE OF COMPRESSION TEST A triaxial compression test was

A triaxial compression test was carried out on a 1OOmm cubic

f Urnanal 0: / ,’
f
Urnanal
0:
/
,’

compressive

strength

Rendulic stress plane

0: / ,’ compressive strength Rendulic stress plane compressive strength specimen that was cast in a
0: / ,’ compressive strength Rendulic stress plane compressive strength specimen that was cast in a
0: / ,’ compressive strength Rendulic stress plane compressive strength specimen that was cast in a

compressive

strength

strength Rendulic stress plane compressive strength specimen that was cast in a steel mold. After approximately

specimen that was cast in a steel mold. After approximately several hours of casting, the surface of the specimen was finished with

cement

specimens were cured in water up to the day before testing. To minimize surface friction between a loading platen and the

specimen. a pad of two teflon sheets of O.lmm with silicon grease was used. The coefficient of friction of the pad was

measured to be 0.014 on average. The testing machine for the triaxial compression test could apply independently each

the three principal stresses. The maximum capacities of the testing machine were 2 MN in all directions.

Fig. 1 Concept of meridian stress plane and

deviatoric

stress

plane

paste,

with

a

water

to

cement

ratio

of

28

%

and

the

01
01

A meridian stress plane test and a deviatoric

Gress plane test were adopted

In this experiment. Two extreme meridian

01 A meridian stress plane test and a deviatoric Gress plane test were adopted In this

223

0” and

tensile

The compressive and the tensile meridian planes include the

uniaxial compressive strength and equal biaxial compressive I.5 strength as special cases. In the compressive meridian test, a ,

planes corresponding to

Q =
Q
=
e = 60”
e
=
60”

meridian,

are

called

a

meridian

and

a

compressive

respectively.

2.5

C3rodcc
C3rodcc

2

a meridian and a compressive respectively. 2 . 5 C3rodcc 2 0.5 o , 2 1
0.5 o , 2 1
0.5
o
,
2
1

maximum principal stress was increased to failure while other

principal stresses were kept as a specified value. In the tensile meridian test, two principal stresses equally increased to os

failure while the minimum principal stress was maintained as a specified value.

Tests in the deviatoric stress plane were carried out in

such a way that the sum of the principal stresses was kept 2.5

constant. Three successive stresses were firstly applied along the hydrostatic axis up to 70N/mm*. The three stresses were

hydrostatic axis up to 70N/mm*. The three stresses were Fig. 2 Ultimate strength envelopes in meridian

Fig. 2 Ultimate strength envelopes in meridian stress planes

increased

hydrostatically

up

to

a

specified

deviatoric

 

stress

plane,

and

then

varied

within

this

plane

along

one

of

five

plane, and then varied within this plane along one of five

loading

paths

to

failure.

For

an

isotropic

material,

the

envelopes

in

that

plane

must

have

three-fold

symmetry.

Therefore, it is necessary to explore only the sectors of the

angle of similarity from

e =
e
=

0” to

0” to 60”, and five stress paths

60”, and five stress paths

were adopted in this test. The concept of the meridian stress plane and the deviatoric stress plane is shown in Fig. 1.

3

MATHEMATICAL

DESCFUPTION
DESCFUPTION

OF

ULTIMATE

STRENGTH

AND

ULTIMATE

STRAIN

SURFACE

 
 
most cc
most
cc

I

2 J--r ( UC
2 J--r
(
UC

0

1

3.1

ULTIMATE

STRENGTH

SURFACE

 

The general shape of an ultimate strength surface in a

Fig. 3 Ultimate strength envelope in deviatoric

stress planes

stress

meridian stress plane and the deviatoric stress plane. The envelopes of ultimate strength in the meridian stress plane are

intersecting curves between the surface and a plane containing the hydrostatic axis with

ultimate strength in the compressive and tensile meridian are shown in Fig. 2. Firstly, the ultimate strength envelopes for

high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers in two meridian stress planes could be approximated by the following parabolic equations in terms of octahedral stresses.

space

can

be

best

described

by

envelopes

in

the

0 =
0
=

constant. The test results of

toe= -0.0442+0.8664 a,,f -0138 s (, ) . (o, )‘ DC
toe= -0.0442+0.8664 a,,f -0138 s
(,
)
.
(o,
)‘
DC

(0.76a~s1.76) of toe= -0.0442+0.8664 a,,f -0138 s (, ) . (o, )‘ DC 5 = 0.0634+1.355(~) -0.3689(,)'

5

a,,f -0138 s (, ) . (o, )‘ DC (0.76a~s1.76) 5 = 0.0634+1.355(~) -0.3689(,)' 5 a
a,,f -0138 s (, ) . (o, )‘ DC (0.76a~s1.76) 5 = 0.0634+1.355(~) -0.3689(,)' 5 a

= 0.0634+1.355(~) -0.3689(,)'

5 a are octahedral shearing stresses at

-0.3689(,)' 5 a are octahedral shearing stresses at e z P in which : ( O

e

z P in which :
z
P
in
which
:
a are octahedral shearing stresses at e z P in which : ( O . ,
a are octahedral shearing stresses at e z P in which : ( O . ,

(O.,,,~, ,,,)

0 = 60”, respectively, respectively,

a and

, , ~ , , , , ) 0 = 60”, respectively, a and 0 =

0 = 0” and

o c is uniaxial compressive strength and

is the angle of similarity.

u oc,
u
oc,

is octahedral normal stress,

In Fig. 2, dotted lines are the expressions of the ultimate strength envelopes for conventional

concrete ( plane and

normal strength concrete ) obtained by Ohnuma et al.

on average in the compressive meridian, and 4.8 % higher in the tensile meridian than values calculated by expressions for

[l].
[l].

The obtained test results in this investigation were 13% higher

conventional concrete. This is due to the increase of the relative shearing strength. Namely, the ratio of shearing strength to

uniaxial compressive strength of high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers is higher than that of conventional concrete. Therefore, it was concluded that the ultimate strength envelopes of high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers in the meridian stress planes could be estimated by Eqs. (1) and (2).

high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers in the meridian stress planes could be estimated by

224

224 Fig. 4 Stress-strain curves in compressive meridian Fig. 5 Stress- strain curves in tensile meridian

Fig.

4

Stress-strain

curves

in

compressive

meridian

224 Fig. 4 Stress-strain curves in compressive meridian Fig. 5 Stress- strain curves in tensile meridian

Fig.

5

Stress-

strain

curves

in

tensile

meridian

Secondly, the envelopes in the deviatoric stress plane, which are the intersecting curves between the ultimate strength surface and that plane, were provided. When concrete is assumed to be isotropic and homogeneous, the envelopes in the

of

deviatoric stress plane must have three-fold symmetry, and it is necessary to

similarity

defined as a part of an elliptic curve

explore

only

the

sector

of

the

angle

0
0

from 0” to 60”. The envelopes in the deviatoric stress plane may be given by the following equation, which is

[Zl
[Zl
plane may be given by the following equation, which is [Zl The comparison of the envelope

The comparison of the envelope estimated by these equations and with experimental results in the deviatoric stress

plane is shown in Fig. 3. The expression of ultimate strength envelopes in the deviatoric stress plane was found to closely approximate the experimental results for high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers.

3.2

ULTIMATE

STRAIN

SURFACE

Stress-strain curves obtained from the compressive and the tensile meridian tests are illustrated in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. respectively. As shown in these figures, ultimate strength and ultimate strain of high strength concrete reinforced with steel

fibers subjected to

increase was mainly dependent on the combination of principal stresses, This is because the characteristics of concrete

change from the brittle to ductile to repress the growth of microcracking in concrete when confined stresses increase. The

compression increased to a much greater degree than that of the uniaxial compression, and the

triaxial
triaxial

expressions of ultimate strain surface in terms of octahedral normal strain

determined from the experimental results by the least squares method as follows.

E

on
on

and

octahedral

shearing

strain

Y ocl may be

r i n g s t r a i n Y o c l m a
y,, = 3.9534 + 0.109 (4) E cu Y r,m= 2y,,(y;< - y,2,)cose + y,&y,,
y,, = 3.9534 + 0.109
(4)
E cu
Y
r,m= 2y,,(y;< - y,2,)cose + y,&y,, - Y,, )J4(Yic - Y,', )cos* 0 + sr,z, - 4YmYoc
4 (Yic - Y% )cos* 0 + (Y,, - 2YJ
(6)
(6)
0 + sr,z, - 4YmYoc 4 (Yic - Y% )cos* 0 + (Y,, - 2YJ (6)

in which t EU is the strain corresponding to uniaxial compressive strength, Y ,,p is octahedral shearing strain at e = O, ? n

is octahedral shearing strain at ‘3 = 60”, and 0 is the angle of similarity.

The comparison of straight lines derived from Eq. (4) and Eq. (5)m a meridian strain plane with the experimental results is shown in Fig.6. In this investigation, ultimate strain is defined as the strain corresponding to ultimate strength. It was clear that the expressions of ultimate strain envelopes in a meridian strain plane could be determined by these equations

though scattering of the experimental ultimate strains was larger than that of the ultimate strength.

The ultimate strain envelope in a deviatoric strain plane could be provided to the same curve as ultimate strength. The

experimental results and the ultimate strain envelope

The experimental results and the ultimate strain envelope obtained from Eq. (6) for high strength concrete

obtained from Eq. (6) for high strength concrete reinforced with steel

fibers are shown in Fig. 7. As clarified from this figure, the

expression of the ultimate strain envelope in the deviatoric strain plane could agree well with the experimental results.

4

MATHEMATICAL

DESCRIPTION

OF

NONLINEAR

STRESS-STRAIN

CURVE

4.1

INCREMENTAL

HYPOELASTIC

MODEL

Assuming orthotropy of the principal stress axis and

reducing the variables caused by symmetry, the incremental constitutive relation for axisymmetric problems can be

written as follows.

225 M E4.(5)
225
M E4.(5)

I

I--.dhod .3f bd 92usre.j 0 Exwnmontal data j
I--.dhod .3f bd 92usre.j
0 Exwnmontal
data
j
-0.5 O?
-0.5
O?

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

C3EdE o
C3EdE
o

5.0

0 Exwnmontal data j -0.5 O? 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 C3EdE o 5.0 I)< P 10.0

I)<

Pdata j -0.5 O? 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 C3EdE o 5.0 I)< 10.0 L gi Ed41

10.0 L

gi

Ed41

Fig. 6 Ultimate strain envelopes in meridian strain planes

{dE,}=[D]'{dai}
{dE,}=[D]'{dai}

(7)

in which {d

strain and stress, respectively, and

E

,}

and {d

in which {d strain and stress, respectively, and E ,} and {d u ,} are the

u ,} are the vectors of incremental

- E;’ - &2E;‘E;’ - &,E;‘E;’ 0 - p2,E;‘E;’ 0 [D]= : “f’ Ej o
-
E;’
-
&2E;‘E;’
-
&,E;‘E;’
0
-
p2,E;‘E;’
0
[D]=
:
“f’
Ej
o
symm.
G,‘-
3
=
V
II
?,
z,,
if
‘?,
=
V ?,
V
,*
and
/L
‘,)
= V
,,
V
,,.

, if-,:

In

order to work out

Eq.(7)

with

the

form

of

the

‘r
‘r

incremental constitutive relation, the seven incremental

*=0.61
*=0.61

I

hypoelastic modulus need to be determined. So the concept

0

4

I

* C&t EC”
* C&t
EC”

of equivalent uniaxial strain. as developed by Darwin and

of equivalent uniaxial strain. as developed by Darwin and P e c k n o l

Pecknold [3], is applied in this study.

Fig. 7 Ultimate strain envelop in deviatoric strain plane

4.2 EQUIVALENT

UNIAXIAL

STRAIN

THEORY

Based on the concept of equivalent uniaxial strain which defines the variation of E,,

E,
E,

and E, with respect

to the

defines the variation of E,, E, and E, with respect to the variation of stress, the

variation of stress, the relation between incremental equivalent uniaxial strain d E ,” and incremental stress d (I , for

axisymmetric problems may be written in the following matrix form.

Ei=r;
Ei=r;
; ;,
;
;,
(8) jqj
(8)
jqj

The

vector

on

the

right-hand

side

of

Eq.@)

may

be

defined

as

the

incremental

equivalent

uniaxial

strains.

The

incremental equivalent uniaxial strains can be evaluated from

incremental equivalent uniaxial strains can be evaluated from Eq.(8) in the simple form.

Eq.(8) in the simple form.

 
dq,
dq,

= da,

I E,
I
E,

(9)

Moreover, the total equivalent uniaxial strain may be determined by integrating

equivalent uniaxial strain may be determined by integrating E*, =J% Eq.(9) over the stress path. (10)

E*, =J%

uniaxial strain may be determined by integrating E*, =J% Eq.(9) over the stress path. (10) The

Eq.(9) over the stress path. over the stress path.

(10)
(10)

The incremental equivalent uniaxial strain of Eq.(9) is the increment of strain in direction i that the material would

the

of strain in direction i that the material would the exhibit if subjected to a stress

exhibit if subjected to a stress increment d

u , with other stress increments equal to zero. However, d

if subjected to a stress increment d u , with other stress increments equal to zero.

E I” depends depends

on

226

current stress ratio, and E I” and d & iy do not transform in the same manner as stress. Both are fictitious except in a uniaxial

manner as stress. Both are fictitious except in a uniaxial test and are only significant as
manner as stress. Both are fictitious except in a uniaxial test and are only significant as

test and are only significant as a measure of the variation of material parameters.

4.3 STRESS-EQUIVALENT

the variation of material parameters. 4.3 STRESS-EQUIVALENT STRAIN RELATION A description of stress-strain relationship

STRAIN

RELATION

A description of stress-strain relationship including the softening region under uniaxial compression has been proposed

region under uniaxial compression has been proposed by Saenz [4]. Replacing the strain with & iy

by Saenz [4]. Replacing the strain with & iy in this equation, the stress-equivalent strain curve can be obtained as follows.

stress-equivalent strain curve can be obtained as follows. c T i = l+(~+~-~).(~)~(~-l).(jL): RvEo(o%ff-l)=4~,,

cTi = l+(~+~-~).(~)~(~-l).(jL):

as follows. c T i = l+(~+~-~).(~)~(~-l).(jL): RvEo(o%ff-l)=4~,, 2 ‘if ’ E* (1 Ei, ‘ic, -1
as follows. c T i = l+(~+~-~).(~)~(~-l).(jL): RvEo(o%ff-l)=4~,, 2 ‘if ’ E* (1 Ei, ‘ic, -1
RvEo(o%ff-l)=4~,, 2
RvEo(o%ff-l)=4~,,
2
‘if ’ E* (1 Ei,
‘if
E*
(1
Ei,
‘ic, -1 &if 1 E iC is
‘ic,
-1
&if
1
E
iC
is
E,,4,, ‘ic
E,,4,,
‘ic

(11)

+I?.(:) o,,=% 4’ %
+I?.(:)
o,,=%
4’
%

in which

is E,,4,, ‘ic ( 1 1 ) +I?.(:) o,,=% 4’ % in which and E, is

and E, is the initial modulus of elasticity,

particular principal stress ratio,

u ,c is the maximum stress, associated with direction i, that occurs for the current

equivalent

uniaxial strain, and

u if and and

E

if
if

are the coordinates of a

the corresponding

point on the descending branch of the stress-equivalent strain curve.

the descending branch of the stress-equivalent strain curve. D i f f e r e n

Differentiating Eq.(ll)

with respect to

E

the required modulus E, can be obtained as follows.q . ( l l ) w i t h r e s p e c

(12) E, =E,
(12)
E,
=E,
modulus E, can be obtained as follows. (12) E, =E, The incremental elastic modulus of Eq.(8)

The incremental elastic modulus of Eq.(8) are known for the particular ratio of total stresses.

4.4

POISSON’S

RATIO

may be determined from the above equation provided that the parameters

Prior to implementing the incremental stress-strain relationship, it is also necessary to determine the values of

Poisson’s ratio has been determined from the uniaxial compression data of the tests by

Poisson’s ratio appearing in

Kupfer et al.

Eq.(7).
Eq.(7).
[5]
[5]

as shown in the following function of strain, by the least-squares tit of a cubic polynomial.

of strain, by the least-squares tit of a cubic polynomial. in which E is the strain

in which E is the strain in the direction of uniaxial loading,

Poisson’s ratio

V
V

.

E

cy
cy

i s

E ,c for the uniaxial test, and

ratio V . E cy i s E ,c for the uniaxial test, and is the

isratio V . E cy i s E ,c for the uniaxial test, and the initial

the

initial value of

It has been assumed that an axially symmetric Poisson’s ratio may now be applied to each equivalent uniaxial strain.

Three independent values of Poisson’s ratio 1/ , may be postulated for the following form.

ratio 1/ , may be postulated for the following form. v, =vo.f : IC ( 1
v, =vo.f : IC ( 1
v, =vo.f
:
IC
(
1

However, it should be noted that a limiting value of 0.5 has been placed on for

value corresponds to a limit of zero incremental volume change.

v , as determined from Eq.(14). , as determined from Eq.(14).

This

227 Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane 4.5
227 Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane 4.5
227 Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane 4.5

227

227 Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane 4.5 PROCEDURE
227 Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane 4.5 PROCEDURE
227 Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane 4.5 PROCEDURE

Fig.8 Comparisons of analytical results with experimental results obtained in deviatoric stress plane

4.5 PROCEDURE

OF

ANALYSIS

There are two methods of stress and strain increments in the analysis procedure. The former is convenient due to

stress path. However, it was clear in a previous study that the method

of stress increment had two faults. Firstly, the associated strain for a stress increment was considerably large with an extremely low secant modulus Ei near ultimate strength, and secondly it could not be calculated by a stress-strain curve in

determining the strain associated with the

predefined
predefined
in determining the strain associated with the predefined the region of softening. Accordingly, we used the

the region of softening. Accordingly, we used the strain increment method in this paper, and conducted trials to estimate the stress-strain curve including that of the softening region.

5.

VERIFICATION

OF

MODEL

Comparisons of the analytical results with the experimental results in deviatoric stress plane tests of five stress paths

are shown in Fig. 8. As shown in these figures, it was clarified that the constitutive model applying an incremental hypoelastic model based on an equivalent uniaxial strain theory could satisfactorily estimate the nonlinear behavior of the

stress-strain curve along any specified stress path.

The preceding expressions were useful to predict the ultimate strength and the ultimate strain in a specified stress

combination,

method of strain increment could predict the descending branch of the stress-strain curve in the region of softening, although the method of stress increment could not be provided.

and

could

be

applied

for

the

non-linear

three-dimensional

analysis

of

concrete

structures.

Particularly,

the

6.

228

CONCLUSIONS

A summary of results obtained in this investigation is as follows.

(1) It was suggested that ultimate strengths and ultimate strains for high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers under triaxial compressive stresses remarkably increased on comparing with uniaxial compressive stress.

(2) The experimental

results
results

of ultimate strength of high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers were slightly larger

 

than

those

of

conventional

concrete.

Accordingly,

a

mathematical

description

of

ultimate

strength

envelopes

in

the

meridian stress planes for the concrete was newly proposed.

 

(3)

The

mathematical

description

of

an

ultimate

strain

surface

of

high

strength

concrete

reinforced

with

steel

fibers

was

also

derived

from

experimental

results.

 

(4) It was made clear that the constitutive model proposed in this paper could predict the stress-strain response along any stress path, and the analytical stress-strain curves for high strength concrete reinforced with steel fibers in the deviatoric stress plane agreed well with the experimental results including the softening region.

REFERENCES

(1) Ohnuma, H. and Aoyagi Y., “Ultimate Strength Property of Concrete under Triaxial Compressive Stresses,”

Transactions of the 71h SMiRT,

H4/8, Aug. 1983, pp.l-7.
H4/8, Aug. 1983, pp.l-7.

(2) Chen, W. F., %&&L&&rinReinforced Cw,” McGraw-Hill, 1982.

(3)

(4) Saenz, I. P.,

Darwin, D. and Pecknold, D. A.,

“Nonlinear Biaxial Law for Concrete,” ASCE EM Division, April 1977, pp.229-241.

AC1
AC1

“Discussion of “Equation of the Stress-Strain Curve of Concrete” by P.Desayi and Krishanan,”

(5)

Curve of Concrete” by P.Desayi and Krishanan,” (5) Journal, Vol.61, No.9, 1964, pp.1229-1235. Kupfer, H.
Curve of Concrete” by P.Desayi and Krishanan,” (5) Journal, Vol.61, No.9, 1964, pp.1229-1235. Kupfer, H.

Journal, Vol.61, No.9, 1964, pp.1229-1235. Kupfer, H. B., Hilsdorf, H. K., and Rusch, H.,

“Behavior of Concrete under Biaxial Stresses,”

AC1
AC1

Journal, Vol. 66,

of Concrete under Biaxial Stresses,” AC1 Journal, Vol. 66, No. 8, Aug. 1969, pp.656-666. (6) Ishikawa,

No. 8, Aug. 1969, pp.656-666.

(6) Ishikawa, T., Ohnuma, H. and Nawa, T.,

“Stress-Strain

Relationship

of

Concrete

under

Triaxial

Compressive

Stress

Relationship of Concrete under Triaxial Compressive Stress Conditions,” Proceedings of the 1’ Joint Symposium

Conditions,” Proceedings of the 1’ Joint Symposium between Korea and Japan, Feb. 1998, pp.105-112 ( in Japanese

).