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Post-Newtonian Approximation

Its Foundation and Applications

Hideki Asada and Toshifumi Futamase

Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-01

Astronomical Institute, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University

Sendai 980-77, Japan

We discuss various aspects of the post-Newtonian approximation in general relativity.

After presenting the foundation based on the Newtonian limit, we use the (3+1) formalism to

formulate the post-Newtonian approximation for the perfect
uid. As an application we show

the method for constructing the equilibrium conguration of nonaxisymmetric uniformly

rotating
uid. We also discuss the gravitational waves including tail from post-Newtonian

systems.

x1. Introduction

The motion and associated emission of gravitational waves (GW) of self gravi-

tating systems have been a main research interest in general relativity. The problem

is complicated conceptually as well as mathematically because of the nonlinearity

of Einstein's equations. There is no hope in any foreseeable future to have exact

solutions describing motions of arbitrary shaped, massive bodies so that we have to

adopt some sort of approximation scheme for solving Einstein's equations to study

such problems. In the past years many types of approximation schemes have been

developed depending on the nature of the system under consideration. Here we shall

focus on a particular scheme called the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation. There

are many systems in astrophysics where Newtonian gravity is dominant, but general

relativistic gravity plays also important roles in their evolution. For such systems it

would be nice to have an approximation scheme which gives Newtonian description

in the lowest order and general relativistic eects as higher order perturbations. The

post-Newtonian approximation is perfectly suited for this purpose. Historically Ein-

stein computed rst the post-Newtonian eects, the precession of the perihelion 36),

but a systematic study of the post-Newtonian approximation was not made until the

series of papers by Chandrasekhar and associates 21) - 25) . Now it is widely known that

the post-Newtonian approximation is important in analyzing a number of relativistic

problems, such as the equation of motion of binary pulsar 19); 40); 53); 31) , solar-system

tests of general relativity 97); 98) , and gravitational radiation reaction 25); 20) .

Any approximation scheme nesseciates a small parameter(s) characterizing the

nature of the system under consideration. Typical parameter which most of schemes

adopt is the magnitude of the metric deviation away from a certain background

metric. In particular if the background is Minkowski spacetime and there is no other

parameter, the scheme is sometimes called as the post-Minkowskian approximation

in the sense that the constructed spacetime reduces to Minkowski spacetime in the

2 H. Asada and T. Futamase

limit as the parameter tends to zero. This limit is called as the weak eld limit.

In the case of the post-Newtonian approximation the background spacetime is also

Minkowski spacetime, but there is another small parameter, that is, the typical

velocity of the system divided by the speed of light which we call henceforth.

These two parameters (the deviation away from the at metric and the velocity)

have to have a certain relation in the following sense. As the gravitational eld

gets weaker, all velocities and forces characteristic of the material systems become

smaller, in order to permit the weakening gravity to remain an important eect on

the system's dynamics. For example in case of a binary system, the typical velocity

would be the orbital velocity v=c and the deviation from the at metric would

be the Newtonian potential, say . Then these are related by =c2 v2 =c2 2

which guarantees that the system is bounded by its own gravity.

In the post-Newtonian approximation, the equations in general relativity take

the form of Newton's equations in an appropriate limit as ! 0. Such a limit is called

as the Newtonian limit and it will be the bases of constructing the post-Newtonian

approximation. However the limit is not in any sense trivial since the limit may be

thought of two limits tied together as just described. It is also worth noting that

the Newtonian limit cannot be uniform everywhere for all time. For example any

compact binary systems, no matter how weak the gravity between components and

slow its orbital motion, will eventually spiral together due to backreaction of the

emission of gravitational waves. As the result the eects of its Newtonian gravity

will be swamped by those of its gravitational waves. This will mean that higher

order eect of the post-Newtonian approximation eventually dominates the lowest

order Newtonian dynamics and thus if the post-Newtonian approximation is not

carefully constructed, this eect can lead to many formal problems, such as divergent

integrals 35) . It has been shown that such divergences may be avoided by carefully

dening Newtonian limit 44). Moreover, the use of such limit provides us a strong

indication that the post-Newtonian hierarchy is an asymptotic approximation to

general relativity 47) . Therefore we shall rst discuss in this paper the Newtonian

limit and how to construct the post-Newtonian hierarchy before attacking practical

problems in later sections.

Before going into the details, we mention the reason for the growth of interest

in the post-Newtonian approximation in recent years. Certainly the discovery of

the binary neutron star system PSR 1913+16 was a strong reason to have renewed

interest in the post-Newtonian approximation since it is the rst system in which

general relativitistic gravity plays fundamental roles in its evolution 53) . Particularly

indirect discovery of gravitational wave by the observation of the period shortening

led to many fruitful studies of the equation of motion with gravitational radiation

emission in 1980's 27); 82); 93) . The eect of radiation reaction appears as the form of

the potential force at the order of 5 higher than Newtonian force in the equation

of motion. There have been various attempts to show the validity of the so-called

quadrupole formula for the radiation reaction 2); 44); 54) - 58); 81); 94); 95) .

At that time, however, no serious attempts had been made for the study of

higher order eects in the equation of motion. The situation changed gradually in

1990's because of the increasing expectation of direct detection of gravitational waves

Post-Newtonian Approximation 3

by Kilometer-size interferometric gravitational wave detectors, such as LIGO 1) ,

VIRGO 18) and TAMA 61) now under construction. Coalescing binary neutron stars

are the most promising candidate of sources of gravitational waves for such detec-

tors. The reasons are that (1) we expect to detect the signal of coalescence of binary

neutron stars about several times per year 76) , and (2) the waveform from coalescing

binaries can be predicted with a high accuracy compared with other sources 1); 91); 98) .

Informations carried by gravitational waves tell us not only various physical param-

eters of neutron star 90); 91) , but also the cosmological parameters 83); 66); 42); 96) if and

only if we can make a detailed comparison between the observed signal with theoret-

ical prediction during the epoch of the so-called inspiraling phase where the orbital

separation is much larger than the radius of component stars 26) . This is the place

where the post-Newtonian approximation may be applied to make a theoretical tem-

plate for gravitational waves. The problem is that in order to make any meaningful

comparison between theory and observation we need to know the detailed waveforms

generated by the motion up to 4PN order which is of order 8 higher than the Newto-

nian order 88) . This request from gravitational wave astronomy forces us to construct

higher order post-Newtonian approximation.

It should be mentioned that Blanchet and Damour have developed a system-

atic scheme to calculate the waveform at higher order where the post-Minkowskian

approximation is used to construct the external eld and the post-Newtonian ap-

proximation is used to construct the eld near the material source 9) - 13) . Blanchet

has obtained the waveform up to the 2.5 PN order which is of order 5 higher than

the lowest qudraupole wave 14); 7); 8) by using the equation of motion up to that or-

der 28) - 30); 50); 60) . We shall also study the waveform from dierent point of view

because of its importance. We obtain essentially the same results including the tail

term with them.

There is another phase in the evolution of the binary neutron star which we can

withdraw useful informations from the observed signals of gravitational waves. That

is the intermediate phase between the inspiralling phase and the event of merging.

In the inspiralling phase the components are usually treated as point particles, while

the extendedness becomes important in the intermediate phase and the merging.

Full general relativistic hydrodynamic simulation is needed for the understanding of

the merging. The material initial data for the simulation will be the density and the

velocity distribution of the uid. The post-Newtonian approximation will be used to

construct the data. Furthermore the post-Newtonian approximation is able to take

into account of the tidal eect which is important for the orbital instability. Recently,

Lai, Rasio and Shapiro 62); 63) have pointed out that such a tidal coupling of binary

neutron stars is very important for their evolution in the nal merging phase because

the tidal eect causes the instability of the circular motion even in the Newtonian

gravity. Also important is the general relativistic gravity because in the intermediate

phase, the orbital separation is about ten times as small as the Schwarzschild radius

of the system. Thus, we need not only a hydrodynamic treatment, but also general

relativistic one in order to study the nal stage of the evolution of binary neutron

stars. Since the usual formulation of the post-Newtonian approximation is based on

the particular gauge condition which is not so convenient for numerical purposes,

4 H. Asada and T. Futamase

we shall reformulate it by the (3+1) formalism often used in numerical approach of

general relativity.

This paper is organized as follows. In section 2 we introduce the Newtonian

limit in general relativity and present how to construct the post-Newtonian hierar-

chy. There we mention how to avoid divergent integrals which appears at higher

order in the previous treatments, and we also discuss how to incorporate strong in-

ternal gravity in the post-Newtonian approximation. Next we reformulate the post-

Newtonian approximation appropriate for numerical treatment in section 3. There

we shall adopt the (3+1) formalism which is frequently used in numerical relativity.

Based on the formalism developed in section 3, we present a formulation for con-

structing numerically equilibrium solutions of uniformly rotating uid in the 2PN

approximation in section 4. We shall also discuss the propagation of gravitational

waves from slow motion systems in section 5.

x2. Foundation of the post-Newtonian approximation

Since the Newtonian limit is the basis of the post-Newtonian approximation, we

shall rst formulate the Newtonian limit. We shall follow the formulation by Futa-

mase and Schutz 47) . We will not mention other formulation of Newtonian limit by

Ehlers 38); 39) , because it has not yet used to construct the post-Newtonian approxi-

mation.

2.1. Newtonian limit along a regular asymptotic Newtonian sequence

The formulation is based on the observation that any asymptotic approximation

of any theory need a sequence of solutions of the basic equations of the theory 87); 92) .

Namely, if we write the equations in abstract form as

E (g) = 0; (2.1)

for an unknown function g, one would like to have a one-parameter (or possibly

multiparameter) family of solutions,

E (g()) = 0; (2.2)

where is some parameter. Asymptotic approximation then says that function f ()

approximates g() to order p if jf () g()j=p ! 0 as ! 0. We choose the

sequence of solutions with appropriate properties in such a way that the properties

re ect the character of the system under consideration.

We shall formulate the post-Newtonian approximation according to the general

idea just described. As stated in the introduction, we would like to have an approx-

imation which applies the systems whose motion is described almost by Newtonian

theory. Thus we need a sequence of solutions of Einstein's equations parameterized

by (the typical velocity of the system divided by the speed of light) which has the

Newtonian character as ! 0.

The Newtonian character is most conveniently described by the following scal-

ing law. The Newtonian equations involve six variables, density (), pressure (P ),

Post-Newtonian Approximation 5

gravitational potential (), and velocity (vi ; i = 1; 2; 3):

r 4 = 0;

2

(2.3)

@t + ri(vi ) = 0; (2.4)

@t vi + vj rj vi + riP + ri = 0; (2.5)

supplemented by an equation of state. For simplicity we have considered perfect

uid. Here we have set G = 1.

It can be seen that the variables f(xi ; t); P (xi ; t); (xi ; t); vi (xj ; t)g obeying the

above equations satisfy the following scaling law.

(xi; t) ! (xi; t);

2

4

(xi; t) ! (xi; t):

2

(2.6)

One can easily understand the meaning of this scaling by noticing that is the

magnitude of typical velocity (divided by the speed of light). Then the magnitude of

the gravitational potential will be of order 2 because of the balance between gravity

and centrifugal force. The scaling of the time variable expresses the fact that the

weaker the gravity ( ! 0) the longer the time scale.

Thus we wish to have a sequence of solutions of Einstein's equations which has

the above scaling as ! 0. We shall also take the point of view that the sequence

of solutions is determined by the appropriate sequence of initial data. This has a

practical advantage because there will be no solution of Einstein's equations which

satisfy the above scaling (2.6) even as ! 0. This is because Einstein's equations

are nonlinear in the eld variables so it will not be possible to enforce the scaling

everywhere in spacetime. We shall therefore impose it only on the initial data for

the solution of the sequence.

Here we shall rst make a general discussion on the formulation of the post-

Newtonian approximation independent of any initial value formalism and then present

the concrete treatment in the harmonic coordinate. The condition is used because of

its popularity and some advantages in the generalization to the systems with strong

internal gravity.

As the initial data for the matter we shall take the same data set in Newtonian

case, namely, the density , the pressure P , and the coordinate velocity vi . In most

of the application, we usually assume a simple equation of state which relates the

pressure to the density. The initial data for the gravitational eld are g ; @g =@t.

Since general relativity is overdetermined system, there will be constraint equations

among the initial data for the eld. We shall write the free data for the eld as

(Qij ; Pij ) whose explicit forms depend on the coordinate condition one assumes. In

any coordinate we shall assume these data for the eld vanish since we are interested

in the evolution of an isolated system by its own gravitational interaction. It is

expected that these choice corresponds to the absence of radiation far away from the

6 H. Asada and T. Futamase

source. Thus we choose the following initial data which is indicated by Newtonian

scaling:

(t = 0; xi ; ) = 2a(xi);

P (t = 0; xi ; ) = 4b(xi);

vi(t = 0; xk ; ) = ci(xk );

Qij (t = 0; xi ; ) = 0;

Pij (t = 0; xi ; ) = 0; (2.7)

where the functions a; b , and ci are C 1 functions that have compact support con-

tained entirely within a sphere of a nite radius.

Corresponding to the above data, we have a one-parameter set of spacetime

parameterized by . It may be helpful to visualize the set as a ber bundle, with

base space R the real line (coordinate ) and ber R4 the spacetime (coordinates

t; xi). The ber = 0 is Minkowski spacetime since it is dened by zero data. In

the following we shall assume that the solutions are suciently smooth functions

of for small 6= 0. We wish to take the limit ! 0 along the sequence. The

limit is, however, not unique and is dened by giving a smooth nowhere vanishing

vector eld on the ber bundle which is nowhere tangent to each ber 51); 87) . The

integral curves of the vector eld give a correspondence between points in dierent

bers, namely events in dierent spacetime with dierent values of . Remembering

the Newtonian scaling of the time variable in the limit, we introduce the Newtonian

dynamical time:

= t; (2.8)

and dene the integral curve as the curve on which and xi stay constant. In fact

if we take the limit ! 0 along this curve, the orbital period of the binary system

with = 0:01 is 10 times of that of the system with = 0:1 as expected from the

Newtonian scaling. This is what we dene as the Newtonian limit. Notice that this

map never reaches the ber = 0 (Minkowski spacetime). There is no pure vacuum

Newtonian limit as expected.

In the following we assume the existence of such a sequence of solutions con-

structed by the initial data satisfying the above scaling with respect to . We shall

call such a sequence is a regular asymptotically Newtonian sequence. We have to

make further mathematical assumptions about the sequence to make explicit calcu-

lations. We will not go into details of them partly because to prove the assumptions

we need a deep understanding of the existence and uniqueness properties of Cauchy

problem of Einstein's equations with perfect uids of compact support which are not

available at present.

2.2. Post-Newtonian Hierarchy

We shall now dene the Newtonian, post-Newtonian and higher approximations

of various quantities as the appropriate higher tangents of the corresponding quanti-

ties to the above integral curve at = 0. For example the hierarchy of approximations

for the spacetime metrics can be expressed as follows:

g (; ; xi ) = g (0; ; xi ) + (LV g )(0; ; xi )

Post-Newtonian Approximation 7

n

+ 21 2 (L2V g )(0; ; xi ) + ::::: + n! (LnV g )(0; ; xi ) + Rn+1 ; (2.9)

where LV is the Lie derivative with respect to the tangent vector of the curves dened

above, and the remainder term Rn+1 is

Rn+1 = n Z d`(1 `)n (Ln g )(`; ; xi ):

+1 1

+1 +1

(2.10)

(n + 1)! 0

V

Taylor's theorem guarantees that the series is asymptotic expansion about = 0

under certain assumptions mentioned above. It might be useful to point out that

the above denition of the approximation scheme may be formulated purely geomet-

rically in terms of jet bundle.

The above denition of the post-Newtonian hierarchy gives us asymptotic series

in which each term in the series is manifestly nite. This is based on the depen-

dence of the domain of dependence of the eld point (; xk ). The region is nite with

nite values of , and the diameter of the region increases as 1 as ! 0. With-

out this linkage of the region with the expansion parameter , the post-Newtonian

approximation leads to divergences in the higher orders. This is closely related with

the retarded expansion. Namely, it is assumed that the slow motion assumption

enabled one to Taylor expand the retarded integrals in retarded time such as

Z Z Z

drf ( r; :::) = drf (; :::) drrf (; :::); + :: (2.11)

and assign the second term to a higher order because of its explicit in front. This

is incorrect because r ! 1 as ! 0 and thus r is not uniformly small in the

Newtonian limit. Only if the integrand falls o suciently fast, can retardation be

ignored. This happens in the lower-order PN terms. But at some higher order there

appear many terms which do not fall o suciently fast because of the nonlinearity of

Einstein's equations. This is the reason that the formal PN approximation produces

the divergent integrals. It turns out that such divergence appears at 3PN order

indicating the breakdown of the PN approximation in the harmonic coordinate.

This sort of divergence may be eliminated if we remember that the upper bound

of integration does depend on as 1 . Thus we would get something like n ln

instead of n ln 1 in the usual approach. This shows that the asymptotic Newtonian

sequence is not dierentiable in at = 0, but there are no divergence in the

expansion and it has still an asymptotic approximation in that involves logarithms.

2.3. Explicit calculation in Harmonic coordinate

Here we shall use the above formalism to make explicit calculation in the har-

monic coordinate. The reduced Einstein's equation in the harmonic condition is

written as

g~ g~; = 16 g~; g~; ; (2.12)

@ [~g @ x ] = 0; (2.13)

where

g~ = ( g)1=2 g ; (2.14)

8 H. Asada and T. Futamase

= ( g)(T + t

LL ); (2.15)

where t

LL is the Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensor 64) . In the following we shall choose

an isentropic perfect uid for T which is enough for most of applications.

T = ( + + P )u u + Pg ; (2.16)

where is the rest mass density, the internal energy, P the pressure, u the four

velocity of the uid with normalization;

g uu = 1: (2.17)

The conservation of the energy and momentum is expressed as

r T = 0: (2.18)

Dening the gravitational eld variable as

h = ( g)1=2 g ; (2.19)

where is the Minkowski metric, the reduced Einstein's equation (2.12) and the

gauge condition (2.13) take the following form;

( h )h ; = 16 + h ; h ; ; (2.20)

h; = 0: (2.21)

Thus the characteristics is determined by the operator ( h )@ @ , and thus

the light cone deviates from that in the at spacetime. We shall use this form of

the reduced Einstein's equations in the calculation of wave form far away from the

source because the deviation plays a fundamental role there. However in the study

of the gravitational eld near the source it is not neccesary to consider the deviation

of the light cone away from the at one and thus it is convenient to use the following

form of the reduced Einstein's equations 2) .

h ; = 16 ; (2.22)

where

= + ; ; (2.23)

= (16) (h h h h ):

1

(2.24)

Equations (2.21) and (2.22) together imply the conservation law

; = 0: (2.25)

We shall take as our variables the set f; P; vi ; h g, with the denition

vi = ui=u :0

(2.26)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 9

The time component of 4-velocity u0 is determined from Eq.(2.17). To make a well-

dened system of equations we must add the conservation law for number density n

which is some function of the density and pressure P :

r(nu) = 0: (2.27)

Equations (2.25) and (2.27) imply that the ow is adiabatic. The role of the equation

of state is played by the arbitrary function n(; p).

Initial data for the above set of equations are h ; h ;0 ; ; P , and vi , but not

all these data are independent because of the existence of constraint equations.

Equations.(2.21) and (2.22) imply the four constraint equations among the initial

data for the eld.

h 0 + 160 ij h i;j ;0 = 0; (2.28)

where is the Laplacian in the at space. We shall choose h ij and h ij;0 as free

data and solve Eq.(2.28) for h 0 ( = 0; ::; 3) and Eq.(2.21) for h 0 ;0 . Of course

these constraints cannot be solved explicitly, since 0 contains h 0 , but they can

be solved iteratively as explained below. As discussed above, we shall assume that

the free data h ij and h ij;0 for the eld vanish. One can show that such initial data

satisfy the O'Murchadha and York criterion for the absence of radiation far away

from the source 75) .

In the actual calculation, it is convenient to use an expression with explicit

dependence of . The harmonic condition allows us to have such expression in terms

of the retarded integral.

Z

h (; ; xi ) = 4 d3 y ( r; yi ; )=r + h i

H (; ; x ); (2.29)

C (;;xi)

where r = jyi xi j and C (; ; xi ) is the past at light cone of event (; xi ) in the

spacetime given by , truncated where it intersects with the initial hypersurface

= 0. h

H is the unique solution of the homogeneous equation

h ; = 0: (2.30)

We shall henceforce ignore the homogeneous solution because they play no important

roles. Because of the dependence of the integral region, the domains of integration

are nite as long as 6= 0 and their diameter increases as 1 as ! 0.

Given the formal expression (2.29) in terms of initial data (2.7), we can take

the Lie derivative and evaluate these derivatives at = 0. The Lie derivative is

nothing but partial derivative with respect to in the coordinate system for the

ber bundle given by (; ; xi ). Accordingly one should convert all the time indices

to indices. For example, T = 2 T tt which is of order 4 since T tt is of order

2. Similarly the other components of stress energy tensor T i = T ti and T ij are of

order 4 as well. Thus we expect the rst non-vanishing derivative in (2.29) will be

the forth-derivatives. In fact we nd

Z (; yi )

(4) h

i

(; x ) = 4 3 (2) r d3 y; (2.31)

R

10 H. Asada and T. Futamase

Z (; yk ) vi (; xk )

(4) h i (; xi) = 4 (2) (1)

r

3

d y; (2.32)

R 3

Z (; yk ) vi (; yk ) vj (; yk ) + tijLL(; yk )

(4) h ij (; xk ) = 4 (2) (1) (1)

r

(4) 3

d y;

R

3

(2.33)

where we have adopted the notation

f (; xi) = n1! lim @ n f (; ; xi); (2.34)

( ) n ! @n

0

and

(4) tijLL = 641 ( h ;i h ;j 12 ij h ;k h ;k ):

(4) (4) (4) (4) (2.35)

In the above calculation we have taken the point of view that h is a tensor

eld, dened by giving its componentsp in the assumed harmonic coordinate as the

dierence between the tensor density gg and .

The conservation law (2.25) also has its rst nonvanishing derivative at this

order, which are

k k i k

(2) (; x ); + ((2) (; x )(1) v (; x ));i = 0; (2.36)

((2) (1) vi ); + ((2) (1) vi (1) vj );j + (4) P ;i 41 (2) (4) h ;i = 0: (2.37)

Equations (2.31), (2.36), and (2.37) consist of Newtonian theory of gravity. Thus the

lowest non-vanishing derivative with respect to is indeed Newtonian theory, and

the 1PN and 2PN equations emerge from sixth and eighth derivatives, respectively,

in the conservation law (2.25). At the next derivative, the quadrupole radiation

reaction term comes out.

2.4. Strong point particle limit

If we wish to apply the post-Newtonian approximation to the inspiraling phase

of binary neutron stars, the strong internal gravity must be taken into account. The

usual post-Newtonian approximation assumes explicitly the weakness of gravitational

eld everywhere including inside the material source. It is argued by appealing

the strong equivalence principle that the external gravitational eld which governs

the orbital motion of the binary system is independent of internal structure of the

components up to tidal interaction. Thus it is expected that the results obtained

under the assumption of weak gravity also apply for the case of neutron star binary.

Experimental evidence for the strong equivalence principle is obtained only for the

system with weak gravity 97); 98) , but no experiment is available in case with strong

internal gravity at present.

In theoretical aspect, the theory of extended object in general relativity 34) is still

in preliminary stage for the application to realistic systems. Matched asymptotic

expansion technique has been used to treat the system with strong gravity in certain

situations 32); 33); 55); 56); 27) . Another way to handle with strong internal gravity is by

Post-Newtonian Approximation 11

the use of Dirac's delta function type source with a xed mass 37) . However, this

makes Einstein's equations mathematically meaningless because of their nonlinearity.

Physically, there is no such source in general relativity because of the existence of

black holes. Before a body shrinks to a point, it forms a black hole whose size is

xed by its mass. For this reason, it has been claimed that no point particle exists

in general relativity.

This conclusion is not correct, however. We can shrink the body keeping the

compactness (M=R), i.e., the strength of the internal eld xed. Namely we should

scale the mass M just like the radius R. This can be tted nicely into the concept of

regular asymptotic Newtonian sequence dened above because there the mass also

scales along the sequence of solutions. In fact, if we take the masses of two stars as M,

and the separation between two stars as L, then M=L. Thus the mass M scales

as 2 if we x the separation. In the above we have assumed that the density scales

as 2 to guarantee this scaling for the mass understanding the size of the body xed.

Now we shrink the size as 2 to keep the compactness of each component. Then

the density should scale as 4 . We shall call such a scheme as strong point particle

limit since the limit keeps the strength of internal gravity. The above consideration

suggests the following initial data to dene a regular asymptotic Newtonian sequence

which describes nearly Newtonian system with strong internal gravity 45) . The initial

data are two uniformly rotating
uids with compact spatial support whose stress-

energy tensor and size scales as 4 and 2 , respectively. We also assume that each

of these
uid congurations would be a stationary equilibrium solution of Einstein's

equation if other were absent. This is neccesary for the suppression of irrelevant

internal motions of each star. Any remaining motions are the tidal eects caused

by the other body, which will be of order 6 smaller than the internal self-force.

This data allows us to use the Newtonian time = t as a natural time coordinate

everywhere including inside the stars.

This choice of the data leads naturally to the introduction of the body zones BA

and the body zone coordinates xkA dened by

BA = fxk ; jxk Ak j < Rg; (2.38)

k k

xA = (x A);

2 k (2.39)

where R is some constant, and Ak ( ); A = I; II are the coordinates of the origin

of the two stars, where we have used letters with bar to distinguish the body-zone

coordinates from their counterparts. The scaling by 2 means that as the star

shrinks with respect to the coordinate xk , it remains of xed size in the body-zone

coordinate xk . The boundary of the body zone shrinks to a point with respect to xk ,

and expands to innity with respect to xk as ! 0. This makes a clean separation

of the body zone from the exterior geometry generated by other star.

g = (gB ) + (gC B ) ; (2.40)

where (gB ) is the contribution from the body zones, (gC B ) from elsewhere.

Actual calculations are most easily performed in the harmonic coordinate. Take

two stationary solutions of Einstein's equations for the perfect
uid fTA (xi ); gA (xi )g

12 H. Asada and T. Futamase

as our initial data in the body zone. As explained above every component of the

stress-energy tensor TA has the same 4 scaling in the inertia coordinates (t; xk )

for a rapidly rotating star. In the body zone coordinates (; xk ), these have the

following scalings:

TA = 2 TAtt 2; (2.41)

TAi = 1TAti 5; (2.42)

TA = TA :

ij 4 ij 8

(2.43)

Transformed to the near zone coordinates (; xk ), xk = Ai + 2xk , they take the form

TN = TA ; (2.44)

TNi = 2 TAi + vAi TA ; (2.45)

TNij = 4 TAij + 22 vA(i TAj) + vAi vAj TA ; (2.46)

where vAi = dAi =d is the velocity of the origin of the body A. If there were only one

body, these data would produce a stationary solution in the body zone, which moves

with uniform velocity vAi in the near-zone coordinates. Now we know the ordering of

the source, we can solve Eq.(2.29),iteratively as in the weak eld case. The dierence

is that we transform the integration variables to the body zone coordinates in the

expression of the elds whose contributions come from the body zone.

XZ

h i

B (; ; x ) = 4

6

d yAjxA yAj ( jxA yj; yi ; ); (2.47)

3 2 1 2

A BA

where xiA = xi Ai . Expanding these expressions in terms of , we obtain

X MA

h i

B (; ; x ) = 4

4

jx j + O( );

6

(2.48)

A A

i

h iB(; ; xi ) = 43 jxJA j

X X MA vA

+ 44 j x j + O ( ); 5

(2.49)

A A A A

X ij X vAi JAj X MA vAi vAj

h ijB (; ; xk ) = 42 jZxAj

( )

+ 83

j x j + 4 j x

4

j + O( ); (2.50)

5

A A A A A A

where

Z

MA = lim

!

2

d y

3

A (; ; y); (2.51)

ZBA

0

JAi = lim

!

3

d yiA (; ; y);

3

(2.52)

ZBA

0

ZAij = lim

!

4

d yijA (; ; y):

3

(2.53)

0 BA

The MA dened above is the conserved ADM mass the body A would have if it

were isolated. Without loss of generality one can set the linear momentum JAi of

the overall internal motion of each body to zero by choosing appropriate origin of

Post-Newtonian Approximation 13

the coordinates. If we did not assume the internal stationarity in the initial data,

then ZAij would be nite and no approximation would be possible. However under

the condition of internal stationarity one can show that ZAij vanishes 45) . Above

expressions for the body zone contribution are used to calculate the pseudotensor in

the near zone and then to evaluate the contribution h

C B 6outside the body zone.

As the result we shall obtain the metric variables up to O( ).

h (; xi ) = 44 MA + O( );

X 6

(2.54)

A jxA j

i X k

h i (; xi ) = 4 MjxAvjA + +2 jxxAj MAki + O( );

X

4 5 6

(2.55)

A A A A

i j

h ij (; xk ) = 4 MAjxvAjvA 2 Iorbij + O( );

X

4 5 (3) 6

(2.56)

A A

where

Z

MAij = lim

!

2 4

d yy ijA (; ; y);

3 [ ]

(2.57)

B

X i j A i

0

ij

Iorb = AAMA JA: (2.58)

A

These are the angular momentum of the body A and the quadrupole moment for

the orbital motion, respectively. This kind of calculation is also performed at 2.5PN

order to get the standard quadrupole formula except that the mass in the denition

of the quadrupole moment is replaced with the ADM mass 45) . The above method

has been also applied for the calculation of spin precession and the same form of the

equation in the case of weak gravity is obtained. Thus we can extend the strong

equivalence principle for bodies with strong internal gravity to the generation of

gravitational waves and the spin precession. It is an open question if the strong

point particle limit may be taken to lead a well dened equation of motion at higher

post-Newtonian orders.

x3. Post-Newtonian Approximation in the (3+1) Formalism

In the evolution of binary neutron stars, the orbital separation eventually be-

comes comparable to the radius of the neutron star due to radiation reaction. Then,

the point particle picture does not apply and each star of the binary begins to behave

as a hydrodynamic object because of tidal eect. As described in the introduction we

need not only a hydrodynamic treatment, but also general relativistic one in order to

study the nal stage of the evolution of binary neutron stars. Full general relativistic

simulation will be a direct way to answer such a question, but it is one of the hardest

problem in astrophysics. Although there is much progress in this direction 69), it will

take a long time until numerical relativistic calculations become reliable. One of the

main reasons for this would be that we do not know the behavior of geometric vari-

ables in the strong gravitational eld around coalescing binary neutron stars. Owing

14 H. Asada and T. Futamase

to this, we do not know what sort of gauge condition is useful and how to give an

appropriate general relativistic initial condition for coalescing binary neutron stars.

The other reason is a technical one: In the case of coalescing binary neutron

stars, the wavelength is of order of R3=2 M 1=2 , where R and M are the orbital

radius and the total mass of binary, respectively. Thus, in numerical simulations, we

need to cover a region L > / R3=2 with numerical grids in order to attain good

accuracy. This is in contrast with the case of Newtonian and/or PN simulations,

in which we only need to cover a region > L > R. Since the circular orbit of

binary neutron stars becomes unstable at R 10M owing to the tidal eects 62); 63)

and/or the strong general relativistic gravity 59) , we must set an initial condition of

binary at R 10M . For such a case the grid must cover a region L > 100M in

numerical simulations to perform an accurate simulation. When we assume to cover

each neutron star of its radius 5M with 30 homogeneous grids 72) - 74); 85); 86) , we

need to take grids of at least 5003 , but it seems impossible to take such a large

amount of mesh points even for the present power of supercomputer. At present,

we had better search other methods to prepare a precise initial condition for binary

neutron stars.

In the case of PN simulations, the situation is completely dierent because we

do not have to treat gravitational waves explicitly in numerical simulations, and

as a result, only need to cover a region at most L 20 30M . In this case, it

seems that 2003 grid numbers are enough. Furthermore, we can take into account

general relativistic eects with a good accuracy: In the case of coalescing binary

neutron stars, the error will be at most M=R a few 10% for the rst PN

approximation, and (M=R)2 several % for 2PN approximation. Hence, if we

can take into account up through 2PN terms, we will be able to give a highly accurate

initial condition (the error several %).

For these reasons, we present in this section the 2.5PN hydrodynamic equations

including the 2.5PN radiation reaction potential in such a way that one can apply

the formulation directly in numerical simulations. As for the PN hydrodynamic

equation, Blanchet, Damour and Schafer 15) have already obtained the (1+2.5) PN

equations. In their formulation, the source terms of all Poisson equations take nonva-

nishing values only on the matter, like in the Newtonian hydrodynamics. Although

their formulation is very useful for PN hydrodynamic simulations including the radi-

ation reaction 72) - 74); 85); 86); 78) , they did not take into account 2PN terms. In their

formulation, they also xed the gauge conditions to the ADM gauge, but in numer-

ical relativity, it has not been known yet what sort of gauge condition is suitable

for simulation of the coalescing binary neutron stars and estimation of gravitational

waves from them. First, we develop the formalism for the hydrodynamics using the

PN approximation. In particular, we use the (3+1) formalism of general relativity

so that we can adopt more general class of slice conditions 46); 4) . Next, we present

methods to obtain numerically terms at the 2PN order 4) .

3.1. (3+1) Formalism for the post-Newtonian Approximation

According to the above discussion, we shall apply the (3+1) formalism to formu-

late the PN approximation. In the (3+1) formalism 3); 92); 68) , spacetime is foliated

Post-Newtonian Approximation 15

by a family of spacelike 3D hypersurfaces whose normal one-form is taken as

n^ = ( ; 0): (3.1)

Then the line element takes the following form

ds2 = (2 i i)dt2 + 2i dtdxi +
ij dxidxj ; (3.2)

where ; i and
ij are the lapse function, shift vector and metric on the 3D hyper-

surface, respectively. Using the (3+1) formalism, the Einstein's equation

G = 8T ; (3.3)

is also split into the constraint equations and the evolution equations. The formers

are the so-called Hamiltonian and momentum constraints which respectively become

trR Kij K ij + K 2 = 16H ; (3.4)

Di K ij Dj K = 8Jj ; (3.5)

where Kij , K , trR and Di are the extrinsic curvature, the trace part of Kij , the

scalar curvature of 3D hypersurface and the covariant derivative with respect of
ij .

H and Jj are dened as

H = T n^ n^ ; (3.6)

Jj = T n^
j : (3.7)

The Evolution equations for the spatial metric and the extrinsic curvature are re-

spectively

@
= 2K + D + D ; (3.8)

@t ij ij i j j i

@ K = (R + KK 2K K l ) D D + (D m )K + (D m )K

@t ij ij ij il j i j

j mi

i mj

+ m D 1 l (3.9)

m Kij 8 Sij + 2
ij (H S l ) ;

@
= 2
( K + D i); (3.10)

@t i

@ i j l (3.11)

@t K = (trR + K ) D Di + Dj K + 4(S l 3H );

2

where Rij ,
and Sij are, respectively, the Ricci tensor with respect of
ij , the

determinant of
ij and

Sij = Tkl
ki
l j : (3.12)

Hereafter we use the conformal factor =
= instead of
for simplicity.

1 12

To distinguish the wave part from the non-wave part (for example, Newtonian

potential) in the metric, we use
~ij = 4
ij instead of
ij . Then det(~
ij ) = 1 is

satised. We also dene A~ij as

~

Aij Aij

4 4 1

Kij 3
ij K : (3.13)

16 H. Asada and T. Futamase

We should note that in our notation, indices of A~ij are raised and lowered by
~ij ,

so that the relations, A~i j = Ai j and A~ij = 4 Aij , hold. Using these variables, the

evolution equations (3.8)-(3.11) can be rewritten as follows;

@
~ = 2A~ +
~ @ l +
~ @ l 2
~ @ l ; (3.14)

@n ij

ij il @xj jl @xi 3 ij @xl

@ A~ = 1 R 1
trR D~ i D~ j 1
~ij ~

@n ij 4 ij 3 ij 3

2 + 2
~
~ kl

;i ;j ;j ;i 3 ij ;k ;l

m @ m A~ 2 @ m A~

+(K A~ij 2A~il A~l j ) + @ A~ +

i mj @xj mi 3 @xm ij

@x

8 4 Sij 13
ij S l l ; (3.15)

@ = K + @ i ; (3.16)

@n 6 @xi

@ K = A~ A~ij + 1 K 2 1

~ 2
~ kl + 4(S i + ); (3.17)

@n ij 3 4 5 ;k ;l i H

where D~ i and ~ are the covariant derivative and Laplacian with respect to
~ij and

@ = @ i @ : (3.18)

@n @t @xi

The Hamiltonian constraint equation then takes the following form.

5

~ 1 ~

= 8 trR 2H ~ ~ij 2 (3.19)

8 Aij A 3 K ;

5 2

where trR~ is the scalar curvature with respect to
~ij . The momentum constraint is

also written as

D~ j ( 6 A~ji) 23 6 D~ iK = 8 6 Ji: (3.20)

Now let us consider Rij in Eq.(3.15), which is one of the main source terms of

the evolution equation for A~ij . First we split Rij into two parts as

Rij = R~ij + Rij ; (3.21)

where R~ ij is the Ricci tensor with respect to
~ij and Rij is dened as

Rij = 2 D~ i D~ j 2
~ij D~ k D~ k + 62 (D~ i )(D~ j ) 22
~ij (D~ k )(D~ k ): (3.22)

Using det(~
ij ) = 1, R~ ij is written as

~ 1

Rij = 2 hij;kk + hjl;li + hil;lj + f kl;k (hlj;i + hli;j hij;l)

+ f (hkj;il + hki;jl hij;kl ) ~kjl ~lik ;

kl (3.23)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 17

where ;i denotes @=@xi , ~ijk is the Christoel symbol, and we split
~ij and
~ ij as

ij + hij and ij + f ij , by writing the
at metric as ij .

We shall consider only the linear order in hij and fij assuming jhij j; jfij j 1.

(As a result, hij = f ij + O(h2 ).) Such a treatment is justied because hij turns

out to be 2PN quantity in our choice of gauge condition (see below). Here, to clarify

the wave property of
~ij , we impose a kind of transverse gauge to hij as

hij;j = 0; (3.24)

which was rst proposed by Nakamura in relation to numerical relativity 69) . Here-

after, we call this condition merely the transverse gauge. The equation (3.14) shows

that this condition is guaranteed if i satises

;k j
~ij;k = 2A~ij +
~il l ;j +
~jl l ;i 32
~ij l ;l : (3.25)

;j

Using the transverse gauge, Eq.(3.23) becomes

R~ij = 12 hij + O(h2 ); (3.26)

where is the Laplacian with respect to ij . Note that trR~ = O(h2 ) is guaranteed in

the transverse gauge because the traceless property of hij holds in the linear order.

We show the equations for the isentropic perfect
uid (2.16). The conservation

law of mass density, (2.27), may be written as

@ + @ ( vi ) = 0; (3.27)

@t @xi

where is the conserved density dened as

= 6 u0: (3.28)

The equation of motion and the energy equation are obtained from the conservation

law (2.18) which takes the following forms.

@Si + @ (Si vj ) = 6 P S 0 + S j 1 jk (3.29)

@t @xj ;i ;i j ;i 2S 0 Sj Sk
;i;

and

@H + @ (Hvj ) = P @ ( 6 u0 ) + @ ( 6 u0vj ) ; (3.30)

@t @xj @t @xj

where

6 0 P

Si = ( + + P )u ui = 1 + + ui(= 6 Ji );

6

S 0 = 6 ( + + P )(u0 )2 = (H + P ) ;

H = u = ;

6 0

i ij

vi uu = i +
S Sj :

0 0

(3.31)

Finally, we note that in the above equations, only i appears, and i does not, so

that, in the subsequent section, we only consider the PN expansion of i , not of i .

18 H. Asada and T. Futamase

3.2. Post-Newtonian approximation in the (3+1) formalism

Next, we consider the PN approximation of the above set of equations. First

of all, we review the PN expansion of the variables. Each metric variable may be

expanded up to the relevant order as

= 1 + (2) + (4) + (6) + (7) + : : : ;

= 1 + (2) + (4) + (6) + (7) + : : : ;

U 2

= 1 U + 2 + X + + +:::; (6) (7)

i = i + i + i + i + i + : : : ;

(3) (5) (6) (7) (8)

(4) (5)

(3) (5) (6)

K = K + K + K + :::;

(3) (5) (6) (3.32)

where subscripts denote the PN order(n) and U is the Newtonian potential satisfying

U = 4: (3.33)

X depends on the slice condition, and in the standard PN gauge , we usually use 21)

1

= 4 v + U + 2 + 2 :

2 3 P (3.34)

Note that the terms relevant to the radiation reaction appear in , , i and (7) (7) (8)

hij , and the quadrupole formula is derived from and hij .

(5) (7) (5)

The four velocity is expanded as

u = 1 + 2 12 v2 + U + 4 38 v4 + 52 v2U + 12 U 2 + (3) ivi X + O(6 ) ;

u = 1 1 + 2 12 v2 U + 4 38 v4 + 32 v2 U + 12 U 2 + X + O(6 ) ;

ui = vi 1 + 2 12 v2 + U + 4 38 v4 + 52 v2 U + 12 U 2 + (3) i vi X + O(7);

ui = vi + 3 (3) i + vi 12 v2 + 3U + 5 (5) i + (3) i 12 v2 + 3U + (4) hij vj

+ vi 83 v4 + 72 v2 U + 4U 2 X + 4(4) + (3) j vj + 6 (6) i + (5) hij vj

+O(7 ); (3.35)

where vi = O() and v2 = vi vi . From u u = 1, we obtain the useful relation

(u )2 = 1 +
ij ui uj

= 1 + 2 v2 + 4 v4 + 4v2 U + 2(3) i vi + O(6 ): (3.36)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 19

Thus H , Ji and Sij are respectively expanded as

H = 1 + v + + v + v 4U + + P + 2 ivi + O( );

2 2 2 4 4 2

(3)

8

Ji = vi 1 + v + 3U + + P + i + O( );

3 2 2 3

(3)

7

4 j P 2 P

Sij = v v + ij + v + 6U + + vivj + vi j + vj i

i 2

(3) (3)

UP

+ 2 ij + O( ); 8

l 3P i i

Sl = v + + 2 v + v v + 4U + +

4 2 2 P 2

+ O( ): (3.37)

2 8

(3)

Hamiltonian constraint. In the PN approximation, the Laplacian with respect to ~ij

for the scalar is expanded as

~ = (4(4) hij + 5(5) hij )@i @j + O(6 ): (3.38)

At the lowest order, the Hamiltonian constraint becomes

(2) = 2: (3.39)

Thus, (2) = 2(2) = U is satised in this paper. At the 2PN and 3PN orders,

the Hamiltonian constraint equation becomes, respectively,

(4) = 2 v + + 2 U ;

2 5 (3.40)

and

(6) = 2 v4 + v2 + P + 132 U + 2(3) ivi + 25 U + 52 U 2 + 5(4)

+ 21 (4) hij U;ij 18 (3) A~ij (3) A~ij 32 (3) K 2 : (3.41)

The term relevant to the radiation reaction rst appears in (7) whose equation

becomes

(7) = 21 (5) hij U;ij : (3.42)

Hence, (7) may be also relevant to the radiation reaction, depending on the slice

condition.

Let us now derive equations for i . From Eq.(3.25), the relation between (3) A~ij

and (3) i becomes

2(3) A~ij + (3) ;ji + (3) j ; i 32 ij (3) ;ll = 0: (3.43)

where we used the boundary condition that (3) A~ij and (3) i vanishes at the spatial

innity. (3) A~ij must also satisfy the momentum constraint. Since (3) A~ij does not

20 H. Asada and T. Futamase

contain the transverse-traceless (TT) part and only contains the longitudinal part,

it can be written as

~ 2 W ; (3.44)

(3) Aij = (3) Wi;j + (3) Wj;i

3 ij (3) k;k

where (3) Wi is a vector on the 3D hypersurface and satises the momentum constraint

at the rst PN order as follows;

(3) Wi + 13 (3) Wj;ji 23 (3) K;i = 8vi : (3.45)

From Eq.(3.43), the relation,

i

(3) = 2(3) Wi ; (3.46)

holds and at the rst PN order, Eq.(3.16) becomes

3U_ = (3) K + (3) l ; l ; (3.47)

where U_ denotes the derivative of U with respect to time. Thus Eq.(3.45) is rewritten

as

i i

(3) = 16v + (3) K;i U;i : _ (3.48)

This is the equation for the vector potential at the rst PN order.

At the higher order, (n) i is also determined by the gauge condition, hij;j = 0.

The equation for (5) i is obtained by using the momentum constraint and the 2PN

order of Eq.(3.16) as follows,

(5) i = 16 vi v2 + 2U + + P + (3) i 8U;j (3) A~ij

+(5) K;i U (3) K;i + 13 U;i (3) K 2(4) _ ;i + 12 (U U_ );i + ((3) l U;l );i :

(3.49)

The equation for (6) i takes the purely geometrical form since the material contri-

bution Ji at the 1.5PN order vanishes.

(6) i = (6) K;i : (3.50)

Then, let us consider the wave equation for hij . From Eqs.(3.14), (3.15), (3.21)

and (3.26), the wave equation for hij is written as

2hij = 1 2

hij + @n @ 2

@ h2

4 2 @t ij

2

2 2 D~ D~ 1
~ 6 D~ D~ 1
~ D~ D~ k

+ 4 i j 3 ij ~ + i j 2 3 ij k

D~ iD~ j 1
~ ~ 2 D~ D~ + D~ ~ 2 ~ k

Di 3
~ij D Dk ~

3 ij

i j

j

+22 K A~ij 2A~il A~l j + 2 ;mi A~mj + m;j A~mi 23 m;m A~ij

16 Sij

2

1
S l @ m
~ + m
~ 2 m
~ + 2 @ A~

4 3 ij l @n ;i mj ;j mi 3 ;m ij @n ij

ij ; (3.51)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 21

where 2 is the
at spacetime wave operator dened as

@ + :

2 = @t

2

(3.52)

2

We should note that (4) ij has the TT property, i.e., (4) ij;j = 0 and (4) ii = 0. This

is a natural consequence of the transverse gauge, hij;j = 0 and hii = O(h2 ). Thus

(4) hij is determined from

(4) hij = (4) ij : (3.53)

Since O(h2 ) turns out to be O(8 ), it is enough to consider only the linear order of

hij in the case when we perform the PN approximation up to the 3.5PN order. We

can obtain (5) hij by evaluating

h ( ) = 1 @ Z (; y)d3 y; (3.54)

(5) ij

4 @ (4) ij

and the quadrupole mode of gravitational waves in the wave zone is written as

Z jx yj; y) 3

1 (4) ij (

hij (; x) = 4 jxlim

rad

j!1 jx yj d y: (3.55)

Later, we shall derive the quadrupole radiation-reaction metric in the near zone using

Eq.(3.54).

Finally, we show the evolution equation for K . Since we adopt slice conditions

which do not satisfy K = 0 (i.e. the maximal slice condition), the evolution equation

for K is necessary. The evolution equations appear at the 1PN, 2PN and 2.5PN

orders which become respectively

@ K = 42v + + 2U + 3 P X;

2

(3.56)

@ (3)

@ K = 42v + v 6U + 2 + 2 P + 3P U 4U + 4 + X

4 2 2

@ (5)

(4)

+ 4 i vi + A~ij A~ij + 13 K

(3) hij U;ij + i K;i

(3) (3) (3)

2

(4) (3) (3)

3 UU U U X + 2U (3.57)

2 ;k ;k ;k ;k ;k (4) ;k (6) + 2UX;

@ K= hij U;ij : (3.58)

@ (6) (7) (5)

We note that for the PN equations of motion up to the 2.5PN order, we need

i i i

(2) , (4) , (6) , (7) , (2) , (4) , (3) , (5) , (6) , (4) hij , (5) hij , (3) K , (5) K and (6) K .

Therefore, if we solve the above set of the equations, we can obtain the 2.5 PN

equations of motion. Up to the 2.5PN order, the hydrodynamic equations become

@Si + @ (Sivj ) = 1 + 2U + 5 U 2 + 6 + X P

@ @xj 4 (4) ;i

+ U;i 1 + + P + 32 v2 U + 58 v4 + 4v2 U

22 H. Asada and T. Futamase

3 P

+ 2 v U + + 3(3) v

2 j j

2

X;i 1 + + P + v2 + 2v2 (4) ;i (6) ;i (7) ;i

;i 1 + + P

v 2

+ vj j j j

(3)

+ 2 + 3U + ; i + ;i (5) (6)

(3) (3) (4) (5)

8

2 2 5

@ @xj ;j @t 2 @xj 2

(3.60)

where we have omitted n coecients for the sake of simplicity, and used relations

2

S 0 = 1 + + P + v2 + v2 + P + 38 v4 + 2v2 U + (3) j vj ) + O(6 );

2

i P v 2

i

Si = v 1 + + + 2 + 3U + (3) + O(5 ): (3.61)

3.3. Strategy to obtain 2PN tensor potential

Although the 2PN tensor potential is formally solved as

h ( ; x ) = 1 Z (4) ij (; y) d3 y; (3.62)

(4) ij 4 jx yj

it is dicult to estimate this integral numerically since (4) ij ! O(r 3 ) for r ! 1

and the integral is taken all over the space. Thus it is desirable to replace this

equation by some tractable forms in numerical evaluation. We shall present two

methods to do so. One is to change Eq.(3.62) into the form in which the integration

is performed only over the matter distribution like as in the Newtonian potential.

The other is to solve Eq.(3.62) as the boundary value problem 4).

Strategy1: Direct integration method

The explicit form of (4) ij is

^ ^ i j 1

(4) ij = 2@ij (X + 2(4) ) + U @ij U 3U;i U;j + ij U;k U;k 16 v v 3 ij v 2

_ i _ j 2 _ k (3.63)

(3) ;j + (3) ;i

3 ij (3) ;k ;

where

@^ij @x@i@xj 31 ij :

2

(3.64)

Although (4) ij looks as if it depends on the slice condition, the independence is

shown as follows. Eq.(3.48) is solved formally as

Z

i = pi 1 (3) K

(3) 4 jx yj d 3

y ; (3.65)

;i

Post-Newtonian Approximation 23

where iZ Z

v 1

pi = 4 jx yj d y 2 _jx yjd y : 3 3

(3.66)

;i

From Eqs.(3.40) and (3.57), we obtain

_ (X + 2(4) ) + 4 v2 + 3 P U : (3.67)

(3) K =

2

Combining Eq.(3.65) with Eq.(3.67), the equation for (3) _ i is written as

Z v + 3P U=2

2

_ i _i (X + 2(4) );i

(3) = p dy : 3

(3.68)

jx yj ;i

Using this relation, the source term, (4) ij , is split into ve parts

(4) ij = ijS + ijU + ijC + ij + ijV ;

(4)

( )

(4)

( )

(4)

( )

(4)

( )

(4)

( )

(3.69)

where we introduced the following notations.

(S )

= 16 v i vj 1 ij v2 ;

(4) ij

3

(U )

(4) ij = UU;ij 13 ij UU 3U;i U;j + ij U;k U;k ;

(C )

= 4 @ Z (vi) d3y + 4 @ Z (vj ) d3 y 8 @ Z (vk ) d3 y;

(4) ij

@xZj jx yj @xi jx yj 3 ij @xk jx yj

() ^ jx yjd3 y;

(4) ij = @ij

V

v + 3P U=2

Z 2

( ^

ij = 2@ij

)

d y: (3.70) 3

(4)

jx yj

Thus it becomes clear that hij and hij as well as ij are expressed in terms

(4) (5) (4)

of matter variables only and thus their forms do not depend on slicing conditions,

though values of matter variables depend on gauge conditions.

Then, we dene (4) h(ijS ) = 1 (4) ij(S ) , (4) h(ijU ) = 1 (4) ij(U ) , (4) h(ijC ) = 1 (4) ij(C ) ,

() ()

(4) hij =

1

(4) ij and (4) h(ijV ) = 1 (4) ij(V ) , and consider each term separately.

First, since (4) ij(S ) is a compact source, we immediately obtain

Z vi vj ij v 1 2

hijS = 4 (3.71)

3

(4)

( )

jx yj d y: 3

G(x; y1; y2) = jx y jj1x y j : (3.72)

1 2

24 H. Asada and T. Futamase

It is possible to write (4) h(ijU ) using integrals over the matter if this function, G, is

used. Eq.(3.72) has solutions 43); 71) ,

G(x; y1 ; y2) = ln(r1 + r2 r12 ); (3.73)

where

r = jx y1j; r = jx y2j; r = jy1 y2j:

1 (3.74) 2 12

Note that ln(r + r r ) is not regular on the interval between y1 and y2 , while

1 2 12

ln(r + r + r ) is regular on the matter. Thus we use ln(r + r + r ) as a kernel.

1 2 12 1 2 12

Using this kernel, UU;ij and U;i U;j are rewritten as

Z Z

UU;ij = @x@i@xj jx(y1y) j d y

2

(y2) d y 3 3

1 jx y2j 1 2

Z

@

= d y d y (y1 )(y2 ) i j jx y jjx y j

3 3 1 2

@y @y

1

1

2

2 1 1

Z

= d y d y (y1 )(y2 ) @i j ln(r + r + r );

2

3 3

@y @y 1 2

1 1

1 2 12

Z Z

@ ( y 1) @

U;iU;j = @xi jx y j d y @xj jx y j d y ( y2) 3 3

1 2

1 2

Z

@

= d y d y (y1 )(y2 ) i j jx y jjx y j

3 3 1 2

@y @y

1

1

2

2 1 2

Z

= d y d y (y1 )(y2 ) @i j ln(r + r + r ):

2

3 3

(3.75)

@y @y 1 2

1 2

1 2 12

Thus we can express (4) h(ijU ) using the integral over the matter as

Z

hijU = d y d y (y1)(y2 )

( ) 3 @ 1 4 3 @

3

2 2

1 4

(4)

@yi @yj 3 ij

1 2

@yi @yj 1 1

1

1 2

3 ij 12

ln(r + r + r ); 1 2 12 (3.76)

where we introduced

4 = @y@k @yk ; 4 = @y@k @yk :

2 2

1 12 (3.77)

1 1 1 2

(4)

( )

(4) hij and

( )

(4)

( )

Z Z Z

C ( @ ) j @ i 4

hij = 2 @xi (v ) jx yjd y + 2 @xj (v ) jx yjd y + 3 ij jx 3 3

yjd y; 3

(4)

(3.78)

Z Z

1 @ 1

hij = 12 @xi@xj jx yj d y 3 ij jx yjd y;

( )

2

3 3 3

(3.79)

(4)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 25

Z

2 Z v + 3P U=2 d y:

2

hijV = @x@i@xj v + 3P U

2

(4)

( ) 2

2 j x y j d y 3 ij

3

jx yj

3

(3.80)

Thus we nd that the 2PN tensor potentials can be expressed as the integrals only

over the matter.

Strategy2: Partial use of boundary value approach

Although the above expression for (4) hij is quite interesting and might play

an important role in some theoretical applications, it will take a very long time

to evaluate double integration numerically. Therefore, we propose another strategy

where Eq.(3.53) is solved as the boundary value problem. Here, we would like to

emphasize that the boundary condition should be imposed at r(= jxj) jy1 j; jy2 j,

but r does not have to be greater than , where is a typical wave length of

gravitational waves. We only need to impose r > R (a typical size of matter). This

means that we do not need a large amount of grid numbers compared with the case

of fully general relativistic simulations, in which we require r > R.

First of all, we consider the equation

(4) hij + (4) hij = (4) ij(S) + (4) ij(U ) :

(S ) (U )

(3.81)

Since the source (4) ij(U ) behaves as O(r 6 ) at r ! 1, this equation can be accurately

solved under the boundary condition at r > R as

h(S )

+ h (U )

= 2 I 1 I

(4) ij (4) ij

r ij 3 ij kk

+ 32r2 nk Iijk 13 ij nk Illk + 2nk (S_ ikj + S_ jki) 43 ij nk S_ lkl

+O(r 3 ); (3.82)

where Z

Iijk = xixj xk d3 x;

Z

Sijk = (vi xj vj xi)xk d x: 3

(3.83)

Next, we consider the equations for (4) h(ijC ) , (4) h(ij) and (4) h(ijV ) . Using the iden-

tity,

= (vi);i = (vivj );ij + P (U;i);i ; (3.84)

we nd the following relations;

Z Z i i

jx yjd y =

3

d y jxx yy j (vi );

3

Z Z " i i j j

jx yj d y = 3 d y vivj (x jyx )(xyj y )

3 3 3

#

+ 4P + v 2

U;i (xi yi ) jx yj : (3.85)

26 H. Asada and T. Futamase

Using Eqs.(3.85), (4) h(ijC ) , (4) h(ij) and (4) h(ijV ) in Eqs.(3.78)-(3.80) can be written as

Z

C) = 2 (vj ) x

i yi d y + 2 Z (vi ) xj yj d y 4 Z (vk ) xk yk d y;

(4) hij

( 3 3 3

jx yj jx yj 3 ij jx yj

(3.86)

Z

hij = 14 @x@i @xj vk vl (x

( )

2 k yk )(xl yl) d y + 1 Z (vk ) xk yk d y

3 3

(4)

(

jx yj 3 ij j)x yj

1

+ 2 @x @ Z P 0 (xj 3

Z

yj ) d y + @ P 0 (xi yi) d y 3

i jx yj @xj jx yj

( Z

1 2 U;j (xi yi) + U;i(xj yj ) d y 3

8 jx yj

@ Z

U ;k ( x j yj ) @ Z

U ;k ( x i yi ) )

+ xk @x i jx yj d y + x @xj jx yj d y ; (3.87)

k 3 3

and

V) = 1 @ Z v2 + 3P U xj yj d y

(4) hij

( 3

2 @xi 2 jx yj

Z i i

@ U x

+ @xj v + 3P 2 jx yj d y y2 3

2 Z v + 3P U=2 d y;

2

3 ij jx yj

3

(3.88)

where P 0 = P + v2 =4 + U;l yl =4. Furthermore they are rewritten in terms of the

potentials as follows.

(C ) i _ j j _ i 4 Q kk k _ k

(4) hij = 2(x (3) P + x (3) P Qij ) + 3 ij 2 x (3) P ;

hij = 14 @x@i@xj Vklv xk xl 2Vk v xk + V v + 31 ij xk P_k Q2kk

2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

(4) (3)

1 @ P j

+ 2 @xi V x Vj + @xj V x ViP( ) @ P i (P ) ( ) ( )

1 2xi V U + xi V U V U V U

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

8 j i ij ji

k @

+ x @xi x Vk j U U k @

Vkj + x @xj x Vk

( ) i U U

Vki (

; ) ( ) ( )

(4) hij

(

2 ;j ;i i;j j;i 3 ij

Post-Newtonian Approximation 27

where the potentials are dened as

Pi = 4vi ;

(3)

Qij = 4 xj (vi ) + xi(vj ) ;

Q I = 4 v + 3P 21 U ;

( ) 2

QiI = 4 v + 3P 12 U xi;

( ) 2

Vijv =

( )

4vi vj ;

Vi v =

( )

4vi vj xj ;

V v =

( )

4(vj xj )2 ;

V P =

( )

4P 0 ;

Vi P =

( )

4P 0 xi ;

Vi U =

( )

4U;i ;

VijU =

( )

4U;i xj : (3.90)

It should be noted that these Poisson equations have compact sources.

In this strategy (4) h(ijS ) and (4) h(ijU ) are solved as the boundary value problem,

while other parts are obtained by the same method as in Newtonian gravity.

Strategy 3: Boundary Value approach

Instead of the above procedure, we may solve the Poisson equation for (4) hij as

a whole carefully imposing the boundary condition for r R as

1 1 3 k i j

(4) hij =

r 4 Iij + 4 n n Ikj + n Iki

(2) (2) (2)

8 kk 8 kl 8 ij kk 8 ij kl

+ r12 5 k (2) 1 i (2) j (2) 5 k l i (2) j (2)

12 n Iijk 24 (n Ijkk + n Iikk ) + 8 n n (n Ijkl + n Iikl )

7 ni nj nk I (2) + 5 ni nj nk nl nm I (2) + 11 nk I (2) 5 nk nl nm I (2)

8 kll 8 klm 24 ij kll 8 ij klm

+ 23 nk (S_ ikj + S_ jki) 34 (ni S_ jkk + nj S_ ikk )

+ 2nk nl (ni S_ jkl + nj S_ ikl ) + 2ni nj nk S_ kll + 23 ij nk S_ kll + O(r 3 ):

(3.91)

It is veried that O(r 1 ) and O(r 2 ) parts satisfy the traceless and divergence-free

conditions respectively. It should be noted that (4) hij obtained in this way becomes

meaningless at the far zone because Eq.(3.53), from which (4) hij is derived, is valid

only in the near zone.

28 H. Asada and T. Futamase

3.4. The Radiation Reaction due to Quadrupole Radiation

This topic has been already investigated by using some gauge conditions in

previous papers 25); 79); 15) . However, if we use the combination of the conformal slice

and the transverse gauge, calculations are simplied.

3.4.1. conformal slice

In combination of the conformal slice 84) and the transverse gauge, Eq.(3.54)

becomes 4)

h ( ) = 1 @ Z 16vi vj 1 v2

(5) ij

4 @ 3 ij

+ UU;ij 13 ij UU 3U;i U;j + ij U;k U;k d3 y

@ Z _ i; j + _ j 2 _ k d3 y:

+ 41 @ (3.92)

(3) (3) ;i

3 ij (3) ;k

From a straightforward calculation, we nd 4) that the sum of the rst and second

lines becomes 2 I (3) ij and the third line becomes 6 I ij =5, where I ij = d I ij =dt

(3) (3) 3 3

and

I ij = Iij 31 ij Ikk : (3.93)

Thus, (5) hij in the near zone becomes

4 I (3) : (3.94)

(5) hij =

5 ij

Since hij has the transverse and traceless property, it is likely that (5) hij remains

the same for other slices. However it is not clear whether the TT property of hij

is satised even after the PN expansion is taken in the near zone and, as a result,

whether (5) hij is independent of slicing conditions or not. The fact that slicing

conditions never aect (5) hij is understood on the ground that (4) ij does not depend

on slices, as already shown in Eq.(3.69).

Then the Hamiltonian constraint at the 2.5PN order, Eq.(3.42), turns out to be

(7) = 52 I (3) 1 (3)

ij U;ij = 5 I ij ;ij ; (3.95)

where is the superpotential 21) dened as

Z

= jx yjd y;

3

(3.96)

which satises the relation = 2U . From this, we nd (7) takes the following

form,

Z j j

(7) = 5 I ij ;i (xjx yy j ) d3 y

1 (3)

Z j !

1 j ;i

= 5 I ij x U;i + jx yj d y :

(3) y 3

(3.97)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 29

Therefore, the lapse function at the 2.5PN order, (7) = 2(7) , is derived from U

and Ur , where Ur satises 15)

Ur = 4 I (3) j

ij ;ix : (3.98)

Since the right-hand side of Eq.(3.58) cancels out, (6) K disappears if the (6) K does

not exist on the initial hypersurface, which seems reasonable under the condition that

there are no initial gravitational waves. Also, (6) i vanishes according to Eq.(3.50).

Hence, the quadrupole radiation reaction metric has the same form as that derived

in the case of the maximal slice 79); 15) .

From Eq.(3.29), the PN equation of motion becomes

v_ i + vj v;i j = P;i + U;i + Fi PN + Fi PN + Fi : PN + O( );

1 2 25

(3.99)

8

where Fi PN and Fi PN are, respectively, the 1PN and 2PN forces. Since the radi-

1 2

ation reaction potentials, hij and , are the same as those by Schafer (1985)

(5) (7)

and Blanchet, Damour and Schafer (1990) in which they use the ADM gauge, the

radiation reaction force per unit mass, Fi2:5PN Fir , is the same as their force and

Fir = ((5) hij vj ) + vk v;kj (5) hij + (7) ;i

Z k yk )(xl yl )

4 (3) j 4 (3) k j 2 (3) @ ( x

= 5 ( I ij v ) + 5 I ij v v;k + 5 I kl @xi (t; y) jx yj3 d y :

3

(3.100)

Since the work done by the force (3.100) is given by

Z

W Fir vid x 3

Z

4 d

= 5 d I ij v v d x 15 I ij I

i j

(3) 3 (3) (3)ij ; (3.101)

we obtain the so-called quadrupole formula of the energy loss by averaging Eq.(3.101)

with respect to time as

dEN = 1 D I (3) I (3)ij E + O(6): (3.102)

d 5 ij

3.4.2. Radiation reaction in other slice conditions

In this subsection, we do not specify the slice condition. In this case, the reaction

force takes the following form

Fir = 54 ( I (3) j 4 (3) k j

ij v ) + 5 I ij v v;k (7) ;i (6) _ + v (6) ;i v (6) ;j : (3.103)

i j j j i

Here, (7) corresponds to the slice condition. From Eq.(3.103), we obtain the work

done by the reaction force as

Z

W Fir vid x 3

30 H. Asada and T. Futamase

Z

= d 3

xvi 4 I (3) vj + 4 I (3) vj vl

5 ij 5 ij ;l

(7) ;i

_ i j j

(6) + v (6) ;i

j i

v (6) ;j : (3.104)

Explicit calculations are done separately: For the rst and second terms of

Eq.(3.104), we obtain

4 Z d3 x I (3) vj vi = 4 d I (3) Z d3 xvi vj 1 I (3) I (3)

5 ij 5 dt ij 5 ij ij

Z Z

2 I (3) d3 x(x)vk @ d3 y (y)(xi yi )(xj yj )

5 ij Z @xk jx yj3

2 I (3) d3 xv_ i vj ; (3.105)

5 ij

and

4 Z d3 x I (3) vj vl vi = 2 I (3) Z d3 xv

_ i vj : (3.106)

5 ij ;l 5 ij

As for the fourth term in the integral of Eq.(3.104), we nd the relation

_

i= 2 I (3) @ Z d3 y (xk yk )(xl yl ) ; (3.107)

(7) ;i

(6)

5 kl @xi jx yj3

which is given by Eqs.(3.50), (3.58) and (3.94).

Using Eqs.(3.104), (3.105), (3.106) and (3.107), we obtain

Z

d

W = 5 d I ij v v d x 15 I (3)

4 i j (3)ij

(3.108)

ij I :

(3) 3

This expression for W does not depend on the slice condition. However, this never

means that the value of W is invariant under the change of the slice condition, since

the meaning of the time derivative depends on the slice condition.

3.5. Conserved quantities

The conserved quantities are gauge-invariant so that, in general relativity, they

play important roles to characterize various systems described in dierent gauge

conditions. From the practical point of view, these are also useful for checking the

numerical accuracy in simulations. Thus, we show several conserved quantities in

the 2PN approximation.

Conserved Mass And Energy

In general relativity, we have the following conserved mass;

Z

M = d x:3

(3.109)

In the PN approximation, dened by Eq.(3.28) is expanded as 4)

1

= 1 + 2 v + 3U

2

3 4 7 2 15 2 i i

+ 8 v + 2 v U + 4 U + 6(4) + (3) v + (6) ) + O(7 ); (3.110)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 31

where (6) denotes the 3PN contribution to . This term (6) will be calculated

later.

Next, we consider the ADM mass which is conserved. Since the asymptotic

behavior of the conformal factor becomes

M

= 1 + 2r + O r12 ;

ADM (3.111)

the ADM mass in the PN approximation becomes

Z

1

MADM = 2 d3 x

Z

= d3 x 1 + v2 + + 52 U + v4 + 13 2 v2U + v2 + P v2 + 52 U

+ 52 U 2 + 5(4) + 2(3) i vi + 161 (3) A~ij (3) A~ij 23 (3) K 2

+ (6) ADM + O( ) ;

7

(3.112)

where (6) ADM denotes the 3PN contribution. This term (6) ADM will be calculated

later.

Using these two conserved quantities, we can dene the conserved energy as

follows;

EM M

Z ADM

= d x 21 v + 12 U

3 2

+ 58 v4 + 3v2 U + v2 + P v2 + 52 U 45 U 2 (4) + (3) i vi

+ 161 (3) A~ij (3) A~ij 23 (3) K 2 + (6) ADM (6) + O(c ) 7

We should note that the following equation holds

Z

Z

~

A ~

A d 3

x = 8

Z

v i i d 3

x + 2 K 2 + 2U_ K d3 x; (3.114)

(3) ij (3) ij (3)

3 (3) (3)

where we used Eqs.(3.47) and (3.48). Then, we obtain the Newtonian and the rst

PN energies as Z

EN = 12 v2 + 12 U d3 x; (3.115)

and

Z

E1PN = d x 58 v4 + 25 v2 U + v2 + P v2 + 2U

3 5 U 2 + 1 i vi

2 2 (3)

1 _

+ 8 U (3) K : (3.116)

32 H. Asada and T. Futamase

E PN can be rewritten immediately in the following form used by Chandrasekhar ;

1

23)

Z

E PN = d x 85 v + 52 v U + v + P + 2U 52 U 12 vi qi ; (3.117)

1

3 4 2 2 2

where qi is the rst PN shift vector in the standard PN gauge , which turns out 23)

(3)

The total energy at the 2PN order E PN is calculated from the 3PN quantities

2

(6)

Z

(6) M = d x;(6)

3

(3.119)

where

(6) = 165 v + 33

6

8 v U + v

4

5

2

+ 93 U + 3 i vi X + 6

8(4)

2

2

(3) (6) + 15U (4)

5 1 1

+ 2 U + 7 i vi U + 2 hij vi vj + 2 i i + i vi :

3

(3.120)

(3) (4) (3) (3) (5)

(8) (4) hij (4) ;ij 21 (6) hij U;ij

1 (2 h

= 32 (4) kl;m (4) hkm;l + (4) hkl;m (4) hkl;m ) 2(6)

1 A~ A~ 2 K K 1 U A~ A~ 2 K 2 ; (3.121)

4 (3) ij (5) ij 3 (3) (5) 16 (3) ij (3) ij 3 (3)

where we dene (6) as

= v 6

+ v 4

+ P + 21 U + v2 13 U + P + 9 2 X + 20 U 2

(6)

2 2 (4)

+ 2(3) i vi 2v2 + + P + 13 2 U + 2 (5) i vi + i i : (3.122)

(3) (3)

Making use of the relations (4) hij;j = 0 and (6) hij;j = 0, we obtain

Z Z

1 ~ ~ 2

(6) MADM = d x(6) + 8 d y (3) Aij (5) Aij 3 (3) K (5) K

3 3

Z

+ 321 d3 yU (3) A~ij (3) A~ij 23 (3) K 2 ; (3.123)

where we assumed (6) hij ! O(r 1 ) as r ! 1. Although this assumption must

be veried by performing the 3PN expansions which have not been done here, it

Post-Newtonian Approximation 33

seems reasonable in the asymptotically
at spacetime. From (6) MADM and (6) M ,

we obtain the conserved energy at the 2PN order

E PN = MADM

2 (6) M

(6)

Z

11

= d x 16 v + v + + 8 U

3 6 P4 47

+v 4 2 P 41

X + 6U + + 8 U + 2 v 5 i i 2

(4) (3)

+ 5 + 4U 5 15 U 2 5U 3

(4)

2 2

(4)

1 i j i i P

+ 2 hij v v + 2 v + + 5U + v + 2 i i 1 i i

(4) (3) (5) (3) (3)

Z

1 ~

+ 8 d y hij UU;ij + Aij Aij 3 K K :

3 ~ 2 (3.124)

(4) (3) (5) (3) (5)

R R

Here we used Eq.(3.41) and the relation, d3 x(6) = 4

1

d xU

3

(6) , in order

to eliminate (6) .

Conserved linear momentum

When we use the center of mass system as usual, the linear momentum of the

system should vanish. However, it may arise from numerical errors in numerical

calculations. Since it is useful to check the numerical accuracy, we mention the

linear momentum derived from

I

1

Pi = 8 rlim j i

!1 Kij n Kn dS

I

1

= 8 rlim 4 ~ j 2 i

Aij n 3 Kn dS; (3.125)

!1

where the surface integrals are taken over a sphere of constant r. Since the asymp-

totic behavior of A~ij is determined by

~ 1 i j 2 l (3.126)

(3) Aij =

2 (3) ;j + (3) ;i 3 ij (3) ;l + O(r );

3

and

~ 1 i j 2 l ~TT (3.127)

(5) Aij =

2 (5) ;j + (5) ;i 3 ij (5) ;l + (5) Aij + O(r );

3

the leading term of the shift vector is necessary. Using the asymptotic behavior

derived from Eq.(3.48)

(3)

2 r

we obtain Z

i j 2 l nj dS = 16l ; (3.129)

(3) ;j + (3) ;i

3 ij (3) ;l i

34 H. Asada and T. Futamase

R

where we dened li = vi d3 x. Therefore the Newtonian linear momentum is

Z

PN i = d3 xvi : (3.130)

Similarly the rst PN linear momentum is obtained as

Z

P1PN i = d 3

x vi v2 + + 6U P i

+ + : (3.131)

(3)

Z

P PN i= d3

xvi 2(3) ivi + 10 + 6U + v 2 P

+

2 (4)

67

+ 4 U + 10Uv + v X :

2 2 4

(3.132)

Congurations

We now consider the construction of the spacetime involving a close binary neu-

tron stars as an application of PN approximation. It is assumed that the binary

stars are regarded as uniformly rotating equilibrium congurations. Here, we men-

tion the importance of this investigation. To interpret the implication of the signal of

gravitational waves, we need to understand the theoretical mechanism of merging in

detail. When the orbital separation of binary neutron stars is < 10GM=c2 , where M

is the total mass of binary neutron stars, they move approximately in circular orbits

because the timescale of the energy loss due to gravitational radiation is much longer

than the orbital period. However, when the orbital separation becomes 6 10GM=c2 ,

the circular orbit cannot be maintained because of instabilities due to the GR grav-

ity 59) or the tidal eld 62); 63) . As a result of such instabilities, the circular orbit of

binary neutron stars changes into the plunging orbit to merge. Gravitational waves

emitted at this transition may present us important information about the structure

of NS's since the location where the instability occurs will depend sensitively on the

equation of state (EOS) of NS 62); 63); 102) . Thus, it is very important to investigate

the location of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) of binary neutron stars.

In order to search the ISCO, we can take the following procedure: First, ne-

glecting the evolution due to gravitational radiation, we construct equilibrium con-

gurations. Next, we take into account the radiation reaction as a correction to the

equilibrium congurations. The ISCO is the orbit, where the dynamical instability

for the equilibrium congurations occurs. Hence we shall present a formalism to

obtain equilibrium congurations of uniformly rotating uid in 2PN order as a rst

step 5) , though in reality due to the conservation of the circulation for gravitational

radiation reaction, tidally locked conguration such as uniformly rotating uid is not

a good approximation.

4.1. Formulation

We shall use in this section the maximal slice condition Ki i = 0. As the spatial

gauge condition, we adopt the transverse gauge ~ij;j = 0 in order to remove the gauge

Post-Newtonian Approximation 35

modes from ~ij . In this case, up to the 2PN approximation, each metric variable is

expanded as 4)

= 1 + c12 U2 + c14 (4) + O(c 6 ); (4.1)

2

= 1 c12 U + c14 U2 + X + c16 (6) + O(c 7); (4.2)

i = 1 i + 1 i + O(c 7 );

c 3 (3) c 5 (5)

(4.3)

1

~ij = ij + c hij + O(c ): 5

(4.4)

4

In this section, we use 1=c instead of as the expansion parameter because of its

convenience in numerical applications.

For simplicity, we assume that the matter obeys the polytropic equation of state

(EOS);

P = ( 1) = K ; (4.5)

where and K are the polytropic exponent and polytropic constant, respectively.

Up to the 2PN order, the four velocity is given by Eq.(3.35) 24); 4); 5) . Since we need

u0 up to 3PN order to obtain the 2PN equations of motion, we derive it here. Using

Eq.(3.35), we can calculate (u0 )2 up to 3PN order as

(u0 )2 = 1 + 4
~ ij ui uj

v 2

1 j j

= 1 + + 2 v + 4Uv + v + 2 4 1 j j + 8 j vj U

c c 2 4

(3)

c

6 (3) (3) (3)

i j i i j j 15

+hij v v + 2 v + 4 v + 4 + 2 U 2X v + 8Uv + v 2 2 4 6

(5) (3) (4)

+O(c ); 7

(4.6)

where we used
~ ij = ij c hij + O(c ). Thus, we obtain u up to the 3PN order

4 5 0

as

u = 1 + c1 12 v + U + c1 38 v + 52 v U + 12 U + i vi X

0

2

2

4

4 2 2

(3)

+ c1 6

+ 12 j j + hij vivj + j vj + 5 j vj U 2UX

(6) (3) (3) (5) (3)

+ 32 (3) j vj + 2(4) + 6U 2 32 X v2 + 27 Uv 4

+ 5 v6

8 16

+O(c ):7

(4.7)

Substituting PN expansions of metric and matter variables into the Einstein

equation, and using the polytropic EOS, we nd that the metric variables obey the

following Poisson equations 4) ;

U = 4;

(4.8)

X = 4 2v2 + 2U + (3 2) ; (4.9)

36 H. Asada and T. Futamase

(4) = 2 v + + 2 U ; 52

(4.10)

(3) i = 16vi U_ ;i; (4.11)

" #

= 16 vi v2 + 2U

i + + (3) i 4U;j (3) ;ji + (3) ;ij 2 k

(5)

3 ij (3) ;k

2(4) _ ;i + 12 (U U_ );i + ((3) l U;l );i ; (4.12)

hij = UU;ij 13 ij UU 3U;iU;j + ij U;k U;k 16 vivj 13 ij v2

_ i + _ j 2 _ k 2 ( X + 2 ) 1 (X + 2 );

(3) ;j (3) ;i

3 ij (3) ;k (4) ;ij 3 ij (4)

"

(4#.13)

= 4 2v + 2v 5U + + (3

(6)

4 2

2)U + 4(4) + X + 4(3) i vi

1 i i j 2 k

+ 2 (3) ;j (3) ;j + (3) ;i 3 ij (3) ;k : (4.14)

Here, we consider the uniformly rotating uid around z -axis with the angular

velocity

, i.e.,

vi = ijk

j xk = ( y

; x

; 0); (4.15)

where we choose

j = (0; 0;

) and ijk is the completely anti-symmetric unit tensor.

In this case, the following relations hold;

@ +

@ Q = @ +

@ Q = @ +

@ Q = 0; (4.16)

@t @' @t @' i @t @' ij

where Q, Qi and Qij are arbitrary scalars, vectors, and tensors, respectively. Then,

the conservation law (2.18) can be integrated as 65)

Z

dP (4.17)

c + + P = ln u + C;

0

2

" #

ln 1 + c ( K 1) 2

1

= ln u0 + C: (4.18)

!

H 2Hc + 3Hc = v2 + U + c1 2Uv + v4

2 3 2 4

2 4 2

2

X+ (3) i vi

3

2

(4) v 2

Post-Newtonian Approximation 37

!

+ 15 1 6

4 U v + 2Uv + 6 v UX v X + (5) v + 2 hij v v

2 2 4 2 i i 1 i j

+C; (4.19)

where H = K 1=( 1), v2 = R2

2 and R2 = x2 + y2 . Note that Eq.(4.19)

can be also obtained from the 2PN Euler equation like in the rst PN case 22) . If

we solve the coupled equations (4.8)-(4.14) and (4.19), we can obtain equilibrium

congurations of the non-axisymmetric uniformly rotating body.

In the above Poisson equations for metric variables, the source terms in the

Poisson equations for (3) i , (5) i , and hij fall o slowly as r ! 1 because these

terms behave as O(r 3 ) at r ! 1. These Poisson equations do not take convenient

forms when we try to solve them numerically as the boundary value problem. Hence

in the following, we rewrite them into convenient forms.

As for hij , rst of all, we split the equation into three parts as 4)

h(ijU ) = U U;ij 31 ij U 3U;iU;j + ij U;k U;k 4Sij(U ) ; (4.20)

h(ijS) = 16 vivj 13 ij v2 ; (4.21)

h(ijG) = (3) _;ji + (3) _;ij 23 ij (3) _;kk

2 (X + 2(4) );ij 13 ij (X + 2(4) ) : (4.22)

The equation for h(ijS ) has a compact source, and also the source term of h(ijU ) behaves

as O(r 6 ) at r ! 1, so that Poisson equations for them are solved easily as the

boundary value problem. On the other hand, the source term of h(ijG) behaves as

O(r 3) at r ! 1, so that it seems troublesome to solve the equation as the boundary

value problem. In order to solve the equation for h(ijG) as the boundary value problem,

we had better rewrite the equation into useful forms. As shown by Asada, Shibata

and Futamase 4) , Eq.(4.22) is integrated to give

Z Z Z

hijG = 2 @x@ i (vj ) jx yjd y + 2 @x@ j (vi )jx yjd y + ij jx yjd y

( ) 3 3 3

Z Z

1 @ 2

3 3 @ 2

+ 12 @xi @xj jx yj d y + @xi @xj v + 3P 2 jx yjd y

2 U 3

2 Z v + 3P U=2

2

3 ij jx yj d3 y: (4.23)

Using the relations

= (vj );j + O(c 2 );

v_ i = 0;

vi xi = 0; (4.24)

38 H. Asada and T. Futamase

Eq.(4.23) is rewritten as

(G) 7 i _ j _

hij = 4 x (3) Pj + x (3) Pi Qij Qji _ (T ) _ (T )

ij xk (3) P_k

" #

1 xk @ xj P_ Q_ (T ) + @ xi P_ Q_ (T )

8 @xi (3) k kj @xj (3) k ki

" #

1 @

+ 2 @xi x Qj (I ) (I )

Qj + @xj x Q@ i (I )

Qi (I ) 2 Q(I ) ; (4.25)

3 ij

where

(3) Pi = 4vi; (4.26)

Q(ijT ) = 4vixj ; (4.27)

(I )

Q = 4 v + 3P 2 U ; 2 1 (4.28)

(I )

Qi = 4 v + 3P 2 U xi:

2 1 (4.29)

Therefore, h(ijG) can be deduced from variables which satisfy the Poisson equations

with compact sources.

The source terms in the Poisson equations (4.11) and (4.12) for (3) i and (5) i

also fall o slowly. However, we can rewrite them as 4)

i = 4 Pi 1 xi U_ q_i ; (4.30)

(3) (3)

2

i = 4 P 1 2xi _ _ ; (4.31)

(5) i i

(5)

2 (4)

where

qi = 4x"i ; #

(4.32)

i i i j

(5) Pi = 4 v v + 2U + + (3) + U;j (3) ;j + (3) ;i 3 ij (3) ;k

2 2 k

1 (UU

_ 1 l (4.33)

8 );i 4 ((3) U;l );i ;

i = 4 v2 + + 52 U xi: (4.34)

Thus (3) i and (5) i can be obtained by solving the Poisson equations (4.32)-(4.34)

whose source terms fall o fast enough, O(r 5 ), for numerical calculation.

For later convenience, using the relation (3) Pi = izk qk

and Eq.(4.16), (3) i and

i

(5) may be written in the form with explicit

dependence as

i 1

4izk qk + 2 x U;' qi;'

(3) ^i ;

i (4.35)

(3) =

i ^ 1 i (4.36)

(5) =

4(5) Pi + 2 2x (4) ;' i;' ;

Post-Newtonian Approximation 39

where

" #

(5) P^i = 4 izk xk v2 + 2U + + (3) ^i + U;j (3) ^;ji + (3) ^;ij 32 ij (3) ^;kk

+ 18 (UU;' );i 14 ((3) ^k U;k );i : (4.37)

4.2. Basic equations appropriate for numerical approach

Although equilibrium congurations can be formally obtained by solving Eq.(4.19)

as well as metric potentials, U , X , (4) , (6) , (3) i , (5) i and hij , they do not take

convenient forms for numerical calculation. Thus, we here change Eq.(4.19) into

forms appropriate to obtain numerically equilibrium congurations.

In numerical calculation, the standard method to obtain equilibrium congura-

tions is as follows 52); 72) ;

(1) We give a trial density conguration for .

(2) We solve the Poisson equations.

(3) Using Eq.(4.19), we give a new density conguration.

These procedures are repeated until a sucient convergence is achieved. Here, at (3),

we need to specify unknown constants,

and C . In standard numerical methods

52); 72)

, these are calculated during iteration by xing densities at two points; i.e.,

if we put 1 at x1 and 2 at x2 into Eq.(4.19), we obtain two equations for

and

C . Solving these two equations give us

and C . However, the procedure is not

so simple in the PN case:

is included in the source of the Poisson equations for

the variables such as X , (4) , (6) , i , (5) P^i , h(ijS ) , Q(ijT ) , Q(I ) and Q(iI ) . Thus, if we

use Eq.(4.19) as it is, equations for

and C become implicit equations for

. In

such a situation, the convergence to a solution is very slow. Therefore, we transform

those equations into other forms in which the potentials as well as Eq.(4.19) become

explicit polynomial equations in

.

First of all, we dene q2 , q2i , q4 , qu , qe and qij which satisfy

q2 = 4R2; (4.38)

q2i = 4R2xi ; (4.39)

q4 = 4R4; (4.40)

qu = 4U; (4.41)

qe = 4; (4.42)

qij = 4x x : i j (4.43)

Then, X , (4) , Q(I ) , Q(iI ) , i , (5) P^i , Q(ijT ) , and h(ijS ) are written as

X = 2q

2qu (3 2)qe;

2

2

(4.44)

(4) = 21 q

+ qe + 52 qu ;

2

2

(4.45)

Q I = q

+ 3( 1)qe 12 qu q

+ Q I ;

( )

2

2

2

2 ( )

0 (4.46)

QiI = q i

+ Q Ii ;

( )

2

2 ( )

0 (4.47)

40 H. Asada and T. Futamase

i = q i

+ i ;

2

2

0 (4.48)

P^i = izk q k

+ P i ;

(5) 2

2

(5) 0 (4.49)

QijT = izl qlj

;

( )

(4.50)

hijS = 4

izk jzlqkl 31 ij q ;

( ) 2

2 (4.51)

where Q(0Ii ) , 0i and (5) P0i satisfy

(I ) 1

Q0i = 4 3P 2 U x = 4 3( i 1) 1 U xi ; (4.52)

2

0i = 4 + 2 U xi; 5 (4.53)

" #

(5) P0i = 4 izk 2U + + (3) ^i + U;j (3) ^;ji + (3) ^;ij 23 ij (3) ^;kk

xk

+ 18 (UU;' );i 41 ((3) ^k U;k );i 4Si(P ) : (4.54)

Note that (5) i and h(ijG) are the cubic and quadratic equations in

, respectively, as

i

(5) = (5)

i (A)

+ i (B)

3 ;

(5) (4.55)

h(ijG) = h(ijA) + h(ijB)

2 ; (4.56)

where

i (A) 1 i 5 (4.57)

(5) = 4(5) P0i + 2 x qe + 2 qu 0i;' ;

;'

i (B ) 1 i (4.58)

(5) = 4izk q2k + 2 x q2;' q2i;' ;

" #

hijA

( ) 1 @ i (I ) (I )

= 2 @xj x Q0 Q0i + @xi x Q0 Q0j @ j (I ) (I ) 4 Q(I ) ;

3 ij 0

" ( )

(B ) 1 @ i @

hij = 2 @xj x q2 q2i + @xi x q2 q2j 3 ij q2 j 4

7 xi q + xj q

k

4 ( jzk k;' izk k;' izk qkj;' jzk qki;' + ij x kzl ql

)#

1 @ @

+ 8 x @xi x kzl ql;' kzl qlj;' + @xj x kzl ql;' kzl qli;' : (4.59)

k j i

(6) = (6) 0 + (6) 2

2

2q4

4 ; (4.60)

where (6) 0 and (6) 2 satisfy

" #

= 4 3

(6) 0 2 U 3 4 qe + 3qu

Post-Newtonian Approximation 41

hijU ) + h(ijA)

(

U;ij 3 UU U + U @ 9 q + (3 + 1)q

2 ;l ;l ;l @xl 2 u e

4S (0 ) ;

(4.61)

= 8R 5U + + 2 ^'

(6) 2

2

4izk jzl qkl 43 ij q2 + h(ijB) U;ij

(3)

1 ^i ^i ^j 2 ^

+3q2;l U;l + 2 (3) ;j (3) ;j + (3) ;i 3 ij (3) ;kk

4S (2 ) : (4.62)

Using the above quantities, Eq.(4.19) is rewritten as

H 2Hc + 3Hc = A + B

+ D

+ 6Rc

+ C;

2 3 6

2 4

2 4

4

6

(4.63)

where

A = U + c1 2qu + (3 2)qe + c1 U6 + U 2qu + (3 2)qe ;

3

2 4 (6) 0

R 2

1 ^

B = 2 + c 2R U + 2q + ' + c 2 1 + 12 ^i ^i + 4 ^'U

2 2 (3) 4 (6) 2 (3) (3) (3)

9 15 2 A 1 2 U

+(3 1)qe R + 2 qu R + 4 U R + 2q U + ' + 2 h'' + h'' ; A 2 2 ( ) ( ) ( )

2 (5)

R 4

1 ^ 7 B 1 B

D = 4c + c 2q + ' R + 3 q R + 2UR + ' + 2 h'' + 4R qRR :

2 2 4 ( ) ( ) 2

2 4 4 (3) 2 (5)

(4.64)

Note that in the above, we use the following relations which hold for arbitrary vector

Qi and symmetric tensor Qij ,

Q' = yQx + xQy ;

Q'' = y Qxx 2xyQxy + x Qyy ;

2 2

2 2 2

(4.65)

We also note that source terms of Poisson equations for variables which appear in

A, B and D do not depend on

explicitly. Thus, Eq.(4.63) takes the desired form

for numerical calculation.

In this formalism, we need to solve 29 Poisson equations for U , qx , qy , qz , (5) P0x ,

(I ) (I ) (I ) (U ) (U ) (U ) (U ) (U )

(5) P0y , 0x , 0y , Q0x , Q0y , Q0z , q2 , q2x , q2y , q2z , qu , qe , hxx , hxy , hxz , hyy , hyz ,

qxx, qxy , qxz , qyz , (6) 0, (6) 2 and q4. In Table 1, we show the list of the Poisson

equations to be solved. In Table 2, we also summarize what variables are needed

to calculate the metric variables U , X , (4) , (6) , (3) i , (5) i , h(ijU ) , h(ijS ) , h(ijA) and

h(ijB) . Note that we do not need (5) P0z , 0z , and qzz because they do not appear in

(U )

any equation. Also, we do not have to solve the Poisson equations for hzz and qyy

(U ) (U ) (U )

because they can be calculated from hzz = hxx hyy and qyy = q2 qxx.

42 H. Asada and T. Futamase

In order to derive U , qi, q2 , q2i , q4 , qe and qij , we do not need any other potential

because only matter variables appear in the source terms of their Poisson equations.

On the other hand, for qu , Q(0Ii ) , 0i and h(ijU ) , we need the Newtonian potential U ,

and for (5) P0i , (6) 0 and (6) 2 , we need the Newtonian as well as PN potentials.

Thus, U , qi, q2 , q2i , q4 , qe and qij must be solved rst, and then qu, Q(0Ii ) , 0i , h(ijU ) ,

(5) P0i and (6) 2 should be solved. (6) 0 must be solved after we obtain qu because

its Poisson equation involves qu in the source term. In Table 1 we also list potentials

which are included in the source terms of the Poisson equations for other potentials.

The conguration which we are most interested in and would like to obtain

is the equilibrium state for BNS's of equal mass. Hence, we show the boundary

condition at r ! 1 for this problem. When we consider equilibrium congurations

for BNS's where the center of mass for each NS is on the x-axis, boundary conditions

for potentials at r ! 1 become

Z xZ

1

U = d x + O(r );

3 3

q = n x2d3 x + O(r 4);

rZ xr Z 2

y

q = 1r R d x + O(r );

2

2 3 3

qy = nr y d x + O(r );

2

2 3 4

Z zZ

qe = 1r d x + O(r );3 3

qz = nr z d x + O(r );

2

2 3 4

Z Z

qu = 1r Ud x + O(r );3 3

q = 1r R d x + O(r ); (4.66)

4

4 3 3

xZ yZ

(5) P x = nr SxP xd x + nr SyP yd x + O(r );

0 2

( ) 3

2

( ) 3 3

xZ yZ

(5) P y = nr SyP xd x + nr SyP yd x + O(r );

0 2

( ) 3

2

( ) 3 3

(4.67)

xZ

x = nr x + 52 U d x + O(r );

0 2

2 3 4

yZ

y = nr y + 25 U d x + O(r );

0 2

2 3 4

(4.68)

xZ xZ

Q Ix

( ) n

= r x 3( 2 1 n

1) 2 U d x + O(r ); q2x = r2 R2 x2 d3 x + O(r 4 );

3 4

0 2

yZ yZ

I

( ) n

Q y = r y 3( 2 1 n

1) 2 U d x + O(r ); q2y = r2 R2 y2 d3 x + O(r 4 );

3 4

0 2

yZ zZ

I

( ) n

Q z = r z 3( 2 1 n

1) 2 U d x + O(r ); q2z = r2 R2 z 2 d3 x + O(r 4 );

3 4

0 2

(4.69)

hxxU ) =

( 1 Z S (U ) d3 x + O(r 3 ); hxyU ) =

( 3nx ny Z S (U ) xyd3 x + O(r 5 );

r xx r3 xy

Post-Newtonian Approximation 43

Z

hyyU )

( 1

= r Syy (U ) 3

d x + O(r 3); hxzU ) =

( 3nx nz Z S (U ) xzd3 x + O(r 5 );

r3 xz

3 n y nz Z

(U )

hyz = r3 Syz(U ) yzd3 x + O(r 5); (4.70)

Z x yZ

qxx = 1r x d x + O(r );

2 3

qxy = 3nr n x y d x + O(r );

3

3

2 2 3 5

x zZ y zZ

qxz = 3nr n x z d x + O(r ); qyz = 3nr n y z d x + O(r ); (4.71)

3

2 2 3 5

3

2 2 3 5

Z Z

1 (0 ) 3 1 (2 ) 3 .

(6) 0 =

r S d x + O(r ); (6) 2 =

r S d x + O(r ); (4 72)

3 3

and S (2 ) ! O(r 4 ) as r ! 1, so that all the above integrals are well dened.

We would like to emphasize that from the 2PN order, the tensor part of the

3-metric, ~ij , cannot be neglected even if we ignore gravitational waves. Recently,

Wilson and Mathews 100) , Wilson, Mathews and Marronetti 101) presented numerical

equilibrium congurations of binary neutron stars using a semi-relativistic approx-

imation, in which they assume the spatially conformal at metric as the spatial

3-metric, i.e., ~ij = ij . Thus, in their method, a 2PN term, hij , was completely

neglected. However, it should be noted that this tensor potential plays an important

role at the 2PN order: This is because they appear in the equations to determine

equilibrium congurations as shown in previous sections and they also contribute to

the total energy and angular momentum of systems. This means that if we performed

the stability analysis ignoring the tensor potentials, we might reach an incorrect con-

clusion. If we hope to obtain a general relativistic equilibrium conguration of binary

neutron stars with a better accuracy (say less than 1%), we should take into account

the tensor part of the 3-metric.

In our formalism, we extract terms depending on the angular velocity

from

the integrated Euler equation and Poisson equations for potentials, and rewrite the

integrated Euler equation as an explicit equation in

. This reduction will improve

the convergence in numerical iteration procedure. As a result, the number of Poisson

equations we need to solve in each step of iteration reaches 29. However, source terms

of the Poisson equations decrease rapidly enough, at worst O(r 4 ), in the region far

from the source, so that we can solve accurately these equations as the boundary

value problem like in the case of the rst PN calculations.

The formalism presented here will be useful to obtain equilibrium congurations

for synchronized BNS's or the Jacobi ellipsoid. In this context, Bonazzola, Frieben

and Gourgoulhon (1996) obtained an approximate nonaxisymmetric neutron star

by perturbing a stationary axisymmetric conguration. However, they do not solve

the exact 3D Einstein's equation. Thus, it is interesting to examine their conclu-

sion on the transition between equilibrium congurations, which are approximately

ellipsoids, by our PN methods.

44 H. Asada and T. Futamase

x5. Gravitational Waves from post-Newtonian sources

In the post-Minkowskian approximation, the background geometry is the Minkowski

spacetime where linearized gravitational waves propagate 89); 11); 12) . The corrections

to propagation of gravitational waves can be taken into account if one performs the

post-Minkowskian approximation up to higher orders. In fact, Blanchet and Damour

obtained the tail term of gravitational waves as the integral over the past history of

the source 12); 13) . They introduced an unphysical complex parameter B , and used

the analytic continuation as a mathematical device in order to evaluate the so-called

log term in the tail contribution. The method is powerful, but it is not easy to see

the origin of the tail term. Will and Wiseman (1996) have also obtained the tail

term from the mass quadrupole moment, by improving the Epstein-Wagoner for-

malism 41). Nakamura 70) and Schafer 80) have obtained the quadrupole energy loss

formula including the contribution from the tail term by studying the wave propa-

gation in the Coulomb type potential. This indicates clearly that the origin of the

tail term is due to the Coulomb type potential generated by the mass of the source.

In the following treatment we calculate the waveform from the slow motion source

and show explicitly how the tail term originates from the dierence between the at

light cone and the true one which is due to the mass of the source GM=c2 as the

lowest order correction.

5.1. Gravitational waves in Coulomb type potential

We wish to clarify that the main part of the tail term is due to the propagation of

gravitational waves on the light cone which deviates slightly from the at light cone

owing to the mass of the source. For this purpose, we shall work in the harmonic

coordinate since the deviation may be easily seen in the reduced Einstein's equation

in this coordinates.

( h )h ; = 16 + h ; h ; : (5.1)

Since we look for 1=r part of the solution, the spatial derivative is not relevant in

the dierential operator so that it is more convenient for our purpose to transform

Eq.(5.1) into the following form

(2 h 00 @0 @0 )h = 16S ; (5.2)

where we dened S as

S = 161 (h ; h ; 2h 0i h ;0i h ij h ;ij ): (5.3)

Substituting the lowest order expression for h 00 derived in section 2, we nally obtain

our basic equation to be solved.

2

1+ 4 M @ + h = ~ ; (5.4)

r @t 2

~ = S 1

h 00 4 M ;00 :

h (5.5)

16 r

Post-Newtonian Approximation 45

At the lowest order, we obtain (4) ~ = (4) .

The solution for (5.4) may be written down by using the retarded Green's func-

tion in the following form.

Z

h (x) = dx0G(+) 0 0

M (x; x )~ (x ): (5.6)

The retarded Green's function is dened as satisfying the equation;

2M G(+)

M (x; y) = (x y);

4

(5.7)

with an appropriate boundary condition. We also dened the following symbol for

the dierential operator appearing in our basic equation.

2

2 = 1+ 4 M @ + ; (5.8)

M r @t 2

The Green's function G0 for M = 0 i.e. in the Minkowski spacetime is well

known. We shall present the detailed derivation of the Green function in appendix

B, and present here the result

X i Z

GM (x; x0 ) =

(+)

e l d!sgn(!) + ! l m (x) S ! l m (x0 )(r r0 )

lm

+ S ! l m (x) + ! l m (x0 )(r0 r) ; (5.9)

where denotes the complex conjugate, sgn(!) denotes a sign of ! and we dened

+ ! l m (x) and S ! l m (x) as

s

+! l m (x) = j!j e i!t 1

ul (; )Yl m ;

(+)

s

2

S ! l m (x) = j2!j e i!t 1

Fl (;
)Yl m; (5.10)

where = !r and u(+) l is a spherical Coulomb function satisfying the outgoing wave

condition at null innity, and F` is also a spherical Coulomb function which is regular

at the origin.

Since we study an asymptotic form of the waves, we use Eqs.(B .7) and (B .8) in

appendix B to obtain the asymptotic form of the Green function as

lZ

G(+) ( x; x 0 ) = 1 X ( i) d!cl eil e i!(t r 2M ln 2M! t ) (!r0 )l Ylm (

)Y (

0 )

0

M r lm 2 lm

+O(r 2 ) for r ! 1: (5.11)

In addition, for slow motion sources, we evaluate the asymptotic form of the Green

function up to O(M!) as

l Z l 1

0 1 X ( i )

GM (x; x ) = r 2(2l + 1)!! d! 1 + M! + 2iM! ln 2M!

(+)

X

+C

lm s=1 s

46 H. Asada and T. Futamase

+O(M ! ) e i!(t r t ) (!r0 )l Ylm (

)Ylm

2 2 0

(

0 ) + O(r 2 )

=1

X ( i)l Z d!1 + 2M!i X l 1

+ ln 2 M

+ sgn(!)

r lm 2(2l + 1)!! s=1 s 2

+i(ln j!j + C ) + O(M 2 !2 ) e i!(t r t ) (!r0 )l Ylm (

)Ylm (

0 ) 0

+O(r 2 ); (5.12)

where C is Euler's number. In deriving the above expression we have used the

following expansion for cl and l in M!.

cl = 1 + M! + O(M 2 !2 ) ;

(2l + 1)!!

Xl 1

= 2M! C l + O(M 2 !2 ): (5.13)

s=1 s

Now we apply the formula 49); 16)

Z Z1

dve ln v + i dv ei!v = 2 sgn(!) i(ln j!j + C );

1

! i!v

v (5.14)

0 1

l

G(+) ( x; x 0 ) = 1 X ( i)

M r lm 2(2l + 1)!!

X

Z

d! 1 2M

l 1

+ ln 2 M d + 2M Z 1 dvei!v ln v d2

s dt dt2

Z 1 s=1

0

ei!v d + O(M ! )

+2M dv 2 2

v dt 1

e i! t r t (!r ) Ylm (

)Ylm (

0 ) + O(r ):

( 0 l 0

) (5.15) 2

freedom to time translation.

Here, we assume the no incoming radiation condition on the initial hypersurface

so that we may take

!1 e

vlim

i!(t r v t ) ln v ! 0: 0

(5.16)

Thus we can make the following replacement

Z1 Z1 Z 1

dv ei!v ! i! dvei!v ln v = dvei!v ln v d: (5.17)

1 v 1 1 dt

Inserting Eq.(5.17) into Eq.(5.15), we nally obtain the desired expression for the

retarded Green's function

l Z X l 1

0 1 X ( i )

GM (x; x ) = r 2(2l + 1)!! d! 1 + 2M

(+)

ln 2M dtd

lm s=1 s

Post-Newtonian Approximation 47

Z 1

dvei!v ln v dtd + O(M ! )

2

+2M 2

2 2

e i!(t r t )0

(!r0 )l Ylm (

)Ylm

(

0 ) + O(r ) 2

= 1r part of

G (x; x0 ) + 2M dtd

2 XZ v +X

dv ln 2M

l 1

Gl m (t v; x; x0 )

0 2

lm s s =1

0

+O(M 2 ) + O(r 2 ); (5.18)

where we dened the spherical harmonic expansion coecient of the
at Green's

function as follows.

Z

G0 (x; x ) = Yl m(

) d

0 G0(x; x0 )Yl m (

0):

l m 0 (5.19)

As a result, we obtain the waveform generated by the linear part of the eective

source which corresponds to (C1) by Blanchet 7) .

1 1 Z X

l 1

= 4P M~ pqL 2(t r) + 2M dtd 2 v

X 2 2

hTT

ij r ijpq l! nL 2 dv ln 2M + s

l=2

s =1

~ 2 l

MpqL 2(t r v) l + 1 naL 2 ab(p S~q)bL 2(t r)

2 Z X l 1 1

d v ~

+2M dt2 dv ln 2M + s ab(p Sq)bL 2 (t r v)

s=1

+O(M 2 ) + O(r 2 ); (5.20)

where Pijpq is the transverse and traceless projection tensor and parentheses denote

symmetrization. M~ pqL 2 and S~pqL 2 are the mass and current multipole moments

generated by the full nonlinear eective source ~ . They take the same forms as in

Thorne (1980).

5.2. Comparison with the previous work

By using the post-Minkowskian approximation, Blanchet obtained the radiative

mass moment and radiative current moment as 7)

Z1

ULl

( )

(u) = MLl ( )

(u) + 2GM dvMLl ( +2) v

(u v) ln P + l + O(G M ); 2 2

0

(5.21)

and

Z1

VLl

( )

(u) = SLl ( )

(u) + 2GM dvSLl ( +2) v 0

(u v) ln P + l + O(G M ); 2 2

0

(5.22)

48 H. Asada and T. Futamase

where their moments ML and SL do not contain the nonlinear contribution outside

the matter, P is a constant with temporal dimension, and l and 0l are dened as

l 2

l = 1s + l(2ll++1)(5ll ++ 42) ;

X 2

(5.23)

s=1

and l 1

0l = 1s + l(ll + 11) :

X

(5.24)

s=1

In black hole perturbation, the same tail corrections with multipole moments induced

by linear perturbations have beenPobtained 77) . Compared with Eqs.(5.21)-(5.24),

Eq.(5.20) shows that log term and 1=s in the radiative moments (5.21) and (5.22)

originate from propagation on the slightly curved light cone determined by Eq.(5.8).

That is to say, log term is produced by propagation of gravitational waves in the

Coulomb type potential in the external region. It is worthwhile to point out the

following fact: Only the log term has a hereditary property expressed as the integral

over the past history of the source, since the constants l and 0l represent merely

instantaneous parts after performing the integral under the assumption that the

source approaches static as the past innity.

However, Eq.(5.20) does not apparently agree with Eqs.(5.21) and (5.22), be-

cause the denition of the moments fM~ L ; S~L g and fML ; SL g are dierent. We shall

show the equivalence between our expression and that of Blanchet (1995), by calcu-

lating the contribution from nonlinear terms like M ML or M SL . It is noteworthy

that the luminosity of gravitational waves obtained by the present approach agrees

at the tail term i.e. O(c 3 ) with that by the post-Minkowskian approximation.

1

L = (l +(l1)(1) l + 2) 1

X (l+1) (l+1)

l=2

1

+ 4(ll(l +1)2) (l + 1)!(2

(l+1) (l+1)

X 1 (5.25)

l=2 l + 1)!! VL VL > :

<

5.3. Contributions from the nonlinear sources

In order to evaluate the waveform produced by the nonlinear sources in ~ , it

is enough to use the at Green's function

XZ

G0(x; x0 ) = i !

d! e i!t h (!r)Y (

)ei!t j (!r0 )Y (

0 )(r

0

r0 )

l lm l lm

lm

+e i!t j (!r)Y (

)ei!t h (!r0 )Y (

0 )(r0

0

r) :

l lm l lm

(5.26)

Since the nonlinear sources have the form of either M ML or M SL, we have

to treat the following type of retarded integral

q

2 1 @i( 1r )@^Q F (tr r) = ( )q+1 2j(jq!(+q j )!j )!

X

j =0

Post-Newtonian Approximation 49

2 1 (q j()t r):

n^ iQ + 2q q+ 1 i<aq n^ Q

rj+3 F

1

1>

(5.27)

The evaluation can be made by using the formula which will be proved in appendix

C.

X

1 (l + n + 1)! ( k + l + 3 + 2n )

2 1 n^rkL F (t r) = 2l+1 lim

!0 n=0 n!(2l + 2n + 2)!

n^ L (t r) + O(r 2):

(k 3)

r F (5.28)

Although some terms of nonlinear sources may produce disastrous divergence in

Eq.(5.28), we expect these divergent parts cancel out in total, which is explicitly

demonstrated in the appendix.

Using the above formula we nd

2 1 @ ( 1 )@^ F (t r)

i r Q r

)q

= 2((q + 1) n^ iQ q+1 1 (q)(t r) + O(r 2 ); (5.29)

2q + 1 i<a1 n^ Q 1> rF

which is same with the expression (C2) obtained by Blanchet 7) .

Applying Eqs.(5.29) to the nonlinear source ~ , we can evaluate its contribution

to the waveform. Together with Eq.(5.20), we obtain the total waveform as

4P X 1 1

d2 Z dvln v +

hTT

ij = n M

r ijpq l=2 l! L 2 pqL 2 ( t r ) + 2M dt2 2M l

MpqL 2(t r v) l +2l 1 naL 2 ab(p Sq)bL 2(t r)

2 Z

d v 0

+2M dt2 dv ln 2M + l ab(p Sq)bL 2 (t r v)

+O(M ) + O(r 2 ):

2

(5.30)

In this section, we have derived the formula (5.30) for gravitational waves in-

cluding tail by using the formula (5.20) and (5.29). We would like to emphasize two

points on the derivation: First, in deriving Eq.(5.20), spherical Coulomb functions

are used, since we use the wave operator (5.8) which take account of the Coulomb-

type potential M=r. As a consequence, ln(v=2M ) appears naturally in Eq.(5.30).

This is in contrast with Blanchet and Damour's method, where an arbitrary con-

stant with temporal dimension P appears in the form of ln(v=P ). Our derivation

shows that the main part of the tail, which needs the past history of the source

only through ln v, is produced by propagation in the Coulomb-type potential. Our

method might make it easy to clarify conditions for wave formula including tail. This

remains as a future work.

50 H. Asada and T. Futamase

The second point relates with physical application: At the starting point of

our derivation, the Fourier representation in frequency space has been used. Such

a representation seems to simplify the calculation of gravitational waveforms from

compact binaries in the quasi-circular orbit, since such a system can be described by

a characteristic frequency. Applications to physical systems will be also done in the

future.

x 6. Conclusion

We have discussed various aspects on the post-Newtonian approximation mainly

based on our own work. After presenting the basic structure of the PN approximation

in the framework of Newtonian limit along a regular asymptotic Newtonian sequence,

we reformulated it in the appropriate form for numerical approach. For this purpose

we have adopted the (3+1) formalism in general relativity. Although we restricted

ourselves within the transverse gauge in this paper, we can use any gauge condition

and investigate its property relatively easily in the (3+1) formalism, compared with

in the standard PN approximation performed so far 21) - 25) . Using the developed

formalism, we have written down the hydrodynamic equation up to 2.5PN order. For

the sake of an actual numerical simulation, we consider carefully methods to solve

the various metric quantities, especially, the 2PN tensor potential (4) hij . We found it

possible to solve them by using the numerical methods familiar in Newtonian gravity.

Thus, the formalism discussed in this paper will be useful in numerical applications.

As an example of the application, we have presented the formalism for constructing

the equilibrium conguration of nonaxisymmetric uniformly rotating
uid. We have

also discussed the propagation of gravitational waves explicitly taking into account of

the deviation of the light cone from that of the
at spacetime and obtained essentially

the same result with that of Blanchet and Damour for the waveform from post-

Newtonian systems.

Acknowledgements We would like to thank Y. Kojima, T. Nakamura, K.

Nakao, K. Oohaka, M. Sasaki, B. F. Schutz, M. Shibata and T. Tanaka for fruitful

discussion. Part of this work is based on the collaboration with M. Shibata. This

work is supported in part by the Japanese Grant-in-Aid for Science Research fund

of Ministry of Education, Science and Culture No.09640332 (T.F.) and in part by

Soryushi Shogakukai (H.A.).

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Post-Newtonian Approximation 53

Appendix A

Conserved quantities for 2PN approximation of uniformly rotating
uid

The conserved quantities in the 2PN approximation will be useful to investigate

the stability property of equilibrium solutions obtained in numerical calculations.

Since the denitions of the conserved quantities are given in section 3, we shall

present only the results in this appendix.

(1)Conserved mass 4) ; Z

M d3 x; (A.1)

where

" #

= 1 + c12 12 v2 + 3U + c14 83 v4 + 132 v2 U + 454 U 2 + 3U + (3) i vi + O(c 6 ) :

(A.2)

3); 92); 4)

(2)ADM mass ;

Z Z

1

MADM = 2 d x ADM d3 x;

3

(A.3)

where

"

1

ADM = 1 + c2 v + + 2 U

2 5

#

1 4 2 2 35 2 3

+ c4 v + 9v U + v + 5U + 4 U + 2 (3) v + O(c ) :(A.4)

i i 6

Z

E E d x; 3

(A.5)

where

" ! !

E = 12 v2 + 21 U + c12 85 v4 + 52 v2U + v2 + 2U 25 U 2 + 12 (3) ivi

(

1

+ c4 11 v 6

+ v 4

+ 47 U + v2 4 + 6 U + 41 U 2 + 5 i vi X

16 8 (4)

8 2 (3)

5 U 3 + 2 i vi + 5 + 5U i vi 15 U + 5 U 2

2 (3) (4) (3)

2 (4) 4

+ 12 hij vi vj + 12 (3) i (3) i

!) #

U j 2

+ 16 2hij U;ij + (3) ;ji (3) ;ji + (3) ;i 3 ij (3) ;kk + O(c 6 ) : (A.6)

54 H. Asada and T. Futamase

(4)Total linear and angular momenta: In the case Ki i = 0, these are calculated from

(Wald 1984)

I

1

Pi = 8 rlim j

!1 Kij n dS

Z

= 81 ( 6 Ki j );j d3 x

Z

= Ji + 161 4 ~jk;iK jk 6 d3 x; (A.7)

where Ji = (c2 + + P )u0 ui . Up to the 2PN order, the second term in the last

line of Eq.(A.7) becomes

1 Z h j 3

jk;i (3) ;k d x

16 " #

Z

1

= 16 hjk;i(3) j j

hjk;ik (3) d3 x

;k

I

1 j k (A.8)

!1 hjk;i(3) n dS = 0;

= 16 rlim

where we use hjk ! O(r 1 ) and (3) j ! O(r 2 ) at r ! 1, and the gauge condition

hjk;k = 0. Thus, in the 2PN approximation, Pi becomes

Z

Pi pid x; 3

(A.9)

where

" (

) (

i 1

pi = v + c2 v v + + 6U + (3) i + c14 hij vj + (5) i

i 2

+(3) i v2 + 6U + + vi 2(3) i vi + 10(4) + 6 U

) #

+ 67

4 U 2

+ v 2

+ 10 Uv 2

+ v 4

X + O (c 5 ) : (A.10)

The total angular momentum J becomes

Z

J = p'd x; 3

(A.11)

where p' = ypx + xpy .

Appendix B

Construction of Green's function

In this appendix we shall present a detailed derivation of Green's function for

2M . The following procedure is similar to that by Thorne (1980) for the Minkowski

background spacetime 89) .

Post-Newtonian Approximation 55

The Green's function satisfying Eq.(5.7) can be constructed by using the homo-

geneous solutions for the equation

2M = 0: (B.1)

The homogeneous solution for Eq.(B .1) takes a form of

e i!t f ()Y (; );

l lm (B.2)

where we dened

= !r: (B.3)

Then the radial function f~l () fl () satises

2

d + 1 + 4M! l(l + 1) f~ () = 0; (B.4)

2

d l 2

so that Eq.(B .2) is a solution for Eq.(B .1). Thus we can obtain homogeneous solu-

tions for Eq.(B .1) by choosing f~l () as one of spherical Coulomb functions; ul (;
),

( )

Fl (;
) and Gl (;
) with
= 2M!. Here, we adopted the following denition of

the spherical Coulomb function 67) as

Fl (;
) = cl ei l F (l + 1 + i
j2l + 2j 2i);

+1

( ) +1

1

(+) ( )

(B.5)

where cl and l are dened as

cl = 2l e = j ((2

2l + 1 + i )j ;

l + 1)!

l = arg (l + 1 + i ): (B.6)

Here, F and W1 are the con uent hypergeometric function and the Whittaker's

function respectively. These spherical Coulomb functions have asymptotic behavior

as

1

Fl sin ln 2 2 l + l ;

1

Gl cos ln 2 2 l + l ;

() 1

u exp i ln 2 2 l for r ! 1; (B.7)

and

Fl cl l ; +1

l

56 H. Asada and T. Futamase

In terms of spherical Coulomb functions introduced above, we can construct the

Green's function in the standard way.

X Z

GM (x; x0 ) = eil

( )

d!sgn(!) ! l m (x) S ! l m (x0)(r r0)

lm

+ S ! l m (x) ! l m (x0 )(r0 r) ; (B.9)

where denotes the complex conjugate, sgn(!) denotes a sign of ! and we dened

! l m(x) and S ! l m(x) as

s

! l m (x) = j!j e i!t 1

ul (; )Yl m ;

(+)

s

2

S ! l m (x) = j2!j e i!t 1

Fl (;
)Yl m: (B.10)

The retarded Green's function is obtained for = +.

Appendix C

Derivation of the formula (5:28)

We evaluate the asymptotic form of the retarded integral as

Z 0

2 1 n^ L F (t r) = d4 x0G (x; x0 ) n^ L F (t0 r0)

rk r 0k0

Z Zr i!r

! i d!!e i!t hl (!r)F! n^ L r0 dr0jl (!r0) er0k

0

0

for large r; (C.1)

where we dened F! as Z

F! = 21 dt ei!t F (t): (C.2)

Since the Bessel function is dened as

1

X ( )n (z=2) +2n ;

J (z) = (C.3)

n=0 n! ( + n + 1)

we obtain formally

Z1 1

( )n (b=2) +2n Z 1 dye ay y+ +2n 1

X

dyJ (by)e ay y = 1

0 n=0 n! ( + n + 1) 0

1 n 2) +2n ( + + 2n)

= ( )n!(ab=

X

+ +2n ( + n + 1) : (C.4)

n=0

Putting a = i, b = 1, = k + 5=2 and = l + 1=2 in Eq.(C .4), we obtain

where we introduced small 2 C in order to avoid the pole of ( k + l + 3 + 2n)

Post-Newtonian Approximation 57

for k l + 3. Thus we obtain

r

Zr i!r

r02dr0 jl (!r0) e0k+ = !k

0

0 r 2 2l+ 12 n=0 22n n! (l + n + 32 )

(C.5)

From Eqs.(C .1), (C .2) and (C .5), we obtain

p X 1 ( k + l + 3 + 2n ) n^ (k 3)

2 1 n^rkL F (t r) = lim!0 2l+1 n=0 22n n! (l + n + 32 )

L

rk F (t r)

+O(r 2 ): (C.6)

This equation is valid for k 3. For 3 k l + 2, we obtain

2 1 n^rkL F (t r) = 2k 3 (k (l3)!( l k + 2)! n^ L (k 3)(t r) + O(r 2)

+ k 2)! r F

for 3 k l + 2; (C.7)

since

p X 1 ( k + l + 3 + 2n)

= 2 k 3 (k 3)!(l k + 2)! for 3 k l + 2:

2 n=0 2 n! (l + n + 2 )

l +1 2 n 3

(l + k 2)!

(C.8)

This formula for 3 k l + 2 has been derived by Blanchet and Damour (1988).

Appendix D

Derivation of (5:29)

From Eq.(5.27), we shall derive Eq.(5.29) in this appendix. First, for the rst

term in the right hand side of Eq.(5.27), we use Eq.(C.7) to obtain

q (q + j )!

( ) q +1

X 1 (q j )

2 n^ iQ rj+3 F (t r)

1

j =0 2 j !(q j )!

j

q

= 2((q +) 1) n^riQ F (t r) + O(r 2 ):

(q )

(D.1)

Next, the second term in the right hand side of Eq.(5.27) is calculated as

qX2

( )q+1 2q q+ 1 2j(jq!(+q j )!j )! 2 1 i<aq n^ Q 1> rj1+3 F (t r)

(q j )

j =0

n^

= ( )q 2qq +11 i<aq r Q 1> F (t r) + O(r 2 );

(q )

(D.2)

and

( )q+1 2q q+ 1

Xq (q + j )! 2 i<aq n^ Q 1 (q j()t r)

1> j +3 F

1

j =q 1 2 j !(q j )! r

j

58 H. Asada and T. Futamase

)! i<aq n^ Q 1> (q)(t r)

= ( )q (2qq(2+q1)q! r F

X1 (q + n)!

lim

!0 n=1 n!(2q + 2n)!

(2n ) + (2n 1 )

q !

+ (2q)! ( ) + ( 1 ) + O(r 2 )

q + 1) r F

Here we used Eq.(5.28),

1

X (q + n)! (2n) + (2n 1) = q! ; (D.4)

n=1 n!(2q + 2n)! 2q(2q)!

and

lim

!0

( ) + ( 1 ) = lim !0

( ) ( 1 ) = 1; (D.5)

which, in fact, means the cancellation of the poles.

From Eqs.(5.27) and (D.1)-(D.3), we obtain

2 1 @ ( 1 )@^ F (t r)

i r Q r

)q

= 2((q + 1) n^ iQ q+1 1 (q)(t r) + O(r 2 ); (D.6)

2q + 1 i<a1 n^ Q 1> rF

which equals to (C2) obtained by Blanchet 7) . As for Eq.(D.6), we used unphysical

but small parameter in order to avoid the pole of the integrals. However, in the

limit ! 0, we showed explicitly the cancellation of poles and obtained the nite

values in total.

Post-Newtonian Approximation 59

Table 1

List of potentials to be solved (column 1), Poisson equations for them (column 2),

and other potential variables which appear in the source term of the Poisson equation

(column 3). Note that i and j run x; y; z . Also, note that we do not have to solve

0z , (5) P0z , qyy , qzz and h(zzU ) .

U (2.11) None qij (4.6) None

qi (3.14) None Q Ii ( )

0 (4.15) U

q2 (4.1) None i 0 (4.16) U

qi

2 (4.2) None Pi

(5) 0 (4.17) U; qi

q4 (4.3) None (6) 0 (4.21) U; qe; qu; hijU ; Q Ii

( ) ( )

0

2 2

(3.1) U

Table 2

Variables to be solved in order to obtain the original metric variables.

Metric Variables to be solved see Eq.

U U (2.11)

(3)i qi, U (3.17)

X q , qu, qe

2 (4.7)

(4) q , qu, qe

2 (4.8)

i (A)

(5) P i , i, qu, qe

(5) 0 0 (4.18)

(5)

i (B) q i, q2 2 (4.18)

(6) (6), , q

0 (6) 2 4 (4.20)

hijU )

(

hijU ( )

(3.1)

h(ijS) qij ; q 2 (4.14)

h(ijA) Q Ii , qu, qe

( )

0 (4.19)

h(ijB) qij , q , q i, qi

2 2 (4.19)

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