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Universal Motor : A universal motor is a motor which maybe operated

either on direct or single phases a.c supply at approximately the same


speed and output. Most of the universal motors are designed to operate
at higher speeds, exceeding 3500 RPM

Generally universal motor are Manufactured in two types:

1.Non compensated motor

2.compensated motor

NON COMPENSATED MOTOR: This type of motor has two salient poles just like a 2 pole series d.c
motor.Here The laminated stator is necessary because the flux is alternating when motor is operated
from ac supply.The armature is similar toa small dc motor.

The leads of the armature winding are connected to the commutator.


High resistance brushes are used along with this type of motor to

help better commutation.

An equivalent Non-compensated type Universal Motor is shown in figure below.

Compensated Type with Distributed Field:

The compensated type Universal Motor consists of distributed field winding and the
stator core is similar to that of split-phase motor. We know that split phase motors
consist of an auxiliary winding in addition to main winding. Similar to the split phase
motors, the compensated type also consists of an additional winding. The compensating
winding helps in reducing the reactance voltage which is caused due to alternating flux,
when the motor runs with the AC supply.

An equivalent Compensated type Universal Motor is shown in figure below.

Construction of Universal Motors

Different parts of Universal Motors are discussed here. The main parts of the
concentrated field universal motor are the

1. frame
2. field core
3. armature
4. end plates

The frame is a rolled steel, aluminum, or cast-iron shell similar to that in Figure 2. The field
poles are generally held in the frame by means of thru bolts. Very often the frame
is constructed to form an integral part of the machine it supports.

The field core is constructed of laminations that are tightly pressed together. As shown in
Figure, the laminations are designed to contain both field poles of a two-pole motor.

The armature is similar to that of the small DC motor. It consists essentially of a laminated core
having either straight slots. and a commutator to which the leads of the armature winding are
connected. Both the core and commutator are pressed on the shaft.

the end plates are located on the ends of the frame. The plates house the bearings. Many
universal motors contain an end plate that is cast as part of the frame. Only one plate can be
removed from this type of motor.

Construction and Working of Universal motor: Construction of a universal motor


is very similar to the construction of a DC magnet motor except its stator which is not
permanent magnet but an electro magnet.There are two separated coils which are
connected in series Through the brushes and armature.
When operating voltage is applied both field winding and armature winding are
energized.So reversing the supply voltage will not change the direction of
rotation.Such a motor develop unidirectional torque either ac or dc.

When a current carrying conductor is placed in an electromagnetic field, it experiences


a mechanical force. Due to this mechanical force, or torque, the rotor starts to rotate.
The direction of this force is given by Fleming's left hand rule.

how does a DC motor work on AC supply?

From the above image, the direction of the Resultant Force due to Current in the
winding in presence of Magnetic field can be calculated. This Force called Lorentz
Forece, is in the direction along which the Armature Coil rotates and hence the shaft.

If the supply is DC, the polarity never reverses. So we get the field and the current in the
same direction always and hence a net force in a particular direction on the conductors
due to which the rotor rotates.

If the supply is AC, the polarity changes between +ve and –ve, 50 times per second. So,
the direction of current as well as the Magnetic Field changes and hence we get the
Resultant Force in different directions.
FACTOR FOR CHOOSING A UNIVERSAL MOTOR?\

Speed: Universal motors run at 10,000 – 30,000 RPM.

Torque: The load of the motor will determine how large a motor is required

Cooling: Cooling the motor via forced convection will allow it to operate continuously at a higher torque

Mounting: The end brackets for various mounting faces, hole patterns and pilots

Housing: The housing will be required to prevent ingress of foreign particles but also provide sufficient
airflow to the motor.

Life Expectancy: The brush life for a Universal Motor is shorter than that of a PMDC motor at a
continuous duty rating. What is the required lifespan of the application and will it be continuous or
intermittent duty?

Shafts: These motors are designed for the specific application, shaft sizes can be customized to fit the
application requirements

Voltage: Universal motors run on 115VAC, 115FWR, or 230VAC

Speed control of Universal Motors can be possible by following ways

1. Phase angle Control


2. PWM Chopper control