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Schriftenreihe des Lehrstuhls Tragwerksplanung, TU Dresden

Publication Series of the Chair of Structural Design, TU Dresden

Bauforschung und Baupraxis


From Research to Practice in Construction

Heft/Vol. 8

COLLAPSE ANALYSIS OF MASONRY STRUCTURES


UNDER EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS

Tammam Bakeer
Bauforschung und Baupraxis
From Research to Practice in Construction

Herausgegeben von
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfram Jäger und
Doz. Dr.-Ing. Todor Vassilev

Lehrstuhl Tragwerksplanung
Fakultät Architektur
Technische Universität Dresden
01062 Dresden

Tel.: +49 (0) 351 / 46 33 50 10


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ISBN: 978-3-86780-130-0

© Lehrstuhl Tragwerksplanung Dresden 2009

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COLLAPSE ANALYSIS OF MASONRY STRUCTURES
UNDER EARTHQUAKE ACTIONS

Dissertation

genehmigt von der Fakultät Architektur der


Technischen Universität Dresden
zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines

Doktors der Ingenieurwissenschaften

(Dr.-Ing.)

von

Dipl.-Ing. Tammam Taher Bakeer


geb. am 01.01.1980 in Homs, Syrien

Tag der Disputation: 29.05.2009


Gutachter:
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfram Jäger Technische Universität Dresden
Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Peter Ruge Technische Universität Dresden
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ghassan Nader Al-Baath Universität, Syrien
To my Rama and Rana
I dedicate this work
Acknowledgements 5

Acknowledgements

The first interest to develop this work originates from the need to preserve masonry
monuments in my homeland Syria, the land that is well known as the cradle of
civilizations.
The research report in this thesis is carried out at the chair of structural design, Faculty
of Architecture, Dresden University of Technology. The experimental data of large scale
structures in this thesis have been provided by the European research project
ESECMaSE. The major tool that used to develop the numerical models is LS-DYNA
software ver. 971, as well as it is used to implement the proposed algorithms. The
calculations of large scale structures have been carried out in the high performance
computing centre of Dresden University of Technology.
I consider my few years in Dresden to be a crucial period in my life, where I introduced
to many challenging problems, in one of the most attractive place to study masonry
structures. First and foremost I would like to express my sincere and deep gratitude
towards my supervisor Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfram Jäger for his generosity, wisdom,
outstanding support throughout my research at Dresden University of Technology.
I would like to record my thanks to the team of ZIH (high performance computing center
of Dresden University of Technology) for their fast help and great attention. As well as
my thank goes to the team of ELSA (the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment
in JRC the Joint research centre, Ispra-Italy) and particularly to Dr. Armelle Anthoine for
providing the necessary experimental data which used in this thesis.
I am very grateful for the fruitful collaboration I had with Dipl.-Ing. Peter Schöps. His
encouragement, valuable discussions and great attention are never forgotten. Besides, I
owe my gratitude to Dr.-Ing. Song Ha Nguyen for his suggestions and the valuable time
gave to me. I am deeply indebted to my colleagues at the chair of structural design for
their great support and continuous scientific discussions for providing a stimulating and
fun environment in the chair. I also wish to express my sincere appreciation to Prof.
Gassan Nader & Prof. Eido Shannat for their unlimited support and endless
encouragement. They are of those professors well remembered by students.
Lastly and most importantly, I am extremely grateful to my parents who have been the
source of encouragement and inspiration throughout my life.

Tammam Bakeer Dresden, August 2008


Abstract 7

Abstract

Earthquake actions are by far the major risk that causes the collapse of masonry
structures. The assessment of the seismic performance of large scale masonry
structures remains a challenging task despite the progress achieved by means of
experimental studies. Due to the capacity limitation of shaking tables and other dynamic
testing devices, the large scale computer modelling appears to be a very efficient
alternative. The modern calculation methods, the high performance computers and the
advanced software packages are the major research tools in this concern.
The present thesis concerns to develop and investigate computer-aided techniques to
simulate the behaviour of large scale masonry structures under earthquake actions
starting from elastic linear behaviour to the progression of damage up to the point of
collapse.
The numerical models have been developed by means of explicit finite element code LS-
DYNA. The numerical techniques which allow the emergence of discontinuities have
been adopted and the combined Finite-Discrete Element Method, capable of processing
large deformations and discontinuities has been applied for the purpose of collapse
analysis. The ability of mesh free methods, like smoothed particles hydrodynamic, have
been examined for simulation the failure modes and the fragmentation of the material.
The necessary background of the constitutive models of masonry constituents has been
given and the major features, shortcomings and challenging problems have been
highlighted. An interface cohesive model based on the smoothness of the yield surface
has been proposed and implemented. The adopted models have been validated by
means of the dynamic test results of two full scale masonry structures.
The developed approach has been used to study the performance of heritage masonry
buildings, which involve members of different geometries, against the fundamental
earthquake characteristics. The influences of earthquake characteristics on the
vulnerability of collapse have been explored by the collapse analysis of a case study of
full heritage masonry building.
A theory for the shear failure behaviour of vertically reinforced masonry shear walls has
been developed, which gives an idealization for the behaviour after the initial failure of a
composite material with a high level of inhomogeneity like masonry. Besides, collapse
analysis has been employed as a tool to develop and verify the seismic retrofitting of the
reconstructed heritage buildings. The approach has been applied on a case study of
adobe masonry building from Bam citadel which collapsed after the earthquake of 2003.
Table of contents 9

Table of contents

1 Introduction ................................................................................................13
1.1 Masonry in architecture history......................................................................... 13
1.2 The scope and objectives ................................................................................. 18
1.3 Outline of contents ............................................................................................ 18

2 The state of research in masonry modelling ...........................................21


2.1 Modelling strategies of masonry....................................................................... 21
2.2 Methods of analysis .......................................................................................... 22
2.3 Continuum methods.......................................................................................... 23
2.4 Discrete methods .............................................................................................. 26
2.4.1 Rigid Bodies Spring Method (RBSM) ........................................................... 28
2.4.2 Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA)................................................. 28
2.4.3 Non-Smooth Contact Dynamics (NSCD) ..................................................... 29
2.4.4 Modified Discrete Element Method (MDEM)................................................ 30
2.4.5 Combined Finite-Discrete Elements (DEM/FEM) ........................................ 30
2.4.6 Limit Analysis Models (LAM) ........................................................................ 31
2.4.7 Applied Element Method (AEM) ................................................................... 32
2.5 Concluding remarks .......................................................................................... 33

3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry.........................................35


3.1 Masonry constituents ........................................................................................ 35
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry ........................................................................... 36
3.2.1 Uniaxial failure behaviour of masonry unit ................................................... 36
3.2.2 Triaxial failure behaviour............................................................................... 44
3.2.3 Failure behaviour of unit mortar interface .................................................... 45
3.2.4 Failure theories of masonry as composite ................................................... 50
3.3 Concluding remarks .......................................................................................... 54

4 Finite element modelling of masonry .......................................................55


4.1 Governing equations......................................................................................... 55
4.1.1 Conservation laws......................................................................................... 56
4.1.2 Boundary conditions ..................................................................................... 57
4.2 Finite element formulation ................................................................................ 58
Table of contents 10

4.3 Contact analysis................................................................................................ 60


4.4 Finite element codes and solution strategies ................................................... 64
4.5 Techniques of crack formation ......................................................................... 68
4.5.1 Undetermined crack techniques ................................................................... 69
4.5.2 Predetermined crack techniques .................................................................. 71
4.6 Modelling strategies for collapse simulation..................................................... 74
4.7 Concluding remarks .......................................................................................... 77

5 Constitutive models ...................................................................................79


5.1 The basics of plasticity theory .......................................................................... 79
5.1.1 Non-smooth multi-surfaces plasticity............................................................ 81
5.1.2 Implementation into LS-DYNA...................................................................... 83
5.2 Constitutive models of the interfaces ............................................................... 85
5.3 Implementation of cohesive interface material model...................................... 88
5.3.1 The smooth yield surface.............................................................................. 88
5.3.2 Return mapping ............................................................................................ 91
5.3.3 The damage functions .................................................................................. 93
5.3.4 Simulation the fragmentation using interface elements ............................... 95
5.4 Constitutive models of masonry constituents................................................... 96
5.4.1 General shape of yield surface for geo-materials ........................................ 96
5.4.2 Geo-materials constitutive models in LS-DYNA......................................... 100
5.5 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................ 105

6 Application of mesh free methods..........................................................107


6.1 The basic approximations of SPH .................................................................. 107
6.1.1 Kernel approximation .................................................................................. 107
6.1.2 Particle approximation ................................................................................ 110
6.2 SPH formulation for solid mechanics ............................................................. 111
6.3 SPH modelling of masonry in LS-DYNA ........................................................ 112
6.4 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................ 113

7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling ............................115


7.1 Dynamic testing methods ............................................................................... 116
7.1.1 Shaking table testing method (STT)........................................................... 116
7.1.2 Pseudo-dynamic testing method (PSD) ..................................................... 116
Table of contents 11

7.1.3 Real time dynamic hybrid testing method (RTPSD) .................................. 118
7.2 Experimental tests .......................................................................................... 118
7.2.1 Shaking table test ....................................................................................... 118
7.2.2 Pseudo dynamic test .................................................................................. 123
7.3 Numerical analysis.......................................................................................... 130
7.3.1 Finite element modelling............................................................................. 130
7.3.2 Material models........................................................................................... 131
7.3.3 Initialization prior to earthquake loading..................................................... 132
7.3.4 Run time...................................................................................................... 132
7.4 Numerical results for the model of Athens ..................................................... 133
7.4.1 Analysis of numerical results ...................................................................... 133
7.4.2 Collapse of the structure............................................................................. 138
7.4.3 Comparison with shaking table results....................................................... 139
7.4.4 Sensitivity of collapse to the bonding strength with slabs.......................... 141
7.5 Numerical results for the model of Ispra......................................................... 141
7.5.1 Analysis of results for low earthquake intensity ......................................... 141
7.5.2 Comparison with experimental results ....................................................... 144
7.5.3 Analysis of results for moderate earthquake intensities ............................ 146
7.5.4 Analysis of results for strong earthquake intensities.................................. 148
7.5.5 Sensitivity of collapse process to the bond strength .................................. 149
7.5.6 Influence of vertical ground motion ............................................................ 150
7.6 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................ 151

8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour.............................153


8.1 Selecting the case study................................................................................. 153
8.2 Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya.............................................................. 155
8.2.1 Historical background and the layout of Takiyya ....................................... 155
8.2.2 Architecture of the mosque......................................................................... 157
8.2.3 Construction of the geometry and finite element modelling....................... 161
8.3 Gravity loading ................................................................................................ 164
8.4 Earthquake modelling ..................................................................................... 164
8.4.1 Seismicity of the region............................................................................... 164
8.4.2 The response spectrum .............................................................................. 166
8.4.3 Synthesis of artificial accelerograms .......................................................... 167
Table of contents 12

8.5 Collapse analysis of the structure................................................................... 168


8.6 Effect of earthquake characteristics ............................................................... 169
8.7 The direction of the earthquake...................................................................... 169
8.8 The frequency content of the earthquake ...................................................... 171
8.9 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................ 173

9 Reinforced masonry.................................................................................175
9.1 Ductile behaviour ............................................................................................ 175
9.2 Reinforcement-masonry bond ........................................................................ 177
9.3 Reinforced masonry shear walls .................................................................... 179
9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry................................. 184
9.4.1 Initial failure surface .................................................................................... 188
9.4.2 Results of the finite element model ............................................................ 189
9.4.3 Tensile crack opening of one side of the bed joint- Case I ........................ 191
9.4.4 Shear cohesion failure of one side of the bed joint- Case II ...................... 193
9.4.5 The failure surface ...................................................................................... 195
9.5 Modelling strategies of reinforced masonry ................................................... 195
9.5.1 Discrete modelling ...................................................................................... 196
9.5.2 Smeared modelling ..................................................................................... 198
9.6 Verification of retrofitting measures by collapse analysis .............................. 198
9.6.1 The case study............................................................................................ 198
9.6.2 Description of the model ............................................................................. 200
9.6.3 The earthquake........................................................................................... 202
9.6.4 Collapse analysis of unreinforced structure ............................................... 203
9.6.5 Verification of antiseismic reinforcement by collapse analysis .................. 203
9.7 Concluding remarks ........................................................................................ 206

10 Conclusions and recommendations.......................................................209


References .................................................................................................................. 213
Appendixes: Numerical Simulation Results................................................................ 227
1 Introduction 13

1 Introduction
Masonry is one of the most primitive building materials known to mankind since the
beginning of earliest civilizations. Masonry has been used in the construction of the most
long-lasting exciting ancient monuments, artifacts, cathedrals and cities in a vast variety
of cultures. Furthermore, Masonry material is used widely in today’s structures due to
the simplicity of building technique and the attracted features that characterize this
material.
Many actions are leading to the collapse
of masonry structures and one of the
major sources of destruction is the
seismic action. The ruins of many
masonry monuments are the evidence for
poor performance of masonry structures
against earthquakes, Figure 1.
A few decades ago, masonry structures
received comprehensive studies, and
attracted a considerable volume of
research either in experimental field or in
numerical modelling.
In spite of the great progress achieved,
the earthquake performance of large Figure 1 Ruins of Palmyra in Syria
scale masonry structures is still
challenging.
Many experimental methods have been showed technical limitations in dynamic testing
of large scale structures due to the high cost of such tests. On the other hand, the
computer modelling has been showed great efficiency and simplicity due to the
availability and growing advance of fast computers and software packages.
However, the creation of an elaborate model that represents the behaviour of the
structure with all stages from initial elastic linear behaviour to the plastic non-linear, the
cracking, the separation and then the collapse is still fraught with difficulties.

1.1 Masonry in architecture history


Perhaps, the first used masonry material was stonemasonry, Lourenço [109].
Archaeological excavations have revealed one of the earliest examples of the first
permanent stonemasonry houses near Hullen Lake (c. 9,000-8,000 BC), where dry-
stone huts, circular and semi-subterranean constructions were found, Lourenço [109]
and Oliveira [138]. Stone was difficult to shape and due its weight, transporting was
difficult.
Mud brick started in use as an alternative masonry material in dray climate regions
where clay mud is available. The first mud brick constructions probably goes back to
1.1 Masonry in architecture history 14

Jericho1, Palestine (c. 8,350-7,350 BC), where many mud brick houses have been
founded in the site. Old shaped bricks have been founded in Çayönü, a place located in
the upper Tigris area in south east Anatolia close to Diyarbakir. Indus Valley Civilization
also used mud brick extensively, as can be seen in the ruins of Mohen-jor-Daro2 and
Harappa.
In Egypt, from pre-dynastic times (5,000 BC) until the Roman occupation (50 AD) the
basic material to build houses was sun dried brick, commonly of Nile mud, as can be
seen in the ruins of Buhen. The pure Nile mud shrinks over 30% in the drying process
while the addition of chopped straw and sand to the mud prevented the formation of
cracks.
The invention of the burnt brick (as opposed to the considerably earlier sun-dried mud
brick) enabled the construction of permanent buildings in regions where the harsher
climate precluded the use of mud bricks.
Masonry was widely used in the Plain of Shinar where famous ziggurats as hexahedral
towers were erected. They were pyramidal, stepped temple towers that has an
architectural and religious structure characteristic of the major cities of Mesopotamia
"The land between the rivers”. The structural form of the pyramids, which represents one
of the most stable structural shapes, was a logical development of the initial stone piles.
The stacking of large blocks of stone in pyramid form allows reaching great heights. The
most famous pyramids are undoubtedly the Egyptian pyramids at Giza3.
The understanding of the structural behaviour started to play an important role in the
construction of temples with the use of stone lintels to support the masonry above
openings in walls. A famous example in Lion Gate at Mycenae, Greece (1,300 BC.) used
a stone lintel for a span of 3 m and was loaded by 25-30 tons. The lintel idea shows the
beginning of the arched behaviour that would dominate the following millennium, Oliveira
[138].
The arch was first developed in the Indus Valley civilization and subsequently in
Mesopotamia, Egypt, Assyria, Greek and Persian civilizations for underground structures
such as drains and vaults. However, ancient Romans were the first to use them widely
above ground.
The Greeks played an important role in the use of structural elements, namely: columns
and beams to build their temples. The most famous one is Parthenon4 which
represented an important role for the use of limestone in building the structural elements.
The Romans contributed significantly to the construction of buildings. They built roads,
bridges, aqueducts and harbors. Also, they introduced notable innovations in materials,
structural concepts and construction process.

1
The Bronze Age city of Jericho was destroyed about 1,500 BC by the Egyptians, The retaining wall was
some four to five meters high. On top of that was a mudbrick wall two meters thick and about six to eight
meters high
2
Mohen-jor-Daro, 80 km southwest of Sukkur was center of Indus Valley Civilization 2600 BC-1700 BC.
3
The Great Pyramids of Giza (1,220-1,288), stones up to 60-80 tons have been used and transported a
distance of over 500 miles.
4
It is the most famous surviving building of ancient Greece, and has been praised as the finest achievement
of Greek architecture. Its decorative sculptures are considered one of the high points of Greek art. It was
built between 447 and 438 BC. The acropolis of Athens and its sculptural decoration was completed in 432
BC.
1 Introduction 15

Figure 2 The development of the architechture of masonry structures


1.1 Masonry in architecture history 16

Figure 3 The development of the architechture of masonry structures


1 Introduction 17

Remarkable examples of the use of dry stone blocks in buildings by Romans are the
Colosseum5 in Roma and Segovia’s aqueduct in Spain. Romans exploited the structural
form of arches to construct magnificent bridges and aqueducts which are surviving until
today, such as Segovia's aqueduct6 in Spain and Pont du Gard aqueduct7 in France,
Figure 2.
Vaults and domes played a great role in the construction of large-span roofs, a good
example are the elegant geometry of vaults and the domes that used in Hagia Sophia in
Istanbul8 (6th century A.D.), Ozkul et al. [145]. Another interesting structural form is the
castles, which were spread from Europe to the Middle East. The Crac des Chevaliers9
and Citadel of Salah Ed-Din10 are good examples of crusaders castles in the Middle
East.
Gothic architecture, which was originated in the 13th century, represented remarkable
improvements in reducing the heaviness of Roman constructions by using framing
elements (columns, arch ribs, flying buttresses and buttress wall or tower) working in
compression. Two of the finest examples of the Gothic architecture are the Cathedral of
Chartres11 and the Cathedral of Amiens12. The history of Gothic architecture with its
pioneering construction is also marked by failures, cracks and permanent deformations.
The Renaissance architecture was initiated in Florence and aroused a new concepts
and forms. Buildings were characterized by regular forms and geometrical symmetry in
plane and elevation. The church of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence (built in 15th century)
and the church of St. Peter in Rome (16th century) are remarkable examples of
Renaissance architecture.
During the Baroque period, no significant or innovative solutions concerning the
structural conception were developed. Important examples in Europe are St. Paul’s
Cathedral in London (17th century) and the Panthéon in Paris (18th century), Figure 3.

5
The Colosseum, is a giant amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome. It was built on a site just east to
the Roman Forum. The construction started between 70 and 72 AD and completed in 80 AD, with further
modifications being made during Domitian's reign.
6
Segovia's most unique feature is its still-functioning ancient aqueduct. It was built by the Romans around
50 AD, and is designed to make water flow uphill. Even more amazing, Segovia's aqueduct was built without
mortar. The pillars and the arches of the structure were built simply by stacking large stones.
7
The Pont du Gard is an aqueduct in the south of France constructed by the Roman Empire, and located
near Remoulins, in the Gard département. It was long thought that the Pont du Gard was built around the
year 19 BC. Newer excavations, however, suggest the construction took place in the middle of the first
century A.D.
8
Hagia Sophia, (the Church of) Holy Wisdom, now known as the Ayasofya Museum, is a former Eastern
Orthodox church converted to a mosque in 1453 by the Turks, and converted into a museum in 1935. It is
located in Istanbul, Turkey. It is traditionally considered one of the great buildings in history.
9
Crac des Chevaliers is a famous castle in Syria, which was the headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller
during the Crusades. The name is a mixture of Arabic and French, meaning "Fortress of the Knights", it is
one of the few sites where Crusader art (in the form of frescoes) has been preserved.
10
The Citadel of Salah Ed-Din once known as Saone, also known as Saladdin Castle.
11
The Cathedral of Chartres ("Cathedral of Our Lady of Chartres) is considered one of the finest examples
of the Gothic style of architecture in all France. Construction was begun in 1145.
12
The Cathedral of Our Lady in Amiens (1220-1288) is the tallest complete cathedral in France, with the
greatest interior volume.
1.2 The scope and objectives 18

1.2 The scope and objectives


The following study deals with both historical and today’s masonry structures. It focuses
primarily on earthquake actions. However, the developed models allowed to be used for
another loading regime. Finite element method is the fundamental numerical tool in this
study, and the advantages of using other mesh free methods also have been discussed.
The main concern of the following research focuses to develop and investigate
computer-aided techniques that are able to simulate the collapse of large scale masonry
structures under earthquake actions, which investigation can not be carried out in
laboratory conditions.
The most relevant specific objectives of this study are:
- to develop computer models that can simulate the progress of damage in
masonry structures in all stages, starting from elastic linear behaviour, to plastic
nonlinear behaviour, cracking, separation up to the collapse
- to develop constitutive models for masonry constitutions, capable of mapping the
real behaviour and incorporate the computation efficiency
- to verify and evaluate the developed models in comparison versus experimental
results of full scale dynamic tests
- to investigate the effect of the different earthquake characteristics on the collapse
mechanisms of large scale historical masonry structure
- to develop a theory based on the variation of damage states for the failure
behaviour of vertically reinforced masonry walls
- to adopt the collapse analysis technique for developing the reinforcement of
historical masonry structures.

1.3 Outline of contents


The text in this thesis is organized into ten chapters and appendixes for the results of
numerical calculation.
The first chapter serves as a motivation with brief overview of the architectural use of
masonry, specifies the scope of thesis and outlines the objectives and the applied
methodology.
The second chapter is dedicated to the state of the art of the modelling techniques of
masonry, gives comprehensive study for the progress of research in numerical analysis,
with focus on the works in discrete methods. A classification of the available techniques
and the application area is achieved. The features and shortcoming of each technique is
discussed, as well.
The third chapter investigates in depth the material properties of masonry and its
constituents and the failure mechanisms. Different failure theories for masonry as a
composite are described and discussed. The experimental setups for the determination
of the basic material parameters of masonry are given and the corresponding failure
modes are described.
1 Introduction 19

The fourth chapter introduces the finite element method as a basic numerical tool for
modelling masonry. The combination of finite element method with discrete element
method, contact analysis and solution techniques are presented. Different numerical
simulation techniques for crack formation reported in the literature are discussed.
Modelling strategies for masonry based on combined finite-discrete element method are
proposed.
This followed by an illustration of plasticity theory and the implementation of a material
model into the explicit solver of LS-DYNA in the fifth chapter. The constitutive models
that serve for the proposed modelling strategies are described and discussed. A
constitutive model for a cohesive interface element based on smooth yield surface is
developed and validated.
The features of applying mesh free methods are presented in the sixth chapter, where
the smoothed particle hydrodynamic is employed.
The seventh chapter reports the experimental results of two dynamic tests. Two
numerical models correspond to each test have been created. The obtained numerical
results compared with that from experiments. Furthermore, additional studies concerning
the simulation of the collapse of the structure under higher earthquake intensities are
performed, where such studies can not be achieved in laboratory.
In the eighth chapter, a large scale historical masonry structure is used as a case study
to explore the performance for different earthquake characteristics. The effect of
earthquake direction, as well as the frequency content of the accelerogram is studied.
The ninth chapter devoted for reinforced masonry structures. A review of the current
state of research is reported and a novel failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry
is presented. The possible modelling strategies for reinforcement modelling are
discussed, and the collapse analysis is used to develop the reinforcement for a case
study of historical masonry structure
The tenth chapter summarizes the major conclusions obtained in this research, and also
suggests recommendations for future research works. The 14 appendices present in
detail the results of numerical simulations.
2 The state of research in masonry modelling 21

2 The state of research in masonry modelling


Masonry achieved a great progress in the last few decades. Many research efforts for
masonry structures were carried out all over the world to understand the structural
behaviour, either through laboratory tests or by using validated numerical models.
Masonry researches are benefited from the enormous progress in other building
materials. However, the methodologies that are used for the analysis and design of other
building materials are still lacking for masonry. Furthermore, numerical modelling
methods are still fraught with difficulties. This is due to the complexity of the behaviour of
masonry structure, which is determined by the interaction of the individual behaviours of
several parts of the structure, often with different material characteristics.
Several models and methods have been proposed in the literature in order to study the
mechanical behaviour of masonry. This chapter is devoted to give an overview insight
the latest up-to-date progress in modelling of masonry and numerical simulation of
collapse.

2.1 Modelling strategies of masonry


Masonry is a composite material, and its overall behaviour is strictly dependent on the
arrangement and properties of its different constituents. The engineering literature on
modelling of masonry is enormous and the research in the field is widespread.
Numerical models may be based on two methodologies, Massart [124]. First,
mesoscopic detailed descriptions consider masonry as a heterogeneous structure with
separate descriptions of each constituent. Second, models intended for large-scale
structural calculations are generally of a phenomenological nature, and represent the
collective behaviour of constituents by closed-form macroscopic constitutive equations.
The three principle modelling strategies are correspond to three different scales of
complexity which have been identified by Lourenço [109] and Rots [157], Figure 4:
1- Micro modelling or two phase material model: starting from the knowledge of
single constituents. Each component of the masonry structure has its own
behaviour which might be complex. This modelling strategy is categorized into:
(a) Detailed micro-modelling whereby units and mortar represented as
continuum, with the unit/mortar interfaces modelled using discontinuous interface
elements as potential crack, slip and crushing planes;
(b) Simplified micro-modelling through the adoption of "geometrically expanded"
masonry units with a single "averaged" interface representing the mortar and the
two mortar/unit interfaces. This model requires the material model of the
expanded unit and masonry joints.
2- Macro-modelling or single phase material model, the quasi-periodic nature of
masonry has prompted to investigate the use of homogenization techniques,
where all masonry components are smeared by an equivalent homogenized
continuum. One-phase material models are treating masonry as an ideal
homogeneous material with constitutive equations that differ from those of the
components.
2.2 Methods of analysis 22

Principal Modelling Strategies of Masonry

Micro modelling Macro modelling

Detailed micro modelling Simplified micro modelling

Homogeneous
Unit Unit material

mortar
Smeared
Unit-mortar Joints
Interface

Units+mortar+Interfaces Units+Joints Homogeneous material

Computation efficiency for large scale models

Accuracy and computational efforts

Figure 4 The three principal modelling strategies of masonry

The decision about the suitable technique depends on required accuracy and the size of
the model.
Micro modelling gives more realistic representation of the structural behaviour, but it is
relatively prohibitive to be used due to the great number of the degrees of freedom,
require more input data, and their failure criterion has an elaborated form due to the unit-
mortar interaction. The constitutive equations of the components have normally a simple
form, and they are appropriate for the study of the local behaviour of masonry.
The constitutive models on macro level are relatively simple to use, require less input
data, and the failure criterion has normally a simple form. It requires a priori definitions of
constitutive prescriptions. The constitutive equations are relatively complicated and are
suitable for the study of the overall behaviour of the entire masonry structure to reduce
the numerical calculation.

2.2 Methods of analysis


A large variety of numerical modelling frameworks have been employed to analyse the
mechanical behaviour of masonry. Despite many numerical methods have the ability to
analyse the mechanical behaviour for the early stages of failure, the ability to study the
performance near and after the collapse is still limited and presents challenging
modelling problems. As witnessed by the extensive study of the literature two numerical
2 The state of research in masonry modelling 23

approaches are widely described for analysing the mechanical behaviour of masonry,
Figure 5:
1) Continuum methods: the model is based on continuum material equations. The
finite element method (FEM) is the typical example of this approach. Smeared
crack approach can be adopted in zones where separation occurs between
structural elements.
2) Discrete methods (or distinct methods): assumes that the geometry of cracks
propagation is predefined before the analysis.

Numerical Methods

Continuum Methods Discrete Methods

Modelling Strategies

Macro modelling Simplified micro modelling

Detailed micro modelling

Figure 5 The numerical analysis methods for masonry structures

Continuum approach has been widely used for many application areas, but the use of
this approach is not applicable to collapse analysis. Nevertheless, combining continuum
approaches with discrete approaches produces more powerful and accurate methods.
Moreover, continuum methods are more capable of simulating the behaviour before the
collapse. A review of these two methods is given in the following sections.

2.3 Continuum methods


There are a wide range of applications involve materials or systems that showing
discontinuity at some level. Despite that some systems are intrinsically discontinuous
they are well approximated by a continuum. This approximation is possible if the scale of
the objects of interest is large enough. Finite element method (FEM) and boundary
element method (BEM) are well suited for representing of continuum media. The interest
to develop continuous model for the discrete structure of masonry is due to computation
efficiencies gained by this model while the discrete type of analyses is very computer
time consuming. Furthermore, masonry often has periodic nature where the application
of the homogenized continuum model would allow for more elegant and efficient
solution, Cerrolaza et al. [41] and Sulem et al. [177].
2.3 Continuum methods 24

An attempt has been made to take into account the characteristics of masonry materials
of micro-polar continuum, such as Cosserat continuum, instead of classical Cauchy
continuum, in order to get better representation for the effect of particle rotation. Masiani
[122] and Masiani [123] present procedures to develop a Cosserat continuum to provide
a description of the mechanical behaviour of masonry with regular texture.
The plasticity theory has been employed to develop macro material models for in plane
behaviour of masonry. Lourenço [109] proposed an anisotropic model of two surfaces
Rankine/Hill. Massart [124] developed two-dimensional anisotropic damage model in a
“multi-plane” framework. Schlegel [164] showed an implementation of the material model
of Ganz theory (Ganz [62]) in ANSYS software. Mistler [132] used the shear failure
theory of Mann & Müller ([117] and [116]) to implement a material model for masonry
panels in ANSYS.
Attempts also have been made to understand the behaviour of rubble and cyclopean
masonry from natural stones (Mann [118], Warnecke [196] and Schlegel [164]) based on
Mohr-Coulomb criteria. The behaviour of multi-leaf masonry has been considered as
well, Egermann [51] and Schlegel [164].

(a) (b)

Figure 6 Continuum modelling for (a) Göltzschtal bridge, Schlegel et al. [163] (b)
Church of our ladies (Frauenkirche), Dresden, Stoll. et al. [176].

Macro-modelling strategy has been often used in literature for continuum models. Some
continuum models were built using micro-modelling strategy (Schlegel [164]), where
material models for mortar and units considered separately with continuous finite
element mesh on unit-mortar interfaces.
In continuum method the softening and local cracking of material considered by the
smeared crack approach, Rots [158]. The smeared crack approach was first developed
for use in concrete structures and has been extended to masonry structures, Lofti et al.
[106]. In this approach cracks are modelled in an average sense by modifying the
material properties at the integration points of finite elements. Smeared cracks are
convenient when the crack orientations are not known beforehand, because the
formation of a crack involves no remeshing or new degrees of freedom. However, the
2 The state of research in masonry modelling 25

smeared crack models can not be able to simulate the final stage of softening process in
masonry material, i.e. the full separation of the continuum can not be accomplished by
means of smeared crack models.
Although, the finite element method has been used extensively in literature for
continuum modelling, less attention was paid for using boundary element method in
modelling of masonry. Rashed et al. [149] employed BEM to model the non-linear
behaviour of masonry where cracking, debonding and crushing failure modes were
considered in the model.
The modelling of masonry structures as continuum is far from being a good
representation of their real behaviour due to the great number of discontinuities. While
this approach suffers a computationally tractable problem, a continuum model offers a
quite crude approximation of what is really a micro-mechanical phenomenon.
Many complications arise with continuum approach for the highly nonlinear behaviours,
either from material or geometrical perspectives. For instance, it is very difficult or
unfeasible to use the continuum approach to study the behaviour of materials or
structures that change their status from continuum state to entirely discrete state, like
behaviour of structures before and during collapse.
Lourenço et.al. [107] used FEM model with interface elements for simulation of uniaxial
compression tests of masonry prisms. A fictitious micro-structure composed of linear
elastic particles separated by non-linear interfaces was adapted to model units and
mortar in a quarter of the basic masonry cell. Cavicchi et al. [40] used limit analysis with
interface elements to determine initial failure of masonry bridge considering arch-fill
interaction.
Interface elements were introduced to consider the discontinuity at planes of failures.
However, with this technique it is only possible to show small displacements before the
failure. The interface elements have limitations to simulate the large displacements at
the collapse of the structure.

(a) (b)

Figure 7 FEM model with interface elements for simulation of uniaxial (a) tensile and
(b) compression tests of masonry prisms, Lourenço et.al. [107]
2.4 Discrete methods 26

2.4 Discrete methods


Discrete methods are relatively new discipline of numerical methods in computational
mechanics. It deals with discontinuous media where continuous assumptions impossible
to be applied. These methods have the capability to model an inherently discontinuous
medium. However, it has been successfully applied to problems where the transition
from continuum to discontinuum is important. Surface interaction laws between bodies
are invoked instead of a homogenized continuum constitutive law.
Discrete element method goes back to the pioneering work of Cundall et al. [46], where
it was originally used to model jointed and fractured rock masses. The proposed method
showed high efficiency to describe discontinuous phenomena and dynamical problems
of large deformations. Occurrence and propagation of fracture have been naturally taken
into account with a discrete model. Later, this approach was extended to others fields of
engineering, where the elaborate study of joints is required, e.g. soils and other granular
materials, Ghaboussi and Barbosa [64]. This numerical technique is also used for the
modelling of masonry structures, Lemos et al. [99], Sincraian [174] and Lemos [98].
The early formulation of the discrete element method has been originally termed distinct
element method DEM (Cundall [46]) and has been invented for rigid circular bodies in
two dimensions with deformable contacts. The overall solution scheme for the DEM has
been formulated in an explicit time-stepping format. Movements of bodies have been
driven by external forces and varying contact forces. The method considers each body in
turn and at any given time determines all forces (external forces or contact forces) that
are acting on it. Out of balance forces induce accelerations which then determine the
movement of that body during the next time step. The discrete element method
comprises different techniques which are proper for the simulation of dynamic behaviour
of systems of multiple separated bodies. These bodies will be subjected to continuous
changes in contact status and varying contact forces, which in turn influence the
subsequent movement of the bodies. Such problems are non-smooth in space (separate
bodies) and in time (jumps in velocities upon collisions) and the unilateral constraints
(non-penetrability) must be considered.
In case of rigid bodies, the constitutive law of contact interaction is only needed, while
the continuum constitutive law (e.g. elasticity, plasticity, damage and fracturing) must be
included for deformable bodies. Computational modelling of multi-body contacts
represents the dominant feature in discrete element methods as the number of bodies
considered might be very large. According to the nature of the problem and level of
accuracy, the bodies of the system can be considered as rigid, simply deformable
(pseudo-rigid) or fully deformable.
Many computer codes are formulated for discrete element methods. The first code was
originally formulated by Cundall [46] to simulate the response of discontinuous media
subjected to either static or dynamic loading and has been further developed by Lemos
et al. [100]. Nowadays, a vast range of open source, non-commercial and commercial
software are available such as: UDEC, BALL & TRUBAL, QUAKE & DAMSEL, NESSI,
FRIP, FLAC, 3DEC, PFC3D, REBOP, EDEM, GROMOS, ELFEN, MIMES,
PASSAGE/DEM, and TRIDEC.
Many existing methods belong to the discrete element computational formwork could
appear under different names and each of them has been developed in its own right.
2 The state of research in masonry modelling 27

Cundall & Hart [45] were defined four classes of discrete element methods: Distinct
Element Methods (DEM), Modal methods, Discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA),
Momentum-exchange methods. The other classifications of the discrete methods are
based on the manner these methods address, Bićanić [20], i.e.: detection of contacts,
treatment of contacts (rigid, deformable, deformability, (constitutive law) of bodies in
contact (rigid, deformable, elastic, elasto-plastic, etc.), large displacements and large
rotations, number (small or large) and/or distribution (loose or dense packing) of
interacting bodies considered, consideration of the model boundaries, possible
subsequent fracturing or fragmentation and time-stepping integration schemes (explicit,
implicit).
The heterogeneous nature of masonry and the discontinuity at block interfaces can be
well described by discrete element approach. This approach is well suited for collapse
simulation of masonry structures, where good quality results have been achieved.
Azevedo et al. [11] was used UDEC (Universal Distinct Element Code) to simulate the
collapse of monumental masonry structures due to seismic actions, Figure 8. Further
examples can be seen in the works of Roberti et al. [155], Psycharis et al. [148].
Extensive research work was devoted to analysis masonry structures using other
versions of DEM such as: Rigid Bodies Spring Method RBSM, discontinuous
deformation analysis DDA, combined discrete-finite elements, non-smooth contact
dynamics NSCD and Modified Distinct Element Method (MDEM).

(a) (b) (c)

(d)

Figure 8 Collapse analysis of masonry structures using the discrete element method:
(a) masonry arch bridge (Lemos [97]); (b) Simulation of an aqueduct pillar,
(Lemos [98]); (c) dry stone masonry pedestal sustaining a statue (Sincraian
[174]); (d) Collapse sequence for the S. Giorgio bell tower in Trignano,
Azevedo, et al. [11]
2.4 Discrete methods 28

2.4.1 Rigid Bodies Spring Method (RBSM)


The Rigid Bodies Spring Method or (rigid block spring model) RBSM was proposed early
as a generalized limit plastic analysis framework. Solid structures are assumed to be
assemblies of rigid blocks interconnected by discrete deformable interfaces with
distributed (elastic) normal and tangential springs.
RBSM has been used for studying the seismic behaviour of masonry walls. Casolo et al.
[39] was proposed a computational model using RBSM for evaluating the dynamical
response and the damage of large masonry walls subjected to out of plane seismic
actions. Besides, Casolo [38] was proposed a rigid block spring model for in-plane
behaviour of masonry walls made of regular textures, where quadrilateral plane rigid
elements were used and connected by normal springs and one shear spring on each
side. In the work of Casolo et al. [37] the RBSM has been adopted for seismic analysis
of in plane dynamic behaviour of masonry walls considering hysteretic energy
dissipation and mechanical deterioration.
An experimental and analytical studies were made by Nerio et al. [137] for earthquake
resistance of confined concrete block masonry structures. The wall specimens made of
concrete blocks have been tested under cyclic lateral load and simulated by a RBSM.
The non-linear behaviour has been modelled by using rigid bodies and boundary
springs. As a result of the study, RBSM has been showed good conformity for analysing
this type of structures. However, analysis using the RBSM is unattainable up to complete
collapse of the structure.

Figure 9 Scheme of an irregular masonry and the ‘unit cell’ defined by four rigid
elements in RBSM, Casolo et al. [37]

2.4.2 Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA)


The method of discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) is based on discrete element
approach which uses implicit integration scheme. DDA is a displacement-based method
developed during the 1980’s, Shi et al. [171], Shi [173] and Shi [172] for solving stress-
displacement problems of a jointed rock mass. Jun et. al [91] was extended the original
2D DDA formulation of Shi and Goodman to 3D DDA formulation. DDA has been
typically formulated as a work-energy method. It can be derived using the principle of
minimum potential energy (Jing [88]) or by Hamilton's principle. Once the equations of
motion are discretized, a step-wise linear time marching scheme in the Newmark family
can be used for the solution of the equations of motion. Step-wise linear implicit time
marching allows the so-called quasi-static solution, where step-wise velocities are never
2 The state of research in masonry modelling 29

used. Quasi-static analysis is useful for examining slow or creeping failures. The relation
between adjacent blocks is governed by equations of contact interpenetration and
friction.
This method is capable of analysing a system of discrete, discontinuous blocks under
general static or dynamic loading, with block deformations and rigid body movements
occurring simultaneously. The original DDA framework was based on simply deformable
blocks and the technique was further developed and used for several applications
including masonry structures. In algorithmic terms, the method has been seen as an
alternative way of introducing solid deformability into discrete element framework where
block sliding and separation is considered along predetermined discontinuity planes,
Bićanić et al. [21]. The DDA has been further employed in Bićanić et al. [23] and Bićanić
et al. [22] for modelling of masonry arch bridges.

Figure 10 Edinburgh arch bridge deformed shape following DDA, with simply
deformable Blocks, Bićanić et al. [23].

Later, the DDA has been extended to the Lagrangian discontinuous deformation
analysis (LDDA) and used to simulate of dynamic process of earthquakes Cai et al. [33].
Doolin et al. [49] developed DDA markup language (DDAML) to provide a practical
engineering platform for discontinuous deformation analysis.

2.4.3 Non-Smooth Contact Dynamics (NSCD)


The Non Smooth Contact Dynamics method or shortly contact dynamics (NSCD) was
initiated by Jean et al. [86] and developed within FORTRAN software LMGC. In NSCD,
Signorini relation for unilateral conditions and Coulomb law as a dry friction law has been
adopted together with an implicit algorithm scheme for the dynamical equation. NSCD
uses few large time steps, deals with numerous simultaneous contacts and needs much
iteration at each time step.
NSCD was used to simulate masonry as a large collection of bodies under unilateral
constraints and frictional contact, Chetouane et al. [42], Acary et al. [3] and Acary et al.
[4].
2.4 Discrete methods 30

(a) (b)

Figure 11 (a) Cumulated shear at the end of the dynamic loading of masonry wall
modelled by NSCD using the LMGC90 code, Chetouane et al. [42]; (b)
Stresses in masonry arch bridge after a settlement of ground modelled using
NSCD, Acary et al. [3]

2.4.4 Modified Discrete Element Method (MDEM)


The original DEM was considered the material as an assembly of particles at which no
resistant forces exist against traction. Elastic springs and dashpots were added by
Williams et al. [198] to give continuity to the discrete numerical model. It has been
showed that DEM can be viewed as a generalized finite element method. This method is
called the modified DEM or extended DEM. The model behaves as a continuous
medium while the springs are intact. After the breakage of some springs, it is possible to
trace the movement of the individual parts which separated from each other to destroy
the structure’s unity. Using this method, it becomes possible to analyse the fracture-
developing processes.
The MDEM is capable to follow the structural behaviour from initial loading up to the
complete collapse. However, the accuracy of EDEM in the range of small deformation is
less than that in FEM.

2.4.5 Combined Finite-Discrete Elements (DEM/FEM)


For the problems, where the state of stresses and transition from continuum to
discontinuum are important, the Combined Finite-Discrete Element (FEM/DEM)
technique has been introduced to combine the advantages of the FEM and DEM.
In the early 1990s, the combined finite-discrete element method was mostly an
academic subject. In the last ten years, the first commercial codes have been developed
and many commercial finite element packages have been increasingly adopted the
combined finite-discrete element method. The heart of the DEM concerns the automatic
contact detection between surfaces of separate block components. Global search
algorithms have been used to provide short lists of potential contacts. Local search
algorithms have been then implemented to identify the actual contact potential. Finally,
using the penalty method and the defined interface properties, the normal and tangential
forces between the blocks have been resolved.
By combining FEM and DEM, the homogeneous material within each discrete body can
be modelled, facilitating elastic and non-linear material behaviour. During the
deformation of the bodies, failure criterion can be applied to detect if the stress/strain
state reaches the defined limit at which the fracture may occur. When these thresholds
2 The state of research in masonry modelling 31

are exceeded the FEM/DEM technique allows the fracture of discrete bodies (see Owen
et al. [144], Munjiza et al. [135], Munjiza [134], Frangin et al. [61] and Komodromos [93]).

(a) Maximum applied load (b) Onset of collapse (c) Total collapse

Figure 12 Computer simulation of collapse of a strengthened arch bridge by combined


FEM/DEM, Brookes et al. [28]

Gifford have been developed the application of the FEM/DEM technique, available in the
explicit dynamic version of ELFEN (Rockfield Software Limited), for the analysis of
masonry arches.

2.4.6 Limit Analysis Models (LAM)


The Method of Limit Analysis Models is originally based on the rigid-perfectly plastic
material modelling in order to evaluate the load bearing capacity and the failure
mechanism of the structure. The applicability of limit analysis to masonry structures that
are modelled as assemblages of rigid blocks depends on some basic hypotheses,
Orduña et al.[141], [142], [140] and [139].
The limit analysis can be regarded as a practical computational tool since only requires a
reduced number of material parameters and it can provide a good insight into the failure
pattern and limit load. Orduña [143] presents an investigation about the capabilities of
limit analysis of rigid block assemblages in structural assessment of ancient masonry
constructions. Ferris and Tin-Loi [57] suggested simple numerical scheme for solving
limit analysis problems for large-scale block structures.

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 13 (a) Out of plane loaded wall supported at one edge, Orduña et al. [141]; (b)
Masonry pile (c) 2D Bridgemill with the spandrel wall, Orduña et al. [143]
2.4 Discrete methods 32

2.4.7 Applied Element Method (AEM)


Applied Element Method (AEM) was developed at the University of Tokyo by Meguro et
al. [127] and Meguro et al. [130] for analysing and visualizing the response of structures
under extreme loading conditions. The research on AEM is started since 1995. Many
research efforts and validation tests have been conducted and published to introduce
the AEM's breakthroughs: auto-element separation, auto-element contact detection,
realistic element modelling and simplified super-element meshing. AEM is currently
utilized in numerous industries where the analysis and visualization of structures under
extreme loading conditions is crucial: seismic engineering, vulnerability assessment,
demolition, blast analysis, rockfall engineering. (Meguro et al. [127], [129], [128], [130]
and Mayorca et al. [126]).
The major advantages of the AEM are the simple modelling and programming, and high
accuracy of the results with relatively short CPU time. Using AEM, the structural
behaviour can be carried out from initial loading, to crack initiation and propagation,
separation of structural members and up to complete collapse in reasonable time with
reliable accuracy and relatively simple material models.
By this method the structure is modelled as an assemblage of small elements that are
made by dividing of the structure virtually, as shown in Figure 14, where the two
elements are assumed to be connected by normal and shear springs that are placed at
interfaces and distributed around the element surfaces. The springs totally represent the
stresses and deformations of a certain volume of the studied elements.
For modelling of masonry structures, each unit is represented by a set of elements,
where mortar joints are placed at the corresponding contact surfaces, Meguro et al.
[127] and Guragain et al. [72]. One shortcoming of this method is that, there is no
flexibility to model irregular geometries like in finite element method.

Unit springs Joint springs

Volume represented
by a normal spring
and 2 shear springs

A: Element generation for AEM


B: Spring distribution and area of influence of each pair of springs

Figure 14 Masonry discretization and AEM modelling, the AEM illustration to the right
from Meguro et al. [128]
2 The state of research in masonry modelling 33

2.5 Concluding remarks


Modelling of masonry has been attracted a great amount of research works in the few
last decades. Most of research activities in this field were focused on representing
masonry as continuum using homogenization theory. The plasticity theory has been
played a big role in developing material models for continuum models of masonry.
Attempts also have been devoted in the field of discrete modelling. However, the works
in this direction were less than that in continuum modelling, and this were limited to small
scale structures.
The reasons for applying continuum models in many research works are:
- Easy handling of the problem for macro models by plasticity theory
- Most of commercial finite element codes provide a possibility to implement a
material model into their codes, whereas the implementation of discrete
modelling techniques into these codes is often not possible
- The limitation in computer resources, where the discrete models need
considerable amount of resources for large scale structures
- The generation of discrete models sometimes is complicated like in case of
rubble masonry.
The discrete models which developed for masonry are based on using specific
numerical techniques like contacts or springs to define the interfaces between the
discrete elements. The failures of the interfaces signify that the discrete elements go on
large displacements. The simulation of large displacements is limited for some discrete
methods, as well as the discrete methods still challenging for large scale structures.
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 35

3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry


Masonry is a composite material that consists of units and mortar. Its overall behaviour
is strictly dependent on the arrangement and mechanical properties of its different
constituents.
It is quite significant before studying the collapse behaviour of masonry structure to
understand the failure behaviour of masonry material.
The present chapter focuses on the experimental research works which carried out to
explore the mechanical characteristics of masonry material and its failure behaviour.

3.1 Masonry constituents


A wide variety of materials were used in past centuries for building masonry
constructions. Materials that are available in the vicinity were conceivably the most
common in construction work. When civilizations developed in river plains, the alluvial
deposits were used to produce brick constructions and when civilization existed in the
area of mountains, rocky outcrops and stones were used, Hamid et al. [76].
Stones produced by nature were the first units used to build masonry structures. Stones
were widely available from natural rocks like igneous rocks, sedimentary and
metamorphic rocks, Table 1.

Main Group Sub-group Examples

Intrusive stones Granite, Diorite, Gabbro


Igneous
stones Extrusive stones Porphyry, Basalt, Volcanic tuff

Clastic sedimentary stones formed


sandstone, greywacke
from fragments of pre-existing rock
Sedimentary
stones Precipitation stones limestone, dolomite

Biogeneous sedimentary stones Siliceous slate. limestone

Metamorphic Developed under high pressure Crystalline slate, gneiss,


stones and/or high temperature marble

Table 1 Classification of natural stones according to its formation, Müller [133]

The first stone masonry structure was built using crude units. As proficiency improved,
stone units were shaped into polygonal or squared units so that closefitting joints were
obtained.
Clay bricks were in use for at least 10,000 years. Sun-dried bricks (adobe masonry13)
were widely used in Babylon, Egypt, Spain, South America, the Indian lands of the

13
Wide usage is illustrated by the word "adobe," which is now incorporated in the English language but is a
Spanish word based on the Arabic word "atob," meaning sun-dried brick.
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 36

United States and elsewhere. The earliest bricks were made by pressing mud or clay
into small lumps, sometimes cigar-shaped, and letting them to dry in the air or the sun.
Mortar is the material linking the units in masonry that closes the gaps and makes
masonry monolithic. In historical masonry, it is usually composed of washed sand and
other aggregates with a binder to protect from erosion by the wind and rain.
The first mortars were made from clay, bitumen or clay-straw mixtures. It was primarily
used to fill cracks and to afford uniform bedding for masonry units. In addition, the usage
of the thin mortar joints was improved the durability.
The forerunners of modern mortars date to the use of calcined gypsum, lime and natural
pozzolans. The Egyptians utilized calcined gypsum mortars to lubricate the beds of large
stones when they were being moved into position. It was discovered that limestone
when burnt and combined with water, produced a material that would harden with age.
The earliest documented usage of lime as a construction material was approximately
4000 BC when was used in Egypt for plastering the pyramids. The mixing of ground lime
with volcanic ash was produced what became known as pozzolanic cement. The
Coliseum in Rome is an example of a Roman structure that pozzolanic cement mortar
used as bonder and it has been well survived over many centuries, Hamid et al. [76].
No significant developments in cements and mortars took place until the eighteenth
century when John Smeaton in the reconstruction of the Eddystone Lighthouse in
England, mixed pozzolana with limestone containing a high proportion of clay to produce
a durable mortar that would set and harden under water.
The next important development was the manufacture and patenting of Portland cement
by Joseph Aspdin in England in 1824. The combination of Portland cement with sand,
lime and water produces much stronger mortar than what previously possible and this
mortar would also set and harden under water.
In most historical masonry structures lime was used as mortar (Non-hydraulic lime, lime
putty, dry-slaked lime, bag lime, hydraulic lime, Pozzolanic lime). Other mortars also
used as natural pozzolana and brick powder, Mathews [125]. Lime mortar creates good
bonding strength for masonry units. Besides, it increases the load bearing capacity
particularly in flexural loading like what occurs during an earthquake.

3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry


The failure behaviour of masonry is fundamentally dominated by the properties of its
components and the arrangement of units and their interaction together. It is therefore
crucial to realize the mechanical behaviour of the individual masonry components, units
and mortar.
When behaviour of masonry component needs to be investigated, the first though is to
examine the constituents disjointedly. However, this is possible only for masonry units,
because the properties of mortar are influenced considerably by the interaction between
mortar and unit during hardening, Schubert [168] and Vermeltfoort et al. [192].

3.2.1 Uniaxial failure behaviour of masonry unit


The earlier research works on the behaviour of masonry units were greatly learned from
the studies in rock mechanics and concrete material that were widely examined.
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 37

Masonry units are heterogeneous materials belong to quasi-brittle materials which have
a disordered internal structure. It contains a large number of randomly oriented zones of
potential failure in the form of grain boundaries. The designation “quasi-brittle” behaviour
refer to the transferred force which does not immediately drop back to zero, other than
gradually decreases. Such behaviour is often denoted with softening. The softening
causes localization of deformations that causes quick growth of microcracks into
macrocracks and finally to fully open cracks.
In recent decades, many experimental studies were carried out to understand the
mechanical behaviour of masonry units. The modern masonry units received great
studies in literature, for standardization and classification purposes. The experimental
records for the characteristic values of different masonry units can be found in Marzahn
[120], Schubert [167], Schubert [165], Mann [118]. Some mechanical properties for
different natural stones are given in Table 2, Huster [83]:

Compressive flexural tensile Modulus of


strength (Mpa) strength (Mpa) Elasticity (Mpa)
Type of natural stones
(1) (2) (1) (2) (1) (2)

Granite 160-240 80-300 10-20 10-30 40-60 35-80

Basalt 250-400 160-400 15-25 15-25 50-100

Volcanic tuff 5-25 5-40 1-4 4-10

Graywacke 150-300 13-25 50-80

Quartzite sandstone 120-200 60-250 12-20 7-20 20-70 10-70

Miscellaneous sandstones 30-80 15-150 3-15 5-30

Dense limestone 80-180 6-15 60-90

Miscellaneous limestones 20-90 5-8 40-70 5-20

Table 2 Selected values of mechanical properties for different natural stones


(1=Schubert [166], 2=Warnecke [196]), from Huster [83].

In general, mechanical properties of historical masonry units which made from natural
rocks are influenced by a wide range of factors, (Vasconcelos [191]):
- The internal structure and the degree of anisotropy associated with the
arrangement and preferential orientation of minerals (foliation, flow structures
and rift plane)
- The mechanical properties of rocks, like compressive strength or elastic modulus
are greatly dependent on physical properties of the rocks such as porosity and
density
- Weathering conditions
- Petrography, mineralogical characteristics and grain size
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 38

- The mechanical behaviour of rocks is substantially affected by the presence of


water. Strength decrease of the saturated rocks would be attributed on one hand,
to the chemical or physical alteration of its inherent properties and on the other
hand, to the increase of the pore and fissure water pressure.
In the case of concrete and other geo-materials, some experimental tests are necessary
to describe the material law of masonry units, principally tensile and compression tests.
(a) The behaviour under tension
The tensile failure of quasi-brittle materials from which masonry units is made, results in
localization and propagation of micro cracks. The tensile behaviour of such materials
can be well described by the cohesive crack model proposed by Hillerborg et al. [79]. It
includes the tension softening process zone through a fictitious crack ahead of the pre-
existing crack. In the Hillerborg crack it is possible to distinguish between two zones: a
real crack that no more stresses are transferred and a damaged zone extended in the
fracture process zone, in which stresses are still transferred.
Cohesive crack model has been widely used to describe the nonlinear fracture
mechanics of quasi-brittle materials, Bažant [15], Carpinteri et al. [34], Carpinteri et al.
[35], Elices et al. [53] and Guinea [71].
According to cohesive crack model, the tensile behaviour is characterized by two
constitutive laws associated with different stages of the material during the loading
process:

σ Fictitious crack model


with assumed stress
tensile
stress
ft
δeu δnlu distribution according to
C
ft Hillerborg et al. [79]
(3)
Tensile stress

visible fictitious elastic


crack crack

measured curve
σ B (4) (5)
I I
(1) G pre G f D
+
(2)
k0 E estimated curve
σ
δft 0.1- 0.15 ft F
A
(2) Microcracking process (3) Macrocracking δ
(1) Linear behavior growth (4) Bridging (5) Tensile failure

Pre-Peak Post-Peak
Elasto-Plastic Softening

Figure 15 Typical behaviour of quasi-brittle materials under uniaxial tension


3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 39

1. Pre-peak stage (from A to C) is characterized by elaso-plastic stress relationship


which is valid until reaching the peak load. The nonlinearity prior to the peak
occurs due to micro cracking process. The micro cracks are stable and they grow
only when the load increases.
2. Post-peak stage (from C to F) is characterized by the softening behaviour at the
fracture process zone. The stress in this stage starts to decrease gradually from
its maximum value to approach zero value. This corresponds to increasing in the
distance between the two lips of the crack to the critical value of opening wc
which indicates the failure. The reason for such behaviour is the acceleration of
crack formation around the peak load. The micro cracks start to bridge forming
visible macro cracks. The macro cracks are unstable, i.e. the load has to be
decreased to avoid an uncontrolled growth. The stress-transfer mechanism, due
to bridging effect, is responsible for the long tail of the softening stage. The stress
displacement relationship, which characterizes this stage, is denoted the
softening diagram. The softening diagram assumes a fundamental role in the
description of the fracture process and is characterized by the tensile strength f t
and the fracture energy G If which is given by the area under the softening
diagram.
Hordijk and Reinhardt (Hordijk et al. [81]) were proposed the following formula for the
relationship between stress and crack opening in plain concrete under tension:
w
σ w − c2 ⋅
w
= [1 + (c1 ⋅ ) 3 ] ⋅ e wc − ⋅ (1 + c13 ) ⋅ e −c2 (1)
ft wc wc
where:
c1 , c2 dimensionless constants: 3.0 and 6.93, respectively
wc theoretical critical crack opening at which no stresses are being transferred any
G If
more and it is given by: wc = 5.14
ft
∫ σ ⋅ du )
I
G f Mode I fracture energy (here defined with
ft Uniaxial tensile strength
There are several experimental methods used to measure the fracture properties (tensile
strength, fracture energy and the critical crack opening) which allow the definition of a
constitutive law for the material behaviour in tension, namely direct tensile tests defined
by Van Mier et al. [188], indirect tensile test as the three load test and Brazilian splitting
test.
The pre-peak behaviour is quantitatively characterized by means of the following values:
- The initial stiffness k 0 is calculated as the slope of the linear adjustment to the
stress-strain relationship from zero value up to around 20% of the peak stress
- The displacement at the peak strength δ ft

- The nonlinear deformation until the ultimate load


3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 40

The post-peak behaviour characterized by the following fracture properties:


- The tensile strength f t

- The critical crack opening wc

- The fracture energy G If is identified with the needed work for complete
separation of the two faces of the macrocrack per unit of area.
Due to long tail of softening, it is not possible to determine the critical crack opening at
which the transferred stress value becomes zero. However, it is possible to estimate the
critical crack opening by linear adjustment of the original diagram following the value
0.1 − 0.15 f t by the least-square method. Therefore, the value of the fracture energy has
been calculated as the result of the sum of two quantities. The first one G If , meas is directly
computed as the area under the measured diagram up to 0.1 - 0.15 of the peak strength.
The second one G If ,est is calculated as the area under the linear estimated curve.

The mechanical properties of masonry units obviously show irregularity according to the
type of material. Stone units usually are stronger and stiffer in contrast to brick units, but
there is also disparity in mechanical properties for the units of the same material.
Vasconcelos [191] was attempted to find correlation between the mechanical properties
of granite. Figure 16 shows that the higher values of tensile strength are associated with
stiffer granites, and this is the general thought for quasi-brittle materials. As well as, the
increase of the deformation at peak stress is associated with a decrease of the tensile
strength value, and there is linear correlation between displacement at peak load and
critical crack opening.

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 16 The correlation between the important mechanical properties of Granite,


Vasconcelos [191]

In contrast to masonry units of stiffer natural rocks, the units of adobe masonry show
relatively quite brittle failure behaviour under tension, Jäger et al. [85].
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 41

0.8

0.7

0.6

L-4
0.5 L-5
Stress (N/mm²)

L-6
0.4 L-7
L-8
L-15
0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2 0.22
Displacement (mm)

Figure 17 The failure of adobe masonry specimens under tension, Jäger et al. [85]

(a) The behaviour under Compression


In general, the materials of masonry units like stones and bricks principally, can bear
compressive stresses more than tensile stresses. This observation is the principle
feature for geo-materials. Compressive strength tests give a good indication of the
general quality of the used materials. Many studies were performed in order to clarify the
fracture mechanisms that better describe the compressive behaviour of quasi-brittle
materials. Coulomb [43] was pioneered his well known criterion by the investigation of
the fracture of the stones in compression. Griffith [70] was postulated that brittle fracture
is initiated through tensile stress concentration at the tips of small cracks randomly
distributed in the isotropic material. The Griffith theory or at least the basic assumption
from which the fracture initiates is fundamental to all investigations in quasi-brittle
fracture. Many other studies have been followed in order to obtain a better insight into
the fracture behaviour of brittle materials regarding the mechanisms of microcrack
initiation, crack interaction, propagation and coalescence, Kranz [94], Wang et al., [195],
Bobet et al. [24], Tang et al. [181] and Lajtai et al. [96].
The general behaviour of quasi-brittle materials under compression can be defined in the
following stages, Schlegel [164], Liniers [102] and Huster [83], ( Figure 18 and Figure
19):
1. Closure of microcracks and pores (A to B): starts at the beginning of loading up
to the stress level f cc at which the pre-existing microcracks or pore spaces are
closed. This phase is characterized by a nonlinear behaviour of the stress-axial
strain diagram with an increase in the stiffness of the material.
2. Linear elastic behaviour (B to C): after the closure of the pre-existing
microcracks, it exhibits linear elastic behaviour up to a certain stress level of
about 30-40% of the conventional strength. In this stage a linear relationship of
both axial and lateral stress-strain diagrams can be observed.
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 42

3. Crack initiation and stable crack growth (C to D): this stage starts with
microcracking at stress level f ci . Microcracks are mainly tensile cracks, Lajtai et
al. [96]. The formation and growing of microcracks in axial direction are
responsible for the nonlinear increase on the lateral strain, as well as on the
volumetric strain.
4. Crack damage and unstable crack growth (D to E): The unstable microcracking
occurs at the crack damage stress level f cd . It is associated to the point of
reversal in the total volumetric strain diagram Vr , which refers to the maximum
compaction of the specimen and to the beginning of dilation, since the increase
of volume generated by the cracking process is larger than the standard
volumetric decrease due to the axial load. For this stage, a rapid and significant
increase of the lateral strains has been observed, as a result of the volume
increase. The microcracking spreading is no longer independent. It starts
bridging to form fracture surfaces parallel to maximum principle stresses until
reaching the maximum compressive strength.
5. The softening and macrocracks growth (E to F): It is characterized with the
gradual weakness of material due to macrocracking growth as strain localization
occurs. Examples of failure patterns that illustrate strain localization are
displayed in Figure 20 for Granite. Macrocracks are the result of bridging the
microcracks when the peak load is reached. The inclination of the stress strain
curve at this stage gives an indication of the brittleness of the material. At the end
of this stage, macrocracks become unstable and compression crushing is
produced under constant level of stresses.
6.

σ bridging of
microcracks
E
fc
Linear
elastic
Compression Stress

D crack damage
macrocracking
fcd and unstable
growth
crack growth
C σ
fci
the failure
F
B closure of crack initiation
fcc
microcracks and stable Gc
and pores crack growth σ
A
Pre-Peak Post-Peak ε
Elasto-Plastic Softening

Figure 18 Typical behaviour of quasi-brittle materials under uniaxial compression


3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 43

Stress - lateral strain

Uniaxial Stress
Stress - axial strain
Stress - volumetric strain

E
fc
Peak
strength
D
Vr fcd Crack damage

C
Crack initiation fci

B
fcc Crack closure

A
Strain ε

Figure 19 The facture process under compression in typical stress-strain diagram up to


peak load, Eberhart et al. [50]

Figure 20 Compression failure in Granite specimens, Vasconcelos [191]

4.5
mean value
4
max value
3.5 min value

3
Stress (N/mm²)

2.5

1.5
Gc=20.07 Nmm/mm2
1

0.5

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
displacement (mm)

Figure 21 Compression failure of adobe specimen under compression, Jäger et al. [85]
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 44

Many experimental studies have been carried out on strain localization detection in
rocks, Vonk [194] and Haied et al. [74] and for adobe masonry, Jäger et al. [85], see
Figure 21.

3.2.2 Triaxial failure behaviour


Although uniaxial tests are the basic tests that give good knowledge for the material
strength and the damage behaviour, they are lacking when general failure model of the
material is important, practically for geo-material which masonry constituents belong to.
Therefore, the common triaxial laboratory tests can be used to characterize the failure
behaviour of such materials.
σ1 − σ3

TXC
σ1 (3)

(1)
(1) Uniaxial compression
(2) Uniaxial tension
σ3 (3) Tri-axial compression

σ3 (4) Tri-axial extension


(5) Hydrostatic
ft fc
− σ1 = σ3 P
3 3 (5)

(2)

TXE
(4)

Figure 22 The relation between von Mieses stress and the hydrostatic pressure
obtained from the triaxial tests

The triaxial tests are carried out on a


cylinder specimen loaded with axial P
stress σ 1 and lateral stress σ 3 . The
failure curve that describes the relation
between von Mieses stress (3)

3 J 2′ = σ 1 − σ 3 and the hydrostatic


P2
(2)
pressure p = (σ 1 + 2σ 3 ) / 3 can be P1

obtained from the triaxial tests. This (1) (4)

curve is the most important data that


characterize the material failure P0 εv
behaviour of many geo-materials.
Another important relation can be
obtained from triaxial test when Figure 23 Typical response of geo-
hydrostatic compression is applied, i.e. materials under hydrostatic
σ 1 = σ 3 = σ . This curve describes the compression, redrawn from
Schwer [170]
nonlinear relation between hydrostatic
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 45

pressure and volumetric strain. For typical geo-material the following phases
characterize this relation, Schwer [170].
- The 1st phase: p0 < p < p1 the material is still elastic, and the slope equals the
bulk modulus K
- The 2nd phase: p1 < p < p2 the pores in the material are compressed

- The 3rd phase: p2 < p the material is fully compacted and no more pores exist
- The 4th phase for removing the pressure.

3.2.3 Failure behaviour of unit mortar interface


The unit-mortar interfaces are the weakest linkage in masonry assemblage especially in
historical masonry. The weak bond between unit and mortar has significant influence on
the overall behaviour of masonry structures.
The bonding at unit-mortar interface gets its strength mainly through the absorbency of
the units, the water retention capacity of the mortar, the porosity of the mortar, the
amount of binder and curing conditions.
Significant efforts were achieved to characterize the behaviour of unit-mortar interface of
masonry, Lourenço [107], van der Pluijm [186] and Almeida et al. [5]. According to van
der Pluijm [186], two basic failure modes might be occurred at the level of the unit-mortar
interface:
1. Tensile failure (mode I) is associated with stresses acting normal to joints and
leads to the separation of the interface
2. Shear failure (mode II) corresponds to a sliding mechanism of the units or shear
failure of the mortar joint.

3.2.3.1 Tensile failure


Different experimental methods were developed to characterize the tensile strength and
failure of unit-mortar interface, Figure 24, Almeida et al. [5].
The experimental tests which carried out by Van der Pluijm [186] have been ended up to
an exponential decay tension softening curve, as a result of the coalescence of
microcracks towards a macroscopic crack Figure 25. Van der Pluijm [186] has observed
that no clear correlation between the bond strength and the fracture energy exists, but
the increasing of bond strength is always associated with the increasing of fracture
energy.
The tensile strength is influenced by the failure of the interfaces between units and
mortar and the bulk failure of mortar. The failure mode depends mainly on the quality of
the mortar, the quality of the bonding between both materials, and actual bonding area
between brick and mortar. The cracked specimens have showed a bond area in the
inner part, smaller than the cross sectional area of the specimen. This is a combined
result of the shrinkage of mortar and the process of laying the units in the mortar bed.
The area under the stress-displacement curve is associated with the mode I fracture
energy as illustrated by the shaded area in Figure 25.
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 46

F
Clamping Steel Plate
F F F
bolts 2 2 Bolts passing
through units
Steel end Hanger bars
Unit
Clamps Tightening mortar
couplet Bolts Upper
clamp Unit

Lower
clamp F
F
(a) (b) (c)

F F F
4 4 F F 2
Steel 2 2 F
Mild Steel rod 4 F
Unit 4
Steel cross Unit
bar Adhesive
Mortar
Unit Mortar
Unit F
2 F
F F F 4
4 4 F F 4
2 2
(d) (e) (f)

Figure 24 Different Types of tensile tests; (a) Couplet test using special clamps, (b)
Couplet test using clamps, (c) Couplet test using holes and bolts, (d)
Sheffield test, (e) Steel and plates glued with adhesive, Van der Pluijm [186]
(1993), (f) Crossed brick couplet, Almeida et al. [5]
Tensile stress σ (MPa)

Crack opening displacement (mm)

Figure 25 Stress-crack displacement behaviour for unit mortar interface, failure Mode I.
The shaded area represents the envelope of three tests, Van der Pluijm
[186]
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 47

3.2.3.2 Shear failure


Several studies with different types of shear tests were carried out to characterize the
shear failure of unit-mortar interface, Figure 26 (van der Pluijm [186], Atkinson et al. [10]
and Amadio [7]). The stress of confinement plays the major role in the shear behaviour
of masonry joints, Hamid [77]. The increase of compression normal to the bed joint leads
to an increase of the shear strength as has been widely reported by Atkinson et al. [10]
and Riddington [153]. For pre-compression stresses above a certain level, the shear
strength decreases and a combined shear-splitting failure or splitting of the units can be
occurred.

Fs
Fn2 Fs Fs
Fn1 2 2 Mortar

Mortar

Fn Fn Fn Fn
Mortar

Fs Unit
Unit
Unit
Fs Fs
2 2

(a) (b) (c)

Figure 26 Different types of shear tests;(a) Couplet Hoffmann/Stöckl test; (b) Van der
Pluijm test; (c) Triplet test

The shear test results obtained by van der Pluijm [186] are showed a great similarity with
the behaviour under tension, Figure 27, except that the tail of softening does not fall
back to zero but it becomes stable at a certain shear stress level. This level corresponds
to the dry friction of the two surfaces without cohesion.
Shear stress τ (MPa)

Shear displacement (mm)

Figure 27 Stress-displacement behaviour for different normal stress levels, failure


mode II, Van der Pluijm [186]
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 48

The shear strength was analysed as a function of the normal stresses on the basis of
coulomb’s friction failure criterion:

τ u = c0 − tan ϕ ⋅ σ (2)
where:
τu shear strength
c0 cohesion or the shear bond strength at σ = 0
ϕ The angle of internal friction, not necessarily equal to dry friction

Lourenço [109] has used the mode II fracture energy G IIf to define the descending
branch beyond the peak via softening of the cohesion in equation (2) by replacing c0
with the following equation:

c0
− ⋅v pl
G IIf (3)
cr = c0 ⋅ e
where:
cr residual cohesion
c0 initial cohesion
G IIf mode II fracture energy
v pl plastic shear displacement

Softening

Failure of cohesion
µ ⋅σ + c
σ
τ
Shear stress

c σ >0 µ ⋅σ
τ
σ
Frictional behaviour

GIIf σ =0 Deformation

ε
Figure 28 Shear behaviour of unit-mortar interface

Van Zijl [190] has explored the usability of Hordijk equation (1) by changing the mode I
parameters:
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 49

v
cr v pl 3 −c2 ⋅ vnonlin
pl
v pl
= [1 + (c1 ⋅ ) ]⋅ e − ⋅ (1 + c13 ) ⋅ e −c2 (4)
c0 vnonlin vnonlin
where:
vnonlin shear displacement over which the cohesion can be reduced to zero
c1 , c2 constants
An important issue associated to shear test is the dilatant behaviour which occurs at/
and beyond peak. Dilatancy is the result of crack surface that is not perfectly smooth, it
represents the difference between the normal displacements of the upper and the lower
unit u pl as a result of the shear displacement v pl , Figure 29. The opening of the joint is
associated to positive dilation, whereas negative values of dilatancy represent the
compaction of the joint.

0.10
[mm]
∆upl
tanψ =
upl

0.08
C ∆vpl
Plastic normal displacement

upl
0.06
ψ v pl
0.04

0.02

[mm]
0 0.25 0.50 0.75
Plastic shear displacement vpl

Figure 29 Example of the normal displacement u pl as a function of the shear


displacement v pl beyond the peak of a test carried out with normal pre-
compression, Van der Pluijm [186]

As has been pointed out by Lourenço [109], dilatancy in masonry wall structures leads to
a significant increase of the shear strength in case of confinement.
Vasconcelos [191] showed different shear failures at different confining stresses for
granite:
- For low level of confining stresses: shear failure occurs at the unit-mortar
interface along one face of the unit or more frequently divided between two unit
faces, Figure 30.
- For high level of confining stresses: the failure only occurs in the mortar.
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 50

(a) (b)

Figure 30 Typical shear failure modes, no visible damage in units; (a) specimen
submitted to low level confining stresses, (b) specimen submitted to high
level of confining stresses, a large amount of small mortar particles
detached, Vasconcelos [191]

In adobe masonry, where the strength of masonry constitutes are weak, the failure
occurs in the mortar and will be extended to the units under high confinement, because
the mortar strength relatively is close to the strength of the units, Figure 31.

0.275
L-10
0.25 L-11
L-12
0.225
L-09
0.2
Shear stress (N/mm²)

0.175

0.15

0.125

0.1 GIIf=4.915 N.mm/mm2


0.075

0.05

0.025

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30
displacement (mm)

Figure 31 Triple test for adobe masonry, Jäger et al. [85]

3.2.4 Failure theories of masonry as composite


In terms of the composite behaviour of masonry, all possible failure modes of the units
and mortar are necessary to be considered. Many research attempts have been devoted
to derive failure theories of masonry based on the fundamental properties of the
component materials. The strength and the interaction of the masonry components and
their differing in deformation characteristics are dominated the failure of masonry.
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 51

Francis et al. [60] and Totaro [184] have


developed a failure theory based on the N
elastic analysis by considering the
interaction of masonry components,
Hilsdorf [80] has proposed an
alternative approach based on an
assumed linear relationship between V -σ y

lateral biaxial tensile strength and local τyx


compressive stress multiplied by a non- σx
uniformity factor.
Mann and Müller ([116] and [117]), have
developed a failure theory based on the
equilibrium and strength considerations y
σx
of a unit within a wall, Figure 32. The x

theory is based on the assumption that z


τyx
no shear stresses can be transferred in -σ y

the vertical joints between units σ x = 0 ,


Figure 33. Figure 32 Shear stressed masonry wall

By considering equilibrium equation for


the normal stresses and the shear
stresses, it follows that -σ y

∆σ y 2h -σ
- ∆ σ /2
⋅τ yx
2y

− = (5) -σ 1y
y

2 l - ∆σ /2
y

where:
σ y1 + σ y 2 τyx b
τyx
∆σ y = σ y1 − σ y 2 and σ y = l/2
2 h

∆σ y ∆σ y
σ y1 = σ y + and σ y 2 = σ y −
2 2
The following failure modes have to be
considered:
τyx τyx
-σ - ∆ σ /2 y
(1) Tensile cracking of the bed joint 1y

-σ 2y
- ∆ σ /2
y

f tmy − σ y
τ yx ≤ (6) -σ y

(2) Shear failure of the bed joint

Figure 33 Assumptions of Mann/Müller


c yx − µ yx ⋅ σ y
τ yx ≤ (7) theory
1 + r ⋅ µ yx
3.2 Failure behaviour of masonry 52

f bt σy
(3) Tensile cracking of the units τ yx ≤ 1− (8)
2.3 f bt

f cmy + σ y
(4) Compression failure of masonry τ yx ≤ (9)
r

where
τ yx average shear stress on bed joint
σy average normal stress
l, h length and height of the unit respectively
µ yx friction coefficient on bed joint
c yx cohesion on bed joint
f tmy tensile strength of bed joint mortar
f bt tensile strength of unit
f cmy compressive strength of masonry
r 2X ratio of height / length of unit

τ yx
(2) shear failure (3) cracking of the units
of the bed joint

(4) compression failure


(1) tensile cracking arctan( µ′)
of the bed joints
c'yx

σ y
fbt
ftmy
fcmy

Figure 34 Shear failure envelop of masonry panel according to Mann/Müller

Dialer [48] has developed the approach of Mann and Müller to take into account the
stresses acting on the head joints:
3 Mechanical behaviour and failure of masonry 53

(1) Shear failure of the bed joints

c yx − µ yxσ y + rµ yx (c xy − µ xyσ x )
τ yx ≤ (10)
1 + rµ yx
(2) Tensile cracking of the units

1 f bt σ x + σ y σ x ⋅σ y
τ yx ≤ (c xy − µ xyσ x ) + 1− + (11)
2 2. 3 f bt f bt2
(3) Compressive failure of the masonry
f cmy + σ y
τ yx ≤ + c xy − σ x µ xy (12)
r
where:
c yx , c xy cohesions on bed and head faces, respectively
µ yx , µ xy coefficients of friction on bed and head faces, respectively
More generalized approach to study
the shear capacity of masonry is
based on considering the biaxial
loading of masonry. Page [146] has
proposed failure surfaces for
masonry stressed in orthogonal
tension-compression directions by
applying the normal stresses to small
specimens, where the bed joints
were inclined at various angels to the
axes of the applied stresses.
Ganz [62] proposed a set of Figure 35 Shear failure envelop of masonry
equations that defines the failure panel according to Ganz [62]
surface of masonry, but the effect of
unit dimensions was missing in the
equations:
(1) Failure of the units

Tensile failure of the units τ xy2 − σ x ⋅ σ y ≤ 0 (13)

Compression failure of the units τ xy2 − (σ x + f cmx ) ⋅ (σ y + f cmy ) ≤ 0 (14)

Shear failure of the units τ xy2 + σ x (σ x + f cmx ) ≤ 0 (15)

(2) Failure of the bed joints

Sliding along the bed joints τ xy2 − (c − σ y ⋅ tan ϕ ) 2 ≤ 0 (16)


3.3 Concluding remarks 54

⎡ π ϕ ⎤
Tensile failure in the bed joints τ xy2 + σ y ⋅ ⎢σ y + 2c tan( + )⎥ ≤ 0 (17)
⎣ 4 2 ⎦

3.3 Concluding remarks


The typical standard experimental tests are given in this chapter and the failure
behaviours are discussed. Masonry constituents show a big variation in material
characteristic behaviours. It is not easy to give a general failure description for the
material to which masonry belongs.
Masonry materials have a feature of increasing their shear strength by increasing the
confined pressure. This feature characterizes the general behaviour of geo-materials.
The standard tests of tension, compression and shear are widely described in literature.
However, triaxial tests are absent for the most masonry materials. The need to get an
accurate failure model for masonry requires also an experimental determination for
biaxial and triaxial behaviour parameters. The porosity of masonry materials causes an
inelastic behaviour under hydrostatic compression, and such behaviour can only
captured by triaxial tests.
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 55

4 Finite element modelling of masonry


In the present chapter, the mathematical formulation of the finite element method is
described, with treatment for the contact problem between the discrete bodies. By
involving the contact within finite element procedure, more powerful method can be
obtained, which is well known as finite-discrete element method.
Different integration schemes have been widely implemented into finite element
packages. A comparison between these solution techniques is made, and the
preference of the explicit solvers is explained. The possible numerical techniques for
crack formation are described briefly and discussed. Different levels of modelling
strategies for collapse analysis are suggested as well.

4.1 Governing equations


Let us consider a single discrete element that represents a deformable body in an initial
state (reference configuration) at time t = 0 as shown in Figure 36. The domain of the
body is denoted by Ω 0 and its boundaries by Γ0 . The current configuration of the body
at any instance time t is occupied by domain Ω and its boundaries Γ .
When the body moves from domain Ω 0 to domain Ω , the point X ∈ Ω 0 moves to point
x∈Ω .

X 3 , x3
n
Γ

x Ω
N
dΩ
u Current configuration, t

X
dΩ 0 X 2 , x2
Ω0 Γ0 x = ϕ ( X, t )
X 1 , x1
Initial or reference configuration, t=0

Figure 36 Undeformed (reference) and deformed (current) configuration of the body

The fundamental equations which govern the problems of solid mechanics can be
obtained from the following conservation or balance laws: Belytschko et al. [19], Johnson
[89], Wriggers [200], Bathe [14], Hughes [82], Hallquist [75] and Munjiza [134].
4.1 Governing equations 56

4.1.1 Conservation laws


(1) Conservation of linear momentum
The momentum conservation is the statement of Newton’s second law of motion.

σ ij , j + ρ ⋅ f i = ρ ⋅ &x&i (18)
where:
σ ij Cauchy stress tensor
ρ mass density
ρ ⋅ fi body forces, where f i a force per unit mass
&x&i accelerations
(2) Conservation of angular momentum
The angular momentum provides additional equations which govern Cauchy stress
tensors:

σ ij = σ ji (19)

(3) Conservation of mass


Mass conservation requires the mass of a material subdomain to be constant.

∫ ρ ⋅ dΩ = ∫ ρ
Ω Ω0
0 ⋅ dΩ 0 = constant (20)

By transforming the integral to the reference domain dΩ = J dΩ0 it gives

ρ det(J ) = ρ 0 (21)
where:
ρ0 reference density

det(J ) determinant of the deformation gradient matrix, which is the Jacobian

∂xi
determinant of the vector mapping function ϕ ( X, t ) which is J ij =
∂X j

(4) Conservation of energy


The conservation of energy requires that, the rate of change of the total energy in the
body, which includes both internal energy and kinetic energy, equals to the work of the
applied forces

P int + P kin = P ext + P heat (22)

The rate change in internal energy


4 Finite element modelling of masonry 57

d
P int = ∫
dt Ω
ρ wint dΩ (23)

The disposition of the internal work depends on the material. In an elastic material it
stored as elastic internal energy which is fully recoverable upon unloading, while in the
elasto-plastic material some of the work is dissipated as heat. In the present study, a
purely mechanical process is supposed. Hence, the heat energy vanishes, whereas
some of energy is irretrievably dissipated in changes of the internal structure of the
material.
The rate change in kinetic energy given as

d 1
dt Ω∫ 2
P kin = ρ v ⋅ v dΩ (24)

The rate change in external energy

P ext = ∫ v ⋅ ρ b dΩ + ∫ v ⋅ t dΓ (25)
Ω Γ

When heat flux and heat sources vanish as in the present study, the statement of the
conservation of energy can be written as

d 1

dt Ω
( ρ wint + ρ v ⋅ v)dΩ = ∫ v ⋅ ρ b dΩ + ∫ v ⋅ t dΓ
2 Ω Γ
(26)

The energy equation becomes (Belytschko et al. [19])

d int
ρ w = σ ij Dij (27)
dt
where:

1 ∂vi ∂v j
Dij rate of deformations Dij = ( + )
2 ∂x j ∂xi

4.1.2 Boundary conditions


(1) Traction boundary condition
On the boundary Γ f the traction boundary condition can be described as:

σ ij n j = ti (t ) on Γ f (28)
where:
nj outward normal to the boundary
4.2 Finite element formulation 58

(2) Displacement boundary condition


On the boundary Γd the displacement boundary condition is

xi ( X, t ) = xi (t ) on Γd (29)

(3) Contact boundary condition


the contact discontinuity can be defined by the following equation

(σ ij+ − σ ij− ) n j = 0 on Γc (30)

along the interior boundary Γc when xi+ = xi− .

When a virtual displacement δxi is given to the body that satisfied all boundary
conditions on Γd , it leads to the following virtual work

∫ ( ρ &x& − σ

i ij , j − ρ fi ) δxi dΩ + ∫ (σ ij n j − ti ) δxi dΓ
Γf
(31)
+ ∫ (σ − σ ij− ) n j δxi dΓ = 0
+
ij
Γc

By applying the divergence theorem and performing some mathematical


transformations, the weak form of equilibrium equations can be obtained, Hallquist [75]:

δπ = ∫ ρ &x&i δxi dΩ + ∫ σ ij δxi , j dΩ − ∫ ρ f i δxi dΩ − ∫ ti δxi dΓ


Ω Ω Ω Γf

(32)
− ∫t δxi dΓ = 0
c
i
Γc
1424
3
Contact contribution

or δπ = 0 which is the statement of the principle of virtual work.


where:
ti contact tractions applied on contact surface Γc

4.2 Finite element formulation


Let us superimpose a mesh of finite elements interconnected at nodal points on a
reference configuration and track particles through the time, i.e.
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 59

m
xi ( X, t ) = xi ( X(ξ ,η , ζ ), t ) = ∑ φ j (ξ ,η , ζ ) xij (t ) (33)
j =1

where:
φj shape functions of the parametric coordinates (ξ ,η , ζ )

m number of nodal points defining the element

xij nodal coordinate of the jth node in the ith direction

the potential energy for the element m is

δπ e = ∫ ρ &x&i Φ ie dΩ + ∫ σ ij Φ ie, j dΩ − ∫ ρ f i Φ ie dΩ − ∫ ti Φ ie dΓ (34)


Ωe Ωe Ωe Γef

where Φ ie = (φ1 , φ2 , ..., φk ) ie

By summing over the en elements, it is possible to approximate δπ by

en
δπ = ∑ δπ e = 0 (35)
e =1

The substituting of equation (34) in equation (35) gives

en

∑ ( ∫ ρ &x& Φ
e =1 Ωe
i
e
i dΩ + ∫ σ ij Φ ie, j dΩ − ∫ ρ f i Φ ie dΩ − ∫ ti Φ ie dΓ) = 0 (36)
Ωe Ωe Γef

Equation (36) can be rewritten in matrix notation

en

∑( ∫ ρ N
e =1 Ωe
t
N a e dΩ + ∫ B t σ dΩ − ∫ ρ N t b dΩ − ∫ N t t dΓ) = 0 (37)
Ωe Ωe Γef

where:
N interpolation matrix

σ stress vector σ t = (σ xx , σ yy , σ zz , σ xy , σ yz , σ zx )

B strain-displacement matrix

ae nodal acceleration vector for the element

b body force load vector

t applied traction load


4.3 Contact analysis 60

The size of equation (37) can be reduced by introducing the following assumptions

en en
M a = ∑ M e a e = ∑ ∫ ρ N t N a e dΩ (38)
e =1 e =1 Ω e

and

Feext = ∫ ρ N b dΩ + ∫ N t dΓ
t t
(39)
Ωe Γef

Feint = ∫ B t σ dΩ (40)
Ωe

where

Me mass matrix of the element

M global mass matrix

a global nodal acceleration vector

Feext external nodal forces of the element

Feint internal nodal forces of the element

Equation (37) can be rewritten in this simple form

en
M a − ∑ (Feext − Feint ) = 0 (41)
e =1

which is known as the equation of undamped motion.

4.3 Contact analysis


In equation (32) the last term gives the effect of contact forces as a contribution in
externally applied tractions.
The concept of contact analysis can be described by considering two bodies i and j
which are in contact at time t, Figure 37, but the given concept below can be generalized
for multiple-body contact.
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 61

ϕi
Ωi0 Ωi
contact surface pair
Γc
Xi

ϕ (Xi , t ) = ϕ (X j , t )

Ω0j Ωj
Xj
ϕj

current configuration at time


reference configuration t with contact

Figure 37 Schematic illustration for the contact of two bodies

The two bodies are assumed to be supported, so that, without contact no rigid body
motion is possible. The contact traction t c which acts on point x i of the contact surface
Γci can be decomposed into normal and tangential components corresponding to n and
s on Γci , Figure 38.

tc = λ n +η s (42)

where λ and η are the normal and tangential traction components.

Let’s figure out a point x j from Γcj that satisfies

x i − x j (x i , t ) = minj x i − x (43)
2 x∈Γc 2

The distance from x i to Γcj is given by

g ( x i , t ) = ( x i − x j )T n (44)

where g is the gap function of the contact surface pair.


With these definitions, the conditions for normal contact can be, therefore, written as

g ≥ 0; λ ≥ 0; gλ =0 (45)

which are known as Hertz-Signorini-Moreau conditions for frictionless contact. The last
equation implies that if g > 0 , it must be λ = 0 and vice versa.
4.3 Contact analysis 62

Ωi
Γci
master surface

x i ηs
λn tc = λ n +η s
n
xj
s

Γcj
Ωj
slave surface

Figure 38 Minimum distance problem used in contact analysis

For a generalized formulation, the frictional conditions are included in a simplified


manner through Coulomb’s law of friction on the contact surface. Consider that µ is the
coefficient of friction. The magnitude of the relative tangential velocity is

u& (x i , t ) = (u& j − u& i ) s (46)

The nondimensional variable τ can be defined as

η
τ= (47)
µλ

where µ λ is the frictional resistance.


With these definitions Coulomb’s law of friction states

| τ |≤ 1

and | τ |< 1 implies u& = 0 (48)

while | τ |= 1 implies sign(u& ) = sign(τ )

These interface conditions are illustrated in Figure 39. The last conditions must be valid
for the solution of the virtual work equation (32).
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 63

λ τ
| τ |≤ 1
| τ |< 1 implies u& = 0
g≥0
| τ |= 1 implies sign(u& ) = sign(τ )
λ≥0
gλ =0

g u&
Normal conditions Tangential conditions

Figure 39 Interface conditions in contact analysis

Various algorithmic procedures have been proposed to solve contact problems, most of
these procedures are based on penalty and Lagrange multiplier techniques for enforcing
the contact constraints, Belytschko et al. [19], Wriggers [200], Bathe [14], Hallquist [75]
and Munjiza [134]. In the following the contact algorithm of LS-DYNA software is
explained.
The node-segment pair is the root level of all contact types in LS-DYNA. The node is a
point with mass and is usually named as slave node. The segment is either 3-noded or
4-noded connectivity information and is usually named as master segment. The contact
algorithm consists of the following steps, Bala [13]:
(a) The slave node-master segment pair is assembled so that, the projection of the
slave node onto the master segment, along the master segment normal must lie
within the area enclosed by the 3 or 4 nodes of the segment. The projection point
called contact point and the distance from slave node to contact point called
projection distance. In order to collect the nodes which may lie near the edges, it
is necessary to use a small increase in the area of the segment. LS-DYNA uses
an additional 2% increase to the master segment.
segment normal

η
projection distance

transformation to
2 (-1,1) 1 (1,1) isoparametric
slave node
coordinates of the master segment
master segment
ξ

scaled segment
contact point

3 (-1,-1) 4 (1,-1)

Figure 40 Assemblage of slave node- master segment pair

(b) Determining of the contact point in the isoparametric coordinates of the master
segment.
4.4 Finite element codes and solution strategies 64

(c) Computing the projection distance in the local coordinate system which is
embedded in the master segment.
(d) When the projection distance found to be negative, its absolute value indicates
the depth of the penetration. The slave nodal force is calculated according to the
following equation

f
{s
= K
{c
⋅ δ{
(49)
contact force contact stiffness penetration depth

(e) Distributing the contact force to the master segment nodes. Each master node
gets a fraction of the slave force based on the contact point location by using the
isoparametric shape functions

⎧ 1
⎪ N1 = 4 (1 + ξ )(1 + η )

⎪ N = 1 (1 − ξ )(1 + η )
⎪ 2 4
f mi = N i (ξ ,η ) ⋅ f s where ⎨ (50)
⎪ N = 1 (1 − ξ )(1 − η )
⎪ 3 4
⎪ 1
⎪ N 4 = (1 + ξ )(1 − η )
⎩ 4

The contact stiffness K c is formulated to be stiff enough to ensure that deformations


during the solution occur in the attached elements but not at the interface itself. For
penalty based approach in LS-DYNA the stiffness K c is calculated using the following
equation:

f s ⋅ A2 ⋅ k
Kc = (51)
Ve
where:
fs penalty factor

A area of the defined segment

k bulk modulus of contacted element

Ve area of the element that attached to the segment

4.4 Finite element codes and solution strategies


Finite element codes have received a significant progress in last decades. Most of FE
codes since the early of 1990s have focused on static and dynamic solutions by implicit
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 65

methods. ANSYS14, ABAQUS15 and ADINA16 are examples of the first commercial FE
codes.
In 1966 Costantino has developed what is probably the first explicit finite element
program. It was limited to linear material and small deformations. Later, the element-by-
element technique has been first implemented in SAMSON code in 1969, this technique
has had the advantage of the computation of nodal forces without use of the stiffness
matrix. SAMSON code was extended in 1972 to WRECKNER which was developed for
fully nonlinear three dimensional transient analysis, Belytschko et al. [18] and Belytschko
et al. [19].
The pioneer work in explicit finite element codes is John Hallquist’s work at Lawrence
Livemore Laboratories in the mid-seventies. The major feature of Hallquist’s finite
element code was the development of contact-impact interfaces.
In the recent version of LS-DYNA, numerous capabilities and options have been added
in terms of elements, material modelling, and contact interfaces to model non-linear
dynamic events accurately and inexpensively. LS-DYNA software is not limited to any
particular type of simulation, other than it is primarily limited by the storage capacity of
the computer on which it is being run.
An illustration for the key features of explicit and implicit methods of time integration will
be given in the following. The central difference method (explicit time integration) and the
Newmark β-method (implicit time integration) are compared with close focus to the major
features and drawbacks of each method.
(a) Explicit time integration (Central difference method)
Many explicit time integration methods have been proposed in literature (Munjiza [134]),
namely: central difference, leap frog, T-1/12, D-1/12, Gear’s predictor-corrector, CHIN,
and Forest & Ruth. The central difference method is the most popular among the explicit
methods in computational mechanics and physics, and it has been widely demonstrated
in many finite element codes. LS-DYNA uses the explicit central difference scheme to
integrate the equations of motion. The central difference method has been developed
from central difference formulas for velocity and accelerations.
The time of the simulation 0 ≤ t ≤ t E is subdivided into time steps

∆t n = t n − t n −1 (52)

The midpoint time step is

1
n+ ∆t n + ∆t n+1
∆t 2
= (53)
2

The central difference formula for the velocity is

14
ANSYS was developed first by John Swanson at Westinghouse as nonlinear finite element program for
nuclear applications.
15
David Hibbitt worked with Pedro Marcal until 1972 and then co-founded HKS, which markets ABAQUS.
16
ADINA lunched by Klaus-Jürgen Bathe.
4.4 Finite element codes and solution strategies 66

1 1 1 1
n+ n+ n+ n+
v 2
= (u n +1 − u n ) / ∆t 2
⇒ u n +1 = u n + ∆t 2
v 2 (54)

where the displacements are given by

x n+1 = x 0 + u n+1 (55)

The central difference formula of the acceleration


1 1 1 1
n+ n− n+ n−
an = (v 2
−v 2
) / ∆t n ⇒ v 2
=v 2
+ ∆t na n (56)

Let us consider the semi-discrete equations of undamped equation of motion for rate-
independent materials at time t n , equation (41)

M an = Fn (57)

where

en
F n = ∑ (Feext − Feint ) n (58)
e =1

The acceleration can be obtained from equation (57) simply by

a n = M −1F n (59)

The displacements u n are known at any time step n. The nodal forces F n can be
determined by applying in sequence the strain-displacement equations, the constitutive
equations and the relation of the nodal internal forces. Therefore, by applying equations
(58), (55) and (54), the displacement u n +1 at time step n+1 can be determined. In such
way it is clear that the entire update can be achieved without solving any system
equations provided that the mass matrix M is diagonal, and this is the salient
characteristic of the explicit method, Belytschko et al. [19].
Explicit time integration is easy to implement and very robust. The explicit procedure
seldom aborts due to failure of numerical algorithm. The salient disadvantage of explicit
integration is the conditional stability. If the time step exceeds a critical value, the
solution may grow unboundedly.
For the stability of central difference scheme, the following criterion should be satisfied

∆t ≤ ∆t crit (60)

The time step size is bounded by the largest natural frequency of the structure which is
in turn bounded by the highest frequency of any individual element in the finite element
mesh.
The critical time step for a model depends on the mesh and material properties and it is
given by Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 67

le
∆t ≤ ∆tcrit = min (61)
ce
where:
ce wavespeed in the finite element e and is given by

Ee
ce =
ρe

le characteristic length of the element e

It is clear from equation (61) that, the critical time step decreases by the mesh
refinement and increasing the stiffness of the material, Belytschko et al. [19] and
Hallquist [75].
For stable computations, the time step is chosen by the computer code so that the time
step is less than the time required for a stress wave to travel through the shortest
element, and therefore this would result in excessive run times as the level of
discretization increases.
(2) Implicit time integration (Newmark β-method)
For implicit time integration formulation the discrete momentum equation must be
considered at time step n+1

M a n+1 − F n+1 = M a n+1 − F ext (u n+1 , t n+1 ) + F int (u n+1 ) = R (u n+1 , t n+1 ) = 0 (62)

R (u n +1 , t n +1 ) is a column matrix of residuals.


In order to obtain F ext and F int , the assemble of Feext and Feint is needed for all finite
elements of the structure, and it must be allocated in the computer memory.
By employing the Newmark β-method to integrate the equation of motion, the updated
displacements and velocities can be given by: (Belytschko et al. [19])

~ n + β ∆t 2 a n +1
u n +1 = u (63)

~ n = u n + ∆t v n + ∆t (1 − 2β) a n
2
u (64)
2

v n +1 = ~
v n + γ∆t a n +1 (65)

~v n = v n + (1 − γ) ∆t a n (66)

where u~ n , ~v n are the history values of nodal displacements and velocities, respectively
at the time step n. β and γ are parameters.
4.5 Techniques of crack formation 68

Equation (63) can be solved for the updated accelerations for β > 0 . By substituting
Equation (63) in equation (62) it gives

1 ~ n ) − F ext (u n +1 , t n +1 ) + F int (u n +1 ) = R (u n +1 , t n +1 ) = 0
M (u n +1 − u (67)
β ∆t 2

which is a set of nonlinear algebraic equations in nodal displacements u n +1 . These set of


equations need an iterative algorithm for solution. The widely used and most robust
method for that is Newton-Raphson method, Belytschko et al. [19].
There are also some restrictions on the size of time steps in implicit methods arising
from accuracy requirements and the decreasing robustness of the Newton-Raphson
procedure as the time step increases. The latter is particularly marked in problems with
very rough response, such as contact-impact. With a large time step, the initial iteration
might be far from the solution, therefore, the possibility of failure of the Newton-Raphson
method to converge increases. Small time steps are often used to improve the
robustness of the algorithm. The major disadvantage of implicit solver is that, the cost
per step is unknown since the speed depends mostly on the convergence behaviour of
the equilibrium iteration which can vary widely from problem to problem.
Explicit time integration is the ideal approach for highly non-linear short duration
transient events, including contact and impact, Bala [13]. On the other hand the implicit
approach is more efficient for static problems or problems which have long time loading,
where this kind of problems will be not feasible and expensive to be solved by explicit
approach.
In the explicit approach the solution can be achieved on an element-by-element basis
and therefore the assemblage, the memory storage of huge matrices and the iterative
solution of the nonlinear equations are not required, like in implicit approach.
Consequently, explicit methods are able to treat large three-dimensional models with
comparatively modest computer storage requirements. The other advantages include
easy implementation and accurate treatment of general nonlinearities in a relatively
simple way. However, the price paid for this advantage is the conditional stability, where
the time step in solution process should not exceed a critical value. Thus, the solution
needs a large number of cycles to cover the solution time.
The relatively short duration and high degree of non-linearity related to contact impact
problems destined that, it is well-situated to employ explicit approach for collapse
simulation problems. LS-DYNA code has a robust explicit central difference solver which
is employed throughout developing this study.
For some problems the combination of both implicit and explicit solvers offers high
computational efficiency. For instance, it is possible to utilize the implicit solver just to
initiate the stress state in the model under static loading and then applying the dynamic
actions by means of explicit solver. This way is frequently used in the present study to
reduce the computation time.

4.5 Techniques of crack formation


One of the basic tasks behind the simulation of the collapse is to permit the formation of
discontinuities in continuum material.
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 69

As the real cracks locations can be well determined, the accuracy of collapse simulation
can be enhancing. The accurate simulation of post failure behaviour is of a great
significance after cracking and separation, as well. The post failure behaviour includes
the contact and impact of the fragments that causes the dissipation of kinetic energy.
The finite element method is rooted in the concepts of continuum mechanics, it has the
capability for accurate simulation of the pre-failure behaviour but it is not suited to
general fracture propagation and fragmentation problems. In contrast, the discrete
element method is specifically designed to solve problems that exhibit strong
discontinuities. It has the capability to simulate the post-failure behaviour. The
combination of finite element method with discrete element method results in powerful
method capable to simulate the pre-failure and the post-failure behaviours. The full
simulation of the behaviour by combined FEM-DEM requires a transition from continuum
to discontinuum. The transition from continuum to discontinuum by finite element is
fraught with troubles. Different techniques have been proposed in literature for this
purpose, which have been implemented in many finite element codes. However each
technique has some shortcomings. According to the crack formation, these techniques
can be classified into: undetermined crack techniques and Pre-determined crack
techniques, and according to mesh dependency it can be classified into: mesh
dependent techniques and mesh independent techniques.
In the following, the techniques of crack formation are explained with a focus on the
features and drawbacks of each one.

4.5.1 Undetermined crack techniques


By using undetermined crack techniques, it is not necessary to determine the crack path
priori. This is the basic feature of these techniques, i.e. the path of crack formation is
determined during the solution process. In the following the finite element removal and
the finite element-splitting techniques are explained:

4.5.1.1 The finite element removal technique


This technique is well known as kill element, element deletion or element erosion
technique. It is the most popular method used in today’s finite element codes. In this
technique the finite element will being removed from the mesh as soon as the strength
vanishes at the end of strain softening process. Therefore, the discontinuity in finite
element mesh will be simply introduced during the solution process.
During a single time step the algorithm is often divided into a series of phases, Ren et al.
[152]:
(a) A check at the sampling point level: if the material at the sampling point has
completely lost the load carrying capacity, then a flag is set up marking the
sampling point as failed
(b) A check at the element level: if all sampling points which belong to one element
are failed, then the element and consequently its sampling points will be
removed from the mesh
(c) A topological check: if any higher-order elements are removed or when all
elements which linked to one node are removed, then the node has to be
removed from the mesh
(d) Regeneration of the contact surfaces after the element removal
4.5 Techniques of crack formation 70

(e) All new vectors and matrixes must be regenerated for the remaining elements at
the next step, where any computations concerning the removed elements, nodes
and sampling points are omitted.
Element removal technique has been widely used for high velocity impact simulations in
literature, Vignjevic et al. [193] and Hayhurst et al. [78]. It has been showed fairly good
results when used with small elements and accurate failure models.
Element removal technique is easy to implement in finite element codes and it does not
contribute to any additional calculation time. There is no need to any change in the
topology after removing the elements, besides, the related data to the removed
elements, nodes and sampling points are no longer needed. By using this technique it
can be avoid the excessive distortion of the elements which may causes termination
during the solution.
In addition to being the element removal technique highly mesh dependant, the main
shortcoming is that the mass and momentum are not conserved in the crack area. This
would be severe particularly for large scale models with large elements, Alsos [6].

reomved elements

localization zone new contact surfaces

Figure 41 Formation of crack and separation using finite element removal technique

4.5.1.2 The finite element-splitting technique


The element-splitting technique is mesh-independent technique for simulating the crack
initiation and propagation in continuum media, Johnson et al. [90].
This technique uses an efficient local adaptive remeshing algorithm in which the
elements are divided along the emerging discontinuity using piece-wise planar
segments. The algorithm can be divided into a series of phases as given in the following:
(a) Determining the failed sampling points using the employed constitutive model
(b) Determining the crack planes at the failed sampling points by using the
information which is provided by adjacent elements
(c) If the crack plane falls near an existing node, two options are possible, either the
crack plane snapped to that node or the node can be moved to the crack plane
by using a simple local adaptive mapping algorithm
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 71

(d) The cracked elements separated using the defined crack plane in last step. This
has been achieved by inserting new nodes at the intersection points of element
edges with crack plane
(e) Updating the topology of the cracked elements after inserting the new nodes
(f) The new created outer element faces are added onto the list of contacting
entities.

crack tips created at


crack front
new contact surfaces

decision is made to node duplicated and element the element after seplitting
start from this node topologies reconnected

Figure 42 Illustration of the element splitting technique for tetrahedral element, redrawn
from Johnson et al. [90]

The update of the finite element mesh needs a local adapting of the result from the last
mesh to the new mesh. The accuracy depends here on the adapting algorithm. The local
generation of the finite element mesh increases the number of finite elements and
contact surfaces. This technique is time consuming for full collapse simulation of large
models. It is also not easy to be handled in commercial finite element codes. It has been
employed only for special cases of small model sizes.

4.5.2 Predetermined crack techniques


In predetermined crack techniques, the crack trajectory is known priori. The
predetermination of crack paths must be identified before the solution process. It would
affect the accuracy, but this is the consequences paid to gain more efficiency and
flexibility.
This technique depends on defining a number of possible potential cracks within the
geometry. The number of potential cracks depends on the required accuracy, and the
pre-knowledge of possible cracks. For instance, in masonry structures, it is well known
that, the cracks mainly take place in unit-mortar interfaces. During the solution process,
the crack propagates only along the predetermined potential cracks. For defining the
potential cracks, the following modelling techniques would be possible.
4.5 Techniques of crack formation 72

4.5.2.1 Tied or adhesive contact surfaces with failure


Tied contact has been proposed to achieve the continuity between the discrete elements
on the contact interfaces, where the master surface and the slave surface are glued. The
effect of tied contact is that, when the master surfaces are deforming, the slave nodes
are forced to follow that deformation.
In combined discrete-finite element method there is a discontinuity in the finite element
mesh along the contact interface between the discrete elements. The finite element
mesh of the slave surface may not coincide with the mesh of the master surface. The
achievement of complete displacement compatibility on the contact interface is only
possible when each master node coincided with a slave node. By using tied contact type
in LS-DYNA, it is not possible to include nodes that are involved in a tied interface in
another tied interface. Therefore, care should be taken to avoid conflicting constraints in
modelling.
The transition from continuum to discontinuum on the tied contact surface is possible if
the tied contact has been failed according to specific failure criteria. This can be
achieved by pinning the slave nodes to the master surface using penalty stiffness. After
the failure criterion is exceeded, the slave nodes will be separated from the master
surface. The tied contact algorithm in LS-DYNA differs from the normal contact algorithm
described in section 4.3 in the following:
(a) For every slave node, a unique master segment based on the smallest projected
normal distance is located
(b) The contact point is calculated only at the beginning for all tied and tiebreak
contacts, while it is computed at every cycle for all other contacts
(c) A contact spring is internally created between the slave node and the contact
point on the master segment
(d) For any subsequent incremental change in the projected distance, a force
proportional to the incremental change in the projected distance is applied to the
slave node. The distribution of this force to the master nodes is based on the
contact point.

slave surface
segment normal

slave node

master segment

contact point

scaled segment

predetermined crack master surface

Figure 43 Using tied contact for modelling predetermined crack


4 Finite element modelling of masonry 73

4.5.2.2 Interface elements


Interface elements are widely used in crack growth analysis, Xie et al. [204]. Interface
elements are embedded along the potential crack path and used in conjunction with
cohesive-zone models (CZMs). The cohesive zone constitutive relationship is included in
the formulation of the interface element stiffness. It can be use element removal
technique to remove the failed interface elements from the simulation.

often coincident nodes


Interface element

Interface elements
predetermined crack

Figure 44 Using interface elements for modelling predetermined crack

4.5.2.3 Breakable tied nodes


This approach also is known as nodal release approach. In this context two element
nodes, initially constrained to identical displacements, are allowed to be separated by
releasing the constraints and nodal forces which hold the elements together, Vignjevic et
al. [193].
The nodes are linked by springs in normal and tangential directions to avoid sudden
energy release. After the failure of the link, the springs will be removed.

spring linkage

tied nodes
predetermined crack

Figure 45 Breakable tied nodes for modelling predetermined crack


4.6 Modelling strategies for collapse simulation 74

There are some options available in LS-DYNA for breakable tied nodes like: constrained
tied nodes failure, constrained tie-break, constrained spot weld and constrained
generalized weld spot, LSTC [112] and LSTC [111].

4.5.2.4 Pre-refinement of the mesh along potential crack


The main shortcoming of the finite element removal technique is the severe loss of mass
and momentum when removing the large elements. It is possible to reduce this effect by
the refinement of the finite element mesh along the predefined crack trajectory, Figure
46. However, care should be taken in the refined mesh, because the use of elements
with high aspect ratio might interrupt the solution due to negative volume error in explicit
solver.

refinment mesh

predetermined crack

Figure 46 Pre-refinement of the mesh for modelling predetermined crack

4.6 Modelling strategies for collapse simulation


The simulation of collapse can be achieved by the implementation of the transition from
continuum to discontinuum using one of the crack formation techniques, as mentioned in
section 4.5. In masonry structures where the unit mortar interface is the weakest linkage
in the system, the predetermined crack formation techniques are more suited and
efficient.
According to the required accuracy, the following models can be proposed:
(1) Detailed discrete micro model
In this model, units as well as mortars are discretized into discrete elements. The overall
system therefore, contains two types of discrete elements, namely mortar discrete
elements and unit discrete elements. In between, three types of interfaces can be
recognized: unit-unit interface, mortar-mortar interface and unit-mortar interface.
The detailed discrete micro strategy is well suited for accurate models when the
fragmentation of units as well as mortars are important, however this is limited to small
specimens due to the large number of discrete elements.
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 75

unit discrete element

mortar discrete element


FE
smeared joint interface
unit-mortar interface
FE unit unit interface
mortar-mortar interface

unit-unit interface
FE
unit discrete element

mortar

unit-mortar interface smeared joint


unit unit

(a) Discretized detailed micro modelling (b) Discretized simplified micro modelling

efficiency for large scale models

Modelling Strategies of Masonry


for Collapse Simulation

Accuracy and computational efforts

finite element

homoginized masonry
discrete element smeared joint interface

imaginary masonry
interface parallel
to head joints

imaginary masonry smeared joint


interface parallel
unit
to bed joints

(d) Discretized macro modelling (c) simplified micro modelling

Figure 47 Finite-discrete element modelling strategies for collapse analysis of masonry


structures.

(2) Simplified discrete micro model


In this model, units are only discretized to discrete elements, and the mortar is smeared
at joints between units. Therefore, the overall system holds only the discrete elements of
units. There are two types of interfaces between these discrete elements: the smeared
4.6 Modelling strategies for collapse simulation 76

joint interface which links masonry units, and unit-unit interface which links the discrete
elements of the same unit.
The simplified discrete micro strategy is well suited when the influence of the size of
mortar can be ignored, i.e. thin layer mortars or dry masonry. The fragmentation of
masonry units can be simulated using this strategy as well.
(3) Simplified micro model
This model is very well known in literature (section 2.1). Each unit is represented by a
unique discrete element and the smeared joint interfaces are linked masonry units.
The simplified micro strategy can be used for rigid units of high strength, where the
collapse of the system takes place primarily due to the failure of masonry joints. It can be
also possible to use this strategy for weak units with smeared crack model.
(4) Discrete macro model
Macro modelling strategy has been extensively studied in literature, where the
discretized masonry system modelled as continuum. As discussed in section 4.5.2, it is
possible to discretize the continuum media using predetermined crack techniques. The
same can be achieved for continuum media of masonry on macro level. The overall
system therefore, consists of homogenized masonry discrete elements.
If masonry system is discretized by interfaces parallel to bed joints and head joints, then
two types of interfaces are linked the discrete elements, namely: imaginary masonry
interfaces parallel to bed joints and imaginary masonry interfaces parallel to head joints.
The discretized macro strategy is well suited for masonry which has strength of mortar
close to the strength of units. However, it is also possible to use it with any type of
masonry if the constitutive models of interfaces and the homogenized material model of
masonry discrete elements are accurately defined. This modelling strategy needs less
computational efforts. It is therefore efficient for big models of large scale masonry
structures.
A particular modelling strategy to be selected depends upon the purpose of the collapse
simulation and the nature of the outcome desired from the simulation. If the overall
behaviour is desired without regard to completely realistic fragmentation and cracking
and local stresses, then, macro level framework represents conceivably the best choice.
However, if an elaborate local behaviour is of interest, micro models are more
appropriate.
It is worth to be mentioned that, modelling of masonry using all these strategies has the
same concept: discretization and interface linkage. The differences are only in the
constitutive models, either for the discrete elements or for the interfaces, Table 3.
In addition to the discretization strategy, the constitutive models of both discrete
elements and interfaces are of high importance, for accuracy and computational
efficiency.
The constitutive models of the discrete elements can be ranged from rigid to deformable
bodies and from elastic to elasto-plastic material model. The decision about the
constitutive models is more depending on the size of discrete elements. It is necessary
to think about the accuracy of constitutive models when big discrete elements are used.
The other key factors of accuracy are the constitutive model of the interfaces, and the
4 Finite element modelling of masonry 77

crack formation technique. Comprehensive study about the constitutive models will be
presented in Chapter 5.

modelling strategy discrete elements interfaces

Ö unit discrete elements Ö unit-unit interface


(1) Detailed discrete micro
Ö mortar discrete Ö mortar-mortar interface
modelling strategy
elements Ö unit-mortar interface

(2) Simplified discrete micro Ö unit-unit interface


Ö unit discrete elements
modelling strategy Ö smeared joint interfaces

(3) Simplified micro


Ö units Ö smeared joint interfaces
modelling strategy

Ö imaginary masonry interface


(4) Discrete macro Ö homogenized masonry parallel to bed joints
modelling strategy discrete elements Ö imaginary masonry interface
parallel to head joints

Table 3 Finite- discrete element modelling strategies for collapse analysis of


masonry structures

In principle, all crack formation techniques explained in 4.5.2 can be employed for
collapse simulation models. However it is important to consider the possibility and the
availability of using these techniques in commercial finite element software.

4.7 Concluding remarks


Collapse analysis of structures threatened by earthquake actions requires a suitable
numerical tool, capable to predict the emergence of discontinuities at different scales.
The combined finite-discrete element method which merges finite element method with
the algorithms of discrete element method allows the transition from continua to
discontinua.
In this chapter, different techniques have been presented and discussed, and the
possible modelling strategies have been proposed. Different techniques can be
employed for crack formation, but the accurate modelling is only possible if the
constitutive models of the interfaces are provided accurately.
There are many undetermined crack formation techniques other than those described in
this chapter, but most of general purpose finite element software packages include
features to support the predetermined crack formation techniques. Developing such
special solution for crack formation might leads to drop the generality of the software.
Therefore, this is often limited to software, which is developed to deal with special
problems.
5 Constitutive models 79

5 Constitutive models
Material constitutive models are the mathematical description of the material behaviour
which yields the relation between the stress and strain tensor in material point of the
body up to failure. The implementation of an accurate material that tracks the empirical
laws is quite essential in any numerical analysis. Therefore, this research discipline has
received a great activity from masonry research communities in past few years, (for
example: Lourenço [109], Schlegel [164] and Mistler [132]). However, modelling of
masonry material is still challenging despite that a great progress already achieved.
Plasticity theory is the basic theoretical tool that well describes the inelastic material
behaviour and the damage phenomena. In the following the basics of the plasticity
theory, the non-smooth multi-surfaces plasticity, and the implementation of a material
model based on plasticity theory are given.
A smooth surface cohesive interface model is proposed and implemented into the
explicit solver of LS-DYNA. The available geo-material models in LS-DYNA which can
be employed for masonry are described as well.

5.1 The basics of plasticity theory


In plasticity region, the total strain increment consists of elastic part and plastic
irreversible part:

dε = dε e + dε p (68)
where equation (68) is Prandtl-Reuss equation:
dε e elastic strain increment

dε p plastic strain increment

This decomposition is correct for cases of infinitesimal strain only. Assuming that the
plastic deformation is rate insensitive, the stress increment is linearly related to the
elastic strain increment in the plastic region and will be given by Hook’s low

dσ = D ⋅ dε e = D ⋅ (dε − dε p ) (69)
where:
D elastic matrix

The elastic region is limited by the yield surface that separates the plastic region from
elastic region

F (σ, κ ) = 0 (70)
where
κ parameter introduced to measure the softening κ = κ (ε p )
5.1 The basics of plasticity theory 80

The demonstration of the flow surface for isotropic material is possible in principle stress
space. However, for anisotropic material like masonry the reference to a fixed space is
important. For identifying the softening parameter there are two approaches, the first one
would be by considering dκ as a measure of the equivalent plastic strains dεeqp and the
other one by using dκ as a measure of the plastic work dW p . For masonry material,
the first approach has been employed to identify dκ , Schlegel [164].
The general mathematical treatment of the constitutive equation for the flow of plastic
strains has been called plastic potential theory which was proposed by Huber-von Mises
in 1928, Yu et al. [205] and has the following form:

∂Q
dε p = dλ (71)
∂σ
where:
dλ positive proportional scalar factor

Q Q(σ, κ ) = 0 is the plastic potential function which represents a surface in the six-
dimensional stress space

A common approach in plasticity theory is to assume that the plastic potential function is
the same as the yield function Q ≡ F , thus:

∂F
dε p = dλ (72)
∂σ

Consequently, the plastic flow vector is normal to the yield surface, and this is called the
associated flow rule. On other hand, in case of inequality the flow rule is called non-
associated flow rule.
After a stress increment dσ , the state of plastic stresses must be again on the flow
surface

F (σ + dσ, κ + dκ ) = 0 (73)

Equations (70) and (73) imply the consistency condition

F (σ + dσ, κ + dκ ) − F (σ, κ ) = 0 (74)

dF (σ, κ ) = 0 (75)

Therefore, for consistent condition of stress changing and using the chain rule, the
following equation can be obtained, Will [197]:

T T
⎛ ∂F ⎞ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞
⎟ dσ + ⎟ dε = 0
p
⎜ ⎜ (76)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂κ ⎝ ∂ε p ⎠

By substituting the plastic strain from flow rule equation (71) it gives
5 Constitutive models 81

T T
⎛ ∂F ⎞ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ∂Q
⎜ ⎟ dσ + ⎜ ⎟ dλ = 0 (77)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂κ ⎝ ∂ε p ⎠ ∂σ

for simplification the following function can be used

T
∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ∂Q
H =− ⎜ ⎟ (78)
∂κ ⎝ ∂ε p ⎠ ∂σ

this yield:

T
⎛ ∂F ⎞
⎜ ⎟ dσ − H ⋅ dλ = 0 (79)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠

By substituting equation (71) into equation (69) it gives

⎛ ∂Q ⎞
dσ = D ⋅ ⎜ dε − dλ ⎟ (80)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠

By substituting equation (80) into equation (79) it gives

T T
⎛ ∂F ⎞ ⎛ ∂F ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞
⎜ ⎟ D ⋅ dε − ⎜ ⎟ D⋅⎜ ⎟ ⋅ dλ − H ⋅ dλ = 0 (81)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠

The plastic multiplier is then obtained as

T
⎛ ∂F ⎞
⎜ ⎟ D ⋅ dε
⎝ ∂σ ⎠
dλ = T (82)
⎛ ∂F ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞
⎜ ⎟ D⋅⎜ ⎟+H
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠

5.1.1 Non-smooth multi-surfaces plasticity


The yield surfaces of most engineering materials including masonry are defined by
means of multiple yield criteria, which result in non-smooth multi-surfaces. The
shortcoming of using multi-surfaces yield function is the corners which are the singular
points on the non-smooth yield surface.
Let us consider a material governed by the following yield criteria

F1 (σ, κ 1 ) = 0 , F2 (σ, κ 2 ) = 0 (83)

By assuming that, the stress state of the point under study is yielded under both criteria,
hence, the plastic strains can be described as a contribution of both yield criteria
according to Koiter’s generalization:
5.1 The basics of plasticity theory 82

∂Q1 ∂Q2
dε p = dλ1 + dλ 2 (84)
∂σ ∂σ

By using equation (69) the stress increments become

⎛ ∂Q ∂Q ⎞
dσ = D ⋅ ⎜ dε − dλ1 1 − dλ2 2 ⎟ (85)
⎝ ∂σ ∂σ ⎠

The same treatment above will be applied for each yield criterion

dF1 (σ, κ1 ) = 0 (86)

The application of the chain rule for the 1st yield function gives

T T
⎛ ∂F1 ⎞ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞
⎟ dσ + 1 ⎜ p1 ⎟ dε = 0
p
⎜ (87)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂κ1 ⎝ ∂ε ⎠

The insertion of the plastic strain from equation (84) gives

T T T
⎛ ∂F1 ⎞ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞
⎜ ⎟ dσ + 1 ⎜ p1 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟dλ1 + 1 ⎜ p1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟dλ2 = 0 (88)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂κ1 ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂κ1 ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠

By introducing the following simplifications

T T
∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞
H11 = − 1 ⎜ p1 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ H12 = − 1 ⎜ p1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ (89)
∂κ1 ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂κ1 ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠

and using equation (85) it gives

T T T
⎛ ∂F1 ⎞ ⎛ ∂F ⎞ ∂Q ⎛ ∂F ⎞ ∂Q2
⎜ ⎟ D ⋅ dε = ⎜ 1 ⎟ D ⋅ dλ1 1 + H 11dλ1 + ⎜ 1 ⎟ D ⋅ dλ2 + H12 dλ2 (90)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂σ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂σ

By applying the same concept for the 2nd yield criterion gives

T T T
⎛ ∂F2 ⎞ ⎛ ∂F ⎞ ∂Q ⎛ ∂F ⎞ ∂Q2
⎜ ⎟ D ⋅ dε = ⎜ 2 ⎟ D ⋅ dλ1 1 + H 21 dλ1 + ⎜ 2 ⎟ D ⋅ dλ 2 + H 22 dλ 2 (91)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂σ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂σ

where

T T
∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞
H 21 = − 2 ⎜ p2 ⎟ ⎜ 1 ⎟ H 22 = − 2 ⎜ p2 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟ (92)
∂κ 2 ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ∂κ 2 ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠

dλ1 and dλ2 can be obtained by solving equations (90) and (91).
5 Constitutive models 83

5.1.2 Implementation into LS-DYNA


In the following, an explanation for implementing a material model based on plasticity
theory into the explicit solver of LS-DYNA will be given. LS-DYNA has the feature to
implement the material subroutine of the user. The explicit solver of LS-DYNA provide
the stresses σ of the last step, the strain increment ∆ε , and history variables that
includes damage parameters to the material subroutine, then the task of the subroutine
is fundamentally to update the stresses and history variables according to the
implemented material model.
The following simplification can be used for the last equations

T T
⎛ ∂Fi ⎞ ⎛ ∂F ⎞
⎜ ⎟ D ⋅ ∆ε = ⎜ i ⎟ ∆σ ≈ ∆Fi (93)
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠

Inside the material subroutine, the first decision is to assume the elastic behaviour of the
material in order to calculate the trial stresses.

When the trial stresses lay within all


yield surfaces then no yielding Region IJ
exists and the material still behaves σ2
linearly i.e. the last trial stresses are σtrial
∂Qj ∆λ
true and the subroutine can be D
∂σ j

ended and the stresses can be


returned to the solver, otherwise the
material has been yielded and the
trial stresses must be returned back ∂Qi ∆λ
to the yield surface by the suitable D
∂σ i

Region I
return mapping procedure. For this
purpose, two cases can be σ
Fi (σ ,
κi )
considered:
Region J
Fj

Case I: only one yield criterion has


,κ j
)

been reached
Case II: only two yield criteria have
been reached, Figure 48. σ1
After updating the stresses using
return mapping procedure, it must Figure 48 Return mapping of the trial stresses in
be checked again if they are inside case of two yield criteria
or outside the yield surface and this
procedure will be looped until
getting the stress state point inside
the yield surfaces. Figure 49 shows
the flow chart of the subroutine.
5.1 The basics of plasticity theory 84

Input variables: stresses σ of the last step, the


(1) strain increment ∆ε and history variables that
represent damage state of material

An elastic behaviour has been assumed to


(2) calculate the trial stresses σ = σ + D ⋅ ∆ε
e

If ∆Fi ≤ 0 for each i If only σ ∈ Region I If σ ∈ Region IJ then


(3) then end (6) then go to case I. (4) go to case II. (4)

Case I: single yield criterion Case II: two yield criteria


(4)
Calculate H i Calculate H mn and amn for m = i, j
T
and n = i, j
∂F ⎛ ∂κ i ⎞ ∂Q i
Hi = − i ⎜ p⎟ T
∂κ i ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ∂σ ∂F ⎛ ∂κ ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞
H mn = − m ⎜ mp ⎟ ⎜ n ⎟
∂κ m ⎝ ∂ε ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠
Calculate ∆λi
T
∆Fi ⎛ ∂F ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q ⎞
amn = ⎜ m ⎟ D ⋅ ⎜ n ⎟ + H mn
∆λ i = T ⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠
⎛ ∂Fi ⎞ ⎛ ∂Q i ⎞
⎜ ⎟ D⋅⎜ ⎟ + Hi Solve for ∆λi and ∆λ j
⎝ ∂σ ⎠ ⎝ ∂σ ⎠
Calculate ∆ε
e ∆Fi = aii ⋅ ∆λi + aij ⋅ ∆λ j
∂Q i ∆F j = a ji ⋅ ∆λi + a jj ⋅ ∆λ j
∆ε e = ∆ε − ∆λi
∂σ If there is no solution show an error
message
Calculate the elastic strains
∂Q1 ∂Q2
∆ε e = ∆ε − ∆λi − ∆λ j
∂σ ∂σ

Update the stresses ∆σ = D ⋅ ∆ε go to (3)


e
(5)

(6) END

Figure 49 Flow chart for the subroutine of material model based on plasticity theory
5 Constitutive models 85

5.2 Constitutive models of the interfaces


As has been already described in section 4.5.2, various numerical approaches can be
employed to simulate the crack formation, tied or adhesive contact surfaces with failure,
interface elements, breakable tied nodes and pre-refinement of the mesh along potential
crack. Those numerical approaches can only give a real representation of the interfaces
in case of masonry if an accurate constitutive model is employed. All these numerical
approaches are already implemented in LS-DYNA with various options, but the
possibility to employ those approaches for masonry with the appropriated options and
the validation is still questioned.
Due to the robustness of contact algorithms in LS-DYNA the first task was to examine
the available contact options for modelling masonry interfaces. The Tiebreak contact in
LS-DYNA allows the modelling of connections which transmits both compressive and
tensile forces with optional failure criterion. The separation of the slave node from the
master is resisted by contact spring for both tensile and compressive forces until failure,
after which the tensile coupling is removed, Bala [13]. The option 6 of contact tiebreak
permits damage modelling by scaling the stress components after failure is met,
Hallquist [75]. The following yield function has been employed:

σ2 τ2
F (σ, κ ) = + − Ω(κ ) (94)
ft 2 c2
where:

ft tensile strength of the interface

c shear strength of the interface

Ω(κ ) linear damage function, given by Ω(κ ) = 1 − κ , Figure 55-a

κ damage scalar and given by κ = w / wc

w , wc current crack width and crack width at failure, respectively

After the damage is initiated, the stress is linearly scaled down until the crack width
reaches the critical distance wc at which the interface failure is complete.

Tiebreak contact in LS-DYNA uses penalty method. This produces some relative
displacement between the surfaces before the damage of the contact which results in
deponding. Due to that, the yield criterion is possible to be achieved. This brings out an
unrealistic behaviour because the tractions between the surfaces are suddenly jumped
down. Further options to prevent this behaviour are available in LS-DYNA by increasing
the stiffness scale factor of the contact. However, care should be taken with higher
penalty stiffness, which results in high frequency modes and therefore instability in the
solution.
5.2 Constitutive models of the interfaces 86

Beattie et al. [17], Beattie et al. [16] and Burnett et al. [31] have developed a discrete
crack model in LS-DYNA for modelling masonry joints within a project for study the
performance of masonry parapet walls that subjected to vehicle impact. The yield
function represents the fundamental key features of masonry joints and has the following
form:

{ }⎞⎟ 2 2
⎛ τ − µ ⋅ σ trial
c ⎛ σ trial
t ⎞
F = ⎜⎜ trial + ⎜ ⎟ (95)
κ ⋅c ⎟ ⎜ κ ⋅σ t ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ f ⎠

where { } Macaulay brackets, τ trial is the trial shear stress at the interface, σ trial is the
trial normal stress, (positive in compression), in tension σ trial
t
= σ trial , σ trial
c
= 0 and in
compression σ trial
c
= σ trial , σ trial
t
= 0 . Figure 50 shows the yield surface.

Shear Stress
initial
shear or tensile strength

yield surface, u=0 Concave point


limite of softening
displacement

Elliptic yield surface


softening c
uf
arctan( µ )
displacement

Exponential softening model


softening
residual
u >uf normal stress
yield surface, ft
σ

Figure 50 Yield surface for masonry mortar joint, redrawn after Burnett et al. [31]

The following equation have been used for return mapping

σt =
σ trial
t
, σ c = σ trial
c
and τ =
{τ trial − µ ⋅ σ trial
c
} + µ ⋅σ c (96)
trial
F f

the global damage parameter κ controls the rate at which the surface can be shrink

κ = {κ I + κ II − 1} (97)
where:
⎧⎪ p ⎫
ut / u I ⎪
f
⎧⎪ p
us / u II
f ⎪

⎨ log e ( 0.001) ⎬ ⎨ log e ( 0.001) ⎬
⎪⎩ ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩ ⎪⎭
κ I , κ II given by κ I = e , κ II = e

utp , u sp plastic deformation in normal and tangential senses, respectively


5 Constitutive models 87

u If , u IIf the residual displacements, given by


u If = − log e (0.001) ⋅ G If / f t , u IIf = − log e (0.001) ⋅ G IIf / c

The yield surface in the proposed model is concave, Figure 50. For this reason the
return mapping has been used parallel to shear axis in compression region instead of
radial return mapping, but in such case the assumption of the plastic potential theory
(Huber-von Mises theory) is not valid.
Interface elements have been used widely in literature to model masonry mortar joints,
Lourenço [108] has proposed an interface element for masonry mortar joints using non-
smooth yield function consists of three parts, Figure 51.

cap-shear corner τ

Shear Stress
tension-shear corner

σ2 (κ2 )
f1 = σ −σ1 (κ1 )
shear mode
tension mode
f 2 = τ +σ ⋅ µ −σ2 (κ2 )
cap mode
f 3 = Cnnσ 2 + Cssτ 2 + Cnσ − (σ3 (κ3 ))2 normal stress
σ
σ3 (κ3 ) σ1 (κ1 )

Figure 51 Yield surface for masonry mortar joint, redrawn after Lourenço [108]

Further interface models have been 8

developed by: Giambanco et al. [65],


Giambanco et al. [67], Giambanco et al. 5
7 midsurface
[66] and Formica [58]. All those ∆ x84
interfaces models share the feature of ∆ x51 σ
using non-smooth yield function. τ1
∆ x73
6 τ2 τ
Interface element also has been 1 4

developed in LS-DYNA [112] in ver 971, ∆ x62

and has been used for problems of 3

dynamic delamination modelling, 2

Iannucci [84] and modelling of damage in


composite materials, Jiang et al. [87].
Interface elements are available to be Figure 52 Interface element in LS-DYNA,
used with the following cohesive material redrawn after LS-DYNA [112]
models in LS-DYNA:
(1) Elastic cohesive material model,
(2) Tvergaard and Hutchinson cohesive material model, and
5.3 Implementation of cohesive interface material model 88

(3) General cohesive material model.


Although, various cohesive material models haven been implemented into LS-DYNA,
they do not reflect the desired behaviour of the interfaces for masonry.
To simulate the dynamic events after the failure of the interface elements, it would be
possible to replace the surfaces which linked by the failed interface elements with
frictional contact model. The deletion of the interface element after the failure does not
bring any loss in the mass if the thickness of the interface element has been set to zero.
In such way, the inherent difficulties associated with large displacement after the failure
of the interface element also are avoided. In LS-DYNA ‘contact eroding single surface’
offers a possibility to detect the contact on the eroded surfaces after the failure of the
interface element.

5.3 Implementation of cohesive interface material model


Various aspects of interface models are available in literature, but all are based on non-
smooth yield functions which bring out many numerical difficulties and further
computation times for handling the singularities of corners. Therefore, in the following a
smooth yield surface is proposed and implemented into LS-DYNA. The smooth yield
surface provides economies in coding and CPU’s times, as well as, eliminates the
numerical complexity of treating corner regions.

5.3.1 The smooth yield surface


In order to match the smoothness conditions, the following smooth yield surface has
been proposed
(1) tensile region

F1 = τ 2 + α1 ⋅ σ 2 + 2α 2 ⋅ σ − α 3 (98)

(2) shear region

F2 = τ − F f (99)

(3) cap region

F3 = τ 2 − Ff2 ⋅ Fc (100)

where:
Ff Mohr-Coulomb yield surface and given by Ff = c ⋅ Ω(κ ) − µ ⋅ σ , where c the
cohesion, µ is the friction ratio and Ω(κ ) is the damage function.

Fc cap function, suggested by Sandler et al. [159] for geo-materials and given by:
5 Constitutive models 89

2
⎡ σ + L(κ c ) ⎤
Fc = 1 − ⎢ ⎥ (101)
⎣ X (κ c ) − L(κ c ) ⎦

X (κ c ) represents the intersection point of the cap with the axis σ

L(κ c ) represents the centre of the cap

It is possible to determine the set of material parameters α1 , α 2 and α 3 in equation (98)


to guarantee a smooth transition from tensile yield surface to shear yield surface. To get
a continuity of order C 1 , the following condition must be satisfied:

F1 (σ = 0,τ = c ⋅ Ω(κ ) ) = 0 (102)

F1 (σ = f t ⋅ Ω(κ ),τ = 0) = 0 (103)

∂τ
= −µ (104)
∂σ σ = 0 ,τ = c⋅Ω

Equation (102), (103) and (104) read

c 2 ⋅ Ω2 − α3 = 0 (105)

α1 ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ Ω2 + 2α 2 ⋅ ft ⋅ Ω − α 3 = 0 (106)

α1 ⋅ σ + α 2
− = −µ (107)
τ σ = 0 ,τ = c ⋅Ω

The values of α1 , α 2 and α 3 can be obtained by solving equations (105), (106) and
(107)

c2
α1 = (1 − α ) , α2 = µ ⋅ c ⋅ Ω , α 3 = c 2 ⋅ Ω2 (108)
ft 2

where

ft
α = 2µ ⋅ (109)
c
thus,
5.3 Implementation of cohesive interface material model 90

c2
F1 = τ 2 + (1 − α ) ⋅ σ 2 + 2 µ ⋅ c ⋅ Ω ⋅ σ − c 2 ⋅ Ω 2 (110)
ft 2

According to the value of α the following cases can be obtained for the tensile part,
Figure 53:
If 0 < α < 1 elliptic function

If α = 1 parabolic function

If 2 > α > 1 hyperbolic function

τ
Shear Stress

c2
F1 =τ 2 + (1 −α) ⋅σ + 2µ ⋅ c ⋅ Ω⋅σ − c 2 ⋅ Ω
2 2

F2 = τ − c ⋅ Ω(κ) + µ ⋅σ ft 2
f
α = 2µ ⋅ t
c
0 < α <1 elliptic
c Ω (κ) α =1 parabolic
2 > α > 1 hyperbolic

c
µ Ω (κ)
σ
normal stress

f t ⋅ Ω (κ )

Figure 53 Variation of tensile yield function according to α .

For the cap yield function, the difference X (κ c ) − L(κ c ) represents the major axis of the
cap. It can be therefore linked to the minor axis by the cap ellipticity ratio R which is a
characteristic parameter of the material, the continuity of the cap with the shear yield
function yields:

X (κ c ) − L(κ c ) = R ⋅ F f (− L(κ c )) = R ⋅ (c ⋅ Ω + µ ⋅ L(κ c )) (111)

Where X (κ c ) = f c ⋅ Ω c (κ c ) , f c is the compression strength and Ω c is the compression


damage function.

fc ⋅ Ωc − R ⋅ c ⋅ Ω
L(κ c ) = (112)
1+ R ⋅ µ
5 Constitutive models 91

By introducing the dilatancy effect, the following equation can be obtained

µ = µ0 + ( µr − µ0 ) ⋅ (1 − Ω(κ )) (113)

Consequently, the value of α is a function of the damage scalar α = α (Ω(κ ))

23

τ
µ = µ0 + ( µr − µ0) ⋅ (1 − Ω (κ))

Shear Stress
F2 = τ − c ⋅ Ω (κ) + µ ⋅σ
arctan( µ ) F12
Region 3 Region 2

c2
F3 =τ 2 − Ff2 ⋅ Fc F1 =τ 2 + (1 −α) ⋅σ 2 + 2µ ⋅ c ⋅ Ω⋅σ − c 2 ⋅ Ω2
ft 2

c ⋅ Ω (κ)
2
Softening
⎡ σ + L(κc ) ⎤ arctan( µr )
Fc =1 − ⎢ ⎥
⎣ X (κc ) − L(κc ) ⎦ Region 1
B
Ff = c ⋅ Ω(κ) + µ ⋅σ c
-fc ⋅ Ωc (κc ) -L(κc ) f t ⋅ Ω(κ ) µ
σ
normal stress

A C
ft 2 −α
A= Ω
2 1 −α
c 2 −α
B= Ω
2 1 −α
c α2
C= Ω
Region 2 4µ 1 −α
F12

F23

Figure 54 The proposed smooth yield surface of the cohesive interface model

5.3.2 Return mapping


The followed return mapping procedure is similar to that described in section 5.1.2. but
for cohesive material model, the trial stresses can be calculated from

σ = K ⋅u (114)
where:

stress traction array σ = {σ ,τ }


T
σ

displacement array u = {u n , u s }
T
u

K stiffness matrix and given by K = Diag ( k n , k s )


5.3 Implementation of cohesive interface material model 92

For smeared mortar joints, Lourenço [108] has proposed the following equations to
calculate the stiffness of the interface element

Eu ⋅ Em Gu ⋅ Gm
kn = ks = (115)
t m ( Eu − Em ) t m (Gu − Gm )
where:
Gu , Gm shear modulus of units and mortar, respectively

Eu , Em elastic modulus of units and mortar, respectively

tm thickness of the mortar

For return mapping the derivatives with respect to the damage scalar can be calculated
as following:

∂F1 ∂F1 ∂Ω ∂F2 ∂F2 ∂Ω ∂F3 ∂F3 ∂Ω c


= , = and = (116)
∂κ ∂Ω ∂κ ∂κ ∂Ω ∂κ ∂κ c ∂Ω c ∂κ c

for the tensile yield function

∂α ∂α ∂µ f
= = −2 t ( µ r − µ 0 ) (117)
∂Ω ∂µ ∂Ω c

Thus,

∂F1 c
= 2 ( µ r − µ 0 ) ⋅ σ 2 + 2c ⋅ σ (µ − ( µ r − µ 0 )Ω ) − 2c 2 Ω (118)
∂Ω ft

for shear yield function

∂F2
= −c − ( µ r − µ 0 ) ⋅ σ (119)
∂Ω

For cap yield function

∂Fc 2(σ + L) c ⋅ Ω − µ ⋅ σ ∂L fc
=− and = (120)
∂L R2 (c ⋅ Ω + µ ⋅ L ) 3 ∂Ω c 1 + R ⋅ µ

By applying the chain rule

∂F3 ∂F ∂L ∂F3 f c ⋅ F f2 σ + L c ⋅ Ω − µ ⋅σ
= − F f2 c or =2 ⋅ ⋅ (121)
∂Ω c ∂L ∂Ω c ∂Ω c R 2
1 + R ⋅ µ (c ⋅ Ω + µ ⋅ L ) 3

The gradient of the yield functions in stress space:


5 Constitutive models 93

∂F1 c2 ∂F1
( F1 ) = 2 2 (1 − α ) ⋅ σ + 2 µ ⋅ c ⋅ Ω = 2τ
∂σ ft ∂τ

∂F2 ∂F2
( F2 ) =µ = sign (τ )
∂σ ∂τ (122)

∂Fc
∂F3 σ + L(κ c ) = 2τ
( F3 ) = 2 µ ⋅ Fc ⋅ F f + 2 F f2 ∂τ
∂σ [X (κ c ) − L(κ c )]2

5.3.3 The damage functions


The damage function Ω(κ ) represents the rate at which the material strength is
degraded once the initiation criterion is reached. Four optional damage functions are
employed in the following to represent the softening, Figure 55:
(1) Linear softening
κ damage scalar 0 ≤ κ < 1

∂Ω
Ω(κ ) = 1 − κ = −1 (123)
∂κ

(2) Bilinear softening

1 − c2 1 − c2
1− κ 0 ≤ κ < c1 − 0 ≤ κ < c1
c1 ∂Ω c1
Ω(κ ) = = (124)
c2 ∂κ c2
(1 − κ ) c1 ≤ κ < 1 − c1 ≤ κ < 1
1 − c1 1 − c1

(3) Nonlinear softening (Moelands & Reinhardt), Reinhardt [150]:

∂Ω κ c1
Ω(κ ) = 1 − κ c1
= −c1 (125)
∂κ κ

(4) Nonlinear softening (Hordijk and Reinhardt [81])

Ω(κ ) = [1 + (c1κ )3 ] ⋅ e− c2κ − κ (1 + c13 ) ⋅ e − c2


∂Ω (126)
= 3c13κ 2 e −c2κ − (1 + c13κ 3 )c2 e −c2κ − (1 + c13 )e −c2
∂κ
5.3 Implementation of cohesive interface material model 94

σ σ
1 − c2 w
1− if 0 < w < c1wc
w c1 wc
ft σ 1− if 0 < wc < w ft σ
= wc c
= 2 (1 − )
w
if c1wc < w < wc
ft 0 if 0 < wc < ∞ ft 1 − c1 wc
0 if wc < w < ∞

Gf =
wc f t wc f t c1 = 2 / 9 G = wc f t
2 Gf = c2 = 1 / 3
f
2 /(c1 + c2 )
3.6
c2 ft
crack opening crack opening

0 wc w 0 c1 wc wc w

(a) Linear softening (b) Bilinear softening

σ σ
w
w w −c2 ⋅ w
σ = 1 − ( )c if 0 < wc < w σ
= [1 + (c1 ⋅ wc ) ] ⋅ e − ⋅ (1 + c13 ) ⋅ e −c2 if 0 < wc < w
1 3 wc
ft wc ft wc
ft ft
0 if 0 < wc < ∞ 0 if 0 < wc < ∞
c1 = 0.31

c1 = 3
c2 = 6.93
wc f t
Gf = wc f t
4.226 Gf =
crack opening 5.136 crack opening

0 wc w 0 wc w

(c) Nonlinear softening (Moelands & Reinhardt) (d) Nonlinear softening (Hordijk & Reinhardt)

Figure 55 Softening models, (a) Linear softening, (b) Bilinear softening, (c) Nonlinear
softening (Moelands & Reinhardt), (d) Nonlinear softening (Hordijk &
Reinhardt).

the hardening softening function Ω c (κ c ) that is proposed by Lourenço [108] is employed


for the cap part, Figure 56.
The necessary derivatives for return mapping are:

κ p − κc
(Ω p − Ω i ) for 0 ≤ κ c < κ p
κ p 2κ cκ p − κ c2

∂Ω c κc − κ p
= (Ω m − Ω p ) ⋅ 2 for κ p ≤ κ c < κ m (127)
∂κ c (κ m − κ p ) 2

κ c −κ p
m
m κ −κ
for κ m ≤ κ c
(Ω m − Ω r ) ⋅e m p
κm − κ p
5 Constitutive models 95

Ω κc κc2
(1) Ω c (κc ) = Ωi + (Ωp − Ωi ) 2 −
Ωp
peak κ p κ p2
2
⎛ κc −κ p ⎞
(2) (2) Ω c (κc ) = Ωp + (Ωm − Ωp ) ⋅ ⎜⎜ ⎟

(1) ⎝ κm −κ p ⎠
κc −κ p
m
(3) Ω c (κc ) = Ωr + (Ωm − Ωr ) ⋅ e κ −κ m p

middle
Ωm
Ωm − Ωp
with m =2
Ωi κm −κ p
initial

(3)
residual
Ωr
κc
κp κm
hardening softening

Figure 56 Hardening softening model for compression, redrawn after Lourenço [109].

5.3.4 Simulation the fragmentation using interface elements


In the following the interface elements are employed to simulate the fragmentation of the
material. One masonry unit is assumed to be in impact with rigid surface, and the crush
problem is simulated.
The masonry unit is divided into finite elements and the interface elements introduced at
some planes, Figure 57.

(a) Interface elements (b) discrete elements

Figure 57 One masonry unit model using interface element

The planes at which the interface elements are introduced represent the planes of failure
or planes of potential cracks. The initiation of cracks along these planes is possible by
deletion of the interface element after failure. In order to avoid the termination during the
5.4 Constitutive models of masonry constituents 96

calculation the ‘contact eroding single surface’ is introduced which offer the detection of
the eroded surface after the failure of the interface element, Figure 58.

(a) Crack formation by interface element deletion (b) fragmentation

Figure 58 Drop test simulation for one masonry unit, crack formation and
fragmentation by deletion of the interface elements

5.4 Constitutive models of masonry constituents


5.4.1 General shape of yield surface for geo-materials
Masonry constituents belong to geo-materials. There are large amounts of experimental
data reported by different researchers over past years. Different multi parameter yield
functions have been proposed to fit with the experiential data, which resulted in a variety
of constitutive models capable to represent various aspects of geo-materials behaviour
such as limestone, granite as well as concrete and ceramics.
The key feature of material model is to identify the relationship between the stress tensor
and strain tensor depending on few parameters that characterize the material behaviour.
The yield surface can be best described in principle stress space. The plane that
contains the hydrostatic axis is the meridian plan, and the plane that perpendicular to the
hydrostatic pressure is the deviatoric plane. The cross-section of the meridian plane and
the deviatoric plane brings out good understanding for the shape of the yield surface.
Figure 59 shows an example of a yield surface, and the cross-sections through the
meridian plane and deviatoric plane.
5 Constitutive models 97

Hydrostatic axis

Compression meridian
Cap

rc

rt = ψ ⋅ rc r
Cap

Deviatoric plane Tensile meridian Lode angel θ

(a) Three-dimensional view in (b) Section in the yield surface (c) Section in the yield surface
principal stress space across the meridian plane across the deviatoric plane

Figure 59 Example of typical geo-material yield surface, modified after Fossum et al.
[59]

The meridian race of the yield surface defines the relation between:
(1) the first stress invariant J1 or the hydrostatic pressure p , which has direct physical
significance in most applications,

p = (σ 1 + σ 2 + σ 3 ) / 3 J1 = 3 p (128)

(2) and the second invariant of the deviatoric stress J 2 or von Mieses stress σ e which
measures the shear stresses.

1 3
J2 = ∑ (σ i − p) 2
2 i =1
σ e = 3J 2 (129)

The deviatoric race defines the relation between the second invariant of the deviatoric
stress J 2 and the third invariant of the deviatoric stress J 3 where

1 3
J2 = ∑
3 i =1
(σ i − p ) 3 (130)

The deviatoric race can be well represented using Lode angle, which associated with the
stress invariants J 2 and J 3 by the following equation:

3 3 J3
cos 3θ = where 0 o ≤ θ ≤ 60o (131)
2 J 23 / 2
5.4 Constitutive models of masonry constituents 98

Ottosen (1977) has suggested four parameters yield criterion for concrete accounting all
three invariants
The meridian race

J2 J2 J
F ( J1 , J 2 ) = a ⋅ +λ + b 1 −1 = 0 (132)
f c′ 2
f c′ f c′

The deviatoric race

1
λ (θ ) = k1 cos[ cos −1 (k 2 cos 3θ )] for cos 3θ ≥ 0 (133)
3

a , b , k1 and k 2 are material parameters


The yield surface of this criterion has a curved meridian and noncircular cross sections
on the deviatoric plane. The cross section has convenience geometric characteristic for
many geo-materials like changing from nearly triangular to nearly circular along the
hydrostatic stress axis. By setting a = 0 and b = 0 it leads to Huber-von Mises criterion,
and if a = 0 and b ≠ 0 then Drucker-Prager criterion can be obtained.
William-Wranke have proposed five parameter yield criterion for concrete accounting all
three invariants yield surface, Yu et al. [205]. For the meridian race, two parabolic tensile
and compressive meridians have been defined:

rt = a0 + a1 p + a2 p 2 rc = b0 + b1 p + b2 p 2 (134)

For the deviatoric race, a smooth convex triangular surface based on elliptic equation
has been used to relate the yield surface to Lode angel θ

r 2(1 − ψ 2 ) cos θ + (2ψ − 1) 4(1 − ψ 2 ) cos 2 θ + 5ψ 2 − 4ψ


= (135)
rc 4(1 − ψ 2 ) cos 2 θ + (1 − 2ψ ) 2

where ψ = rt / rc

The boundaries of this surface can be defined by settingψ = rt / rc = 1 then the ellipse
degenerates into a circle “the deviatoric trace of von Mises and Drucker-Prager”, and if
ψ = rt / rc = 1 / 2 then the deviatoric race becomes nearly triangular.
Rubin has proposed to relate the radius r of any stress point in the deviatoric race to
the radius rc using the scaling function ℜ , Schwer et al. [169]:

r − b1 + b12 − 4b2b0
=ℜ ℜ( J 1 , β ) = (136)
rc 2b2
where:
5 Constitutive models 99

b2 = (cos β − sin β ) 2 + b sin 2 β a2 = Q1

b1 = a(cos β − a sin β ) a1 = 3Q2 + 2Q1 (Q2 − 1)

b0 = −(3 + b − a 2 ) / 4 a0 = 2Q12 (Q2 − 1)

− a1 + a12 − 4a2 a0
b = (2Q1 + a ) 2 − 3 a=
2a2

Q1 = rt / rc Q2 = rr / rc

β = θ −π / 6 −π / 6 ≤ β ≤ π / 6

rc the distance at the compressive meridian obtained from TXC

rr the distance at the torsion meridian obtained from TOR

rt the distance at the tensile meridian obtained from TXE

σ3
Mises-Schleicher
TXE
Drucker-Prager

distance TXC TXC


at the torsion Mohr-Coulomb
meridian

Modified Tresca
distance
at the tensile
meridian rt
rr
− β rc
σ1 + σ2
TXE TXE

TOR

TXC
distance at the
compressive
meridian

Figure 60 The deviatoric section of the yield surfaces, showing the Rubin angel β
5.4 Constitutive models of masonry constituents 100

Another yield criteria also have been proposed for concrete like Podgorski model,
Kotsovos model, multi-parameter unified yield criterion, Yu et al. [205].

5.4.2 Geo-materials constitutive models in LS-DYNA


Several material models have been implemented into LS-DYNA code which represent a
wide range of Geo-materials, Davidson [47]. The present section is devoted to give
insight into material models which capable to model masonry.
The first thought would be to find convenient material models capable to simulate the
behaviour of masonry. The accuracy of the material model can be augmented by
increasing the number of material parameters, which require enough experimental data.
Soil and foam material model No.5
This material model has been mainly developed for cases of soils, foams, and concrete,
and is based on the formulation suggested by Key (Sawenson [160]). The pressure is
positive in compression and the volumetric strain is negative in compression. The
volumetric strain is given by the natural logarithm of the relative volume

ε v = ln(V / V0 ) (137)

p = p(ε v ) is given as tabulated pressure-volumetric strain data. If the pressure becomes


tensile more than the cutoffs value then the pressure reset to the cutoff value.
The yield function is defined as

F ( p, σ e ) = σ e − 3 a0 + a1 p + a2 p 2 (138)

The variation of 3 J 2 as a function of pressure has three conical forms which depend
on the parameter a2 :

(1) elliptic ( a2 < 0 ),

(2) parabolic ( a2 = 0 ) or

(3) hyperbolic ( a2 > 0 ).

These three forms are shown in Figure 61. The elliptic yield function curves back toward
the hydrostatic axis at higher pressure and predict a softening behaviour which is not
often observed in test data. The elliptical yield surface therefore is used up to the point of
maximum 3 J 2 then the yield surface is extended as von Mises surface.

There is no strain hardening in this model, so the yield stress can be completely
determined by the pressure.
5 Constitutive models 101

F ( p, J 2 ) = 3J 2 − 3 a0 + a1 p + a2 p 2
∆σ = 3J 2 > 0
a2 > 0 hyperbolic

pressure a2 = 0 parabolic
cutoff
Von Mises extension
σ3 σ2
-a0 a2 < 0 elliptic
2a1
a1
2a2
p

a12 − 4a0a2
2a2

σ1

Figure 61 Yield surface of soil and foam material

Pseudo tensor material model No.16


This material decouples the volumetric and the deviatoric response where an equation of
state is needed to get the current pressure.
The deviatoric stress limit ∆σ is defined as a linear interpolation between two
independent functions, Malvar et al. [115].

∆σ = η ⋅ ∆σ m + (1 − η ) ⋅ ∆σ r (139)

where

p p
∆σ m = a 0 + ∆σ r = (140)
a1 + a2 p a1 f + a2 f p

∆σ m maximum stress difference

∆σ r residual stress difference

ai material parameters

η (λ ) is a function of the modified effective plastic strain measure λ .


η increases from η y = η (0) at the beginning of yielding to η (λm ) = 1 when
reaching the maximum stress difference and then decreases to zero η (λr ) = 0 .

The modified effective plastic strain is


5.4 Constitutive models of masonry constituents 102

εp
dε p
λ= ∫ (1 + p / f )
0 t
b1
(141)

The effective plastic strain increment is given by

dε p = (2 / 3)dε ijp dε ijp (142)

The full yield surface of this material is obtained by rotating the meridian plane around
the hydrostatic axis that is why the sections of the yield surface in the deviatoric planes
are circles.

p
∆σ = 3J 2 > 0 ∆σm = a0 +
Compressive Meridian a1 + a2 p

ft f c′

3 σ3 σ2
pressure
cutoff

f c′
− ft
3 p
ft

ψ ⋅ f c′

tensile
cutoff
σ1

Figure 62 Yield surface of material pseudo tensor in LS-DYNA, the drawing based on
Malvar et al. [115]

Concrete material No. 72


Material model 16 has been enhanced to get the concrete material 72. The maximum
yield surface is the same but the residual yield surface has been changed to (Malvar et
al. [115]):

p
∆σ r = (143)
a1 f + a2 f p

and a new independent yield surface has been added

p
∆σ y = a 0 y + (144)
a1 y + a2 y p

η (λ ) is function of the modified effective plastic strain measure λ , like in material


pseudo tensor, but here η increases from η y = η (0) = 0 at the beginning of yielding to
5 Constitutive models 103

η (λm ) = 1 when reaching the maximum stress difference and then decreases to zero
η ( λr ) = 0 .
If 0 ≤ λ < λm (hardening range) then the actual yield surface is given by:

∆σ = η ⋅ (∆σ m − ∆σ y ) + ∆σ y (145)

If λm ≤ λ < λr (softening range) then the actual yield surface is given by:

∆σ = η ⋅ (∆σ m − ∆σ r ) + ∆σ r (146)

⎧ε p dε p
⎪∫ for p ≥ 0
⎪ 0 rf (1 + p / rf f t )
b1

λ = ⎨ε (147)
⎪ dε p
p

⎪ ∫ r (1 + p / r f )b 2 for p < 0
⎩0 f f t

The equations (145) and (146) define the intersection curve of the yield surface and the
meridian plane in compression, or the distance of the compression meridian from the
hydrostatic axis rc . In order to get the distance from the hydrostatic axis to the tensile
meridian rt , the function ψ ( p ) has been introduced where rt = ψ ( p ) ⋅ rc , ψ ( p ) takes
values between 1/2 at tensile negative hydrostatic pressure to 1 at high confinement.
The smooth convex triangular surface that proposed by Willam and Warnke has been
used in this material to relate the yield surface to the third stress invariant J 3 or Lode
angel θ , equation (135).

p
∆σ = 3J 2 > 0 ∆σm = a0 +
Compressive Meridian a1 + a2 p

f c′
pressure σ3 distance at the
σ2
cutoff rc
compressive
meridian
∆σ = 3 ( p + ft )
f c′
− ft
3 p
ft ft

3
rt r
ψ ⋅ f c′ distance at the
tensile
meridian
θ
Lode
Angle
P
tensile
cutoff Tensile Meridian

σ1

Figure 63 Yield surface of concrete material No.72 in LS-DYNA


5.4 Constitutive models of masonry constituents 104

This material model has been used in conjunction with an equation of state that gives
the current pressure as a function of the current and previous volumetric strain.

p = C (ε v ) (148)

Winfrith concrete material model No. 84


The Winfrith concrete model is a smeared crack model (some time known as pseudo
crack model) implemented in eight nodded single integration point continuum element.
The yield surface for this material is the Ottosen yield surface that described above.
The tensile yielding occurs in this model when the maximum principle stress at yielding
reach half of the current tensile strength, after which a special post-yield treatment is
invoked that decays the cracks-normal tensile strength as the crack develops.
The advantage of this material model over the other models is that, it allows a graphical
representation of the cracks within the finite element in Post-processors of LS-DYNA
(LS-TAURUS or LS-PrePost [203]). Up to three orthogonal cracks can be displayed in
any element. If the yield is indicated in triaxial compression, the concrete deemed to be
crushed, and three instantaneous (closed) cracks can be generated, so that, the material
becomes without tensile capacity on unloading, Broadhouse [26] and Broadhouse [27].
Cap material models No.25, No.145 and No.159
The following material cap models are available in LS-DYNA: Geological cap model
No.25, Schwer Murray cap model No.145, and continuous surface cap model CSCM
Material No.159.
All these material models share similar principles of using the cap model of Sandler
[159], Figure 64 .

J2

J 2 = FF ( J1 )
Failure envelope

J 2 = Fc ( J1 , κ)
cap envelope

tensile
cutoff
− L(κ ) − X (κ) − J1

Figure 64 Meridian race of the yield surface of cap material model

The recent developed continuous surface cap model will be described in the following.
The yield surface of this material is formulated in terms of the three stress invariants

F ( J1 , J 2 , J 3 , κ ) = J 2 − ℜ 2 F f2 Fc (149)

The function F f represents the shear yield surface


5 Constitutive models 105

F f ( J1 ) = α − γ ⋅ e −η ⋅J1 + ϕ ⋅ J1 (150)

α , γ , η and ϕ are material constants and can be determined from TXC


The function Fc represents the hardening cap and given by: (Sandler [159], Schwer et
al. [169])

⎧1 J1 ≤ L(κ )

Fc ( J1 , κ ) = ⎨ ⎡ J1 − L(κ ) ⎤ 2 (151)
⎪1 − ⎢ ⎥ J1 > L(κ )
⎩ ⎣ X (κ ) − L(κ ) ⎦

where

X (κ ) = L(κ ) + R ⋅ F f ( L(κ )) (152)

this represents the intersection point of the cap and the axis of J1 . The intersection
depends on the cap ellipticity ratio R and

⎧κ 0 κ ≤ κ0
L(κ ) = ⎨ (153)
⎩κ κ > κ0

ℜ is Rubin three-invariant reduction factor which described above


The expansion and contraction of the cap is based on the hardening rule
2
ε vp = W (1 − e − D ( X − X
1 0 ) − D2 ( X − X 0 )
) (154)

where

ε vp plastic volume strain

W maximum plastic volume strain

D1 , D2 linear and quadratic shape parameters, respectively

X0 cap initial location when κ = κ 0

5.5 Concluding remarks


The mathematical formulation of the theory of plasticity has been presented in this
chapter. The treatment of non-smooth yield surfaces and the implementation of a
material model into the explicit solver of LS-DYNA have been described as well.
5.5 Concluding remarks 106

The adoption of non-smooth yield surface needs further treatments for corners which
increase the complexity of implementation, and increase the computation time. The
complexity is going to be worse especially for explicit solvers like LS-DYNA, where the
material subroutine has to be called in time steps smaller than those in implicit solvers.
Various constitutive models with different aspects are available in literature to represent
the interfaces of masonry. Some have been developed for contact formulation and
others for interface elements. The drawbacks of those models have been presented and
discussed in section 5.2. However, the available research works have been based on
non-smooth yield surfaces.
A smooth yield surface is proposed for cohesive material model to be used with interface
elements. The proposed model is multi yield surface but does not need any further
treatment of the transition points. It reduces the computation time and avoids the
treatments of corners. The proposed model has been implemented into the explicit
solver of LS-DYNA.
The fragmentation of one masonry unit under impact has been simulated using the
developed interface model. For the large displacements after the failure of the interface
elements a frictional contact has been adopted.
One drawback of the fragmentation using interface elements is the limitation of the
interface elements for small displacements, where a termination of the solution can be
aroused during the calculation. The erosion of the failed element is one possible solution
but the available contact formulations in LS-DYNA are not well developed in this
direction. The models of the interface elements needs a special pre-processor tool to
generate the necessary input data for the discretization and insertion of the interface
elements and this is also absent in LS-DYNA pre-processors. The other drawback is
that, even if the simulated structure is small, the resultant model is very big and will be
time consuming.
Although interface elements give good representation up to the initial failure, but the
adoption of contact formulation is more suitable for post failure behaviour. However, the
lack and absent of implementing a contact model into LS-DYNA is the reason to develop
in direction of interface elements.
LS-DYNA comprises material models that cover a wide range of masonry constituents,
but such materials have been developed basically for concrete and soils. They represent
the general behaviour of many geo-materials. However, the general triaxial empirical
laws of many masonry materials are still lacking in literature and further investigations
are required.
6 Application of mesh free methods 107

6 Application of mesh free methods


The Lagrangian mesh based numerical methods like FEM suffer a lot of difficulties when
are applied to simulate the fracture and fragmentation of material under high dynamic
loading. The combination of finite element with discrete element method brings out a
great enhancement. However, it is still based on mesh connectivity which shows
difficulties at the level of one discrete element.
Contrary to the Lagrangian mesh, the Eulerian mesh is fixed on the space and by time
the materials are flowing across the mesh. Therefore, large deformations in the material
do not cause any deformations in the mesh. By this way the numerical problems in
Lagrangian mesh based methods can be avoided at this point. Nevertheless, Eulerian
methods dominate the area of computational fluid dynamic, and the application of this
method for irregular geometries brings up a lot of difficulties.
The Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches have been combined to overcome the
limitations of each one and to produce more robust numerical approaches, like CEL
coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL), Arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE), (Liu et al. [103]
and [105]). Those approaches are developed basically to solve problems of solid fluid
interaction.
Despite the great success of mesh based methods, the prerequisite of mesh is the main
reason for the limitation of those methods and at the same time it is the key success.
Several research efforts during the last years are focused to develop mesh independent
methods, which have been driven to mesh free methods. The key idea of mesh free
methods is to represent the domain of the problem using set of nodes or particles
without considering any connectivity in between.
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics17 (SPH) is mesh free Lagrangian method. It has been
originally invented since 1977 by Lucy, Gingold and Monaghan (Liu et al. [104]) for
modelling astrophysical phenomena and later has been extended for the application of
solid and fluid mechanics.
The most attractive features of SPH are the simplicity and adaptability to handle large
deformations without regarding the distribution of particles.

6.1 The basic approximations of SPH


The formulation of SPH is based on two approximations, kernel approximation and
particle approximation.

6.1.1 Kernel approximation


Let us consider the following identity which gives an integral representation of a function

17
The first term refers to the smoothed approximation by using weighted average over the neighboring
particles for stability, and the third term hydrodynamics refers to the role of the method for hydrodynamic
problems, Liu et al. [104].
6.1 The basic approximations of SPH 108

f (x) = ∫ f (x′) ⋅ δ (x − x′) d Ω (155)


where:

f ( x) vector function of the position vector x

δ (x − x′) Dirac delta function and given by:

⎧1 if x − x′
δ (x − x′) = ⎨ (156)
⎩0 otherwise

If Dirac delta function δ (x − x′) is replaced by a smoothing function W (x − x′, h) the


integral representation of f (x) is then given by

f (x) ≅ ∫ f (x′) ⋅ W (x − x′, h) d Ω (157)


This approximation known as kernel approximation of a function, and W is the kernel


function, h is the smoothing length. In SPH convention, the kernel approximation
operator is marked by the angle bracket (e.g., Liu et al. [103], [104], and [105]),
therefore the equation (157) can be rewritten as

f (x) = ∫ f (x′) ⋅ W (x − x′, h) d Ω (158)


Various options are possible for choosing the kernel function W (x − x′, h) . The
requirements which must be placed on the kernel function are, Liu et al. [104]:
(1) Normalization or unity condition

∫ W (x − x′, h) dΩ = 1

(159)

(2) Delta function property

lim W (x − x′, h) = δ (x − x′) (160)


h →0

(3) Compact condition

W (x − x′, h) = 0 when x − x′ > κ ⋅ h (161)

κ is a constant associated with the smoothing function for the point at x , and it
identifies the non-zero area of the smoothing function.
6 Application of mesh free methods 109

Monaghan and Lattanzio (Liu et al. [104]) have developed the following smoothing
function based on the cubic spline functions which well known as B-spline function,
Figure 65-a:

⎧ 23 − R 2 + 12 R 3 0 ≤ R <1
⎪⎪
W ( R, h) = α d × ⎨ 16 (2 − R ) 3 1≤ R < 2 (162)
⎪0 R≥2
⎪⎩

α d is the constant of normalization and equals to 1 / h , 15 / 7πh 2 , 3 / 2πh 3 for one, two,
and three dimensional domains, respectively.
Another important property in the kernel approximation of the spatial derivatives of a
function ∇f (x) can be described in the following:
For the derivative of a function

∇ ⋅ f (x) = ∫ [∇ ⋅ f (x′)] ⋅ W (x − x′, h) dΩ (163)


The divergence in the integral is taken with respect to the primed coordinate

[∇ ⋅ f (x′)] ⋅W (x − x′, h) = ∇ ⋅ [ f (x′) ⋅W (x − x′, h)] − f (x′) ⋅ ∇W (x − x′, h) (164)

By substituting in equation (163) the following equation is obtained

∇ ⋅ f (x) = ∫ ∇ ⋅ [ f (x′) ⋅ W (x − x′, h)] dΩ − ∫ f (x′) ⋅ ∇W (x − x′, h) dΩ (165)


Ω Ω

By applying the divergence theorem on the first term of the right side of the equation
(165), it gives
v
∫ ∇ ⋅ [ f (x′) ⋅ W (x − x′, h)] dΩ = ∫ f (x′) ⋅ W (x − x′, h) n ⋅ dΓ
Ω Γ
(166)

v
where n is the unit vector normal to the surface Γ of the domain Ω .
Since the kernel function has compact support, therefore the surface integral is equal to
zero when the support domain is located within the problem domain, but if the support
domain overlaps with the boundary then the surface integral will be no longer zero. For
the points which their support domain inside the problem domain the following equation
is obtained

∇ ⋅ f (x) = − ∫ f (x′) ⋅ ∇W (x − x′, h) dΩ (167)



6.1 The basic approximations of SPH 110

1.00

0.75

0.50
×αd

j R κ

⋅h
i
Function

0.25

0.00 i
support domain
-0.25 of particle i

-0.50

-0.75


smoothing function
derivative of the smoothing function
R
-1.00
-2.0 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

(a) Kernal function (b) Particle approximation

Figure 65 The basic approximations in SPH

6.1.2 Particle approximation


If the entire problem domain is represented by a finite number of particles that have
individual mass and occupy individual space, the continuous volume integral in equation
(158) can be converted to the sum over discrete interpolation particles

N
f (x) = ∑ f (x j ) ⋅ W (xi − x j , h) ⋅ ∆Ω j (168)
j =1

where

N number of particles in problem domain

xj position vector of particle j

∆Ω j volume of particle j

Equation (168) can be written with respect to mass m j and density ρ j of particle j

N mj
f ( x) = ∑ f ( x j ) ⋅ W ( x − x j , h) (169)
j =1 ρj

at particle i, the particle approximation for a function can be written as

N mj
∇ ⋅ f (xi ) = ∑ f (x j ) ⋅ Wij (170)
j =1 ρj

where
6 Application of mesh free methods 111

Wij = W (x i − x j , h) (171)

The particle approximation for the spatial derivative of the function can be handled in
similar manner

N mj
∇ ⋅ f (x i ) = −∑ f (x j ) ⋅ ∇Wij (172)
j =1 ρj

6.2 SPH formulation for solid mechanics


Conservation equations which govern the solid mechanics can be expressed as
following, Limido et al. [101]:

(1) Conservation of mass SPH formulation

dρ ∂v β dρ i N m ∂Wij
= ρi ∑ (v βj − viβ ) β
j
= −ρ β (173)
dt ∂x dt j =1 ρ j ∂xi

(2) Conservation of momentum

αβ
dvα 1 ∂σ αβ dviα N
σ αβ σ j ∂Wij
= = ∑ mj ( i 2 − 2 ) β (174)
dt ρ ∂x β dt j =1 ρi ρ j ∂xi

3) Conservation of energy

dE σ αβ ∂vα dEi σ αβ N ∂Wij


dt
=
ρ ∂x β dt
= − i2
ρi
∑ m (vα − vα ) ∂x β
j =1
j j i (175)
i

The first research works of SPH have been considered the smoothing length constant
during the simulation. However, the smoothing length may change dramatically from the
initial configuration in case of large deformation. Therefore, in recent works each particle
supposed to has its smoothing length, Lacome [95].
The symmetry and thus conservation of momentum is maintained if the smoothing
length taken to be the mean value between particles i and j, hij = 12 (hi + h j ) . This
approximation might lead to unstable results, Swegle et al. [178]. LS-DYNA uses what is
called gather formulation scheme by defining hij = hi , i.e. the neighbour particles of a
given particle are the particles included in a sphere centred in x i with radius of hi ,
Lacome [95].
6.3 SPH modelling of masonry in LS-DYNA 112

6.3 SPH modelling of masonry in LS-DYNA


Modelling using SPH needs the initial distribution of particles over the problem domain.
The generation of SPH particles can be easily obtained by employing the same mesh
generation algorithms for finite elements. The preparation of SPH model for LS-DYNA
calculation can be preformed in LS-PrePost [203] by generating the initial configuration
of SPH particles. The initial configurations are the position and the mass for each
particle. The distribution of SPH particles needs to be regular to guarantee the stability of
calculation.
The calculation cycle for SPH in LS-YNA is similar to that for finite element except the
steps of kernel approximation. Kernel approximations are used to calculate the forces
from spatial derivative of stresses. The spatial derivatives of velocity are required to
calculate the strain rates, Lacome [95].
Figure 66 shows 2D SPH modelling for masonry shear wall. Masonry units as well as
mortar have been represented using SPH particles spaced each 1 cm. The whole model
is composed of 5625 SPH particles
The initial SPH density for each particle is considered to be equally distributed over unit
or over mortar. Few geo-materials in LS-DYNA support SPH modelling. Concrete model
No.72 that described in 5.4.2 is employed to model unit and mortar material.
Vertical and horizontal displacements have been applied increasingly on the model, to
simulate the shear failure of the wall.

Vertical displacement Unit 23x23x15 cm


Horizontal displacement

2D SPH model for Masonry shear wall Plastic strain output results of SPH analysis

Figure 66 SPH analysis of masonry shear wall in LS-DYNA

SPH analysis of the masonry shear wall has been showed the ability of this method to
represent all failure modes, even the fragmentation due to compressive crushing which
difficult to handle in finite element analysis.
6 Application of mesh free methods 113

6.4 Concluding remarks


The Lagrangian finite element method and other numerical methods which request a
mesh priori need further treatments for collapse simulation. The prerequisite of the mesh
is the major reason for numerical difficulties.
The combination of the finite element method with the discrete element method
overcomes some drawbacks of both methods, but this also need predefinition of
discretization planes. For masonry, in most cases, mortar joints represent the weakest
planes, but the need to represent the cracking inside the unit or even the fragmentation
is of high importance. The numerical techniques which deal with such problems have
discussed in section 4.5.
The other numerical methods based on Eulerian mesh are suitable for high deformable
materials, but also suffer a lot of problems for modelling the complicated geometries like
masonry structures. For these reasons, mesh free methods have been adopted as
alternative solution of the problem. Although The SPH method has been used widely in
literature for many engineering applications, the application on masonry is still lacking.
The obtained results after the simulation of masonry shear wall have been proofed the
ability to represent all failure modes, even the crushing under high compression and
fragmentation of the material without numerical problems. Furthermore, the
implementation of SPH method is simple and does not need elaborate numerical
techniques for handling the tensile cracking of material.
One drawback of this method is the need for large numbers of particles for masonry
simulation, even if the model is small the computation time is relatively big, and the
accuracy is less than that in finite element method.
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 115

7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling


There is an ever-increasing demand for advanced and more controllable experiments to
support studies for the structure performance under earthquake loading. The studies on
full scale masonry structures are still challenging, even in testing techniques or in
numerical modelling. The intricacy is increasing, when loading the structure by random
earthquake action.
The experimental tests which are able to reflect the actual behaviour of the physical
problem in reality can not be always achieved, due to technical problems and high costs.
In case of earthquakes, the running of the test under strong motion is going to devastate
the instruments, after which the measuring process will be no longer available.
Furthermore, the preparation of many full scale structures to be tested under different
loading conditions is prohibitive. To avoid that, the same specimen is normally used for
different loading conditions, i.e. the structure will get severe damage at the final stage of
loading.
The numerical analysis of masonry structures has been received a great advance in last
decades, and it has been aroused as an alternative research discipline. The numerical
analysis can overcome a lot of difficulties in experimental tests, and it allows more
flexibility to get out the required results. However, it is important to know the capabilities
and limitations of the numerical model to be used for predicting the real physical
behaviour.
This chapter is devoted for studying the seismic behaviour of masonry construction by
means of numerical analysis. A number of experimental tests were carried out within the
scope of the ESECMaSE project, Caballero González et al. [32] for evaluating the
earthquake performance on specific masonry construction. Mainly, two full scale tests
will be considered for the validation and calibration of the numerical models. The first
one is a shaking table test18 that carried out at the National Technical University of
Athens, Carydis et al. [36] and the second one is a pseudo dynamic test19 that carried
out at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission in Ispra, Anthoine
[9]. Both specimens have been built by calcium silicate units.
The main concern in this chapter is to demonstrate the capability of the numerical model
to capture the behaviours observed in the experiments and then to be employed to
investigate further problems.
The comprehensive investigation by means of the numerical analysis will focus on the
following problems:
- to apply strong earthquake actions on the model up to collapse which are
impossible to carry out in laboratory conditions
- to examine the effect of vertical acceleration on the total behaviour of the
structure
- to apply the earthquake action on the undamaged structure to avoid the effect of
the cumulative damage during the testing procedure, whereas the stronger
earthquake actions in the tests have been applied on pre-damaged structure.

18 th
The 7 work package “Static and Dynamic Shear Tests on Structural Members”
19 th
The 8 work package “Large Scale Earthquake Test on Building”
7.1 Dynamic testing methods 116

7.1 Dynamic testing methods


The decision about the appropriate dynamic testing method to examine the earthquake
performance on structures is of high importance, due to high cost of such tests.
Nowadays, dynamic testing methods are ranging from real dynamic loading tests to
pseudo dynamic tests in real time or in enlarged time, and according to the capacity of
the testing facility they range from tests on full scale large specimens to scaled or small
specimens and from complete structure to sub-structure, Reinhorn et al. [151].

7.1.1 Shaking table testing method (STT)


In the shaking table test, the dynamic motion of the table is generated by the computer
in real time and imposed on the actuators of the shaking table. In this way the real
performance of the specimen under actual earthquake acceleration records can be
simulated and the inertial effects and structure assembly issues are well signified. The
size of the tested speicemen is limited to the capacity of the shaking table. The size of
the structure can be scaled down to adjust with the available capacity or the test can be
performed on a part of the structure, Figure 68.

7.1.2 Pseudo-dynamic testing method (PSD)


In pseudo-dynamic test the dynamic
effect which results in form of inertial
forces are computed by the computer Input exitation f i
and imposed on the structure by means
of the quasi-static loads. −1
⎛ ∆t ⎞ ⎛ ∆t ⎞
The response of the structure under ai +1 = ⎜ m + ⋅ c ⎟ ⎜ f i +1 − ri +1 − c ⋅ vi c ⋅ ai ⎟
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠
earthquake motion can be calculated
numerically as shown in Figure 67. The
∆t
computed displacements can be vi +1 = vi + (ai + ai +1 )
2
imposed to a real system or to
convenient structural component by
means of hydraulic actuators. Therefore ∆t 2
d i + 2 = d i +1 + ∆t ⋅ vi +1 + ai +1
the restoring forces which depend on 2
the current stiffness of the structure are
properly applied to the specimen, Figure
Imposed d i +1 on the structure
69.
This technique was originally developed
in Japan and, soon afterwards, in United Increase i
States, Nappi [136]. Facilities for
pseudo-dynamic tests were also set up
in Europe, Geradin et al. [63], where the
largest facility in Ispra, Italy has been Figure 67 The flow diagram of Pseudo-
used for the big pseudo dynamic tests dynamic testing method
of ESECMaSE project.
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 117

Actuators
Accelerogram
Shaking table

Imposed
displacements

Figure 68 Shaking table testing method

Servo-
Hydraulic Force Displacement
actuators transducers transducers Numerical Model

Reference M&x&(t ) + Cx& (t ) + R(t ) = − MI&x&g


frame
Accelerogram
Reaction Wall

Imposed
displacements

x(t )
Measured restoring forces R(t )

Figure 69 Pseudo-dynamic testing method

Computational Model
Actuator
Computational
substructure
Response feed back x(t )
Reaction Wall

Physical
substructure

Computational
substructure

Shaking table

Figure 70 Real time dynamic hybrid Testing method


7.2 Experimental tests 118

The pseudo-dynamic test should be handled with care in case of masonry structures,
due to sensitivity of masonry for load rate effect, since an experimental record of a few
seconds may takes hours or even days to be processed.
The main feature of pseudo-dynamic test is the applicability for large scale full building. It
is possible to use this test only for substructure if the other structure parts are well
understood.

7.1.3 Real time dynamic hybrid testing method (RTPSD)


This testing method is based on the combination of shaking table with substructure
techniques. Only part of the structure (the physical model) needs to be constructed and
tested on the shaking table. The rest part of the structure (the numerical model) is
numerically modelled by computer, Figure 70.
The earthquake effect on the physical part can be calculated by computer. The
existence of other nonphysical parts has to be considered. The calculated effect can be
applied to the tested physical part by the actuators (force control based). The size of the
specimen can be large or very large, Reinhorn et al. [151].

7.2 Experimental tests

7.2.1 Shaking table test


A number of full scale masonry specimens, with
different masonry units have been tested within
the scope of the ESECMaSE project using the
shaking table facility of the NTU Athens20. In
the current study the optimized calcium silicate
specimen (test A1) is only considered, which
was tested on October, 2nd 2006.
The specimen is two story building, consists of
T-shaped part and a single wall in the opposite
side, Figure 71. The reinforced concrete slabs
of each story have been prefabricated and have
thickness of 12 cm. The specimen has been
placed on the shaking table using a steel base,
and it has been connected to the shaking table
using 36 bolts M30, Carydis et al. [36].
Additional masses have been added to each
story, 3.50 tons, and 4.0 tons on the first and
second level, respectively, Figure 72.
Figure 71 The tested specimen A,
Carydis et al. [36]

20
National University of Athens, School of Civil Engineering, Laboratory for Earthquake Engineering,
Athens-Greece.
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 119

4.0 tons
Masonry Unit
Calcuim Silicate 6DOF
5x
0.625 + m2=
0.375
7.65 tons
-----------
3.5 tons

m1=
9.12 tons

Idealized two
mass system
for the structure

Base Excitation

Figure 72 Description of the shaking table test specimen

7.2.1.1 Base Excitation


The base of the specimen has been excited unidirectionally using an artificial
accelerogram. The artificial accelerogram has been generated by the team of NTU
Athens to match EC8 design spectrum. The response spectrum (type I, with ground
acceleration 4%g and soil category: B) has been used to generate the artificial
accelerogram, Figure 73.
In order to adjust with the available displacement capacity of the shaking table, the
artificial accelerogram has been filtered with high pass filter 1 Hz. The resulting
accelerogram is shown in Figure 74.
The artificial accelerogram has been integrated twice to get the displacement excitation
that can be applied on the shaking table, Figure 75.
7.2 Experimental tests 120

1.40

Elastic Response Spectrum Type 1

1.20 Ground Type B


Acceleration (m/sec )
2

1.00

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00 0.40 0.80 1.20 1.60 2.00

Period (sec)

Figure 73 Elastic response spectrum which used to generate the artificial accelerogram

0.6
Acceleration (m/sec )
2

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Time (sec)

Figure 74 The generated artificial accelerogram


7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 121

6
Displacements (m)

-2

-4

-6

-8

-10
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Time (sec)

Figure 75 Shaking table displacement time history

7.2.1.2 Testing procedure


The first test was carried out on the specimen for determining its dynamic
characteristics, whereas random signals from DC to 50 Hz were applied prior to
earthquake tests in order to determine the dynamic characteristics of the specimen.
Several tests were subsequently performed along in-plane direction (X- direction) with
step-wise increasing to the base acceleration up to the collapse of the specimen, started
with 4%g until 18%g (2%g increment), Carydis et al. [36].

7.2.1.3 Test results


The dynamic characteristics of the specimen
which obtained from the first test are shown in frequency 3.71 Hz
Table 4.
period 0.27 sec
Subsequently, the tests from 2 to 9 which
correspond to acceleration intensities from 4%g to damping ratio 4.37 %
18% g were performed.
During the test with 14%g, diagonal cracks were Table 4 Dynamic
nd
formed at the shear wall of the 2 level. In the characteristics of the
next test 16%g, these cracks were enlarged and specimen A1.
diagonal cracks emerged in the same wall at the
1st level. Cracks also were occurred on the transversal wall of T-part in the 1st and 2nd
levels. The slabs were opened and moved permanently, especially in the 2nd level, which
were not tightly connected with the walls, Figure 76. The interface between the
transversal and the shear wall of T-shaped part was separated.
Permanent out of plane displacement of transversal walls of both stories of T-shape part
was occurred. Out of plane movement of the transversal walls was also observed in the
upper part of 2nd level, Carydis et al. [36].
7.2 Experimental tests 122

Cracks on transversal wall of T- Diagonal cracks at shear wall of 2nd


shaped part at 2nd level. level.

The slabs opened and


moved permanently,
especially in the 2nd level.

The interface between


Permanent out of plane
the transversal and shear
displacement of transversal
wall of T-shaped part was
walls of both stories of T-
separated.
shape part was occurred.

Cracks on transversal wall of T- Diagonal cracks at shear wall of 1st


shaped part at 1st level. level.

Figure 76 Experimental results for the model of Athens, the damage state after applying
16%g earthquake intensity, the photos provided by Carydis et al. [36]
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 123

The maximum and minimum values for accelerations, displacements and the base shear
which were achieved in the shaking table test are shown in Table 5.

Acc. Accelerations m/sec2 Displacements (mm) Base shear


intensity 1st level 2nd level 1st level 2nd level (KN)
min -0.89 -1.84 -3.5 -8.1 -19.59
08%g
max 1.25 2.34 3.5 6.2 27.67
min -1.44 -2.17 -6.0 -16.2 -22.50
12%g
max 1.77 2.92 4.7 8.1 30.50
min -2.02 -2.14 -7.8 -26.6 -23.56
14%g
max 2.72 3.32 8.1 18.2 38.51
min -2.08 -2.16 -13.5 -35.2 -26.08
16%g
max 2.77 3.62 11.9 26.6 37.44

Table 5 Maximum and minimum values for accelerations, displacements and


base shear for specimens A1, Carydis et al. [36]

7.2.2 Pseudo dynamic test


Two big pseudo dynamic tests
were carried out within the scope
of the ESECMaSE project by
means of the ELSA-JRC21
reaction wall in Ispra. The test
specimens have been chosen to
simulate a real full scale two
storeys terraced house building,
Figure 77. In the first one,
masonry is made from calcium
silicate units and in the other one
from clay bricks. The present (a) (b)
study focuses only on the test of
calcium silicate specimen.
Figure 77 The Plane and the section of the tested
The following assumptions have terraced house, Fehling et al. [56]
been considered in the test,
Anthoine [9]:
1. The rigidity of cellar, thus, two storey structure has been considered
2. The mass of roof and its elements have been considered in the second floor as
additional masses
3. Only the walls around the staircase and corners have been considered.
The geometry of the structure is shown in Figure 78. By considering the last
conceptions, and due to quasi-symmetry of the structure, one half was tested, Figure 79.

21
ELSA is the European Laboratory for Structural Assessment in the Joint research centre JRC of European
commission in Ispra-Italy.
7.2 Experimental tests 124

Masonry Unit Symmetry plan


Calcuim Silicate 6DOF

m2=
25.4 tons

m1=
28.2 tons

Idealized two mass


system for half of
the structure

Earthquake
direction

Figure 78 Properties of the tested calcium silicate masonry structure

The mortar is thicker


under the walls

The connection
between the shear
wall and transversal
wall

Figure 79 Test configuration, and the connection of structure elements, Anthoine [9]
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 125

Figure 80 Tested Calcium-silicate specimen, the photos provided by ELSA

Masonry walls were built from calcium silicate units of type 6DOF (LxWxH =
250x175x250) which were optimised for the project. The units were assembled with thin
layer mortar bed joints, whereas the head joints were unfilled and simply juxtaposed.
The connections between the structure elements (slabs and walls) were carried out as
following:
- Under the walls in each floor thicker layer mortars (cement mortar Z01) were
used
- The concrete slabs were poured directly on the top of the walls without any
mortar joint
- The shear walls were connected to the perpendicular walls through a continuous
vertical mortar joint with masonry connectors (metal strips) inserted at the level of
the bed joints (Z01), Figure 79
The structure has been loaded by additional masses equivalent to 2.05 KN/m2 for each
floor (include floor pavement, bottom covering and lightweight separating plates) and 1.2
KN/m2 on the 2nd floor has been applied on the perimeter of the slab (include roof and
roof supporting structure which are missed in the tested specimen), Figure 80. The
weight of hydraulic actuators, their attachments to the slabs and the additional steel
reinforcement in the slab, and safety supporting frames also have been accounted. The
additional masses are provided to the specimen by water tanks which are distributed
over the concrete slabs in each floor, Anthoine [9]. The imposed base acceleration is the
same artificial accelerogram which used for the last test.

7.2.2.1 Testing procedure


The first tests were performed for determining the system dynamic parameters of the
model including natural frequencies, damping ratios and vibration mode shapes. The
7.2 Experimental tests 126

dynamic characteristic parameters were identified through impact hammer tests in


different positions.

Next, a verification test were performed with low


intensity 1%g to check the functionality of the frequency 6 Hz
whole installation, getting information about the
elastic properties of the structure and also to period 0.167 sec
determine the proper control parameters like
testing speed. Subsequently, several tests then damping ratio 2%
were performed along in-plane direction (X-
direction) with step-wise increasing to the base Table 6 Dynamic
acceleration up to the pre-collapse of the characteristics of CS
specimen, started with 2%g until 20%g (2%g specimen
increment), Anthoine [9].

Acc Maximum
7.2.2.2 Test results Test no
intensity dis.
The frequency which resulted from hummer tests
was 6Hz and the damping ratio was 2%. K08 04%g 1.6 mm
For the tests 2%g and 4%g the structure was K09 06%g 2.6 mm
showed no damage and the maximum
displacement measured at the top was 1.6 mm. K10 08%g 5.1 mm
The responses due 2%g and 4%g were not
proportional. The nonlinearity is properly due to K11 10%g 7.3 mm
the rocking behaviour of the slender shear walls.
During the tests 6%g and 8%g and in the first two K12 12%g 17.1 mm
large cycles something were heard, but no cracks
were recognized, the maximum measured K13 14%g 26.0 mm
displacements at the top 2.6 mm and 5.1mm for
6%g and 8%g, respectively. During the tests 12%g K14 16%g 26.0 mm
and 14%g, large stepwise cracks were formed in
the shear walls at the 1st floor, as well as, out of K15 18%g 47.0 mm
plane cracks also were noticed in the long lateral
K16 20%g 67.0 mm
walls, Figure 81.
It is worth mentioning that the observed damage in Table 7 Max. displacements
the long lateral walls would probably cause a reached at the 2nd
partial or total failure of these walls under real level during the tests
dynamic loading. Further test were carried out to
assess the remaining capacity of the shear walls.
The test 16%g was caused no additional damages. The displacements were more or
less than in the previous test (26mm), thus, the test 18%g was carried out. This test was
caused many additional damages to the structure (new cracks and further opening of
existing cracks) and the displacements at the top were reached 47mm. Some of the
LVDT’s also were damaged, Figure 82. Nevertheless, a further test 20%g was carried
out. The maximum top displacement was 67mm. This test was very damaging to the
structure, Figure 83. Many of the LVDT’s were reached their saturation. Therefore, a
decision was made to stop testing at this stage because the structure is not safe any
more, and further test would not provide much additional information, other than could
cause a partial/total collapse which might damage the equipments.
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 127

Figure 81 Pseudo dynamic test results- The first visible cracks after testing with 14%g,
photos provided by ELSA
7.2 Experimental tests 128

Figure 82 Pseudo dynamic test results- The visible cracks after testing with 18%g,
photos provided by ELSA
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 129

Figure 83 Pseudo dynamic test results- The visible cracks after testing with 20%g,
photos provided by ELSA
7.3 Numerical analysis 130

7.3 Numerical analysis


Both tests (shaking table and pseudo dynamic) have been simulated by means of
numerical analysis. The intension is to get real model as far as possible. For that reason
a big size and elaborated models have been built using LS-DYNA software in order to
achieve accurate results.
The shaking table test has been performed in real time of the applied earthquake, which
is 10 seconds in our test. The calculation of the pseudo dynamic test through the testing
time, which was some hours, is highly consuming for explicit solvers. Therefore, the
calculations were preformed in the real time of the earthquake for both tests. The
simplifications in numerical part of the pseudo dynamic test were not considered in this
context, and this could gives explanation about the validity of both models.
The shaking table test was simulated for the whole testing time and further simulations
were carried out until reaching the collapse. For the pseudo dynamic test, the first test
was used to calibrate the dynamic characteristic of the structure. Further calculations
were performed on undamaged structure to examine the performance under different
acceleration intensities, and to investigate about the influence of vertical accelerations
as well.

7.3.1 Finite element modelling


Simplified micro modelling strategy has been adopted for masonry walls due to thin layer
mortar. The modelling concept is based on the creation of discrete parts of the structure
(concrete slabs and units) and then assembling them using the appropriate contact
models.
Each unit is meshed by 3x3x3 brick elements. Constant stress eight-nodded brick
element with single integration point (reduced integration RI) has been employed to build
the models. This element is the default option in LS-DYNA and it is computationally fast.
Figure 84 shows the meshed geometry of each specimen.
Single-point integration element has a shortcoming of zero energy modes which are
termed hourglassing modes. Undesirable hourglass modes tend to have periods
typically much shorter than the periods of the structural response and they are often
observed to be oscillatory. One way of resisting undesirable hourglassing is with viscous
damping or small elastic stiffness able to stop the formulation of the anomalous modes
with negligible affect on the global modes, Hallquist [75].
In order to reduce the effect of hourglassing, LS-DYNA provides several hourglass
control types. In the present study Flangan-Belytschko stiffness form has been
employed, Hallquist [75]. This type of hourglass control has an advantage to reduce the
probability of negative volumes occurrence during calculation. Negative volumes are
highly coming up when materials undergo large deformations near failure. The
occurrence of negative volume causes the calculation to be terminated.
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 131

13515 Elements 34173 Elements


34173 Nodes 76672 Nodes

(a) model of Athens (b) model of Ispra

Figure 84 Finite element mesh for the model of Athens and the model of Ispra

7.3.2 Material models density 1.8 ton/m3


The material of calcium silicate units CS20-
Modulus of elasticity 9090 Mpa
1.8–249x175x258 has been examined
experimentally in Brameshuber et al. [25]. Compression strength 18.6 Mpa
The material properties of Calcium silicate
units are given in Table 8. Tensile strength 2.12 Mpa

Several geo-materials are available in LS- Poisson ration 0.12


DYNA for modelling the behaviour of such
material. In the present study, Winfrith Fracture energy 60 N/mm
concrete material model has been adopted
for calcium silicate units, section 5.4.2. Table 8 Calcium-silicate properties
Thin layer mortar has been used to
assemble calcium silicate units. The
mechanical properties of masonry joints
Tensile cohesion 0.30 Mpa
have been investigated experimentally in
Brameshuber et al. [25], Table 9. LS-DYNA Fracture energy 2.5 N/mm
tiebreak contact is employed for modelling
masonry joints. Tiebreak contact allows Initial shear adhesion c 0.24 Mpa
modelling of connections which transmit
both compressive and tensile forces with Sliding friction coefficient 0.7
optional failure criteria. The separation of
the slave node from the master is resisted Shear friction coefficient 0.55
by a contact spring for both tensile and
compressive forces until failure, after which Table 9 Masonry joints properties
the tensile coupling is removed, Bala [13].
7.3 Numerical analysis 132

The option 6 of contact tiebreak is used in the present study which permits damage by
scaling the stress components after failure, section 5.2.

7.3.3 Initialization prior to earthquake loading


It is essential, before imposing the earthquake action on the model, to initialize the
stresses and deformation state in the structure which can be developed from gravity
loads. The application of gravity loads immediately together with earthquake loads
causes further unwanted vertical vibrations to the structure at the beginning of
simulation. Therefore, in order to eliminate the dynamic effect of gravity loads, it must be
applied (statically) through enough time. In our case, the gravity acceleration has been
increased linearly from 0 to 9.81 m/sec2 through 5 seconds. The calculation time that
needed for initialization is considerable for big models like the model of Ispra. An
alterative method therefore is used which is well known as dynamic relaxation. This
method is based on damping the structure to reach the relaxation state (zero velocities)
in short time. The available method in LS-DYNA follows the work of Underwood and
Papadrakakis, (Hallquist [75]). The deformation state of the structure for both models
after initialization with gravity loads are shown in Figure 85.

(a) model of Athens (b) model of Ispra

Figure 85 Deformation state of walls under gravity loads, the displacements are scaled
500 times

7.3.4 Run time


Due to the big number of elements (13515 elements for the model of Athens and 34173
elements for the model of Ispra), the calculation using single core processor will be
highly consuming. Therefore, parallel processing has been adopted.
The calculation was performed using 10 parallel Intel Itanium processors “SGI Altix
4700” in the centre of High Performance Computing of TU Dresden.
The calculation for the model of Athens has been carried out along 56 hours for 120
seconds of loading with initial time step 7.42E-06, and one calculation for the model of
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 133

Ispra has been performed through 36 hours for 16 seconds of loading with initial time
step 4.72E-06 second.

7.4 Numerical results for the model of Athens

As has been mentioned earlier, the model of


Max dis.1 Max dis.2
Athens has been calculated through the whole Acc intensity
testing procedure described in section 7.2.1.2 to (mm) (mm)
capture the affect of damage for each successive
test. The measured period of the structure at the 04%g 0.7 1.8
beginning of calculation was 0.23 sec. The
06%g 1.1 2.8
structure was behaved well and showed no
damages until reaching 10%g, where the first
08%g 1.7 4.1
cracks have been emerged at the connection
between slabs and walls, and started to grow up. 10%g 5.7 12.2
Out of plane cracking, opening of slabs and
rocking of the shear wall were the main observed 12%g 10.8 18.6
behaviours in this stage.
For 12%g, the shear wall at the 1st level has been 14%g 12.2 20.4
established a sudden damage. The bonding
between the shear wall and the transversal wall 16%g 13.6 24.3
was vanished and the bonding with ground has
18%g 23.9 34.2
been lost as a result of rocking of the shear wall,
as well. 20%g 33.9 large
For 18%, diagonal cracks in the shear wall of the
1st level, as well as out of plane cracks in the Table 10 Max. displacements
transversal walls have been observed, Figure 86, attained in numerical
Figure 87 and Figure 88. analysis

7.4.1 Analysis of numerical results


Owing to the observed behaviours, a comprehensive study has been carried out for the
normal forces in each wall during the earthquake. The vertical reactions under each wall
are not steady due to rocking behaviour, but they change by time and vary around the
relaxation value. The sum of vertical reactions is roughly equal to the weight of the
structure. These little variations during earthquake are conceivably due to dynamic effect
of rocking and debonding between units. As a result of increasing the earthquake
intensity, tensile forces have been aroused due to the variation in vertical reactions.
During the earthquake process, these tensile forces have been leaded to lose the
connection between walls and slabs, or between units along bed joints. Figure 89 shows
the time at which the tensile bonding strength in the wall W2 has been completely
vanished. Following the tensile failure in wall w2, the force transmitting has been
changed in the whole structure, where W3 assists the weak wall w2 to transmit the
tensile vertical forces. This resulted in a sudden variation in vertical reaction forces of
wall w3, Figure 89. Following that, the reaction value of wall w3 has been attained lower
values. This behaviour reduces the capacity of the shear wall w3 which is highly
dependent on the compressive forces. Furthermore, it will be responsible to initiate the
cracks in the shear wall around 12%g. After the tensile failure, the variation in vertical
reaction forces has been reduced, and a great amount of energy has been released.
7.4 Numerical results for the model of Athens 134

Displacements (mm)
-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50
0
0
5

4%g
10
15

6%g
20
25
30

8%g
35
40

10%g
45
50
55

12%g

For 10%g the first cracks initiated and started


Tim e (sec)
60

to grow. Out of plan cracking, opening of slabs


and rotation of the shear wall were the main
65

observed behaviours in this stage.


14%g
70
75

16%g
80
85
90

18%g
95
100
105

20%g
110
115
120

Figure 86 Damage of the structure, the displacements are scaled 50 times


7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 135

Displacements (mm)
-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50
0
0
5

4%g
10
15

6%g
20
25
30

8%g
35
40

10%g
45
50
55

12%g
Tim e (sec)
60

At this short period the


structure was received a
65

big sudden damage


14%g
70
75

16%g
80
85
90

18%g
95
100
105

20%g
110
115
120

Figure 87 Damage of the structure, the displacements are scaled 50 times


7.4 Numerical results for the model of Athens 136

Displacements (mm)
-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

30

40

50
0
0
5

4%g
10
15

6%g
20
25
30

8%g
35
40

10%g
45
50
55

12%g
Tim e (sec)
60
65

14%g
70
75

16%g
80
85
90

18%g
95
100
105

20%g
110

The damage state of the


115

structure before applying the


final accelerogram 20%g
120

Figure 88 Damage of the structure, the displacements are scaled 50 times


7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 137

50.0

40.0 W1

30.0 Uplifting of the slab W2


20.0 W3
10.0 Structure
0.0

-10.0

-20.0
Vertical Reaction (KN)

-30.0

-40.0

-50.0

-60.0

-70.0

-80.0

-90.0

-100.0

-110.0

-120.0

-130.0

-140.0

-150.0

-160.0

-170.0

-180.0

-190.0

-200.0
3 13 23 33 43 53 63 73 83 93 103 113

Time (sec)

Figure 89 Vertical reaction histories for each wall


7.4 Numerical results for the model of Athens 138

50.0

W1 W2 W3
40.0

30.0
Horizontal Reaction (KN)

20.0

10.0

0.0

-10.0

-20.0

-30.0

-40.0

-50.0
3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 43 48 53 58 63 68 73 78 83 88 93 98 103 108 113 118 123

Time (sec)

Figure 90 Horizontal Reaction histories for each wall

7.4.2 Collapse of the structure


By applying 20%g earthquake intensity, the collapse of the structure has been initiated
by opening of the slab at the 2nd floor on the right side. This opening and the horizontal
inertia forces have been caused rotating to the right transversal wall around its base.
The traversal wall was impacted the shear wall and the whole system was undergone
progressive collapse process, Figure 91 and Figure 92, (Appendix A1).

Figure 91 Model of Athens, collapse state Figure 92 Model of Athens, collapse


at 112.70 sec state at 113.10 sec
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 139

7.4.3 Comparison with shaking table results


The overall behaviour which resulted in numerical simulation has been showed a good
conformity with the experimental evidences. The maximum displacements reached in
the numerical calculation as well as in the shaking table test are plotted via the applied
earthquake intensities as shown in Figure 93.

20

18

16

14
Earthquake intesity %g

12

10

6
d1 Numerical
4 d2 Numerical
d1 Experimental
2
d2 Experimental
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Maximum displacements (mm)

Figure 93 Earthquake intensity via maximum displacements, comparison between


numerical and experimental results

The comparison between the story drift histories of numerical calculation and the
shaking table test have been showed satisfied agreement, Figure 94 and Figure 95.

12.0

6.0
Story drift ( /00)
0

0.0

-6.0
1st level story drift
2nd level story drift
-12.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Time (sec)

Figure 94 Story drifts histories for 16%g acceleration intensity, obtained from the
shaking table test
7.4 Numerical results for the model of Athens 140

-12.0

-6.0
Story drift (0/00)

0.0

6.0

1st level story drift


2nd level story drift
12.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Time (sec)

Figure 95 Story drifts histories for 16%g acceleration intensity, obtained from the
numerical calculation

The Hysteresis loops are plotted for the base shear force via the 2nd level relative
displacement as shown in Figure 96. The maximum base shear values as well as the
maximum displacement attained in the test and numerical calculation are similar to each
other.

-50 40
04%g 04%g
-40 08%g 08%g
12%g 12%g
-30
14%g 14%g
20
16%g 16%g
Base Shear (KN)

-20
Base Shear (KN)

-10

0 0

10

20
-20
30

40

50 -40
40.0 20.0 0.0 -20.0 -40.0 -40 -20 0 20 40

Top Relative Displacement (mm) Top Relative Displacement (mm)

(a) Numerical calculation (b) Shaking table test

Figure 96 Hysteresis loops for base shear force via 2nd level relative displacement
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 141

7.4.4 Sensitivity of collapse to the


bonding strength with slabs
The cracking of the structure and the collapse
process are highly influenced with the initiation of
cracks. The variation of the material properties
and construction quality from one part to other in
the structure are of significant importance for
advanced damage state in the structure.
Therefore, in order to get an idea about the size
of influence, another model has been built
excluding the initial bonding strength between
the slabs and walls. The behaviour of the
generated model is mainly influenced with sliding
of slabs of the 1st level, Figure 97.

7.5 Numerical results for the model


of Ispra
Figure 97 Model of Athens, sliding
As mentioned earlier, the model of Ispra has the slab of the 1st level
been calculated for different earthquake
intensities without regarding the cumulative damage to reduce the computation efforts.
To be convinced that the following steps are right, the numerical results for earthquake
intensity 4%g is validated with the results of pseudo dynamic test, where the structure at
this stage has been received no pre-loading. Afterwards, the model putted through
earthquake intensity 20%g, where the testing procedure has been ended at this stage.

7.5.1 Analysis of results for low earthquake intensity


4%g earthquake intensity has been applied to the model of Ispra in order to capture the
dynamic characteristics of the undamaged structure. The analysis of the transmitted
normal forces to each wall has been showed bigger values for the walls w3 and w4 as a
result of their relatively long length.
The maximum attained displacements were 0.8 mm at the first floor and 2 mm at the
second floor, and the period of the structure was 0.18 sec.
The vertical reaction under the wall w4 was received the biggest variation during the
earthquake. This variation has been caused reduction in the compression value of the
vertical reaction which changed finally to tensile force. The big variation of normal forces
in w4 was conceivably due to the rocking of the adjacent shear wall w5, Figure 98.
Under higher earthquake intensities the values of tensile force reaches bigger values
and may causes tensile cracking along the wall w4.
The last behaviour indicates that the adjacent shear wall to the transversal wall was the
reason behind increasing the variation of the normal force value, which may causes
tensile cracking in transversal wall. The longest of the adjacent shear wall the increase
of the variation in normal forces. This causes tensile cracking in the transversal walls
which are adjacent to the longer shear walls sooner than others.
7.5 Numerical results for the model of Ispra 142
Vertical Reactions (KN)

100

The normal force in W4 is changing


from compression to tension
0

-100

-200

-300

-400

Structure W1= 6.20% W2= 8.18% W3= 39.64% W4= 26.08% W5= 19.89

-500

-600

-700
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (sec)

Figure 98 Vertical reaction histories for each wall


7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 143

50

W1
Horizontal Reaction (KN)

40 W2

W3
30
W4

W5
20

10

-10

-20

-30

-40
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (Sec)

Figure 99 Horizontal reaction histories for each wall

60

W1
Moment Reaction (KN.m)

50 W2

W3
40 W4

W5
30

20

10

-10

-20
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (Sec)

Figure 100 Moment reaction histories for each wall

1.000

W1
0.800
W2
0.600
Eccentricity (m)

W5
0.400

0.200

0.000

-0.200

-0.400

-0.600

-0.800

-1.000

-1.200
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (Sec)

Figure 101 Eccentricity histories for each shear wall


7.5 Numerical results for the model of Ispra 144

The transversal walls have less participation than shear walls to resist the horizontal
earthquakes. However, this participation is considerable for such weak wall and might
causes out of plane failure. Figure 99 demonstrates the horizontal reactions attained in
each wall during the earthquake. It is quit evident, the importance of considering out of
plane failure for the transversal walls, which possibly appear in high earthquake
intensities.
Moreover, what is notable from the numerical calculation is the higher moment reaction
of the longest shear wall if compared with other shear walls. The source of such moment
could be the big rocking of the shear wall which subsequently results in big variation of
the normal forces in the adjacent transversal wall, Figure 100.
The eccentricity seems to have approximately the same values for each shear wall
during the earthquake. This indicates that there is proportionality between the moment
and normal forces attained in each shear wall, Figure 101.
The cracks of the structure during the earthquake in numerical analysis are similar to the
cracks attained through pseudo dynamic test, Figure 106.

7.5.2 Comparison with experimental results


The numerical results for 4%g have been compared with the results of pseudo dynamic
test. Figure 102 and Figure 103 show the obtained displacements on each floor from the
numerical calculation and from the test, respectively. It is quite evidence the similarity of
the maximum displacement from both plots. The period of the structure from numerical
and experimental results is identical as well.

2.0
Displacments (mm)

1.5 Disp. at 1st floor

1.0 Displ. at 2nd floor

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0

-2.5
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (sec)

Figure 102 Floor displacements histories obtained from numerical calculation


7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 145

2.0

1.5 Disp. at 1st floor


Displacments (mm)

Displ. at 2nd floor


1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

-2.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (sec)

Figure 103 Floor displacements histories obtained from pseudo dynamic test

In addition, restoring forces which resulted in numerical analysis are compared with
those attained in the test. Figure 104 and Figure 105 show the numerical and
experimental results for restoring forces histories of both stories, respectively.

60
1st floor
Restoring forces (KN)

2nd floor
40

20

-20

-40

-60
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (Sec)

Figure 104 Restoring forces histories obtained from numerical calculation

60
Restoring forces (KN)

1st floor
2nd floor
40

20

-20

-40

-60
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0 15.0 16.0

Time (Sec)

Figure 105 Restoring forces histories obtained from pseudo dynamic test
7.5 Numerical results for the model of Ispra 146

Time (Sec)

Figure 106 Comparison the crack patterns from numerical calculation and the pseudo
dynamic test

7.5.3 Analysis of results for moderate earthquake intensities


By applying 20%g earthquake intensity the structure was showed cracks in different
positions of the walls, namely, tensile cracks along the bed joints in the long transversal
walls, diagonal cracks in the long shear wall, horizontal cracks in the slender shear
walls, partial separation between the shear walls and transversal walls, and uplift of the
transversal wall which is adjacent to the longest shear wall, Figure 107.

Figure 107 Visible crack pattern resulted from 20%g excitation, the deformations are
scaled 10 times, time=7.7 sec
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 147

By applying 24%g and 26%g earthquake intensities, the structure was showed more
cracks at the same positions like for 20%g. The longest shear wall was showed
inclination to buckling if the earthquake duration was longer and it is more noticeable for
26%g earthquake intensity, Figure 108 and Figure 109.

Figure 108 Visible crack pattern resulted from 24%g excitation, the deformations are
scaled 5 times, time=10.85 sec

Figure 109 Visible crack pattern resulted from 26%g excitation, the deformations are
scaled 5 times, time=10.85 sec

By applying 28%g and 30%g earthquake intensities, the structure was behaved the
same like in the last loading, but the longest shear wall was less willing to bucking than
that observed under lesser earthquake intensities. Alternatively, diagonal cracks were
increased in the longest shear wall, Figure 110 and Figure 111.
7.5 Numerical results for the model of Ispra 148

Figure 110 Visible crack pattern resulted from 28%g excitation, the deformations are
scaled 5 times, time=14.55 sec

Figure 111 Visible crack pattern resulted from 30%g excitation, the deformations are
scaled 5 times, time=10.25 sec

7.5.4 Analysis of results for strong earthquake intensities


34%g earthquake intensity has been applied to the model of Ispra. The initial achieved
crack patterns were approximately the same for smaller intensities. However, the longer
shear wall was showed complete buckling collapse. The buckling collapse of this wall
would cause the total collapse of the structure if the duration of earthquake was longer,
Figure 112, (Appendix A2).
7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 149

Figure 112 The state of the structure at time=14.95 sec for 34%g excitation

The structure was subjected to 40% earthquake intensity, the initial achieved crack
patterns were like for lower earthquake intensities but no buckling was attained and
alternatively out of plane failure was occurred in the 2nd floor in the transversal wall
perpendicular to the longer shear wall. This kind of failure was aroused conceivably due
to increasing of the inertial forces of this wall after getting tensile failure, after which the
structure lost the stability and underwent progressive collapse, which caused the total
collapse of the structure, Figure 113, (Appendix A3).

Figure 113 The state of the structure at time 5.5 sec

7.5.5 Sensitivity of collapse process to the bond strength


In order to understand the effect of bonding strength between units on the capacity of
the structure, the shear and tensile initial cohesions were set to zero in the model and
subjected to earthquake intensity 20%g. As a result, the overall structure was destroyed
under this intensity, which indicates the high influence of bonding strength between the
units to the collapse mechanism, Figure 114, Appendix A4.
7.5 Numerical results for the model of Ispra 150

Figure 114 The state of the structure at time 6.55 sec, no initial bonding at the bed joints

7.5.6 Influence of vertical ground motion


In order to understand the influence of vertical accelerations on the structure, 40%g
vertical acceleration intensity has been applied to the structure together with 26%g
horizontal acceleration. The same earthquake accelerogram in Figure 74 has been used
for vertical acceleration. In order to take into account the whole terraced house in Figure
77, the symmetry of the structure has been considered in calculation. The simulation
results were showed no big influence of the vertical acceleration on the collapse of the
structure in comparison with the applied 40%g vertical intensity. The collapse is once
more due to out of plane failure. It is similar to the collapse under only 40%g horizontal
acceleration, Figure 115. Appendix A5 shows the collapse sequence.

Figure 115 The state of the structure at time 15.4 sec


7 Full scale dynamic testing and computer modelling 151

7.6 Concluding remarks


Numerical investigation of earthquake performance on masonry structures have been
carried out and the generated models were validated by the results of two full scale
experimental tests.
Besides the accuracy of the numerical model, this work has been focused on the
behaviour of the structure which is difficult to capture through the experiments, due to
limitation of shaking table capacity, damaging of testing equipments and measuring
techniques.
Throughout the observations and the obtained results, the following remarks worth to be
pointed out:
- The bonding strength between units has high influence on the capacity of the
structure
- The bonding strength between structure elements, slabs and walls, is
significantly influence the collapse mechanism
- For some buildings, the tensile failure in the transversal walls is the main reason
that causes the collapse, not the low capacity of the shear wall
- The increasing of the possibility to get earlier out of plane failures in the
transversal walls for strong earthquake intensities
- The structure does not show the same collapse mechanism under different
unidirectional earthquake intensities
- The vertical earthquake actions do not have big influence on the structure for
moderate earthquakes
- The variation of normal forces in the walls during the earthquake may causes
buckling collapse due to increasing and decreasing of the compression force on
the walls
It is significant to prevent the tensile failure in the transversal walls by adding vertical
reinforcement and by making strong connections between the structure elements to
allow the shear walls to carry the horizontal earthquake actions with their maximum
capacities.
For further works, due to the high computation efforts using micro modelling strategy, it
would be recommended to establish macro model that can comprise all failure types
including out of plane failure together with shear failure.
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 153

8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour


Different factors influence the collapse behaviour of masonry structures, and one of the
major factors is the characteristic of the earthquake itself. This effect is going to be more
complicated for historical constructions, which involve different structure members with
different geometries. The study in this chapter focuses on the effect of earthquake
characteristics on the collapse mechanisms of masonry structures.
A full historical masonry building has been selected for the present study that comprises
different structural members (domes, vaults, minaret, and arched walls, with different
sizes) and located in hazardous earthquake region.
Many parameters have been introduced in earthquake engineering to characterize the
earthquakes, namely: horizontal peak ground acceleration, vertical peak ground
acceleration, incremental velocities and response spectra which describe the frequency
content. The effect of earthquake direction and the frequency content of the earthquake
will be the major investigated issues of this study.
A brief background of the selected case study and modelling process are given first, and
the geometry of the whole structure is created where micro modelling strategy is
employed. The collapse analysis of the structure is performed under an artificial model
based on the earthquake characteristics of the site.
Unidirectional earthquake are applied to the structure from different directions in order to
investigate the weakest situation. Finally, different earthquake models are generated
with different frequency contents according to considered soil profiles and then applied
consequently on the structure to explore the worst situation.

8.1 Selecting the case study


The architecture of historical masonry structures shows a wide disparity through
centuries, and the structure members are formed in various geometries (pillars, arches,
vaults, domes and minarets). However, the variation in the geometries of the structure
elements also results in different performances against earthquakes, and their
vulnerability to collapse.
The study of the behaviour of a single structural element may give an indication about its
individual earthquake vulnerability. However, the success of such study is associated
with considering the other existing structure members that shape the entire geometry.
For example, domes are intrinsically much stronger against earthquakes than other
members and their possible weakness is essentially associated with the stiffness and
the strength of the supporting members. In the case of Hagia Sophia, the deformability
of the main pillars and supporting arches were caused sometimes the damage and the
collapse, Croci [44].
8.1 Selecting the case study 154

(7)
(6)
(5)

(8)

(4)

(9)

(3)
(1)
(10)

(11)
(2)

(12)

Figure 116 The mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya, and other works of Mimar Sian
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 155

For these reasons, the collapse of historical masonry structures will be demonstrated in
this chapter throughout a case study of a real full masonry structure that comprises the
disparities in structure elements (pillars, arches, vaults, domes and minarets). Indeed,
many masonry structures exist in the world that has such variety in elements, but those
which are in earthquake hazardous regions are more preferable. The good example of
such buildings are conceivably those build by the medieval architect of Ottoman empire
Mimar Sinan22 Figure 116 23, which was a landmark in the history of architecture.
Furthermore, most of those buildings are constructed in regions that experience seismic
activity like Turkey, Syria, Greece, Cyprus, Ukraine and Bulgaria.
Among the big number of the works of Sinan the beauty mosque of Takiyya al-
Sulaymaniyya24 in Damascus, the capital city of Syria, has been chosen for the present
study.

8.2 Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya


8.2.1 Historical background and the layout of Takiyya
Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya is a complex in Damascus, Syria, considered as the most
important Ottoman cultural building in the city. It was build by the Sultan Süleyman I or
Sulayman al-Qanuni (1520-1566) between 1554 and 1560. The major complex is
located on the bank of Barada River. It was built on the ruins of Mamluk sultan Baybars
palace “Qasr al-Ablaq” which was destroyed by Tamerlane. The same stones of “Qasr
al-Ablaq” have been used to build Takiyya, Rihawi [154].
Takiyya was designed by Sinan and supervised by architects sent from the imperial
architectural office and finished during the period of city’s governor Kheder pasha 1559.
In 1566, a Madrasa has been added to the southeast of this complex by Sultan Selim II
and linked to them with an Arasta (Souk).
The complex layout of the original core of Takiyya is symmetric. The mosque and the
public kitchen are situated at the two ends of the main axis of rectangular enclosure.
To the east and west of the mosque there are two rows of six arcaded cells used as
guestrooms, equipped with fireplaces and covered with domes higher than the domes of
the mosque portico.

22
Ḳoca Mi‘mār Sinān Āġā or in Ottoman Turkish language: "‫( "ﺧﻮﺟﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﺎر ﺳﻨﺎن ﺁﻏﺎ‬April 15, 1489 - April 09,
1588) was the chief Ottoman architect and civil engineer for sultans Suleiman I, Selim II and Murad III. He
was responsible for the construction or the supervision of every major building in the Ottoman Empire. More
than three hundred structures are credited to his name. (English Wikipedia)
23
(1) Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya, Damascus, Syria (1554-1560), (2) Sokollu Mehmed Pasa Mosque at
Azapkapi, Istanbul, Turkey (c.1573-1577/1578), (3) Mesih Mehmed Pasa Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1584-
1585/1586 ), (4) Kiliç Ali Pasa Complex, Istanbul, Turkey (1578-1580/1581), (5) Sultaniye Complex,
Karapinar, Turkey (1560-1563/1564), (6) Selimiye Complex, Edirne, Turkey (1568-1574), (7) Süleymaniye
Complex, Istanbul, Turkey (1548-1559), (8) Tatar Khan Mosque, Yevpatoriya, Ukraine (c. 1552), (9)
Mehmed Aga Complex, Istanbul, Turkey (1584-1585), (10) Bosnali Mehmed Pasha Mosque, Sofia, Bulgaria
(1547-1548), (11) Haseki Hürrem Baths, Istanbul, Turkey (1556-1557), (12) Atik Valide Complex, Istanbul,
Turkey (1571-1583)
24
locally known in Arabic language "‫ "ﺟﺎﻣﻊ اﻟﺘﻜﻴﺔ اﻟﺴﻠﻴﻤﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬other names: Sulayman I Complex, Süleymaniye
Camii, Sultan Süleyman Mosque, Tekkiye Mosque, Tekke Mosque, Takiya al-Sulaymaniyya, Süleymaniye
Tekkesi, Süleymaniye Külliyesi, Complex of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman (Suleiman the Magnificent) (ArchNet
website)
8.2 Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya 156

Figure 117 Isometric view of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya, the mosque marked in red,
ArchNet [201]

Madrasat al-Selimiyya Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya

8
2

2 3

7
6

0 10 20 m
5 5
N
4

Figure 118 Plane of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya and Madrasa showing:(1) the mosque, (2)
mosque portico (3) guestrooms, (4) public kitchen and hospice, (5)
caravanserais with stables, (6) ablution pool, (7) latrines, (8) madrasa and (9)
bazaar (Arasta), corrected and redrawn from ArchNet [201]
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 157

The public kitchen consists of a line of six equal-size cells, enlarged into a room at the
centre with two vaulted bays. It faces the courtyard with a portico of twelve small domed
bays. Two caravanserais are located on the two sides of the public kitchen, composed of
fourteen domed cells arranged in two rows. The caravanserais and the public kitchen
share a private courtyard behind the public kitchen that is accessed with two gates from
the main Takiyya courtyard. The entire complex was restored in the 1960s by
Directorate General of Antiquities of Syria.

8.2.2 Architecture of the mosque


The mosque is the largest and the major part of the complex, located on the southern
end of the courtyard. The architecture of the mosque is similar to the prototypical forms
used by Sinan a cubic mass crowned by a vast hemispherical dome rising over
pendentives, with a portico in front and twin minarets.

Figure 119 The mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya, ArchNet [201]


8.2 Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya 158

Figure 120 North-east view for the mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya

Figure 121 South-east view for the mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya


8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 159

8.2.2.1 The domed hall of the mosque


The hall of the mosque is based on a square plane of 16 by 16 meters. The dome is
suited on a square of 14.3 by 14.3 meters and rises to a height of 7.4 meters on a
circular base supported by four pendentives and four large arches with diameter of 13.1
meter which stand at the corners of the square bases, Figure 122. The diameter of the
hypothetical sphere which includes both the dome and the pendentives (the diagonal of
the square) is about 20.1 meters.

Dome D=14.7 m

Pendentive

Arches D=13.1 m

Columns

L=14.3 m

Figure 122 The dome of the mosque supported on pendentives

The pendentive25 permits placing the circular dome over the square room, so that,
provides transition between the dome and the square base. The pendentives receive the
weight of the dome and transmit it to the four corners that can be received by the piers
beneath. The pendentives are triangular segments of a sphere, tapered to points at the
bottom and spread at the top to establish the continuous circular base needed for the
dome.

25
This constructive device was commonly used in Byzantine, Renaissance and baroque churches, and in
Ottoman constructions. The first attempts were made by the Romans, but full achievement of the form was
th
reached only by the Byzantines in Hagia Sophia at Constantinople (6 cent.).
8.2 Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya 160

The whole dome is covered with lead sheets on


the outside, and displays a ring of 24 windows
pierced into the drum of the dome, and braced
with four pairs of buttresses on the exterior. The
hall of the mosque is flanked by white and black
stone walls that cover the whole supporting
system of the dome.

8.2.2.2 The portico


Three-bay interior portico is adjacent to the north
side of the mosque hall. Two domes and one
vault are roofed the interior portico.
The domes of the portico rest on pendentives,
whereas the central bay over the mosque
entrance is roofed by a vault higher than the
domes. The domes and vault are carried on
pointed arches that rest on four marble columns
with carved stalactite capitals.
The exterior portico is covered by a shed roof
and has pointed arches carried on columns
thinner than the columns of the interior portico.
The pointed arches in exterior and interior Figure 123 The interior portico of the
porticos are braced using steel bars. This kind of mosque, ArchNet [201]
bracing system is commonly used in the most
works of Sinan.

Dome D=6m Vault


Pendentive

Pointed
Arches White
and black
stones

Columns

Supported Bracing
on the wall of system
mosque

Figure 124 The interior portico in front of the mosque with domes and the vault
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 161

8.2.2.3 The minarets


The mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya has
twin high polygonal minarets rise atop the east
and west corners of the mosque.
Each minaret is 35.4 m high and has a single
balcony. The first high storey of the minaret has
a height of 26 m and ends with a balcony
supported by stone muqarnas. The second
short storey is 9.4 m height and covered by
typical conical crown, sheltered by lead.
The minarets are accessed from the interior
portico and the balconies are reached by spiral
masonry staircase installed on the walls of
minarets.
The variation of such structural elements in the
mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya might
result in very sophisticated behaviour under
earthquake actions. The existence of many
other similar constructions in such seismic
hazardous regions would provide a great
importance to consider such building in the
present research as a case study.

8.2.3 Construction of the geometry and


finite element modelling Figure 125 Minaret of the mosque of
The construction of the geometry of the Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya
mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya is based
on the drawings26 used for retrofitting process in 1960s which are achieved by
Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums in Damascus.
The simplified micro modelling strategy has been followed in the construction of the
geometry. Therefore, the whole building has been modelled stone by stone. The stone
cuts have been considered through modelling. The construction of the 3D volumetric
objects of the geometry has been created in AutoCAD. Due to the large number of 3D
objects needed for modelling, the construction achieved part by part to allow for more
control and easier verification of the resultant parts and to avoid dealing with huge sizes.
After the creation of geometrical objects for each part of the structure, the meshing has
been performed in ANSYS, and a file of elements has been created for each part.
The mesh of each stone has been generated carefully, so that, stones of simple
geometries meshed by 3x3x3 elements. Finer meshes lead to a large number of
elements in the overall structure and courser meshes possibly cause numerical
instabilities in contact treatments using LS-DYNA code. Constant stress eight-nodded
brick element with a single integration point has been employed with a Flangan-
Belytschko stiffness form to control the hourglass effect, Hallquist [75].

26
The Author is greatly acknowledged to Eng. Ayman Hamuk and Eng. Kassem Taffour from Directorate
General of Antiquities and Museums in Damascus for providing the necessary documents of the mosque.
8.2 Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya 162

Figure 126 The main supporting system of the mosque

Figure 127 Detailed section showing internal integrities of the mosque


8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 163

Figure 128 The performed meshes for some parts of the structure

Each part of the structure is created in a


separate file that contains the finite Property Granite Limestone
elements of this part. Later, the whole
parts are assembled in LS-PrePost Density 2.7 ton/m3 2.6 ton/m3
[203] where LS-PrePost designed well
Modulus of elasticity 25 GPa 20 GPa
to deal with huge models. A verification
step for the contact between the Compression strength 100 MPa 70 MPa
adjoining parts has been performed in
LS-PrePost to avoid the initial Tensile strength 10 MPa 8 MPa
penetrations.
Poisson ration 0.2 0.25
Elastic material model is adopted in the
following study, due to relatively high Bulk modulus 50 GPa 65 GPa
materials strength. The elastic material
model guarantees a smooth running Table 11 Material properties of masonry
through the calculation and avoids the units
termination due to negative volumes
which arises with soft materials. The
material properties for white stones
(limestone) and black stones (Granite) Tensile strength 0.10 Mpa
are shown in Table 11.
Fracture energy 2.0 N/mm
Tiebreak contact model is employed to
represent the interface between the Initial shear strength c 0.14 Mpa
units, the properties of masonry joints
are given in Table 12. Sliding friction coefficient 0.65
The resultant model is involved with Shear friction coefficient 0.6
768887 nodes and 363567 elements.
Therefore, parallel processing is Table 12 Masonry joints properties
adopted.
8.3 Gravity loading 164

Each calculation is performed using parallel 40 Intel Itanium processors “SGI Altix 4700”
in the centre of High Performance Computing of TU-Dresden. The calculation for the
model was carried out along 7 days for 20 seconds of loading.

8.3 Gravity loading


The stress and deformation state of the structure must be initialized before applying the
earthquake action. The application of gravity load is similar to that described in section
7.3.3. The gravity load is increased linearly to explore the safety margin of the structure
without the bracing system that shown in Figure 124. After increasing the dead loads 1.3
times the portico was collapsed, Figure 129. This indicates that the bracing bars were
added at the beginning of construction, otherwise the interior portico in front of the
mosque will be unsafe.

Figure 129 Collapse of the portico without the bracing system of the arches

8.4 Earthquake modelling


8.4.1 Seismicity of the region
Syria lies in historically active region on the northern slope of the Arabian plate. The
region has experienced several destroyable earthquakes through the past centuries. The
region of Syria is one of the few places worldwide where the historical strong earthquake
events are well documented, Figure 130, Sbeinati et al.[161] and Malkawi et al. [114].
Syrian engineering code provides PGA distribution map for minimum 10% probability of
being exceeded in life time of 50 years which corresponds to return periods of 475
years. This PGA distribution map has been used for the design of engineering
structures. However, for historical monuments a longer life time up to 200 years must be
considered.
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 165

(DSF) Dead Sea fault system


(EAF) Eastern Anatolian fault system,
(EFS) Euphrates Graben fault system,
(GF) Al-Ghab fault,
(RSF) Ar-Rassafeh fault,
(RF) Raum fault,
(SF) Serghaya fault,
(SPF) Southern Palmyride fault,
(YF) Al-Yammouneh fault

Figure 130 The distribution of epicentres of the historical earthquakes in Syria, Sbeinati
et al. [161]

Figure 131 Maximum peak ground acceleration (cm/sec2) with 10% probability
exceeding in a life time of 200 years (Return period=1898 years)
8.4 Earthquake modelling 166

Malkawi et al. [114] employed a probabilistic model that able to estimate the probability
of occurrence of forthcoming earthquakes in Syria, based on the available information on
Seismicity, geo-tectonics setting and attenuation characteristics of peak ground
acceleration. Several PGA distribution maps have been proposed by Malkawi et al.
[114]. The map of PGA distribution for 10% probability exceeding in life time 200 years is
plotted in Figure 131.

8.4.2 The response spectrum


In addition to the regional seismicity, further information can be obtained from the design
response spectra provided in engineering standards. The spectral analysis of
engineering buildings in Syria usually follows the response spectrum provided in UBC97
[185], Figure 132.

Se
Spectral Acceleration (g/s)

( 2) 2.5Ca Control Periods Equations


T
Ts =
Cv ( 1) Se (T ) = Ca (1 +1.5 )
2.5Ca T0
( 1) ( 2) Se (T ) = 2.5 Ca
T0 = 0.2Ts
C
( 3) Se (T ) = v
T

Ca ( 3) Cv
T

T
T0 Ts Periods (s)

Figure 132 Design response spectrum, UBC97 [185]

The response spectrum in UBC97 [185] is related to the site specific values of Ca , Cv
are showed in Table 13:

Soil profile Soil profile name/ Generic Shear wave velocity Ca Cv


Type description (m/sec)

SA hard rock >1500 0.32 0.32

SB rock 760 to 1500 0.40 0.40

SC very dense soil and soft rock 360 to 760 0.40 0.56

SD stiff soil profile 180 to 360 0.44 0.64

SE soft soil profile <180 0.36 0.96

Table 13 The values of Ca , Cv according to the soil profile type, UBC97 [185]
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 167

8.4.3 Synthesis of artificial accelerograms


Nowadays, synthetic accelerograms which compatible with response spectra are
increasingly being used in earthquake engineering, where the generation of artificial
accelerogram does not require too much information and only few parameters such as
geological conditions of the site, distance from the source and fault mechanism are
needed. However, the generated accelerogram must have real duration, frequency
content, and intensity representing the physical conditions of the site.
It is possible to predict the ground motion using the accelerograms of past earthquakes
which recorded at an appropriate distance and have suitable intensities or by the scaling
of existing accelerograms, but in our case there is no earthquake records for strong
intensities, therefore the generation of an artificial one is needed.
Many methods have been proposed in literature to generate the artificial accelerogram
for regions lacking earthquake records, namely: the sums of harmonic functions, filtering
of white noise, Meskouris [131] and Thiele [182], spectral density model, Rofooei [156]
or finite element modelling of the fault system, Aagaard [1].

The sum of harmonic function method will be I (t )


employed in the following study to generate the
artificial accelerograms. This method is based on
1
representing the earthquake accelerogram as a sum
of harmonic functions
t

n t1 t2

a (t ) = I (t ) ⋅ ∑ Ai ⋅ sin(ωi t + φi )
(a) Trapezoid form
(176) I (t )
i =1

I (t ) = A t B exp(−C t )

Ai is the amplitude, ωi is the frequency, φi is the


1

phase and I (t ) is the intensity function which


t
represents the change of intensity through the
(b) Exponential form
earthquake duration, Figure 133. I (t )

To get the target acceleration a (t ) it must be


1 t
generate n frequency sampling points distributed ( )n
t1 I (t ) = exp(−c(t − t2 ))

logarithmically. The increment in frequency ∆f


must satisfy the following condition ∆f ≤ 2ξ ⋅ f in
t
t1 t2
(c) Mixed form
order to consider all frequencies of the response
spectrum, where ξ is the damping ratio of the target
Figure 133 Different possible
accelerogram.
intensity functions
For each sampling point, the amplitude Ai can be
obtained from the response spectrum at the frequency ωi to calculate the acceleration
a (t ) in equation (176). Following that, the resultant accelerogram must be checked out
with the response spectrum from which generated. Therefore, the response spectrum of
the generated accelerogram should be determined and compared with the original one.
In case of big differences, the amplitudes Ai must be scaled by the ratio of old response
spectrum to the new one. The earthquake accelerograms in the present study have
8.5 Collapse analysis of the structure 168

been generated using the above described method, where MATLAB program has been
used for this purpose.

8.5 Collapse analysis of the structure


Three earthquake components have been generated which are compatible with the
response spectra described in section 8.4.2. There is no information available about the
soil profile of the site. However, the complex of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya is placed on
the bank of the Barada River, which indicates that soft soil profile (SE) exemplifies the
site. The generated accelerogram for X and Z directions are scaled to fit with the peak
value of 0.4g, which represents the maximum peak ground acceleration that
characterizes the site, being obtained from the map in Figure 131 for Damascus. The
generated accelerogram for Y direction which represents the vertical component is
scaled to fit with the peak value of 2/3 of the peak acceleration in horizontal direction. 10
seconds earthquake period have been only considered in the study to reduce the
calculation time. The gravity acceleration has been first applied increasingly on the
structure to initialize the stress state under the dead loads, and then the structure has
been subjected to the generated earthquake components. The calculation has been
performed for further 10 seconds after the end of the earthquake in order to allow
relaxation of the collapsed elements. Figure 134 shows the collapse state of the
structure after 9 seconds of earthquake initiation, where the complete collapse progress
is shown in Appendix B1.

4
3
2

1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The acclerogram in X direction


4

3
2 Y
1

X
-1

-2
-3

-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Z
The acclerogram in Y direction reduced by 2/3
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The acclerogram in Z direction

Figure 134 Collapse analysis of the structure under the generated earthquake model
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 169

At the beginning of the earthquake,


the portico was the first collapsed part
of the structure and later followed by
the dome and minarets. Due to high
intensity of the earthquake, the
pendentive supporting system was
destabilized and caused the collapse
of the domed hall. The minarets were
the last collapsed parts due to
relatively their big natural period of
vibration. More time was needed for
developing the collapse in minarets
than other structure parts. However,
this study confirms that, the portico is
the weaker part in the structure and Figure 135 The collapsed portico in “Koursoum
received an earlier collapse. This Camii” or Osman Shah Mosque,
result fits with the evidences observed Trikala, Greece built in 1567-68,
in the collapse of similar structures ArchNet [201]
like Osman Shah Mosque in Greece,
Figure 135.

8.6 Effect of earthquake characteristics


The collapse analysis in pervious section has been performed for specific earthquake
motion which gives a very crude estimation for the behaviour of prospective
earthquakes.
The collapse analysis under specific actions could emphasize the weak parts of the
structure, but the weak situation is also associated with loading conditions. In case of
earthquakes, there are high uncertainties of loading conditions. However, several
parameters were provided in quantitative form to characterize the random motion of
earthquakes that might influence the behaviour of the structure, like Peak ground
acceleration and incremental velocities, Syed [179]. The frequency content of the ground
motion also is of high importance. The response of a structure to an applied ground
motion could amplify the most when the dominant frequency content of the motion and
the fundamental natural frequency of the structure are close to each other.
In the following, the collapse analysis of the structure is performed in order to
understand the response of the structure for different earthquake directions, as well as to
explore the effect of frequency content of the earthquake.

8.7 The direction of the earthquake


The earthquake motion comprises vertical and horizontal components. The vertical
component of the earthquake has less effect on the structure, due to the safety margins
against the static gravity acceleration which has a high value if compared to the possible
vertical earthquake accelerations. However the peak vertical acceleration is often
assumed to be 2/3 of the peak horizontal acceleration, Wilson [199].
To study the earthquake component in horizontal plane, two principle directions can be
considered. The first is associated with the structure ‘The principle direction of the
8.7 The direction of the earthquake 170

structure’ and indicates the weakest


direction of the structure, and the
other is associated with the Y
earthquake ‘the principle direction of
X
the earthquake’ and corresponds to
the direction at which the horizontal
Z
ground acceleration amplifies the
maximum. The worst case occurs
when the principle direction of the
structure and the earthquake are
identical.
θ=0o
The principle direction of the structure
can be estimated in some
engineering method, but it is not easy
to estimate the principle direction of
the earthquake for most geographical
locations, although there are some Y
studies in this direction based on X
geological facts and the records of
past earthquakes. Z

Due to the uncertainties in


earthquake direction and in order to
get well assessment, the structure
should be capable of equally resisting
earthquake motions from all possible θ=45o
directions.
In some of the existing engineering’s
standards the structure should be
assessed for “100 % of the prescribed
Y
seismic forces in one direction plus
30-40 % of the prescribed forces in X
the perpendicular direction”, Wilson
Z
[199]. However, no suggestions have
given on how the directions have to
be determined for complex structures.
In order to understand the collapse
behaviour of the structure for different
earthquake directions, the generated θ=90o
accelerogram in section 8.5 for x
direction has been employed. The
generated accelerogram has been
applied on the structure in horizontal
plane for different angels with respect Figure 136 The collapse states of the structure
to x axis, namely: θ=0o, 45o and 90o, for different earthquake angels at
as well as, the same accelerogram time 9 seconds
has been applied in vertical direction.
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 171

Figure 136, shows the collapse states of the structure which corresponds to the angels
of θ=0o, 45o and 90o after 9 seconds of applying the earthquake. The complete collapse
progress is shown in Appendix B2.
It is quite evident that the weakest case of the structure corresponds to θ=0o, where at
this angel, the earthquake is much destructive than other directions. The application of
the same accelerogram in vertical direction does not bring out any collapse to the
structure.

8.8 The frequency content of the earthquake


The earthquake actions span a broad range of frequencies. The frequency content
describes how the amplitude of the ground motion is distributed among different
frequencies. The well description of this relation for an earthquake can be obtained from
the corresponding response spectrum.
Due to the significant influence of frequency content of the earthquake ground motion on
the structure, it has been subjected to different earthquakes with different frequency
contents. The geological properties of the site are highly influencing the frequency
content of the earthquake motion that the structure receives. Therefore, three
earthquake motions were generated for different soil profiles, namely: SA, SC and SE,
Figure 137. The aim of considering several soil profiles in this study is to understand the
influence of the site characteristics on the collapse behaviour of the structure.
Furthermore, many structures in several countries have similar architecture to the
mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya.

1.20
Spectral acceleration (g/s)

Soil profile type A


1.00 Soil profile type C
Soil profile type E

0.80

0.60

0.40

0.20

0.00
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00

Periods (s)

Figure 137 Response spectra for different soil types A ,C and E for Z=0.4, the thick lines
are the original response spectra, whereas the thin lines refer to the
response spectra of the generated accelerograms
8.8 The frequency content of the earthquake 172

4
3
2
Acc X

1
0
-1
-2

-3
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
4

Y
3
2
Acc Y

0
-1

-2
X
-3

-4 Soil profile
SA
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4 Z
3
Acc Z

2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The generated accelerograms for soil profile SA

3
2
1

0
Acc X

-1
-2
-3 Soil profile
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Y SC
4
3
2
1
X
0
Acc Y

-1
-2
-3
Z
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4
3
2
1
Acc Z

0
-1
-2
-3
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The generated accelerograms for soil profile SC

3
2 Soil profile
1

SE
Acc X

0
-1
-2
-3
Y
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
4

3
X
2

Z
Acc Y

0
-1

-2
-3

-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

4
3
2
1
Acc Z

0
-1
-2
-3
-4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

The generated accelerograms for soil profile SE

Figure 138 The collapse states of the structure for different soil profiles at time 7
seconds
8 Earthquake characteristics and collapse behaviour 173

Figure 138 shows the collapse states of the structure which corresponds to the soil
profiles SA, SC and SE after 7 seconds. The complete collapse sequence is shown in
Appendix B3.
It is quite evident that the weakest case of the structure corresponds to the soft soil
profile SE. It means the low frequency of the earthquake is much destructive. This effect
has significant influence on the collapse of the structure at which the soil profile
dominates the frequency contents of the earthquake. However, each element of the
structure has showed different responses to the applied frequencies, which indicates the
necessity of considering the particular response of each element and its participation in
the global response of the whole building.

8.9 Concluding remarks


Collapse analysis of large scale historical masonry structure is performed with an aim to
explore the effect of different earthquake characteristics on the structure.
The study is performed on the Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya, one of the finest
works of Mimar Sinan in Damascus since the fifteenth century. The different types of
structural members and the different geometries in this historical building might result in
different responses and therefore different collapse mechanisms. The interactions
between those members are also of high importance for the whole response of the
structure, as well.
The model of the geometry has been created in LS-PrePost [203], and the analysis has
been performed using the explicit solver of LS-DYNA. An artificial earthquake
accelerogram compatible with a response spectrum has been generated. The necessary
data for generation the earthquake model has been obtained from the site information
and the hazard map zonation for life time of 200 years.
The relatively high deformations of the pendentives were the major reason for the
collapse of the dome. The minarets were needed more time to be collapsed than other
structure member.
Collapse analysis of the structure under unidirectional earthquake actions was
performed, to explore the weakest direction of the structure. According to the geological
map and the seismic history of the region, the major earthquake direction can be
estimated. However if the direction of the earthquake is not well predicted, the structure
must be strengthened in the weakest direction.
The present study shows that, the earthquakes in regions of soft soils are more
destroyable to the structure. However, the soft soils dissipate a great amount of the
kinetic energy that cased by earthquake. Furthermore, the other phenomena that might
occur due to the failure of soil and liquefaction should be considered for more detailed
study.
This study is primarily focused on the effect of frequency content of the earthquake, and
the other factors related to soil-structure interactions are not considered.
9 Reinforced masonry 175

9 Reinforced masonry
The reinforcement is a supplementary material can be added to the original masonry
system in specific positions in order to gain an enhancement in load bearing capacity
and/or to guarantee ductile failure mechanism.
During the recent years, the performance of reinforced masonry structures received
much attention and attracted a considerable volume of research. Various strengthening
measures have been identified and studied: strengthening by means of grouted anchors,
Van Gemert et al. [187], Polymer grids and reinforcement in bed layers, Sofronie [175]
and FRP sheets, Marfia et al. [119]. Brookes et al. [28], Owen [144] and Mabon [113],
have made numerical and experimental investigation for strengthening masonry arch
bridges in UK, where stainless steel reinforcing bars were inserted and grouted into
masonry. Brookes et al. [30] have studied the effect of various reinforcement measures
on the collapse of reinforced masonry walls subjected to explosive loads.
Nowadays, there is an increasing demand to get an optimal design for the modern
masonry constructions, as well as to develop robust retrofitting measures to preserve
our cultural heritage for future generations.
The previous chapters have demonstrated the assessment of seismic resistance of
unreinforced masonry buildings by means of collapse analysis. In case, the load bearing
capacity of the structure is found to be insufficient, the structure must be reinforced.
Thus, it is necessary to think about the amount and the location of reinforcement in order
to get an optimal design.
The present chapter gives an insight into a novel understanding of the failure behaviour
of reinforced masonry shear walls, as well as, the retrofitting measures are going to be
assessed and the evaluated based on collapse analysis.

9.1 Ductile behaviour


The Ductility of the structure describes its ability to deform beyond the elastic limit
without excessive strength decay or collapse. Increasing the ductility gives the structure
more time before going to collapse. The ductile behaviour is highly recommended for
seismic design as it demonstrates of being far from a sudden brittle collapse, Figure 139.
Masonry materials show somehow brittle behaviour under seismic actions. However, the
insertion of reinforcement into masonry increases its ductility. The displacement ductility
µ ∆ is introduced to describe the overall ductility of the reinforced system. It can be
defined as the ratio of the ultimate displacement ∆ u to the yield displacement ∆ y :

∆u
µ∆ = (177)
∆y

Another important parameter is the response factor q which is widely used to


characterize the behaviour of the structure. The response factor is the ratio of elastic
response Fel to the response at yielding Fy :
9.1 Ductile behaviour 176

Fel
q= (178)
Fy

(a) Brittle shear failure of (b) Ductile shear failure


unreinforced masonry of reinforced masonry

Figure 139 Comparison the brittle and ductile failure of masonry wall, Tomaževič [183]

linear elastic linear elastic


Fel equivalent Fel
the response

the response

areas elastic- elastic-


perfectly plastic perfectly plastic

Fy Fy

the displacement the displacement

∆y ∆u ∆y ∆u

(a) Principle of equivalent deformation work (b) Principle of equivalent displacements

Figure 140 Two principles for determining the q factor

The following two principles have been employed to determine the q factor, Figure 140,
Paulay et al. [147] and Schermer [162]:
(1) Principle of equivalent deformation work
9 Reinforced masonry 177

1 F F
( Fel − Fy ) ⋅ ( el ∆ y − ∆ y ) = Fy ⋅ (∆ u − el ∆ y ) (179)
2 Fy Fy

q = 2µ ∆ − 1 (180)

(2) Principle of equivalent displacements

Fel ∆ u
q= = = µ∆ (181)
Fy ∆ y

9.2 Reinforcement-masonry bond


Grouted anchors are often engaged for many application areas of strengthening
masonry structures. They enable to increase the transverse tensile strength of existing
masonry. Steel, stainless steel or reinforced polymer rods are inserted in drilled holes
and bonded to the masonry with an appropriate grout.
The enhancement in load bearing capacity of the reinforced masonry is highly affected
by the bonding strength between the reinforcement and masonry. The bonding strength
is, therefore, the fundamental issue for strengthening using grouted anchors.
The issue of bonding strength was early questioned for reinforced concrete and it has
been widely studied in literature Figure 141.

(a) (b).

Figure 141 Bond stress versus slip behaviour for reinforcement, (a) monotonic loading,
(b) cyclic loading, after Eligehausen et al. (Lowes [110])

Many failure modes have been recognized for bonding, which are associated with the
mechanical properties of the materials. Gigla [68] has identified two types of failure for
the pull-out testing of an injected anchor, one is the failure at the interface between the
reinforcement element and the grout material, and the other failure is at the interface
between the drill hole and the grout material.
In his experimental study, Gigla [69] has made a series of experimental tests to
determine the capacity of boding between the reinforcement and masonry, Figure 142.
9.2 Reinforcement-masonry bond 178

plate
Free end Loaded end
tension jack and
tensile
load cell
ancor bar
clamp
Injected
material in
drill hole
testing
load F

parallel measure
of displacements
overlap L0
bond length Ltb free steel length Lfs

steel length Lsteel

Figure 142 The added injection anchor with measurement setup, after Gigla [69]

The following empirical formula has been proposed for bonding strength X A, d :

φ J f G ,c
2

X A, d = ⋅( + X B ,w ) (182)
γ M 500

where

f G ,c compressive strength of the grout material

φJ reduction factor of bonding within mortar joints

X B ,w increasing of bonding strength due to water absorbing

γM partial safety factor for bonding strength γ M ≥ 1.35

and the tensile force in anchor element is limited to this value

1.9 ⋅ f B ,t ⋅ Lb ⋅ π ⋅ d B ⋅ (hs2 − d B2 )
F≤ (183)
γ m ⋅ tan ϕ ⋅ (hs2 + d B2 )

where

dB diameter of drilled hole

hs height of the stone

Lb bonding length
9 Reinforced masonry 179

tan ϕ inclination between the compression trajectories and anchor axis

f B ,t tensile strength of the stone

partial safety factor for tensile strength of the stone, γ m ≥ 1.5 has been
γm
proposed

9.3 Reinforced masonry shear walls


The key feature of reinforcing masonry shear walls is not only to increase the shear
capacity but also to get better ductile behaviour under high seismic intensities. The
vertical reinforcement enhances the capacity of masonry to carry tensile forces
perpendicular to the bed joints. The insertion of reinforcement bars requires special
openings in the blocks where frequently used with hollow units being filled with grout,
Figure 143.
Several studies have been devoted to determine the shear capacity of reinforced
masonry. Ganz [62] has extended the shear theory of unreinforced masonry that
described in section 3.2.4 to include the reinforcement, where the following assumptions
have been adopted
- The reinforcement is arranged in bed joints or perpendicular to the bed joints in
unit holes
- The reinforcement works only in direction of the reinforcement bar and has rigid
bonding with masonry
- The compressive strength of reinforcement is neglected.

Reinforcement bar
Grout material

Hollow units
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

Figure 143 Different types of masonry shear walls, (a) reinforced masonry (RM), (b)
wide spaced reinforced masonry (WSRM), (c) grouted masonry (GM), (d)
partially grouted masonry (PGM), (e) unreinforced masonry (URM)

The shear failure criteria in stress space σ x , σ y and τ xy are shown in Figure 144 and
given by the following set of equations
9.3 Reinforced masonry shear walls 180

τ xy2 − (ω y ⋅ f my − σ y ) ⋅ (ω x ⋅ f mx − σ x ) ≤ 0 (I)

τ xy2 − (σ y + f my ) ⋅ (σ x + f mx ) ≤ 0 (II)

τ xy2 + (σ x + f mx ⋅ ( 1 2 − ω x ) )2 − ( 1 2 ⋅ f mx )2 ≤ 0 (IIIa)

τ xy2 + (σ y + 1 2 ⋅ f mx )2 − ( 1 2 ⋅ f mx )2 ≤ 0 (IIIb) (184)

τ xy2 − (c − (σ y − ω y ⋅ f my ) ⋅ µ )2 ≤ 0 (IVa)

τ xy2 − ( 1 2 ⋅ f mx )2 ≤ 0 (V)

τ xy2 + (σ y + f my − 1 2 ⋅ f mx )2 − ( 1 2 ⋅ f mx )2 ≤ 0 (VI)

where

asx f sy asy f sy
ωx = ωy = (185)
b f mx b f my

asx , asy are the reinforcement’s areas per unit length in x, y directions, respectively.

σx
Spacing of contour lines 0.1 ⋅ f my

ωx ⋅ f mx
I
τxy σy
VI

IIIa

0.5 V IVa IVb


f my
0.4
II 0.3 IIIb
0.2
0.1

f my ωy ⋅ f my

Figure 144 Shear failure criteria in stress space for reinforced masonry after Ganz

The shear behaviour of masonry joints under pure shear or confining pressure has been
studied by Marzahn [121] through a triple shear test, Figure 145.
9 Reinforced masonry 181

Figure 145 Experimental triple test setup for grout-dowelled masonry, after Marzahn
[121]

It has been observed that the grout material enhances the shear capacity but the
contribution of reinforcement is very small. However, the reinforcement offers high
deformation ability prior to the failure, which indicates an enhancement in the ductility,
Figure 146. Marzahn [121] has considered that the total shear cohesion is a contribution
of the following:

cvr = ci + cG + cR (186)

Where ci is the initial cohesion, cG is the shear strength of the grouted core and cR is
the shear strength of the reinforcement.
The shear strength of the grout core is reduced to 85% due to the shrinkage of the
material:

cG = 0.85 ⋅ f Gs ⋅ aG (187)

The value of cG is limited due to the local compression failure in unit. Marzahn has
proposed to use 0.75% reduction of the local compression area φG ⋅ h

n ⋅ φG ⋅ h
cG = 0.85 ⋅ f Gs ⋅ aG ≤ 0.75 ⋅ σ c (188)
b ⋅l

where n is the number of bars per unit.


9.3 Reinforced masonry shear walls 182

(Mpa) 0.80

0.70 perfectly plastic behaviour


τShear Stress

0.60

0.50
Reinforced
0.40 Grouted masonry masonry

Unreinforced
0.30 masonry

0.20

0.10

0.00
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00
displacements w (mm)

Figure 146 Comparison between the shear behaviours of unreinforced masonry,


grouted and reinforced masonry, redrawn after Marzahn [121].

The contribution of reinforcement is empirically determined depending on the ratio of bar


diameter φ to the diameter φ14 = 14 mm using the following value

φ
cR = n ⋅ 0.1 (189)
φ14

The contribution of the initial cohesion of the bed joint is limited to the earlier failure.
Therefore it should be neglected after failure

c0 (1 − aG − aR ) if c0 (1 − aG − aR ) > cG
ci = (190)
0 otherwise

By excluding the area of the grouted core from the cohesion area of the bed joint, then

c0 = c ⋅ (1 − aG − aR ) (191)

where c0 is the pure cohesion of unit mortar joint, aG is the ratio of the grouted area
excluding the reinforcement area to the bed joint area of the unit and aR is the ratio of
the reinforcement area to the bed joint area of the unit.
According to the proposed cohesion formula by Marzahn [121], it can be determine the
shear failure mode in reinforced masonry wall by employing the shear failure theory of
Mann/Müller [116] using the following equation:
9 Reinforced masonry 183

cvr − µ ⋅ (1 − aG − aR ) ⋅ σ
τ= (192)
1+ µ ⋅ r

Ernst et al. [55] and Ernst [54] have proposed empirical formulas to estimate the load
bearing capacity of horizontally and vertically reinforced clay brick masonry, Figure 147.
Ernst et al. [55] have showed that the horizontal bed joint reinforcement could reduce the
tensile cracking due to confinement, which enhances the compression strength. Ernst
also has identified that, the failure has been caused by the absent of bonding before the
yield of reinforcement.

Figure 147 The failure envelope for unreinforced clay brick masonry (1a) tensile failure
of bed joints, (2a) shear failure of bed joints, (3a) the tensile cracking of
units, (4) compression failure of masonry, while failure envelope for
reinforced clay brick masonry is given by (2b) shear failure of bed joints, (3b)
tensile cracking of units and (4).compression failure, after Ernst et al. [55]

Haider [73] has carried out numerical and experimental investigation on wide spaced
reinforced masonry WSRM walls that contain vertical reinforced cores at horizontal
spacing up to 2 m.

(a) Masonry Shear wall test (b) Horizontal load-displacement plot

Figure 148 Experimental results of WSRM after Haider [73]


9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry 184

The interaction between the unreinforced masonry panels and vertical reinforced cores
were determined using an elastic finite element analysis. A series of experimental tests
on WSRM under monotonic and cyclic loading has been carried out as well, Figure 148.

9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry

Let us consider the vertically reinforced masonry shear wall with grouted cores subjected
to in-plane vertical and horizontal loads, Figure 149. The vertical reinforcement is
distributed in a consistent way with Mann/Müller shear theory. Therefore, the
compressive stresses that act at the head joints were ignored due to their low negligible
value. Furthermore, the cracking of the units was ignored in order to get more flexibility
in handling the problem.
In what follows, a failure theory based
on force interaction between the
N
different constituents will be given. The
failure theory should determine the
coupled values of σ and τ at which
the failure take place.
In addition to the described failure V σ
criteria by Mann/Müller for
τ
unreinforced masonry, other failure
criteria correspond to the
reinforcement and the grout material
must be introduced.
In order to get an idea about the
initiation of the failure, the elastic
behaviour is adopted with complete
combined work between all
constituents, i.e. units, mortar, grout τ
material and reinforcement. This σ
assumption is true prior to the initial
failure and after which the nonlinear Figure 149 Vertically reinforced masonry
behaviour should be considered. shear wall
9 Reinforced masonry 185

σ2
σ1 ∆σ/2

∆σ/2

τ m
τ max

τ
r r
r

τ b

TG
FR2
φ τ
l/4 FR1

TG h τ r
Reinforcement Rebar

Grout material
o
τ r
o

TG

FR1
TG
FR2

d
pull-out shear stress
τ τ
σ1 ∆ σ/2
distribution

σ2
∆σ/2

Figure 150 The calculation diagram of the stress state for one masonry unit

Therefore, according to the compatibility of strains between units, mortar, grout material
and reinforcement, the following equation is valid, Figure 150:

σ M 1, 2 σ G1, 2 σ R1, 2
ε1, 2 = = = (193)
EM EG ER

where

1,2 indicates that the equation is valid for both loaded sides of the bed joint
in masonry unit

ε 1, 2 strains around the grouted cores

EM , EG , E R Elastic Modulus for masonry units, grout material and reinforcement bars
respectively

σ G1, 2 , σ R1, 2 normal stresses acting on the grout material and reinforcement,
respectively

σ M 1, 2 normal stresses acting on both sides of the bed joint of masonry unit

this yields,
9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry 186

σ G1, 2 = mG ⋅ σ M 1, 2 σ R1, 2 = mR ⋅ σ M 1, 2 (194)

where

EG ER
mG = mR = (195)
EM EM

The equivalent stresses σ 1, 2 can be calculated as

A A − 2 AG − 2 AR
⋅ σ 1, 2 = ⋅ σ M 1, 2 + AG ⋅ σ G1, 2 + AR ⋅ σ R1, 2 (196)
2 2

where

A area of the bed interface of the unit including the grouted core and reinforcement
areas

AG area of cross section of grouted core excluding the reinforcement

AR area of reinforcement

and they are given in the following for circular grouted core

π ⋅ φR2 π
A = b ⋅l AR =
4
AG =
4
(
⋅ φG2 − φ R2 ) (197)

where

b ,l width and length of masonry unit, respectively

φG , φR diameters of the grouted core and the reinforcement, respectively

This yield

σ 1, 2 = (1 − aG − aR ) ⋅ σ M 1, 2 + aG ⋅ σ G1, 2 + aR ⋅ σ R1, 2 (198)

where

2 AG 2 AR
aG = and a R = (199)
A A

By rewriting equation (198) with respect to the stresses on masonry unit σ M 1, 2 and
employing equations (194), it gives:
9 Reinforced masonry 187

σ 1, 2 = [1 + aG ⋅ (mG − 1) + aR ⋅ (mR − 1)]⋅ σ M 1, 2 (200)

By assuming that

1
r1 = (201)
1 + aG ⋅ (mG − 1) + a R ⋅ (mR − 1)

it yields

σ M 1, 2 = r1 ⋅ σ 1, 2 and ∆σ M = r1 ⋅ ∆σ (202)

The normal stresses on the grout and reinforcement respectively are:

σ G1, 2 = r1 ⋅ mG ⋅ σ 1, 2 σ R1, 2 = r1 ⋅ mR ⋅ σ 1, 2 (203)

The same treatment can be also applied to obtain the shear stresses on the unit, the
grouted core and the reinforcement

τ M = r2 ⋅τ τ G = r2 ⋅ nG ⋅τ τ R = r2 ⋅ n R ⋅τ (204)

where

1
r2 = (205)
1 + aG ⋅ (nG − 1) + a R ⋅ (n R − 1)

GG GR
nG = nR = (206)
GM GM

GM , GG and GR are shear moduli for masonry units, grout material and reinforcement
bars, respectively.
The stress difference and the mean stress will be used for prospective formulations

σ1 + σ 2
∆σ = σ 1 − σ 2 and σ = (207)
2

Thus,

∆σ ∆σ
σ1 = σ + and σ 2 = σ − (208)
2 2

By applying the equilibrium of moments around the centre of the unit, it gives:

∆σ
= r ⋅τ (209)
2
9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry 188

where r = 2h / l
The contact forces which act on the grout material and reinforcement can be obtained
with respect to σ 1, 2 using the following equations:

FG1, 2 = AG ⋅ r1 ⋅ mG ⋅ σ 1, 2 FR1, 2 = AR ⋅ r1 ⋅ mR ⋅ σ 1, 2 (210)

Thus, the forces differences which represent the contact forces between the units and
grout material and between the grout material and reinforcement can be written in this
form:

∆FG = AG ⋅ r1 ⋅ mG ⋅ ∆σ ∆FR = AR ⋅ r1 ⋅ mR ⋅ ∆σ (211)

9.4.1 Initial failure surface


The failure can be initiated using the following failure criteria
(1) Tensile cracking of the bed joint

σ M 2 = r1 ⋅ σ 2 ≥ − f tm (212)

Thus,

f tm + r1 ⋅ σ
τ≤ (213)
r ⋅ r1

(2) Shear failure of the bed joint

τ M ≤ c + µ ⋅σ M 2 (214)

Thus,

c + µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ σ
τ≤ (215)
r2 + µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ r

(3) Compression failure of masonry

σ M 1 = r1 ⋅ σ 1 ≤ f m (216)

Thus,

f m − r1 ⋅ σ
τ≤ (217)
r ⋅ r1

(4) Pull-out failure between reinforcement and grout material


To avoid the pull out failure between the reinforcement and the grouting, it must
guarantee that
9 Reinforced masonry 189

∆FR
τr = ≤ τ = α ⋅τ r ,max (218)
π ⋅ φ R ⋅ h r ,m

where τ r ,m = α ⋅ τ r ,max is the mean value for shear bonding stress distribution at failure,
τ r ,max is the maximum shear bonding stress, and α is the transition factor.
By substituting ∆FR from equation (211) into equation (218), it gives

1 l
τ≤ ⋅ ⋅ τ r ,m (219)
mR ⋅ r1 φR

(5) Shear failure in grout material


The shear force that acts on the grout material is

TG = r2 ⋅ nG ⋅ AG ⋅τ ≤ τ G ⋅ AG (220)

Thus,

τG
τ≤ (221)
r2 ⋅ nG

(6) Local compression failure in supporting area of the grouted core


The shear force that acts on the unit generates high local compression on the supporting
area of the grouted core in units

TG = r2 ⋅ nG ⋅ AG ⋅τ (222)

Triangular distribution of local compression stresses is assumed. To avoid the local


compression failure, it must be:

h h
TG ⋅ h ≤ σ c ⋅ φG ⋅ ⋅ (223)
2 3

Therefore,

2 1 h
τ≤ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅σ c (224)
3π r2 ⋅ nR φG

9.4.2 Results of the finite element model


Due to the lack of experiments for the reinforced masonry shear walls, a finite element
model has been created in ANSYS software [8] to get deeper insight into the problem.
Figure 151-a shows the results of analysis for pull-out failure of reinforcement, while
Figure 148–b shows the local compression that might causes the failure.
9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry 190

The existing reinforcement gives more additional tensile bearing capacity for the shear
wall after the tensile cracking of one unit side of the bed joint. The overall system has the
capacity to bear additional shear loads after the failure of the cohesion on one unit side
of the bed joint.
1 1
NODAL SOLUTION NODAL SOLUTION
JUN 3 2007 JUN 3 2007
STEP=1 19:01:41 STEP=1
21:31:11
SUB =1 SUB =1
TIME=.05 TIME=.05
S1 (AVG) S1 (AVG)
DMX =.898E-04 DMX =.435E-04
SMN =-688.535 SMN =-717.435
MX
SMX =3830 SMX =4284

MN

MX

MN

Y
X
Z

-688.535 315.685 1320 2324 3328 -2800 -1556 -311.111 933.333 2178
-186.425 817.795 1822 2826 3830 -2178 -933.333 311.111 1556 2800

(a) pull-out failure of the reinforcement (b) Local compression

Figure 151 FE model in ANSYS for reinforced masonry shear wall, the reinforcement
smeared with grout material

Therefore, different additional cases must be considered in order to get the failure
surface of reinforced masonry after the initial degradation in tensile strength or shear
cohesion of one unit side of the bed joint.

σΜ2
σΜ1 σΜ1
τ Μ2

τ Μ1 τ Μ1
b b

T
φ T
φ
l/4 l/4
T h T h
∆ FR ∆ FR
o o
∆ FR ∆ FR
T T

T T
τ Μ1
τ Μ1
τ Μ2
σΜ1 σΜ1

σΜ2
Case I: tensile crack opening Case II: shear cohesion failure
of one side of the bed joint of one side of the bed joint

Figure 152 The stress state of one unit after the initial failure
9 Reinforced masonry 191

Figure 152 shows the stress state of one unit in Case I: after tensile cracking of one side
of the lower and upper bed joints and in Case II after cohesion failure of one side of the
lower and upper bed joints. Both cases provide new failure criteria that differ from those
obtained for initial failure surface.

9.4.3 Tensile crack opening of one side of the bed joint- Case I
On the cracked side of the bed joint σ M 2 = 0 , consequently

σ 2 = aG ⋅ σ G 2 + aR ⋅ σ R 2 (225)

By assuming

1
r3 = (226)
aG ⋅ mG + a R ⋅ mR

it becomes

σ G 2 = mG ⋅ r3 ⋅ σ 2 σ R 2 = mR ⋅ r3 ⋅ σ 2 (227)

on the cracked side, whereas σ M 1 = r1 ⋅ σ 1 on the other uncracked side, therefore,

σ G1 = r1 ⋅ mG ⋅ σ 1 , σ R1 = r1 ⋅ mR ⋅ σ 1 (228)

The mean shear stress

1
τ= (1 − aG − aR ) ⋅τ M + aG ⋅τ G + aR ⋅τ R (229)
2

1
τ= (1 + aG ⋅ (2nG − 1) + aR ⋅ (2nR − 1) ) ⋅τ M (230)
2

By assuming

2
r4 = (231)
1 + aG ⋅ (2nG − 1) + a R ⋅ (2nR − 1)

it yields,

τ M = r4 ⋅τ τ G = r4 ⋅ nG ⋅ τ τ R = r4 ⋅ nR ⋅ τ (232)

By applying the equilibrium of moments around the centre of the unit, the same equation
(209) will be still valid
9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry 192

(1) Shear failure of the bed joint

τ M1 ≤ c + µ ⋅σ M1 (233)

thus,

c + µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ σ
τ≤ (234)
r4 − µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ r

(2) Pull-out failure between reinforcement and grout material

π
∆FR = φ 2 ⋅ mR ⋅ (r1 ⋅ σ 1 − r3 ⋅ σ 2 ) (235)
4

By substituting σ 1 = σ + r ⋅ τ and σ 2 = σ − r ⋅ τ in equation (235), it gives

π
∆FR = φ 2 ⋅ mR ⋅ [(r1 − r3 ) ⋅ σ + (r1 + r3 ) ⋅ r ⋅τ ] (236)
4

The substituting in equation (218) yields

l 2τ l r3 − r1
τ≤ ⋅ r ,m + ⋅ ⋅σ (237)
φ ⋅ mR r1 + r3 2h r1 + r3

(3) Shear failure in Grout material


The shear force that acts on the grout material is

TG = AG ⋅ r4 ⋅ nG ⋅τ ≤ AG ⋅τ G (238)

thus,

τG
τ≤ (239)
r4 ⋅ nG

(4) Local compression failure in supporting area of the grouted core


The force that produces the local compression in supporting area of the grouted core is:

TG = r4 ⋅ nG ⋅ AG ⋅ τ (240)

To avoid the local compression failure, the following criterion should be guaranteed:

h h
TG ⋅ h ≤ σ c ⋅ φ ⋅ ⋅ (241)
2 3
9 Reinforced masonry 193

consequently,

2 1 h
τ≤ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅σ c (242)
3π r4 ⋅ nG φG

9.4.4 Shear cohesion failure of one side of the bed joint- Case II
Figure 152 shows the stress state of one unit after the cohesion failure of one side of the
lower and upper bed joints. On the failed side of the bed joint the cohesion vanishes with
τ M 2 = µ ⋅σ M 2
The mean shear stress on bed joint is given by

1
τ= (1 − aG − aR ) ⋅τ M 1 + 1 (1 − aG − aR ) ⋅ µ ⋅ σ M 2 + aG ⋅τ G + aR ⋅τ R (243)
2 2

It gives

τ M 1 = r4 ⋅τ − r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ σ M 2 (244)

where

r4
r5 = (1 − aG − aR ) (245)
2

(1) Shear failure of the bed joint

τ M1 ≤ c + µ ⋅σ M1 (246)

thus,

r4 ⋅ τ − r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ σ 2 ≤ c + µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ σ 1 (247)

r4 ⋅τ − r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ (σ − r ⋅τ ) ≤ c + µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ (σ + r ⋅τ ) (248)

(r4 − r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ r − µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ r ) ⋅τ ≤ c + (r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 + µ ⋅ r1 ) ⋅ σ (249)

It gives

c µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ (r5 + 1)
τ≤ + σ (250)
r4 − r ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ (r5 + 1) r4 − r ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ (r5 + 1)

(2) Pull-out failure between reinforcement and grout material


This failure mode can be described according to equation (219), the same like the case
of initial failure.
9.4 A shear failure theory for vertically reinforced masonry 194

(3) Shear failure of the grout material


To prevent this failure mode it must be guaranteed that:

TG
= nG ⋅ τ M 1 ≤ τ G (251)
AG

By inserting equation (244), it gives

nG ⋅ r4 ⋅ τ − nG ⋅ r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ σ M 2 ≤ τ G (252)

thus,

σ M 2 = r1 ⋅ (σ − r ⋅ τ ) (253)

By substituting in equation (252), it gives

nG ⋅ r4 ⋅τ − nG ⋅ r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ (σ − r ⋅τ ) ≤ τ G (254)

nG ⋅ (r4 + r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ r ) ⋅τ ≤ τ G + nG ⋅ r5 ⋅ µ ⋅ r1 ⋅ σ (255)

Consequently,

τG r5 ⋅ r1 ⋅ µ
τ≤ + ⋅σ (256)
nG ⋅ r4 + nG ⋅ r5 ⋅ r1 ⋅ µ ⋅ r r4 + r5 ⋅ r1 ⋅ µ ⋅ r

(4) Local compression failure in supporting area of the grouted core


The shear force on the grouted core is:

TG = AG ⋅ nG ⋅ τ M 1 (257)

By substituting in equation (223), it gives

h2
τ M1 ≤ σ c ⋅ (258)
φG 3π ⋅ nG

By substituting of equation (244) in equation (258), the following can be obtained

h 2
(r4 + r5 ⋅ r1 ⋅ µ ⋅ r ) ⋅ τ ≤ σ c ⋅ + r ⋅ r ⋅ µ ⋅σ (259)
φG 3π ⋅ nG 5 1

Consequently,

1 ⎡ h 2 ⎤
τ≤ ⎢σ c ⋅ + r5 ⋅ r1 ⋅ µ ⋅ σ ⎥ (260)
r4 + r5 ⋅ r1 ⋅ µ ⋅ r ⎣ φG 3π ⋅ nG ⎦
9 Reinforced masonry 195

9.4.5 The failure surface


As has been presented in previous sections, one failure surface gives no real description
for all possible failure modes in the reinforced masonry system. However, the failure
surface varies according to the state of damage. Case I and case II bring out additional
critical information for the state of failure surface. Figure 153 shows plots of the resultant
failure surfaces from initial failure, from case I and from case II. The stress space can be
divided into domains. Each one is controlled by specific failure surface. The transition
from one failure surface to another is possible by introducing the damage law after the
initial failure. However, if case I dominates the failure then any increase in the tensile
capacity will be accompanied with a decrease in shear capacity.

τ
Shear Stress

initial failure surface


hardening
softening

failure surface of Case II


area of enhancement

hardening failure due to compression

failure surface of Case I


failure surface of unreinforced
masonry from Mann/Müller
normal stress
σ

region dominated by region dominated by region dominated by initial failures


Case I Case II

Figure 153 Variation of the failure surface of vertically reinforced masonry shear wall

Additional cases can be also considered like the complete tensile failure of the bed
joints, and the complete shear failure of the bed joints. The above described theory does
not give distinct determination for the limit of failure. Nevertheless, this theory gives the
current state of failure surface under the current damage conditions.
An important result of this theory is that, the plastic potential theory (Huber-von Mises
theory) is not valid for masonry and this theory gives no real description of the
homogenized material of composites.

9.5 Modelling strategies of reinforced masonry


Various modelling approaches have been proposed for masonry. Nevertheless, the
inclusion of the reinforcement into the model is still challenging, and fraught with
difficulties, consequently, reinforced masonry is still lacking in literature.
In analogue with modelling strategies that have been proposed for reinforced concrete
models, the following modelling strategies can be employed for the reinforced masonry:
discrete modelling and smeared modelling.
9.5 Modelling strategies of reinforced masonry 196

9.5.1 Discrete modelling


In discrete modelling, the reinforcement can be modelled by means of bar elements, and
masonry can be modelled using solid elements (2D or 3D). The nodes of reinforcement
bars must be merged with masonry elements through the shared nodes, Figure 154-a.
The restriction to create shared nodes might result in some inflexibility in mesh
generation. However, it is not quite accurate to apply full bonding between the
reinforcement and masonry mesh. The bonding model can be represented by dummy
spring elements that connect the duplicated nodes from reinforcement and masonry.
The spring element has no dimension and serves only as a breakable linkage between
reinforcement and masonry. Therefore, the failure model is the most important part of
spring element.

nodes of reinforcement bar

sheared node between


reinforcement and unit

points of compatible
displacements between
reinforced bar element
reinforcement and unit

unit finite element


reinforced bar element

(a) Discrete reinforcement model (b) Embedded reinforcement model

Figure 154 Discrete modelling of reinforced masonry

In order to avoid the restriction of node sharing between reinforcement and masonry, an
embedded formulation can be introduced. In the embedded formulation, the intersection
points of reinforcement bar with the segments of masonry elements are first identified
and then used to create the nodal locations of the reinforcement elements, Figure 154-b.
Brookes et al. [29], have utilized the partially constrained spar formulation to model
reinforcement independently from masonry. The connection between the reinforcement
and masonry meshes was achieved through a non-linear bond element. The
arrangement of reinforcement is automated without the need for topologically consistent
element meshes.
In LS-DYNA [112], (also Hallquist [75]) the following methods can be employed for
modelling the reinforcement of masonry:
9 Reinforced masonry 197

(1) Truss elements tied to solids by one dimensional contact


The 1D Contact was originally developed to offer bond slip failure for modelling
reinforced concrete. In addition, it is possible to employ this feature for reinforced
masonry. The principle of this contact model is to allow the sliding of reinforcement
nodes along masonry nodes, where the sliding initiates after the rebar debonds. The
bond model is assumed to be elastic perfectly plastic. The maximum allowable slip strain
is given as:

u = γ max ⋅ eα ⋅κ (261)

Where

κ damage parameter κ n +1 = κ n + ∆u

γ max maximum shear strain

α exponent in damage curve

The shear force that acts on the area As of the reinforcement at time n + 1 is given as:

f n+1 = min( f n − Gb ⋅ As ⋅ ∆u , Gb ⋅ As ⋅ u ) (262)

where Gb is bond shear modulus.

(2) Constrained Lagrange in solid


This constrained method has been developed for modelling the fluid structure interaction
and frequently used to embed the reinforcement rebar inside concrete element, Abu
Odeh [2]. The reinforcement mesh maintained to be fixed within the solid elements.
However, the bond slip failure has not been considered in this formulation.
For masonry, the reinforcement can be treated as a slave material that is linked to the
master material of masonry by means of ‘constrained Lagrange in solid’. Both masonry
and reinforcement mesh must be Lagrangian.
(3) Constrained spotweld
The spotweld provides a breakable connection for the nodal points of the nodal pairs.
The failure force at which the spotweld is failing can be regarded as the pull-out force of
reinforcement, LS-DYNA [112].
(4) Discrete beam elements with nonlinear plastic discrete beam material to simulate
failure of the beams.
Although several methods are available in LS-DYNA to build embedded discrete models
of reinforcement concrete, care should be taken when applying these methods on
reinforced masonry by considering the correct bonding behaviour between reinforcement
and masonry.
9.6 Verification of retrofitting measures by collapse analysis 198

9.5.2 Smeared modelling


The approach of smeared
smeared unreinforced
representation of composite materials masonry model
in one homogenous material has been
widely used in many engineering fields,
smeared reinforced
Figure 155. masonry model

The smeared approach integrates the


reinforcement with masonry in one finite
element. The resultant element has to
be constructed from the individual
properties of masonry and
reinforcement using composite theory.
This technique has been often applied
to large structures, where the reinforced
details are not essential to capture the
overall response of the structure.
Haider [73] has developed numerical
tool in ABAQUS for smeared modelling
of WSRM shear walls.
Figure 155 Homogenized modelling of
In LS-DYNA, many material models reinforced masonry
which can represent the reinforced
concrete include an option to represent
the reinforcement in a smeared fashion. However, the material models that represent
reinforced masonry or even unreinforced masonry in smeared approach are missing in
LS-DYNA.

9.6 Verification of retrofitting measures by collapse analysis


9.6.1 The case study
Bam Citadel was the largest adobe building in the world, located in bam, a city in
Kerman province of southeastern Iran. It is listed by UNESCO as a part of the World
Heritage Site ‘Bam and its Cultural Landscape’. This enormous citadel was built some
time before 500 BC and remained in use until 1850 AD.
On December, 26th 2003, the citadel was severely destroyed by 6.5 Richter scale
earthquake, where more than 90 % of the (sun-dried) adobe masonry structures have
been collapsed, leaving ruins with only a few remaining walls and piers, Figure 156.
Several efforts were devoted by the Iranian authorities and the international community
to reconstruct the collapsed citadel, however, the adobe material that the citadel was
built from, is very weak material to survive the forthcoming earthquakes. Therefore, a
special reinforcement technique must be incorporated with the original adobe masonry.
Within the frame of the reconstruction of Bam citadel by international experts, the
German team took part in Sistani’s House. In order to develop a strengthening
methodology for Sistani’s House, two rooms R 0.11 and R 0.12 in the northwest corner
were selected as a case study, Figure 157.
9 Reinforced masonry 199

Figure 156 Bam citadel before and after the earthquake of 2003, Jäger et al. [85]

(a) (b)

(c)

Figure 157 Sistani’s House, (a) the ground plan, selected part for the pilot project is
marked in red, Jäger et al.[85], (b) 3D view, Einifar [52], (c) after the
earthquake, the debris are removed, Jäger et al.[85]

In the following study, collapse analysis has been employed, first to explore the weakest
points in the structure, and then to develop the reinforcement which makes the structure
sustainable for the forthcoming earthquakes.
9.6 Verification of retrofitting measures by collapse analysis 200

9.6.2 Description of the model


The structure elements (thick walls,
vaults and piers) comprise a big
number of bricks. Therefore, the
generation of geometry brick by brick
will be highly consuming, rather than
the geometry of the bricks is not
known before. As a result, the micro
modelling strategy is impossible to be
applied in such case, Bakeer et al.
[12]. An alternative remedy that can
overcome the problem is to employ
macro modelling, which needs few
modelling efforts for large structures. Figure 158 Construction of adobe masonry
It reduces the model size and
wall, Jäger et al.[85]
calculation time as well.

In adobe masonry, mud mortar has


been used to assemble the mud
bricks, Figure 158. This point planes of
toward getting material discretization
continuation in between the units
and mortar, and to get
contact
approximately similar mechanical interface
characteristic for masonry in
orthogonal directions as well. Discrete
element
Since the structure has been
destroyed by the earthquake of
2003, the creation of the geometry
will be based on the available data Figure 159 discretization of adobe masonry wall
in the site for the remaining parts,
and the available pictures before the collapse.

(a) (b)

Figure 160 The generated model (a) the discretized geometry (b) the finite element
mesh
9 Reinforced masonry 201

The whole geometry of the structure is discretized into discrete elements by means of
CAD tools, Figure 159. Each two adjacent discrete elements are sharing a contact
interface which ties both interface elements prior to the failure. This intends to get
separation of the tied discrete elements after the failure of contact take place. Those
interfaces are representing the locations of potential cracks. Without those interfaces the
calculation process terminates, due to large deformations of finite elements at failure.
LS- DYNA tiebreak contact model
which described in section 5.2 has
mass density ρ = 1.8 T / m3
been used to model the planes of
failure. Tiebreak contact is active for
elastic modulus E = 1800 MPa
nodes which are initially in contact.
The slave nodes are sticking
Poisson ratio ν = 0.25
permanently until reaching the failure
criterion, after which, this contact G = 720 MPa
shear modulus
option behaves as frictional contact.
unloading bulk modulus k = 5400 MPa
The discretization was performed in a
regular manner, so that, to get regular
p c = 0.35 MPa
geometrical shapes, and to avoid cut u. tensile strength
angles, Figure 160-a. The bad mesh
f c = 1.5 MPa
causes problems with handling the u. compressive strength
contact. In addition, the finite elements
have been generated in a mapped u. shear strength τ u = 0.35 MPa
manner to the discrete elements,
where, eight-nodded brick finite friction coefficient µ = 0.6
element with a single integration point
has been used, Figure 160-b. This Table 14 Material properties
avoids getting early negative volumes
problems that terminate the calculation in explicit solvers.
The soil and foam constitutive model which described in section 5.4.2 has been
employed for modelling adobe masonry. The material properties of adobe masonry that
used in our model are based on Taheri [180] , Kiyono et al. [92] and Jäger et al.[85] and
given in Table 14.
To find the values of a0 , a1 and a2 of the yield surface equation (138), from the
available material parameters, the following simplifications have been introduced.
From the cohesion c and the friction angel φ of the direct shear test, the following
equation will be valid by considering Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion

σ1 − σ 3 σ1 + σ 3
= sin φ + c ⋅ cos φ (263)
2 2

Therefore, by rewriting equation (263) with respect to ∆σ and p and by equating with
equation (138) at p = 0 , it gives

3 cos φ
∆σ = 3 a0 + a1 p + a2 p 2 = 2c ⋅ (264)
p =0
p =0 3 + sin φ
9.6 Verification of retrofitting measures by collapse analysis 202

The slope of the ( ∆σ , p ) curve at p = 0 gives

∂∆σ 2a2 p + a1 12 sin φ


= 3 = (265)
∂p p =0 2 a0 + a1 p + a2 p 2 3 + sin φ
p =0

From the uniaxial compression test ( σ 1 = f cm and σ 2 = σ 3 = 0 ), the parameter a2 can be


obtained by setting

σ1 + σ 2 + σ 3 f cm
∆σ = σ 1 − σ 2 = f cm at p = = (266)
3 3

9.6.3 The earthquake


The data for the accelerogram
of Bam earthquake (05:26 on 26
December 2003 in Bam city,
Kerman State, Iran) was taken
from the records of the Bam
accelerograph station record
No.: 3168/02, BHRC [202]. The
epicentre was located at 29.01
N and 58.26 E.
The total duration of the
earthquake action was 66.55
sec, and had a magnitude of
MW 6.5 (Ms 6.7 USGS). The
peak accelerations of
longitudinal, transversal, and
vertical components were 778.2,
623.4, and 979.9 (gal),
respectively, Kiyono et al. [92].
The up and down motion of the
vertical component has been
showed a very large amplitude.
The direction of the
accelerometer of the component
(L) was N278E, which was
showing vibration approximately
in east-west direction.
To reduce the solution time, the
Figure 161 Records No.: 3168/02 from Bam
calculations have been
accelerograph station for earthquake of
concerned in the period from
15.7 sec to 30 sec, where the 26/12/ 2003, BHRC [202]
maximum acceleration values
are located in this period, Figure 161.
9 Reinforced masonry 203

9.6.4 Collapse analysis of unreinforced structure


In order to explore the performance of the unreinforced structure which collapsed under
the earthquake of 2003, the collapse analysis technique has been carried out on the
unreinforced structure.
The collapse of the structure is presented in Figure 162, Appendix C1. The collapse
analysis of the structure shows that the collapse initiates in the longitudinal direction of
the earthquake which is approximately in our model x axis. This was due to the relatively
big acceleration at the beginning of earthquake. A few seconds later, the walls, which
are perpendicular to the transversal earthquake direction, were collapsed due to the
increase of earthquake intensities at this time along transversal direction. This order of
collapse sequence agrees with the finding on the site, where the falling debris point out
that the direction of the collapse is mainly along east-west direction.
The collapse goes on due to out of plane failure of the walls, this agrees with the failure
mode that described in Kiyono et al. [92] for the adobe masonry buildings in Bam. The
relatively high value of friction coefficient 0.54~0.62 causes this mode of collapse.

Figure 162 Collapse state of the structure at time T=18.80 Sec

9.6.5 Verification of antiseismic reinforcement by collapse analysis


The collapse analysis of unreinforced structure shows that the collapse is mainly initiated
due to out of plane failure of the walls. This kind of failure is possible in such form of
structures due to the existing of vaults. Therefore, the capacity of the structure can be
enhanced to resist out of plane actions by adding ring reinforcement. The vertical
reinforcement enhances the integrity and the load bearing capacity as well.
Glass fibre nets with clay-cement grout are supposed to be used as reinforcement,
where a series of experimental pull-out tests was carried out in order to determine the
proper reinforcement and the grout material to be used with adobe masonry, Jäger et al.
[85]. The reinforcement built in 36 cm into the wall, which is the tested anchor length. In
case of standard glass fibre net built into drill hole d=30 mm, the average maximum pull-
out force for clay-cement grout was 9 KN, Figure 163.
9.6 Verification of retrofitting measures by collapse analysis 204

(a) (b)

Figure 163 Pull out test of reinforcement (a) test setup, (b) pull-out force versus
displacement plot for glass fibre nets using different grout material, Jäger et
al. [85]

In order to simulate the pull-out failure of reinforcement, breakable bars that can be
linked to masonry elements via the nodes along the reinforcement locations are utilized.
Although, LS-DYNA provides various possibilities for modelling the reinforcement, each
has its drawback, section 9.5.1. However the spotweld linkage has been defined along a
string of nodes which belong to each reinforced discrete element. The distance between
the pair nodes linked by a spotweld is 0.5 m.

Vault
reinforcement

Horizontal
reinforcement

Vertical
reinforcement

Figure 164 Reinforcement arrangement for the room 11

The reinforcement has been calculated step by step, several reinforcement trials were
tested by collapse analysis on Room11. Figure 164 shows the reinforcement
arrangement (horizontal ring reinforcement, vertical reinforcement, and vault
9 Reinforced masonry 205

reinforcement) that is used for the trials,


where the spotweld failure force which Maximum bonding force (KN / 50 cm)
produces pull out of the reinforcement is
Trial Horizontal Vertical Vault Reinf.
given in Table 15. No. Reinf. Reinf.
In the first trial, a simple reinforcement
has been added at corners just to #1 10 only vertical at corners
examine the behaviour of reinforced parts,
#2 10 10 -
Figure 165, (Appendix C2).
In the second trial vertical and horizontal #3 50 10 -
reinforcement were added to the walls,
the final remains were showed that some #4 100 25 -
walls were remained at the end of
#5 100 25 25
earthquake, other walls were collapsed
partially and the vaults were collapsed
Table 15 Reinforcement bonding
due to progressive collapse, Figure 166,
capacity
(Appendix C3). The reinforcement was
enough for some walls, and it must be
increased for others. The horizontal ring reinforcement has been increased in the third
trial and it was found to be not enough, where the ring reinforcement was failed, Figure
167, (Appendix C4).

Figure 165 Reinforcement trial #1, the Figure 166 Reinforcement trial #2, the
collapse state at T=17.89 Sec collapse state at T=22.71 Sec

Figure 167 Reinforcement trial #3, the Figure 168 Reinforcement trial #4, the
collapse state at T=19.61 Sec collapse state at T=24.23 Sec
9.7 Concluding remarks 206

In the forth trial the walls of the room were


showed good stability but the vaults were
partially collapsed and showed large
deformations, Figure 168, (Appendix C5).
Thus, one task must be achieved for the
next step which was to add reinforcement
into the vaults, Figure 169, (Appendix C6).
The reinforcement positions in the last
models are the centres of the glass fibre
bars. For the design of the glass fibre
reinforcement the average maximum pull-
out force per 0.5 m is considered which Figure 169 Reinforcement trial #5, the
equals to 9 × 0.5 / 0.36 = 12.5 KN . collapse state at T=24.19 Sec
The other room 12 was handled in similar
manner. The reinforcement distribution can be seen in Figure 170.

Figure 170 Reinforcement arrangement for the room 12

9.7 Concluding remarks


The combination of reinforcement with masonry enhances the load bearing capacity and
produces better ductile failure behaviour under the higher seismic intensities. Several
issues related to reinforced masonry have been presented and discussed in this chapter.
A novel theory of the shear failure behaviour of vertically reinforced masonry shear walls
has been presented. The proposed theory is based on the force interaction between the
different constituents. The elastic behaviour has been adopted with complete combined
work between all constituents. In contrast to the failure theories of reinforced masonry in
9 Reinforced masonry 207

literature, the proposed theory gives an idealization for the behaviour after the initial
failure. The previous works, attempt to describe the progress of damage in masonry or
reinforced masonry by means of plasticity theory based on plastic potential assumption
(Huber-von Mises theory). This assumption is revealed to be used with low level of
inhomogeneity, but for composite materials like masonry or reinforced masonry there are
big inhomogeneity. Therefore, the material models based on this assumption perhaps
give prediction for the behaviour near initial failure, but after which the model ceases to
describe this phase. The proposed theory is an attempt to describe the behaviour of
reinforced masonry shear walls after initial failure and confirms that, the order of damage
occurrence is not possible to be described only by one failure surface.
The modelling of reinforcement masonry in discrete or smeared fashion has been
discussed as well. A real case study from the earthquake of Bam, 2003 has been
presented. The collapse analysis of two rooms in the adobe citadel of Bam has been
preformed and the necessary reinforcement of the structure has been developed by
means of collapse analysis.
Modelling of reinforcement is still an absent subject in finite element packages. The
current tools in use have been developed primarily for modelling problems other than
reinforcement.
10 Conclusions and recommendations 209

10 Conclusions and recommendations


In this study, attempts have been made to develop numerical models capable to
simulate the collapse of large scale masonry structures under earthquake actions, which
can not be achieved experimentally. Most of research activities in few recent years were
adopted plasticity and homogenization theories for simulating the performance of large
scale masonry structures and fewer attempts were made in the field of discrete
modelling. The reasons for that have been described in section 2.5.
One of the challenging problems in collapse simulation using finite element method is
that, the model undergoes large deformations during collapse. Such problem causes the
termination of calculation in the finite element codes. The numerical techniques which
allow the emergence of discontinuities have been adopted for this purpose. The
combined finite-discrete element method which merges finite element method with the
algorithms of discrete element method allows the transition from continua to discontinua.
This method has been employed for simulation the collapse through LS-DYNA code.
The constitutive models of masonry constituents have been studied and a smooth yield
surface has been proposed for the cohesive material model to be used with interface
elements. The proposed model is multi yield surface but does not need any further
treatment of the transition points. It reduces the computation time and avoids the
treatments of corners. The proposed model has been implemented into the explicit
solver of LS-DYNA.
Attention has been given to mesh free methods as well, where SPH method has been
adopted for masonry. The obtained results for simulating a masonry shear wall have
been proofed the ability to represent all failure modes even the crushing under high
compression and the fragmentation of the material without any numerical problems. One
drawback of this method is the need to large numbers of particles for simulating
masonry, even if the model is small the computation time will be relatively big, and the
accuracy is less than that in finite element method.
A validation of the adopted models has been performed through the results of dynamic
tests of two large scale masonry structures. The developed numerical models thus, have
been offered investigations for the performance of large scale masonry structure under
the seismic actions. The failure in masonry structure has been initiated by tensile
cracking of the walls perpendicular to the shear walls, which behaviour is responsible for
the collapse.
Collapse analysis of large scale historical masonry structure has been performed with an
aim to explore the effect of different earthquake characteristics on the structure.
Unidirectional earthquakes have been applied from many directions in order to explore
the weakest direction of the structure. The effect of frequency content of the earthquake
has been explored, where the structure was showed better performance for higher
frequency contents.
A novel theory for the shear failure behaviour of vertically reinforced masonry shear
walls has been presented. In contrast to the failure theories of reinforced masonry in
literature, the proposed theory gives an idealization for the behaviour after the initial
failure. The previous works attempt to describe the progress of damage in masonry or
reinforced masonry by means of plasticity theory which based on plastic potential
assumption (Huber-von Mises theory). This assumption has been revealed to be used
9.7 Concluding remarks 210

with low level of inhomogeneity, but for composite materials like masonry or reinforced
masonry there are big inhomogeneity.
A real case study from the earthquake of Bam, 2003 has been presented. The collapse
analysis of two rooms in the adobe citadel of Bam has been preformed and the
necessary reinforcement of the structure has been developed by means of collapse
analysis.
Recommendations for prospective works
Further research can be pursued in the following directions:
(1) Solution strategies
The contact formulation is more appropriate for representing the post failure
behaviour than interface elements. It emphasizes, therefore, to offer possibility
for implementing user contact models into LS-DYNA in next versions. This allows
the researchers from different research fields to develop their own constitutive
models.
The progressive crack growth methods in fracture mechanics like Virtual Crack
Closure Technique VCCT and Discrete Cohesive Zone Models DCZM, are highly
recommended for further research work, where such methods are not embedded
in most of finite element codes. In order to study the effect of dynamic events that
cause high local distortion, failure or fragmentation, the features of the mesh free
methods are urged.
(2) Constitutive models
Masonry materials have a feature of increasing their shear strength by increasing
the confined pressure. This feature characterizes the general behaviour of geo-
materials. Several finite element codes comprise material models that cover a
wide range of geo-materials, like concrete, soils. The possibility to employ these
material models for masonry is related to the availability of enough experimental
data to get the material parameters. For example, the general triaxial empirical
laws of many masonry materials are absent in literature, therefore it is
recommended to do further research in this direction.
When developing material models at macro level, care should be taken for the
use of plasticity theory. The plastic strain flow rule of plastic potential theory
(Huber-von Mises theory) is not valid for masonry for post failure behaviour.
So far, the developed material models at macro level were for special cases, in-
plane shear loading, or out-of-plane loading. The combination of both load
regimes is absent in literature and further research works are needed in this
direction.
It has been proofed that the smooth yield surfaces are computationally stable
and efficient for implementation. It is recommended thus to apply the smooth
functions to represent the yield surface, which is especially recommended for
explicit solvers like LS-DYNA, where the material subroutine will be called in time
steps smaller than those in implicit solvers.
(3) The seismic performance of masonry structures
There is lack in design guidelines in standards for considering the effect of the
combined work of masonry shear walls with the transversal walls. The numerical
10 Conclusions and recommendations 211

models have been demonstrated that the failure of the structure can be initiated
due to the tensile cracking of the transversal walls but not due to the low capacity
of the shear walls.
The effect of earthquake direction on the structure is of great importance. There
are already some engineering methods in this direction. It is not easy to
determine the direction of the prospective earthquakes. However, it is
recommended to introduce some parameters based on the available data of the
geology, the fault system and the seismic history in the region to develop design
guidelines that consider the earthquake direction.
This study has been primarily focused on the effect of frequency content of the
earthquake and the other factors, which are related to soil-structure interactions,
are not considered. The soft soil dissipates a great amount of the kinetic energy
of the earthquake. Furthermore, the other phenomena which occur due to the
failure of soil and liquefaction should be considered for more detailed study.
(4) Reinforced masonry
The discrete modelling of reinforcement or reinforcement-masonry bonding
models are lacking in literature. The available tools in finite element packages
have been developed primarily for modelling problems other than reinforcement.
It is recommended therefore to consider this issue for further research in this
direction.
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Appendixes 227

Appendixes
Numerical Simulation Results

Appendix A1- Collapse of Athens model .................................................................... 229


Appendix A2- Ispra model under earthquake of 34%g .............................................. 232
Appendix A3- Ispra model under earthquake of 40%g .............................................. 235
Appendix A4- Ispra model under earthquake of 26%g, no mortar............................. 239
Appendix A5- Ispra model under earthquake of Horz. =26%g and Ver. =40%g ....... 242
Appendix B1- Collapse simulation of the Mosque of Takiyya al-Sulaymaniyya ........ 245
Appendix B2- The effect of the earthquake direction ................................................. 247
Appendix B3- The effect of frequency contents of the earthquake ............................ 250
Appendix C1- Part of Sistai’s House under the earthquake of Bam 2003................. 253
Appendix C2- Reinforcement trial 1............................................................................ 255
Appendix C3- Reinforcement trial 2............................................................................ 256
Appendix C4- Reinforcement trial 3............................................................................ 257
Appendix C5- Reinforcement trial 4............................................................................ 258
Appendix C6- Reinforcement trial 5............................................................................ 259
Appendixes 229

Appendix A1- Collapse of Athens model

collapse state at time=110.75 sec collapse state at time=112.20 sec

collapse state at time=112.70 sec collapse state at time=113.10 sec


Appendixes 230

collapse state at time=113.60 sec collapse state at time=114.70 sec

collapse state at time=115.15 sec collapse state at time=116.05 sec


Appendixes 231

collapse state at time=116.40 sec collapse state at time=120.00 sec


Appendixes 232

Appendix A2- Ispra model under earthquake of 34%g

The state of the structure at time=3.85 sec, the deformations are scaled 10 times,

The state of the structure at time=4.55 sec, the deformations are scaled 10 times

The state of the structure at time=4.80 sec, the deformations are scaled 10 times
Appendixes 233

The state of the structure at time=6.05 sec, the deformations are scaled 10 times

The state of the structure at time=9.45 sec

The state of the structure at time=10.75


Appendixes 234

The state of the structure at time=11.95 sec

The state of the structure at time=14.95 sec


Appendixes 235

Appendix A3- Ispra model under earthquake of 40%g

The state of the structure at time 3.3 sec. The displacements are scaled 10 times. The
collapse initiated primarily due to the tensile failure in the transversal walls.

The state of the structure at time 3.5 sec for 40%g acceleration.

The state of the structure at time 4.5 sec for 40%g acceleration.
Appendixes 236

The state of the structure at time 4.85 sec. Out of plan failure of the transversal wall

The state of the structure at time 5.5 sec.

State of the structure at time 6.5 sec.


Appendixes 237

The state of the structure at time 7.5 sec.

The state of the structure at time 8.5 sec.

The state of the structure at time 8.85 sec.


Appendixes 238

The state of the structure at time 9.5 sec.

The state of the structure at time 11.5 sec for 40%g acceleration.

The state of the structure at time 12.2 sec.


Appendixes 239

Appendix A4- Ispra model under earthquake of 26%g, no mortar.

The state of the structure at time 3.15 sec.

The state of the structure at time 6.05 sec.

The state of the structure at time 6.55 sec.


Appendixes 240

The state of the structure at time 8.55 sec.

The state of the structure at time 10.55 sec

The state of the structure at time 11.20 sec.


Appendixes 241

The state of the structure at time 11.45 sec.

The state of the structure at time 15.50 sec.


Appendixes 242

Appendix A5- Ispra model under earthquake of Horz=26%g and


Ver.=40%g

The state of the structure at time 5.95 sec

The state of the structure at time 8.55 sec

The state of the structure at time 9.00 sec


Appendixes 243

The state of the structure at time 9.45 sec

The state of the structure at time 9.95 sec

The state of the structure at time 10.25 sec.


Appendixes 244

The state of the structure at time 10.85 sec

The state of the structure at time 14.45 sec

The state of the structure at time 15.4 sec


Appendixes 245

Appendix B1- Collapse simulation of the Mosque of Takiyya al-


Sulaymaniyya

The state of the structure at time=4 sec The state of the structure at time=5 sec

The state of the structure at time=6 sec The state of the structure at time=7 sec

The state of the structure at time=8 sec The state of the structure at time=9 sec
Appendixes 246

The state of the structure at time=10 sec The state of the structure at time=11 sec

The state of the structure at time=12 sec The state of the structure at time=13 sec

The state of the structure at time=14 sec The state of the structure at time=15 sec
Appendixes 247

Appendix B2- The effect of the earthquake direction

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=3 sec

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=4 sec

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=5 sec


Appendixes 248

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=6 sec

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=7 sec

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=8 sec


Appendixes 249

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=9 sec

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=10 sec

o o o
θ=0 θ=90 θ=45

The state of the structure at time=11 sec


Appendixes 250

Appendix B3- The effect of frequency contents of the earthquake

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=3 sec

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=4 sec

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=5 sec


Appendixes 251

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=6 sec

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=7 sec

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=8 sec


Appendixes 252

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=9 sec

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=10 sec

Soil profile Soil profile Soil profile


SA Sc SE

The state of the structure at time=11 sec


Appendixes 253

Appendix C1- Part of Sistai’s House under the earthquake of


Bam 2003.

(1) T=17.37 Sec

(2) T=17.65 Sec

(3) T=17.94 Sec

(4) T=18,32 Sec


Appendixes 254

(5) T=18.80 Sec

(6) T=19.28 Sec

(7) T=19.66 Sec

(8) T=21.47 Sec


Appendixes 255

Appendix C2- Reinforcement trial 1

(1) T=17.89 Sec (2) T=18.27 Sec

(3) T=18.75 Sec (4) T=19.61 Sec


Appendixes 256

Appendix C3- Reinforcement trial 2

(1) T=20.42 Sec (2) T=21.42 Sec

(3) T=21.85 Sec (4) T=22.71 Sec


Appendixes 257

Appendix C4- Reinforcement trial 3

(1) T=17.89 Sec (2) T=18.27 Sec

(3) T=18.75 Sec (4) T=19.61 Sec


Appendixes 258

Appendix C5- Reinforcement trial 4

(1) T=18.75 Sec (2) T=21.42 Sec

(3) T=23.28 Sec (4) T=24.23 Sec


Appendixes 259

Appendix C6- Reinforcement trial 5

(1) T=17.89 Sec (2) T=19.23 Sec

(3) T=20.42 Sec (4) T=24.19 Sec


261

Tammam Bakeer

Born on January 1st, 1980 in Homs, Syria

1985 – 1991 Basic Elementary School, Homs, Syria


1991 – 1994 Preparatory School, Homs, Syria
1994 – 1997 Secondary School, Homs, Syria
1997 – 2002 Bsc, Civil Engineering, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria
2002 – 2003 Diploma, Structural Engineering, Al-Baath University, Homs, Syria
2003 – 2006 Scientific Assistant at Al-Baath University, Faculty of Civil Engineering
2006 – 2008 PhD candidate at Dresden University of Technology, Faculty of
Architecture, Chair of Structural Design
Since 2008 Research assistant at Dresden University of Technology, Faculty of
Architecture, Chair of Structural Design
262

Schriftenreihe des Lehrstuhls Tragwerksplanung, TU Dresden


Publication Series of the Chair of Structural Design, TU Dresden
Bauforschung und Baupraxis
From Research to Practice in Construction
Previously published in this series:

Heft 1: Burkert, T.
Untersuchungen zur baukonstruktiven Ausbildung und zum
Verwitterungsverhalten der Kuppeldeckschicht beim Wiederaufbau der
Frauenkirche zu Dresden
Juni 2002

Heft 2: Jäger, W.; Lippert, A.; Rietzschel, L.; Wendland, D.


Traditional and Innovative Structures in Architecture
Februar 2004

Heft 3: Jäger, W.; Burkert, T.; Kallis, K.-H.; Heidelmann, H.


Verwendung modifizierter Siliciumdioxid-Nanosole zum Schutz und zur
Konsolidierung von umweltgeschädigten Kulturgütern aus sächsichem
Elbsandstein am Beispiel der Skulpturen der Fasanerie Moritzburg
August 2004

Heft 4: Scheidig, K.
Die Berechnung von Maß- und Toleranzketten im Bauwesen
Dezember 2005

Heft 5: Pflücke, T.
Traglastbestimmung druckbeanspruchter Mauerwerkswände am
Ersatzstabmodell unter wirklichkeitsnaher Berücksichtigung des
Materialverhaltens
Januar 2006

Heft 6: Müller, H.
Zur mechanischen Verhaltensanalyse von Tragwerken: SATRA-DGL, STATRA-
FEM und FALT-FEM – war da noch was? Eine grobe Übersicht mit Beispielen
April 2006

Heft 7: Baier, G.
Der Wand-Decken-Knoten im Mauerwerksbau: Verfahren zur realistischen
Bestimmung der Lastexzentrizität in den Wänden
Februar 2007