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Following assumption made in actual cycle to analysis as air standard


1. The working fluid is perfect gas.

2. There is no change in mass of the working medium.
3. All the process that constitutes the cycle is reversible.
4. Heat is assumed to be supplied from a constant high temperature
source and not from chemical reaction during the cycle.
5. There are no heat losses.
6. The working medium has constant specific heats throughout the

2.The mean effective pressure can be regarded as an average pressure in the cylinder for a
complete engine cycle. By definition, mean effective pressure is the ratio between the work
and engine displacement:

The average pressure acting on a piston during the different portions of its cycle.

W net = MEP Displacement volume

The mean effective pressure is a quantity related to the operation of an reciprocating engine
and is a valuable measure of an engine's capacity to do work that is independent of engine

Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) is a fictitious pressure, such that if it acted on the piston
during the entire power stroke, it would produce the same amount of net work.

The concept of mean effective pressure is useful for real compressors as the power input to
the compressor is a product of mep and the swept volume rate.

When quoted as an indicated mean effective pressure or IMEP, it may be thought of as the
average pressure over a cycle in the combustion chamber of the engine.

When tuning a 4-stroke internal combustion engine, it’s important to understand how much
theoretical pressure is being exerted on the top of the piston during the power stroke. This
information is useful as a comparison tool between different engines, and provides a good
indicator of what performance levels can be achieved from different setups.
During normal engine operation, when a piston’s compressed air/fuel mixture is ignited
during the power stroke, the resultant combustion exerts pressure on the top of the piston.
Since this pressure ultimately results in the movement of the piston itself, we can consider it
as being correlated to the power output of the engine. The average (mean) theoretical
piston-top pressure that would result in the measured power output of an engine is referred
to as the “Mean Effective Pressure”, and is an important value to consider when analyzing
an engine.

3. problem

4. The compression ratio is the ratio of the volume of the cylinder and the combustion chamber
when the piston is at the bottom, and the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is
at the top. Automotive engineers can improve fuel efficiency and fuel economy by designing
engines with high compression ratios

The cutoff ratio is the ratio of the volume after combustion to the volume before combustion.


Process 1-2: Reversible adiabatic compression.

Process 2-3: Constant volume heat addition.

Process 3-4: Constant pressure heat addition.

Process 4-5: Reversible adiabatic expansion.

Process 5-1: Constant volume heat rejection.

6. There are four main types of mechanical diesel injection systems:

 Inline or rotary distributor pump.

 Individual control pump.
 Common rail.
 Unit injection.

7. scavenging is the process of pushing exhausted gas-charge out of the cylinder and drawing
in a fresh draught of air or fuel/air mixture for the next cycle. This process is essential in having
a smooth-running internal combustion engine.

8. The ignition delay in a diesel engine is defined as the time interval between the start of
injection and the start of combustion. This delay period consists of (a) physical delay, wherein
atomisation, vaporization and mixing of air fuel occur and (b) of chemical delay attributed to pre-
combustion reactions.

9. Once the engine reaches the right operating temperature, the engine is designed to be
maintained at a stable temperature, which is the purpose of the thermostat.
The thermostat flow restriction helps to increase the pressure in the cooling system, which
makes it harder for the coolant to boil in the water pump.

Its job is to block the flow of coolant to the radiator until the engine has warmed up.
When the engine is cold, no coolant flows through the engine. Once the enginereaches its
operating temperature (generally about 200 degrees F, 95 degrees C), the thermostat opens.

10. TFC:
Total fuel consumption (TFC) is the quantity of fuel consumed by the engine per
unit time while a certain power is developed by the engine.

TFC is calculated with respect to the brake power of the the engine.

TFC = (volume consumed / time taken)*(density of the fuel / 1000 ) *3600

Unit : kg/hr


According to the definition it is ratio of fuel consumption per unit time (in Kg/hr) to
power produced by engine (in kWh).

Specific fuel Consumption = Fuel consume per unit time / power produced

If an engine has high SFC it means it consume more fuel to produce unit power, hence it
is less efficient.

If an engine has less SFC it means it is high efficient.