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INSTITUSI JURUTERA MALAYSIA

The Ins ti tuti on of Engi neers, Mal aysi a


Bangunan Ingenieur, Lots 60/62, Jalan 52/4, Peti Surat 223 (Jalan Sultan), 46720 Petaling
Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Tel: 60-3-79684001/ 4002 Fax: 60-3-79577678
E-mail : sec@iem.org.my IEM Homepage: http://www.myiem.org.my

THE P ROFESS IONAL I NTE RVIEW QUESTIONS

Questions applicable to Section B of the Essay as at 1.1.2011

Questions on Regulations on Professional Conduct

The main purpose of these questions is to provide an opportunity for the candidates to demonstrate their professionalism. A candidate should have gained
some understanding of the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct before entering for the Professional Interview.

A candidate would be expected to demonstrate:-

(a) That he has thought sufficiently about the role of the engineer in the society vis-à-vis his Professional Conduct.

(b) That he can write in clear and concise manner that is intelligible to laymen.
Candidate would be expected to answer only 1 question out of 2 selected by the Examiners from among the 13 questions listed below:-

1. As a young engineer, you are instructed by your employer to prepare a bankable report for a prospective project based on the information
provided by your employer. You have no access to ascertain the reliability of the information provided. In light of the IEM Regulations on
Professional Conduct, how do you advise your employer so that you may complete your assignment with integrity?

A member shall inform his employer in writing of any conflict between his personal interest and faithful service to his employer.

A member shall at all times take care to ensure that his work and the products of his work constitute no avoidable danger of death or injury or ill health to
any person.

A member shall take all reasonable steps to avoid waste of natural resources, damage of the environment and wasteful damage or destruction of the
products of human skill and industry

2. You are assigned by your employer to prospect an area for an extractable material. However, in the course of your work, you discover no such
object material but some other valuable material which your employer is not interested. On the other hand, the information which you have is of
great importance to the adjoining interest. As an engineer can you release the particular information which you have to the other party so that
the other valuable material may be explored? Please discuss taking into consideration provisions of the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct.

Introduction

As an engineer, we shall be responsible to our employer and take care his benefits unless it is jeopardizing the community from health and safety aspect.
Therefore, we do not disclose information gained during the course of employment without permission of employer. The works and information could be
highly important and confidential for both the company and staffs.

Duty to employer

With awareness of our duty and responsibility in the company and to our employer, we should also try to contribute to advancement of the industry and
greater benefits of community. If in the course of my works, some other valuable materials were discovered, the information shall also be properly
recorded and reported first to my employer. Though it is not interested by my employer, the finding/ discovery can be used for goodness of society and
possibly can reduce and even recover the non-productive investment that employer put in. If the engineer feels it is for benefit of the people and hope the
mineral could be extracted, he could propose to his employer. With permission by employer and disclosure of information in an appropriate way will not
scarify benefits of the company.

Duty to Community and Industry

Without jeopardizing the benefits of employer and to contribute to advancement of the industry, I shall report the findings to employer and possibly
followed with submission of proposal to employer for possible joint venture or information sharing/ selling to another party which they make use of the
valuable materials.

By doing so, we could abide by fulfilment of our duty to employer and contribute to advancement of the industry in morale way.

No wastage of resource (both natural and efforts)

In addition, if employer agrees to disclose the information, which was not useful to us but is of great interests of the other know party, we avoid waste of
efforts and resource put in. The useful material could also be extracted for benefit of community.

Disclosure of Information in proper way

As per earlier paragraphs, we shall take care the interests of our employer. All information and success gained during our course of work with current
employer could be important for future development of the company and colleagues. If we feel that the information though not useful to us but to others,
we can propose disclosure of information to employer and let them to make decision for better advancement of the industry and society at large.

Look after members in the industry

All players in the same industry can compete and help each other. by doing so, the industry can make progress in a faster pace. The outcome is always
everyone become more competitive and cost in production. By helping others in the industry, we create healthy cooperation with others. In return, we will
also gain their assistance infuture.
Conclusion

In the course of our works, we report our findings to employer. In the same time, we make our works benefiting the society. Disclosure of information, if
with good reasons, shall be done in an ethical manner. The interest of our employer shall be safeguarded. For this case, we shall gain permission from
employer or propose to employer our ideas.

3. Mr. X is a project engineer for a project contracted to Y Company owned by Mr Z. Mr Z tells Mr. X that he is ordering the latest model of an
electronic gadget for his company staff and he can get a set for Mr. X at the company discounted price. Mr. X agrees and pays on delivery. Did
Mr. X breach the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct:
“It is the responsibility of every engineer to give the highest regard to his profession and conduct himself with integrity when executing his
task”.

Discuss this statement in detail within the context of the Malaysian environment.

1. A member shall not accept remuneration in connection with professional services rendered to his employer other than from his employer or with
his employer’s consent; nor shall be receive directly or indirectly any royalty, gratuity or commission on any article or process used in or for the
purposes of the work in respect of which he is employed unless or until such royalty, gratuity or commission has been authorised in writing by his
employer.

“It is the responsibility of every engineer to give highest regard to his profession and conduct himself with integrity when executing his tasks. “ Discuss
this statement in detail within the context of the Malaysian environment.

The roles of engineers are respectively wide. Amongst the major responsibilities for engineers are design, construction supervision, consultation, project
procurement, commissioning and management etc. Engineers are responsible to give the highest regard to his profession and conduct himself with integrity
when executing his task. For example a good design solution would have to include two important aspects namely design adequacy and cost effectiveness.
In addition, engineers have obligation to generate design solutions that are environmental friendly at the same time meeting the demanding requirements of
client. Engineers have a duty of care to the environment, society and to their valuable customers or clients. They would have to generate design that fulfil
the design clauses in the engineering codes of design, meeting the requirements by the various Governmental Departments and incorporate design solutions
that are environmental friendly which induce minimum negative impacts to the surrounding environment and society. Besides, engineers would have to
take into consideration the cost implication of their design solution to their clients. This has caused great dilemma in engineers, as they have to balance cost
implication of the design solution with other factors such as quality, efficiency and various socio-economy factors.

In the context of a developing country like Malaysia, in some cases, clients however have different mindset from that of the engineers. Clients are more
concern about the cost implication of the generated design solution; they are more interested in design solution that is cost effective and yet fulfils the
minimum design requirements by the Government. In this respect, clients would normally opt for design solutions that are cost effective, that stay within
their budget.

Some clients would incorporate project budget that is far inadequate which requires the engineers to sacrifice the quality and long-term efficiencies aspects
in their design solution. This has obviously contradicted with the engineers’ interests of incorporating optimum design that would guarantee long-term
efficiencies and easy maintenance. In addition, a not-up-to the standards design solution that obviously with an associated lower construction cost would
mean that the engineer would be getting a much lesser consultation fees in view that the engineering fees are normally proportional to the cost expenditure
of the project. However these two factors, namely the cost factors and quality are normally indirectly proportional to one another. This has made the
engineers’ life extremely tough and difficult.

Engineers are constantly wondering if they should go for expensive design solution that would definitely give both long-term efficient operations and
maintenance and most importantly getting a higher professional fees, or go for an ‘ok’ design solution that might not be able to guarantee the quality
aspects of the project and yet getting a lower professional fees.

In view of the dilemma that engineers are constantly encountering in balancing capital expenditure with optimum design for efficient operations and
maintenance, engineers should by all means combine both the design and cost aspects in the process of generating design solutions for their clients.
Engineers should not produce a cheap design solution that does not comply with the relevant code of practices with the purpose just to please their valuable
clients, hoping for more projects. Neither should they generate expensive design, ignore the cost implication of that particular design and with the purpose
to obtain higher professional fee

Introduction

In Malaysia, when dealing with contractor and subcontractor, it is often unavoidable to have close and routine liaison with them. It is often some sort of
habits such as gift hampers, petrol allowance, provision of cars, vouchers, some sort of benefits and discount for purchase orders are always seemed
“normal” and not a trait or significant matters that may involve some sort of inappropriate intention and conflict of interests.

However, as engineers, we shall always conduct ourselves responsibly, ethically and sincerely. In course of works, we make sure works being carried out
and delivered to meet the intended use, quality and required specification. As such, we shall receive remuneration and benefits only from our employer and
not others. It is essential to avoid inappropriate actions or decisions during discharging our duties to employer.

For the case of Engineer X to accept the offer, by Mr. Z, the latest model of an electronic gadget, at a discounted price, is seemed a bit breaching the IEM
regulations on Professional Conduct. It is because the discounted price indeed can be considered a valuable consideration. Though the engineer X is
contracted to Y company owned by Mr. Z, engineer X is already accepting remuneration from his employer who contracting him to Y company for the
project. He shall not accept financial and benefits from more than one party for the same project. If Mr. Z appreciate engineer X for his efforts in the
project, he could still make such offer but it is more appropriate to offer via his employer to engineer X.

For the working environment, the habits could sometime affect the effectiveness of instruction/ command when we are discharging our routine duties if we
have taken some sort of benefits from another, except it is stipulated inside contract of employment.

Engineer shall be honest when discharging his duties

As an engineer, we shall be honest when carrying out our routine works in work place. We shall not expect benefits in any kind from others except from
our employer. Our firm standing of not accepting any kind of benefits other than from our employer could help us dealing with others confidently and earn
their cooperation in getting works completed without jeopardizing the quality.

Engineer shall uphold the dignity of the profession

Engineers are needed to perform their duties with integrity. Engineer take care the work quality, safety and environment. Engineers shall not accept
commission and request commission or other similar financial consideration except their stipulated fee and wages as per employment contract. It is
important to safeguard the good image, professionalism of the profession and ensure the career a sustainable one.
Engineer shall ensure his work meet the needs, specification, no danger

Without taking benefits from others, engineer and other members in the industry can cooperate and make the project completed in a truthful way. For all
projects, it is priority to ensure work quality to follow design specification and meet intended use.

Engineer shall accept only remuneration, fees and benefit of his employer

Unless the benefits are stipulated into employment contract prior to commencement of work, engineers shall not accept unstated kind of benefits. It is
important for engineers to carry duties with integrity.

Conclusion

A Registered Engineer shall not solicit or accept financial or other valuable consideration, directly or indirectly, from outside agents in connection with the
work for which he is responsible unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed by all interested parties.

In answering the question required in the Professional Interview Question on Professional Conduct Regulation by the IEM, an essay needed for explaining
thoroughly the answer. May through this essay will represent my professionalism and understanding on the professional conduct required as an engineer.
In performing duty as an engineer, every decisions and behavior should be guided and comply with the code of professional conduct. It is crucial for every
engineer to follow and aware of the code in order to entitle with Ir. and to confront with any ethical or professional problem. The vaguest understanding in
engineering ethical is the acceptance of gifts from relevant parties. The difficulty to differentiate between bribe and gift emits because of the potential for
gifts to become bribes or to be perceived as a bribes. By definition bribe is to give money or presents to someone so that they will help you by doing
something dishonest or illegal (Macmillan Dictionary)

Engineer X agrees on the offer from the contracted company while in the project where the company is their partner at the moment. By receiving the
company discounted price gadget as a gift is still breaching the IEM regulations on professional conduct, though it is unintended. But the situation is not
breaching by laws that will be referred to BEM for disciplinary action by law. The IEM regulations is a consensus among the members and will be
reviewed periodically. There is difference between ethical and legal, where many legal things can be unethical same as the situation. Engineer X behavior
shows unethical act where it may affect future decision for other or upcoming project in choosing the company to be given the tender. In the future
engineer X may give the tender for upcoming project to the company Y due to indebted with Mr. Z during previous venture.

Deceptive manner towards other companies will happen due to the previous offer made by Mr. Z. The offer will be indirectly as a commission on a
contingent basis according to code of ethics which is ‘Engineers shall not request, propose, or accept a commission on a contingent basis under
circumstances in which their judgment may be compromised’ (NSPE Code of ethics 2003). Society may perceived it as a bribe when the engineer caught in
red handed in case if any complain report. The engineer will tend to give the priority in decision to the company Y for future event or others.

When receiving the offer, engineer X shall not be influenced in their professional duties by conflicting interest, where the offer will only benefit the
engineer individually. The decision may affect other related task in the project involving the engineered permission as a middle man for his or her
company. Any conflict may bias to the company Y or Mr. Z in making decisions.

A member of IEM should not accept any remuneration other than from the engineer’s employer or without the knowledge or permission of his employer.
Receiving money upon outside party may be perceived as a bribe since it is a receiving of something that will influence the engineer decision favorable to
Mr. Z in any decision relate with his company and Mr. Z’s company. By doing this, the engineer might be unfaithful agent towards his employer because
the gift may trigger him to act dishonestly thus the right of employer is breach. Automatically this is breaching section 4 of the BEM’s code of professional
conduct where a registered engineer shall disclose all known or potential conflicts of interest that could influence or appear to influence his judgment or the
quality of his service (BEM Guideline for code of professional conduct, 2005). Any possible activity that may perceived by others or himself as a bribe
should be disclose to the employer as act of professionalism. This will affect vastly on any consequences of bribe crime in future, thus will curb possibility
of further code breach.

In conclusion, receiving something has value from other parties instead of employer either directly or indirectly without employer knowledge will be
conduct as a bribe activity. Taking care of the title of respectable profession as engineer is a responsible of each member by abiding the regulations on
professional conduct carefully. Utilitarianism ethical theory will play crucial part in taking any decision by an engineer. Considering the ability to predict
the consequences of an action towards society and people involved directly or indirectly. Ethical measurement should be considered as an ethical and
honest engineer. Engineer profession is to serve the society for better life not taking advantage on the power they have to serve the people. According to
section 1 of BEM guideline, a registered engineer shall at all times hold paramount safety, health and welfare of the public (BEM Guideline for code of
professional conduct, 2005), clearly indeed the ethical and professional conduct in engineering is important role in making decision in the field of work for
better life for the human life.

4. Professionalism cannot be taught by regurgitating the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct nor by memorizing a set of rules. Do you agree
with the statement and why?

Introduction :

The Institution of Engineer Malaysia (IEM) is a society established to promote and advance the Science and Profession of Engineering in any or all its
disciplines and to facilitate the exchange of information and ideas related to Engineering. The IEM come up with the vision which aims to be the premier
professional Organization pivotal achieving Vision 2020. One of the objective of IEM is to promote honourable practice and professional etiquette among
members of The Institution and to achieve the objective, IEM had create the regulations on professional conduct. The regulation on professional conduct is
a Code of Professional Conduct designed to cover all eventualities must necessarily be written in general terms expressing broad ethical principles. Almost
every case of doubt as to the proper course of action required to conform to the Code of Professional Conduct arises from a conflict between a member’s
personal interest and his duty to others.

Regulations issued by the Council to interpret the Code indicate the manner in which members are required to conduct themselves in a number of situations
that are frequently encountered. For example, the regulations, basically, require members to uphold the dignity of the profession, be honest and fair to all
parties, ensure works constitute no danger, do not jeopardize the benefits of his fellow engineers. In other situations, members are required to order their
conduct in accordance with the principle that, in any conflict between a member’s personal interest and fair and honest dealing with other members of the
community, his duty to the community must prevail. The Regulations on Professional Conduct are made by the Council under Section IX of the Bylaws. In
these regulations ‘member’ means a member of any grade referred to in Section II of the Bylaws, and ‘employer’ includes ‘client’.
By memorizing this set of regulations and rules, though cannot ensure professionalism of an engineer, these rules are introduction and basic qualifying
requirement and essential guidelines that all members must remember. After memorizing and understand them with heart, there are certain aspects are also
much desired to attain professionalism of the engineers.

ANSWER :
IEM regulations of professional conduct are written rules and principles for members to conduct themselves in ethical and morale manner when
discharging their duties and carrying their works. The regulations and rules are written in broad and general terms and cover all eventualities.

The regulations, basically, require members to uphold the dignity of the profession, be honest and fair to all parties, ensure works constitute no danger, do
not jeopardize the benefits of his fellow engineers, etc.

By memorizing this set of regulations and rules, though cannot ensure professionalism of an engineer, these rules are introduction and basic qualifying
requirement and essential guidelines that all members must remember. After memorizing and understand them with heart, the following aspects are also
much desired to attain professionalism of the engineers.

Professionalism cannot be taught by regurgitating the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct nor by memorizing a set of rules. Yes, I do agree with this
statement. What is the definition of professional. Professional person is one who engages in an activity that requires as specialised and comprehensive
education, and is motivated by a strong desire to serve humanity. Professional thinks and acts in a manner that brings favour upon the individual and the
entire profession. Professional, besides technically competent, shall have a positive attitude toward life that is continually reinforced by educational
accomplishment and professional service. Professionalism is a way of thinking and living rather than an accumulation of learning. Professionalism cannot
be taught by stating a code of ethics nor by memorising a set of rules. It is depends on the individual attitude to achieve it. A strong professional sense is of
undoubted benefit to the profession concerned in terms of morale and vocational satisfaction. It is also a fact that the community benefits when it is served
by a professional whose standing is recognised, in terms both of status and rewards. It is through the development of a strong professional attitude that the
professional man is motivated to give his biggest contribution to the community. It is probable that professional attitude and professional motivation are
pre-requisites to community recognition and to a reasonable level of reward, but the one depends very much upon the other.

Ethics means something more than law and morals, it carries an additional connotation of rightness. The code, therefore, is not a list of rules to govern
every problem of conduct, nor is it a broad statement of ideals. It is a statement off the principles of rightness, of broad scope, and with enough detail to
enable an intelligent man to deduce for himself the course of his own professional conduct. The essence of all professional codes is that the professional
man must be worthy, through his conduct, of the trust placed in him by the community and the colleague. This gives rise to a universal rule of life for every
engineer who aspires to true professional status. So that to act in every situation in a manner that will add to the confidence and esteem in which his
profession is held by the community.
Depending on the IEM regulations is not the best way to create the professionalism actions. Training and easily skills in term of professional engineer is
important to develop the personality of engineer. In addition, engineers develop new technologies solutions and responsible to specify the problem,
conducting, narrowing research, analysing criteria, finding, and so on. Therefore, preparation in term of somatic and mental is one of the main factors that
contribute for the professional ethic later.
Therefore, there are certain aspect that can contribute to attain professionalism of an engineer, there are:

Self-awareness and agreement to the importance of stipulated rules and regulations

Laws, regulations and rules are being introduced, developed, improved and enforced when society was forming and growing. In other words, civilisation
was created with co-existence of rules and regulations. The rules and regulations are reference of accepted conducts for own comfort from all aspects and
not jeopardizing the same of others. All members in the community will live in harmony situation and to make progress with healthy and positive
competition ways when there are orders and everyone adhered to them.

For one to adhere to rules and regulations, his agreement and understanding to the rules is important. Then, he will only pledge to follow the rules.

For instance, some of the IEM regulations of professional conduct prohibit members from using self-laudatory works in advertisement or do not
maliciously injure the reputation and prospect of other engineers.

In my opinions, engineering works are application of science knowledge to improve living standard of human. Engineers are those involved with the roles.
This kind of roles are informative and implementation patterns and not adjective and praising ways. It is important so that we can perform our duties with
real understanding and attending to engineering problems sincerely. We do not say or make public perceive that we could perform something extraordinary
or can do much better or no one else could able to do similar. This rule is essential to avoid wrong perception from the public and to show our sincerity to
contribute to the community while taking care of our business prospects.

Engineers shall not injure other engineer both from words and any kind of unethical methods too. Should they want to compete, they compete with their
skill and expertise to strive for valued engineering design and front end engineering design. With such healthy competition, both will further improve their
own competence, benefiting themselves and the nation.

Practise/ Self-discipline to follow rules

Upon one agrees and understands the rules and regulations are for all members to conduct themselves in an order and ethical ways, which will eventually
strengthen the attractiveness of the profession as a rewarding career; one will follow and practise the rules and regulations.

Continuing Professional Development

Competence is important for advancement of oneself and for the industry as a whole. Though one’s practises to-date provide safe and reliable works,
technology are becoming more modern compared 20 to 30 years ago. Engineers, in old days, strive for safe, reliable works and meet schedule. For
nowadays, in addition to safe, reliable and within schedule, the clients, industry players and public are also demanding for valued engineering design, front
end engineering design (FEED), Green buildings and etc.

In other words, the industry is becoming more demanding. We need to cope with latest development of technology, new knowledge and open to its
application. By continuing study and develop our competence, only can we keep our pace to provide excellent services to clients and public from all aspect
such as safety, reliability, valued for money works, contemporary design and not jeopardizing the environment.

By continuing professional development, we enhance our competence and compete confidently to secure jobs and maintain business prospects. By
becoming more competent, we could achieve professionalism and do not need unethical approaches.

Whistle blowers/ Enforcer such as Board of Engineers, Malaysia

There are sometimes some “bad apples”. Therefore, there must be an enforcement system in place. “Bad apples” are like small moles, but catch most
attention and could be a crisis once appear and not be removed.

In Malaysia, Board of Engineers (BEM) is the regulatory body to register and deregister engineers. There are also mechanism and reasons, stipulated inside
Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138) (REA), how an unethical offences that can lead to suspension or cancellation of registration of an engineer.

However, BEM does not able to play her roles and responsibilities unless there are whistle blowers and the similar mechanism within Institution of
Engineers Malaysia (IEM). By adhering to IEM rules and regulations, we could abide by most of the regulations by BEM and REA which both are
reference for engineers to maintain professionalism.
Promoter of good practices and network among members such as Institution of Engineers, Malaysia

Interaction among engineers is important. Via interaction, people with similar abilities, qualifications, background and job nature can become peers among
themselves to move to ethical direction. They could learn, share ideas, monitor and motivate each other.

By becoming members of Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM), we can enhance our competence by participating talks, seminar organised by IEM and
share ideas and experience among members. By becoming IEM members, we promise to abide by IEM rules and regulations. If any of the members breach
the rules, he shall feel shame and will not earn the respect of others.

Guidance/ Mentor system

Young engineers are drivers of the industry and profession in future. It is relatively easy for them to acquire academic qualification and technical expertise
under supervision of a registered professional engineer. However, both academic and technical skills are not total for professionalism. Professionalism
shall include ethical behaviour too.

Hence, it is of paramount important that supervisor to monitor and guide their trainee the ethical practices when handling project and bear in mind his
obligation to his clients and duties to public and environment at large.

Conclusion

Regurgitating IEM regulations on professional conduct is basic qualifying requirement to attain professionalism. In addition to that, members shall have
strong agreement to the rules and regulation, feel proud and honour to follow the rules. It is because their pledges to follow the rules are to maintain the
sustainability of the profession and make the career to continue to be rewarding and respectable ones.

5. The IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct speaks against active self-promotion and advertisement. In what ways would such restraint
enhance the stature of engineers as professionals? More importantly, given the advent of the information technology age where virtual reality is
becoming the norm, how would any violation of the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct be detected and dealt with?

Engineering has been regarded as one of the greatest professions on earth that has contributed in various positive impacts to the society and country.
However, misuse of professional knowledge or adoption of bad would incur various negative social illnesses to society and country. One of the most
profound social illnesses that has been closely linked to the engineering profession is the wide spread of corruption or unwise practices amongst certain
group of engineers such as self-promotion and advertisement.

IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct speaks against active self-promotion and advertisement. Self-promoting is unethical as typically large amount of
money will be used for promotion of in worse case the lobbying process. Those costs could be effectively used to improve the existing system and could be
spent for multi researchers.

The Internet has emerged as a powerful tool for practitioners, professionals, teachers and clients alike. In IEM context, not only does it allow engineers to
gather a wide range of information quickly, it’s also become a springboard for providing engineering services, particularly to geographically isolated
clients who would otherwise go without. It is inexpensive, saves time, allows a lot of people to be well-informed of the services provided. At this moment
of time, the detection is only when someone come across the advertisement of the services provided by the engineers in the Internet. Those who discover
this could either report it to IEM or remain silent. If the person proceeds with the writing statement to IEM, IEM disciplinary board will either suspend the
membership or the person will be given a warning. This process is a waste of energy and time. If all the engineers in Malaysia could be embedded with the
Code of Ethics, especially at the university level, I believe the community will be served more equally in a professional way. The clients should look for
those self-promoting engineers in the Internet as non-compliance person. Therefore public also need to be knowledgeable of the basic Professional
Conducts of engineers

Introduction

IEM regulations of professional conduct are written rules and principles for members to conduct themselves in ethical and morale manner when
discharging their duties and carrying their works. The regulations and rules are written in broad and general terms and cover all eventualities.

The regulations, basically, require members to uphold the dignity of the profession, be honest and fair to all parties, ensure works constitute no danger to
public, do not jeopardize the benefits of his fellow engineers, etc.

One of rules is member shall not use self-laudatory language or in any manner derogatory to the dignity of the profession, to advertise or write articles for
publication, nor shall he authorize any such advertisement or article to be written or published by any other person.

All these IEM regulations of professional conduct, including prohibit of active self-promotion and advertisement, are to enhance the stature of engineers as
professionals and further promote the profession as an attractive and rewarding ones.

How the prohibition of active self-promotion and advertisement to enhance professionalism?

Active self-promotion and advertisement like sales and marketing industry may result the use of self-laudatory language. In my opinions, engineering
works are application of science knowledge to improve living standard of human. Engineers are those involved with the roles. These kinds of roles are
informative and implementation patterns and not adjective and praising ways. It is important so that we can perform our duties with real understanding and
attending to engineering problems sincerely. We do not say or make public perceive that we could perform something extraordinary or can do much better
or no one else could able to do similar. This rule is essential to avoid wrong perception from the public and to show our sincerity to contribute to the
community while taking care of our business prospects.

However, consultancy services are businesses too. When a prohibition was imposed, resources such as personnel, time and money earlier allocated for the
advertisement could have be channelled and used for better ways. For instance, these resources can be allocated for training, purchase of latest analytical
and design software, new equipment such plotters and PCs for the office. All these training can enhance the competency and efficiency of all engineers. In
other words, such restraint of active promotion can promote efforts to maintain and develop professional competency by attention to new development in
science and engineering relevant to his field. Fruitful competition are based on competence, creativity, innovation, valued engineering design, front end
engineering design (FEED), etc rather than merely active advertisement.

In addition, the restraint can avoid unhealthy competition among engineers such as deduction of fees. This approach to secure works is definitely
detrimental to the profession and other engineers. The impacts are the profession could no longer be an attractive and rewarding one. In future, there will
less and less talents willing to join the profession making the industry not sustainable and stagnant from advancement.

Such restraint may promote close collaboration among engineers of different discipline and expertise too. It is because the projects nowadays are growing
in complexity. As an engineer, he does not speak and make public statement without ensuring his qualification and undertake jobs that are out of his area of
expertise and competence. By pooling all discipline of engineers, they work and collaborate with one another. Eventually, they can contribute to nation in
efficient ways.

How to detect such violation of active self-promotion and advertisement?

Again, as per earlier sub-chapter, active self-promotion and advertisement like sales and marketing industry may result the use of self-laudatory language.
It could sometimes become worst if there is any manner derogatory to dignity profession.

Therefore, the violation can be detected by identifying the presence of these two elements of advertisement and articles published on both traditional media
and online. If one uses self-laudatory language, the statement is unlikely providing informative details tally with his qualification, capacity and
competence. Both Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) and Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) have the directory and registration details and public
could access via online to check the registration of individual engineer.

How to deal with the violation of active self-promotion and advertisement?

Peer system within Institution of Engineers Malaysia

Communication is important among engineers. Via communication, people with similar abilities, qualifications, background and job nature can become
peers of among themselves to move to ethical direction. In addition, they could learn, share ideas, monitor and motivate each other.

By becoming members of Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM), we become peers among each other. By becoming IEM members, we promise to abide
by IEM rules and regulations. If any of the members breach the rules, he shall feel shame and will not earn the respect of others.

To enhance competence

Competence is important for advancement of oneself and for the industry as a whole. If one becomes competent, he does not need self-laudatory languages
and unethical approach to earn his prospects. As such, the continuing professional development programs organised by accredited organisation such as
BEM and IEM are much anticipated.

Whistle blowers/ Regulators/ Enforcement such as Board of Engineers, Malaysia

There is sometimes some “bad apples”. Therefore, there must be regulators and enforcement system in place.

In Malaysia, Board of Engineers (BEM) is the regulatory body to register and deregister engineers. There are also mechanism and reasons, stipulated inside
Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138) (REA), how an unethical offences that can lead to suspension or cancellation of registration of an engineer.
One of the by-laws also stipulates that a registered engineer shall not advertise in any manner or form in connection with his profession (Item 27c) except
as permitted by BEM.

However, BEM does not able to play her roles and responsibilities unless there are whistle blowers and assistance of IEM.

Most registered engineers are also members of IEM. IEM has similar mechanism to suspend membership of default members. Hence, the close
collaboration from both BEM and IEM since earliest days is dealing with the matters.

By adhering to IEM rules and regulations, we could abide by most of the regulations by BEM and REA, which include the prohibition of active self-
promotion and advertisement.

Conclusion

Prohibition of active self-promotion and advertisement are not means to restrict growing of business of individual engineer. It is indeed encouraging
competency with allocation of resources into enhancing competence and skills. The restraint could avoid unhealthy approaches which shown desperation to
secure jobs but jeopardizing the profession as a rewarding career as a whole and in the long run.

6. You are an engineer and it is known that your project activities/plant production had caused an adverse health, safety and/or environmental
(HSE) impact. To improve the HSE quality, you have to cease your project activities/plant production for a period of time, resulting in the
inability to meet the required schedule and targets.

How would you handle a situation where there is a conflict between the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct and commercial
consideration?

A member shall at all times take care to ensure that his work and the products of his work constitute no avoidable danger of death or injury or ill health to
any person.

Therefore, engineers should hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public. Engineers having knowledge of any alleged violation of this
Code shall report thereon to appropriate professional bodies and, when relevant, also to public authorities, and cooperate with the proper authorities in
furnishing such information or assistance as may be required.

Introduction

According to IEM regulation on professional conduct, members shall ensure that his works and products constitute no danger, cause no health issues and
no damage to the environment. When there is conflict of interest between his own and others especially the community, his shall uphold the benefit of the
community and his duty to them must prevail.

In addition, it is responsibility of all humans to not polluting the environment, not initiating irresponsible actions that will jeopardize others and own good
health and safety. All economic activities and development will only become sustainable if people are healthy, work places are safe and environment is
clean.

Like sickness, prevention is better than cure. If the sickness has unfortunately arisen upon us, we shall open to medical examination and accept the cure.

If my project activities or plant production had cause an adverse health, safety or environmental (HSE) impact, I will report, discuss and advise employer
for stipulated period for repair and rectification works. If it is deemed necessary, due to benefits of workers and public from HSE aspects, I will
recommend too about ceasing of project activities and production though that may resulting in the inability to meet the schedule and targets.

In the same time, I will quickly kick off the repair and rectification works, along with contingency plan such business response plan to catch up schedule of
project activities and production after repair works with all relevant colleagues and staffs.
The prime action is definitely to settle the HSE matters. While in the same time, we plan and arrange in advance plans to recover business and project
activities or production back to tracks once the HSE matters are settled.

Stop work

Occupational, Safety and Health Act 1994 is the law to govern the safety and health at work places while Environmental Quality Act 1974 is the law to
govern environmental matters in Malaysia. For construction and manufacturing industries, which often involve the use of heavy machine and equipment,
Factories and Machinery Act 1967 is the law to govern the safe use of machine during work and after installation for tenant use.

Under the acts, both employer and employee have obligation to ensure safety and health at workplaces and not causing environmental problems. If
offended, fines and imprisonment could be imposed.

Nowadays, many companies have their own HSE policy too, which could be more stringent because industry oriented requirement such as oil and gas
industry. By adhering to company HSE policy, it is sometimes abide by the laws. In addition, the self-voluntary stop work is not merely obligation to laws,
it is indeed our commitment to HSE and sustainability of project activities and business. Stop work at early stage when problems are identified, rather than
waiting until serious damage take place, could maintain good corporate image and make the business sustainable.

For construction industry, one errant contractor with occurrence of bad HSE incidents would not be welcomed by client and could be blacklisted from
future bidding of projects.

Repair/ rectify the problem within schedule

The stop work period provide full access of all relevant personnel and measurement to repair and rectify the problems.

The cause of problem and remedy methods, should have already identified prior to or immediate to be identified after stop work initiated. If it is the
machine problem, the machine shall be repaired and replaced. If it is the work place, which are messing and could cause safety concern because of
negligence, the place shall be cleaned and arranged in order. If it is the work process could cause the HSE matters, the expert and relevant personnel shall
modified the work flow with involvement and briefing to all staffs. If it is the competency of the staffs, training shall be provided.

For instance, mining industry could catch worldwide attention because HSE matters once occur are often serious and accompanied with loss of lives. If it is
noticed that there is uncomfortable signs about the tunnel access and its underground structures, the stop work is inarguably the best option to uphold safety
of the workers. It is unavoidable that no production during the period until full strengthening of the underground access rather than permanent closure
issued by authority.

Miscellaneous response plan

As per earlier sub-chapter, the stop and problem rectification work are not deterrents to business growing or achievement of business target but to ensure
sustainability and to achieve goals, which is including the project schedule.

During the stop work and repair work period, planning and schedule to catch the project and production activities can be carried out, which can cover all
aspects after the completion of repair works. The planning can cover order and delivery of materials, sourcing for suitable tools, machines and technology
to carry work in an efficient and speedy ways, training of staffs to be more skilful and employment of additional manpower.

In addition, the current encountered difficulties can be informed to and discussed with clients. This is to show our sincerity and commitment to them for
quality excellence and to safeguard their interest too. Benefit of all parties will be affected if HSE matters are not taken as priority. Rational clients may
provide extension of time for completion too.

Car manufacturers such as Toyota and Honda have shown to the world of their commitment and responsibility to users of their cars. They recall back their
products and rectify them. Such actions do not hurt their business but indeed helping to boost to higher level of consumer confidence. This is definitely
good example to all players of other industries too.

Conclusion

In other words, efforts and incorporation of HSE concern into project activities and production are not merely obligation to laws but also aligning to
sustainability of commercial interest and consideration. For my project activities and production, if HSE matters are affected, I will definitely rectify the
matters first and follow up with response plan to catch up the schedule for the project activities and production.

7. Very often codes of practice suggest discretion of engineering judgement. There are merits and demerits of international codes of practice and
standards as opposed to national documents within the context of the Malaysian industry and practices.

Discuss by giving examples of engineering judgement whereby such decision does not conform to an international (?) code of practice and how it
is justified. Is international conformity always desirable?

Engineering judgement is a process of forming opinion or evaluation, which characterized by or conforming to the technical or ethical standards of
engineering knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation by discerning and comparing. To make an engineering judgement, decisions are
usually based on technical information and public impact. There are few factors that can develop the judgement such that academic training, professional
experience, professional development and mistakes.

In the society nowadays, engineers play an important role to ensure the safety of life, which is important to maintain and improve the quality of the world.
Engineers independently address and reconcile a broad range of complex engineering problems, which may or can’t be adequately assessed and determined,
from measurement or observation alone. They deal extensively with controversial economic and public policy issues that are likely to hinder progress of
construction or operating permits. Besides that, engineers can represent department with authority on technical engineering matters to develop procedures
and standards for multiple engineering projects that are significantly technical and complex. Engineering judgement is important because engineers apply
professional judgment where a variety of conflicting engineering related conditions present a major problem.

One thing that can’t be neglected is codes and practices often suggest discretion of engineering judgement. There are merits and demerits of international
codes of practice and standards as opposed to national documents within the context of the Malaysian industry and practices.

For example, Engineer A, employed by the XYZ Manufacturing Company, is assigned to an internal task force composed of engineers to develop a job
description and qualifications for a supervisory engineering position and to prepare a list of qualified engineers for the position. The task force interviews a
number of candidates, eliminating some and advising them that they are no longer under consideration. At the conclusion of its interviews the task force
members all agree that none of those considered is of the quality desired. The other members of the task force, however, tell Engineer A that they believe he
is highly qualified and suggest that he resign from the task force so that he may be considered for the position as being in the best interest of the company.
From the example above, it’s clearly shown that the decision of Engineer A does not comfort to Code of Ethics-Section 8 and Section 11. Code of Ethics-
Section 8 states that “The Engineer will endeavor to avoid a conflict of interest with his employer or client, but when unavoidable, the Engineer shall fully
disclose the circumstances to his employer or client.”. I assume that those in management who appointed Engineer A to the task force would know the facts
when and if A’s name were presented for the higher position, there will be no ethical problem regarding his relationship with his employer. As has often
been noted in the past, a conflict of interest between an employed engineer and the employer occurs only when the circumstances are such that an advantage
to the engineer would be at the expense of the employer. Even if that were the case, however, an employer may waive the conflict when it is to his or her
advantage to do so.

There may be some implication that Engineer A had some hidden role in the determination of the task force members, including him, that none of the other
candidates was acceptable for the higher position. If Engineer A were improperly motivated to influence an adverse conclusion on the other candidates he
could have had in mind the result that the other members of the task force would turn to him. But this is a highly conjectural approach, without supporting
evidence, and I assume under these conditions that the other members of the task force could not so easily have been led to that result.

The ultimate ethical issue under the above assumption is whether Engineer A had competed unfairly with other engineers by attempting to obtain
advancement by "improper or questionable methods." If there were any reasonable basis to support a suspicion that Engineer A had, in fact, used his
position on the task force to achieve the position for himself, that would be a clear violation of Section 11 of the code. Thus, I suggest that Engineer A
should resign from the task force and permit himself to be considered as a candicate so that it would be ethical.

There’s another example. Engineer B had been retained by the prime professional engineer to provide mechanical and electrical engineering services for a
large housing project. The project was completed and occupied four years later, and Engineer B was fully paid for his services. Approximately seven years
after the original occupancy, ownership of the facility changed. The new owner informed Engineer B he had retained Engineer C to make an engineering
inspection of the facility, and there were problems associated with the wiring. At the owner's request, a joint inspection of the wiring was made by the two
engineers and the city wiring inspector. The inspection did not reveal any defects in the wiring. The owner advised Engineer C of his complaint concerning
the plumbing and heating systems. Engineer C thereafter conducted a further study and filed a report with the owner. The report noted there was no problem
with the design of the plumbing system, but concluded there were design inadequacies in the original sizing of the equipment for hot water and heating.
Engineer C recommended the installation of equipment of higher capacity. Engineer B thereafter filed a complaint with the state engineering registration
board alleging that Engineer C had acted improperly in that the report was not objective and did not include all pertinent information, and further alleged
that the actions of Engineer C were self-serving at the expense of the dignity and reputation of Engineer B. Engineer B requested the registration board to
find Engineer C guilty of "misconduct" in that Engineer C had obtained employment by a questionable method of criticizing Engineer b without his
knowledge.

The Engineer B’s decision does not comfort the Code of Ethics Section 12 and Section 12(a). Section 12 states that "The Engineer will not attempt to injure,
maliciously or falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation, prospects, practice, or employment of another engineer, nor will he
indiscriminately criticize another engineer's work. If he believes that another engineer is guilty of unethical or illegal practice, he shall present such
information to the proper authority for action". Section 12(a) states that "An Engineer in private practice will not review the work of another engineer for
the same client, except with the knowledge of such engineer, or unless the connection of such engineer with the work has been terminated."

In this particular set of facts, it is apparent that Engineer B knew that Engineer C had been retained to make an engineer's inspection of the facility and that
the resulting evaluation would necessarily entail a review of the original designs. Also, it is equally clear that the connection of Engineer B with the project
had been terminated some years earlier. By considering whether the work of Engineer C was for the same client, it may be helpful for future guidance to
again point out that the purpose of 12(a) is to provide the engineer whose work is being reviewed by another engineer the opportunity to submit his
comments or explanation for his technical decisions, thereby enabling the reviewing engineer to have the benefit of a fuller understanding of the technical
considerations in the original design in framing his comments or suggestions for the ultimate benefit of the client. On the basis of the information submitted
to us, there is no showing that Engineer B had undertaken his review and subsequent report with the intent to injure the professional reputation or practice
of Engineer A. The fact that Engineer B concluded that some changes were needed in the equipment originally specified cannot alone constitute the kind of
actions barred by 12. Otherwise, there would be no point in an owner's retaining another engineer to review the original design in an attempt to resolve
current problems with the facility. In conclusion, I think it is not ethical for Engineer C to take the assignment and in rendering the report to the owner.

8. Engineers are often entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale projects involving millions of Ringgit. In view of the large
amount of money changing hands, the integrity and ethical standards of engineers are being put to test. What measures can an engineer take to
prevent corruption and unethical practice of cutting corners in order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profession?

1. Introduction

Engineering is one of the most challenging professions on earth. The engineering profession is a high-risk profession, which involves construction and
development etc. Engineering could be a rather lucrative profession if manage properly. As the saying goes, high gain is always associated with high risk.
The same goes for engineering industry. Engineers, especially civil engineers are often entrusted with the responsibility of implementing large-scale
projects involving millions of dollars. As a result, the integrity and ethical standards of engineers are seriously being put into test. In the following section of
this essay, I would like to discuss the necessary measures that an engineer could adopt to prevent corruption and unethical practices of cutting corners in
order to safeguard the good image of the engineering profession in the country.

2. Measures to prevent corruption and unethical practice

2.1 Code of Ethics

Various measures can be adopted by engineers in the direction to prevent corruption and unethical practices in the engineering profession. One of the most
important measures is the familiarisation with the code of ethics. Engineers must get themselves familiar with the code of ethics that govern the duties and
responsibilities of engineers. Ethics means something more than “law” and “morals”; it carries an additional connotation of “rightess”. The Code, therefore,
is not a list of rules to govern every problem of conduct, nor is it a broad statement of ideals. It is a statement of the principles of “rightness”, of broad
scope, and with enough detail to enable an intelligent man to deduce for himself the course of his own professional conduct. The engineering code of ethics
explain and illustrate the right tasks that an engineer should perform and the wrongdoings that he/she is prohibited from undertaking such as unwise
practices of cutting corner, corruptions etc.

2.2 Self-Awareness

Apart from familiarisation with the engineering code of ethics, engineers should posses relatively high self-awareness of
their duties and obligations towards the society and country. Engineers are involving in construction activities such as construction of buildings, houses and
infrastructures etc. that can profoundly affect the life of members of the society. As a result, engineering tasks are significantly important and
any mistakes or negligence leading to collapse of the buildings due to unwise practices would claim hundreds to thousands of life. In this respect, engineers
must posses a relatively high self-awareness of their responsibilities and obligations towards the society and country in order to minimise possible unethical
practices and corruptions.

2.3 Checker
One of the most effective means in preventing corruptions or cutting corners is to engage a third party as checker for the design works or construction
project. This third party, called a ‘checker’, could play the role as an inspector for all related construction works inclusive of design, construction
supervision and commissioning of works. The engagement of the ‘checker’ is to ensure that all related project works are carried out in accordance to
international best practices, sound engineering judgements and all works are complying with relevant engineering codes. This has been one of most
effective measures that are being widely adopted in the engineering industry to prevent and minimize possible unethical practices from taking place.

2.4 Stiffer Penalty

Apart from engaging a third party as ‘checker’ for the project, another effective measure that has not been widely practised in Malaysia is to impose stiffer
penalties for those who committed wrongdoings such as unethical practices and corruptions. The laws in Malaysia have been too lenient to the developers,
contractors and engineers. Stiffer penalties should be imposed to those who has been found guilty of adopting unethical practices. Penalties such as heavy
financial penalties combined with imprisonment, revoke licence of developers, contractors or engineers etc. could be enforced in order to prevent the
widespread unethical practices in the engineering industry.

2.5 To organize awareness talk

Other effective measures in the direction to prevent corruption and unethical practices in the engineering profession are to organize awareness talks,
seminars or workshops in a more frequent basis. These events would target those that are involved in the construction industry including developers,
contractors, engineers etc. in order to instil high awareness in all parties of the importance in adopting good practices in the engineering profession

Introduction

Though engineers contribute to nation in general, public sometimes cast suspicious feeling of possible unethical conduct, bribery and corruption upon
engineers and others in the construction industry when there are failure of engineering works. For instance, public is inevitably doubt about the integrity of
engineers when the collapse of steel roof at Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin Stadium, cracking of pier structures of MRR2, collapse of a building at Petaling
Jaya during demolition works, delays of completion of mega projects, boosting up of project cost and etc. These cases have resulted bad perception among
the public about the ethical behavior, competency and responsibility of engineers and others in the industry.

It is often, when failures of engineering works take place and boosting of project cost is reported, public perceive possible corruption has taken place. The
investigation of trueness of the perception upon engineers or others in the industry to be handed over to relevant parties such Board of Engineers and Ad
hoc committee set up for the objectives.

Notwithstanding to trueness of the perception, engineers shall still take actions and behave themselves in professional manners to safeguard the good image
of the profession. The good and responsible actions are much needed from engineers for the sustainability, advancement of the engineering profession and
good prospect to those involved in the career. Some of the actions are:

a) Adhere to code of ethics and abide by laws, rules and regulations

Engineers shall be well versed with rules and regulations relevant to his practices and registration such as Registration of Engineers Act 1967 (Act 138).
Section 15 of the act stipulates that an engineer can be suspended and cancelled his registration with the board if he is found to offer or accept illicit
commission and involved with dishonesty and fraud practices.

Rules and regulations from both Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) and Institution of Engineers Malaysia (IEM) also prohibit engineers from accepting
remuneration from others except from his employer when discharging their routine duties and responsibility.

Therefore, engineers shall follow the rules and regulations when discharging their responsibility, which is also directly to maintain the dignity of the
profession and fellow engineers.

In addition to Registration of Engineers Act, Street, Drainage and Building Act 1974 (Act 133), Uniform Building By-laws 1984, Occupational Safety and
Health Act 1994, Factories and Machinery Act 1967, if could be well studied and remembered by engineers, also can enabling engineers discharging their
duties and liaising with all parties confidently. All these acts are not restricting prospect and performance of engineers but instead are useful reference to
safeguard the good image of engineering profession and construction industry.

b) Executing works, duties and responsibilities according to appropriate work procedure

Engineers shall follow generally accepted, but not burdening work procedure, to prevent possible occurring of unethical behavior and bribery.

For instance, site engineers may inform head office, after reporting to project manager, about the much needed construction material at project and also may
attend to new product presentation from salesperson. However, the quotation, purchase order, invoice and payment method shall be followed by others and
colleagues from relevant department such as purchasing department.

For site engineers, he shall inform and request the presence of resident engineer or clerk of works, who are normally act on behalf of consulting engineer
and project owners when there are testing works. For instance, it is advised that presence of third party engineer (not from contractor) to witness the
preparation of concrete cube, cube test work, piling works, early setup and reading of gauging instrument for Maintain Load Test, etc. This work procedure
and request could prevent unethical behavior due to conflicts of interest. In other works, people to execute the works, the person to certify the results or
quality and the party to make the payment are recommended not the same individual.

With the above work procedures, pay master and certifying parties of different parties could avoid unethical and corruption.

c) Be open-minded, transparent when conducting assessment and make decision

An engineer shall be open-minded and transparent when discharging his responsibility with other professional counterpart and project owners.

For instance, if the engineer is the one that project owner rely mostly for advice of award of contract, he shall be well versed about the tender document and
specification. Then, he subsequently makes fair evaluation including assessment to possible counter proposal from all aspect such as specification,
completion period, capability and price to meet client’s requirement.

Such open-minded and transparent situation could be promoted by conducting tender interview with presence of project owner, members of the consultancy
team and allow queries and presentation by all bidders. All discipline of the consultant team members to take care their respective technical roles.

With open mind set, check and compare all proposal and options in transparent situation, without stick or keen to one, the best decision can be made and
unethical behaviour avoided.

d) Engineering decision made via team and committee


Engineering works often involve millions of ringgits. Hence, it is promoted decision made by a group of members of all relevant discipline and stakeholders
via situation at sub-subject c). Being at transparent situation, conflict of interest could not easily be hidden and unethical behaviour can be prevented.

e) Do not abuse authority (power) for own interest and report conflict of interest

Abuse of authority could be prevented with practice as per earlier sub-subject c) especially for conventional contract.

In addition, engineer should report in writing about conflict of interest to client. It is even more appropriate if he reject appointment as consulting engineer
for the same project if he have substantial stake of the contracting or supplier firm and keen to bid for the contract. By choosing whether to work as
consulting engineer and contractor only, we could avoid conflict of interests and unethical behaviour.

f) Conduct routine inspection and spot check

The professional engineer, though with his appointed representative at site, shall also conduct spot check or inspection to site. If possible, the inspection
shall be periodical. He shall read and check the site dairy and record too. Spot check and periodical inspection to site may enable engineer to provide early
reminder so that work quality can achieved and unethical conduct could be prevented at site.

g) Work Audit (Check and balance)

An engineer shall be aware and open that his works can be reviewed and audited if requested by project owners. Internally, there shall be a superior or
employer supervising his works. Hence, he shall not accept bribery or be involved in unethical behavior in any manner.

h) Practice zero tolerance to corruption

Engineer shall report immediately of unethical behavior and corruption to Board of Engineers, Malaysia, Institution of Engineers Malaysia and Association
of Consulting Engineers for unethical behavior. For bribery and corruption, the case shall be report to Anti-corruption agency.

i) Continuing Professional Development

All engineers shall strike for excellence for their works. In order to strike for excellence, engineers shall always continue study and follow the latest
development of technology relevant to their field of works and others. With continuing self-improvement, engineers could become more competent when
discharging their duties. When an engineer or any person became more competent, he does not rely to not morale and not ethical actions.

We could become more competent by joining the Institution of Engineers Malaysia, where we could take part in seminars, talks, discussions. We could
meet other fellow engineers, exchange view, share our work experience and ideas. By becoming more competent, we do not need unethical practice of
corruption.

Conclusion

Engineers play significant role in developing the nation. Almost all mega projects that are needed to put our nation into developed conditions need
engineers. Therefore, engineers shall have ethical behaviour which is much anticipated to contribute to healthy and competent work culture while
contributing to the physical and hardware aspect.

9. ‘Conflict of professional interest frequently arises in the working environment of an engineer’. Discuss the statement and propose the
appropriate solutions for overcoming the problems.

Conflict is so common in today’s world that is full with sophistication and complexity. All of us are facing with some kind of conflicts in our daily life.
We are frequently encountering conflicts with our family members, friends, colleagues or even our bosses. Even the countries worldwide are having
conflicts with each other such as conflict betweenUnited States and Republic of China. Conflict occurs as a result of different views, opinions and
different interests in individual, society or country. Everybody, individuals, societies or countries are looking into their opinions and interests respectively.
They adopt a defensive view of their opinions and interests. As a result, conflict occurs when one is disagree with another’s opinion. In the following
section of this essay, I will discuss the conflict of professional interest in the working environment of an engineer in particular for the civil engineer, and
suggest the appropriate solutions for overcoming these problems.

As mentioned in the earlier section, conflict occurs as a result of different opinions and interests in oneself from that of others. Engineering industry is a
comparatively wide profession that involves various parties such as developers, contractors and consultant engineers etc. These parties would have their
own interests and are always be there to safeguard their interests respectively. As a result, conflicts frequently arise in the working environment of the
engineers. Developers are the clients for the construction project. They are basically businessmen that invest in property development and their main
objective is to obtain profitability. Developers are basically the cost-conscious group and they are very concern about the cost aspects of the project.

As for contractors, they are also cost-conscious but their main interest is to complete the project fast within the allocated timeframe in order for them to
claim construction fees in soonest possible time. Consultant engineers however are more concern about the quality of works of the construction activities.
They are there to ensure that the construction works are carried out in accordance to relevant engineering codes and complying with international best
practices. The different interests in these parties have resulted in conflicts occurring between these parties in a frequent basis.

Various effective measures can be adopted in the direction to reduce conflicts between the developers, contractors and consultant engineers. One of the
most effective measures towards reducing conflicts is to cultivate mutual respect between each other. All the three parties would have to instil a relatively
high awareness in themselves on the other parties responsibilities and interests. They have to be aware of and understand the interests of the other parties.
Developers, contractors and consultant engineers would have to respect each other and compromise solution that could meet requirements of all the three
parties respectively. In this respect, they could perhaps create shared objectives or goals that mutually meet the critical requirements of all parties in order
to avoid any unnecessary conflicts from occurring.

Developers, contractors and consultant engineers would have to meet each other in a more frequent basis to discuss as well as resolve construction issues
in a speedy manner. Very common, construction industry is flooded with various construction issues and problems. However conflicts would occur if
these issues were not being resolved in a speedy manner. As a result, all parties must meet in a more frequent basis in order to resolve necessary site
problems without delay. This is important to avoid any unnecessary conflicts from developing. In addition, all parties must ensure that effective
communication is taken place in order to minimise unnecessary conflicts as a result of miscommunication.

Perhaps the most important measure to minimise conflict is to put yourself into other people shoes. One would have to possess high self-awareness and be
able to understand the other’s parties concerns in order to gain respect in the society. Developers, contractors and consultant engineers must try to
understand the responsibilities and obligations of one another respectively in order to minimise unnecessary conflicts from occurring.
Workplace conflict is a specific type of conflict that occurs in workplaces. The conflicts that arise in workplaces may be shaped by the unique aspects of
this environment, including the long hours many people spend at their workplace, the hierarchical structure of the organization, and the difficulties (e.g.
financial consequences) that may be involved in switching to a different workplace. In this respect, workplaces share much in common with schools,
especially pre-college educational institutions in which students are less autonomousMost people don't enjoy facing the difficult situations that sometimes
occur with co-workers in the workplace. Such situations may arise from honest disagreements over design or engineering issues, personnel or benefits
matters, management decisions or actions, or from any other situation where human impressions and objectives differ.

There could be double the trouble for engineers who are more likely to feel at home with electrons and bytes, and behave in highly predictable ways, than
with coworkers, who often appear arbitrary and capricious. For those of us who have internalized the strict and measurable rules of the physical world,
dealing with other people can be both disappointing and frustrating.Yet how you manage situations of conflict with your coworkers could have a
significant impact on your career, often even more than your engineering prowess or your design skills. Those who deal successfully with potential
conflicts are far more likely to receive added responsibilities and promotions, in ad-dition to the pay increases and respect that come with them. On the
other hand, not dealing successfully with conflict can potentially relegate you to a career backwater, with technical challenges and high pay passing you
by.

Why is dealing with conflict an important skill today? It's primarily because there's more of it now than in the past. Workers of all types are more likely to
speak up for their own ideas or actions, rather than follow the dictating corporate chain of command. Conflict also sometimes arises as a result of unclear
company goals, or when those goals aren't shared equally by all. Rather than working for a single common good, employees and managers seek individual
goals, such as promotion, job security, experience, money, and even the proverbial free lunch.

Not only is actual conflict greater today, but even the potential for interpersonal conflicts in the workplace is far greater than at any time in the past. One
reason for this is increased time-to-market pressures. The need to rapidly make decisions, establish an engineering direction, and meet project milestones
adds elements of tension and stress to an already difficult endeavor.This makes the workplace a potential minefield for interpersonal conflict. It's
especially apparent to an engineer in a position of responsibility, like a project leader or an engineering manager. For an engineer who must work with
others to complete a project, the need to manage conflict can spell the difference between success and failure.In many instances, much of the conflict
going on could be avoided if one planned properly. In other cases, it can be managed. Here are some ways to prevent conflict when possible, and manage
it when it's inevitable.

Be prepared for potential conflicts. Disagreements with your coworkers shouldn't be a surprise to you. The possibility for conflict exists in many different
types of interactions, so if you think ahead, you can anticipate where conflict might arise. Confrontation can start from virtually any decision made that
affects others, and it should be anticipated.If you believe that there's a potential for conflict at an upcoming meeting, take some time beforehand to get
together with individual participants and hear out their positions. Try to reach a tentative accommodation. This can be a time-consuming process and may
seem like more trouble than it's worth. But it will pay off in better-organized and more-productive meetings, buy-in and support for critical decisions, and
a favorable reputation for you in the company.

If you think there may be a disagreement between yourself and another team member on an aspect of your project, perhaps on a design decision, sit down
with that person and discuss the facts of the problem. While it may not always lead to a meeting of minds, at least it enables each of you to explore and
understand one another's positions. Plus, this makes it more possible to reach some common ground.Don't personalize disagreements. One of the worst re-
sponses to a conflict or disagreement on a decision or opinion is to interpret it as a personal attack and respond in kind. You end up arguing the emotions,
rather than the subject at hand. This type of response not only makes the situation even more unpleasant and difficult to resolve, but also leaves bad
feelings that could be impossible to repair.

Instead of automatically viewing criticism as a personal attack, you would do well to focus not on the tone of the disagreement, but on the facts of the
argument. Listen carefully to what the other person is saying, rather than how he or she is saying it. Take time to think through your position, and address
each of the points that person raises in a calm and rational fashion.In fact, the other party may appear to be personalizing it, either through an inability to
properly express any objections, or simply because he or she wants to be insulting. Rising to this challenge will only make the situation worse. Instead, by
ignoring the tone of the disagreement, you'll defuse a potentially bad situation and possibly strengthen your position even further.

Likewise, you shouldn't respond to objections or disagreements from others with words or a voice tone that sounds like a personal attack. Even giving the
appearance of doing so makes you look petty and out of control to others. It will reduce your effectiveness at your job.Address the issues, instead of the
emotion. This is the natural next step to the previous point. Conflict might come about because you or another party have a real or perceived personal
concern. Such topics can be very emotionally charged, and that emotion can be contagious. Everyone involved often responds to that emotion rather than
the facts.

Don't get caught up in that emotion. The best way to deal with such issues is to shut out the emotional content of the discussion, and focus instead on the
facts. Rarely does a purely personal attack arise. Usually, the matter boils down to an understandable point of view once the emotional content is removed.
Focus on and address the point of view, rather than the emotional vehicle in which it's being delivered.Perhaps the best thing about turning an emotional
discussion into a rational one is the effect that it has on those around you. You present yourself as being able to take control of the situation and resolve
problems before they escalate. This enhances your image as a problem solver. In addition, you will feel an emotional reward for defusing a tough
situation.

Don't avoid situations or decisions on account of potential conflicts. One of the least productive ways to deal with conflict in the workplace is by avoiding
either the topic of conflict or the person behind it. That solves nothing, and it can permit an uncomfortable situation to continue for so long that it affects
your job performance. It's almost always better to face the source of your conflict and attempt to work out your differences before they reach that
point.That said, though, it could be beneficial to delay a conflict to place yourself in a better position later on. For example, if you feel an emotional
reaction toward the problem at one time, it would be better to let your emotions wind down before facing the source of the conflict. Alternatively, you
might wish to gather more facts before the confrontation. In either case, you're still working toward resolving the conflict, rather than avoiding it.

Be aboveboard in your actions. Many interpersonal conflicts arise because people don't understand the reasons behind a particular strategy or action, or
they haven't been informed of the action. The need for secrecy in the workplace is far overrated. All too often the reasons for keeping something secret are
dwarfed by the consequences once the results are apparent. Instead, when faced with the decision to do something secretly or publicly, you should err on
the side of open communications. This resolves many conflicts before they even become apparent.

Be willing to listen and compromise. Rarely is your way clearly the best, especially to others who may have different viewpoints. For instance, you might
have the best engineering solution, but that solution places an undue burden on manufacturing. Insisting on an approach that doesn't address the needs of
every constituent in the company will always precipitate conflict. Worse yet, because it doesn't take into account everyone's requirements, it almost
certainly isn't the best solution for the problem. This is the opportunity for everyone to learn about how a solution impacts others.

Most engineers would prefer not to deal with interpersonal conflicts. They rarely seem productive, and even when something good comes out of them, we
think that there must be a better way to realize that good.Yet it's a part of life, and especially a part of working together in teams. If you do it well, you
demonstrate a skill that many others don't possess. Although it doesn't involve engineering, it could still have a significant impact on the success of your
project.

Perhaps the most important measure to minimise conflict is to put yourself into other people shoes. One would have to possess high self-awareness and be
able to understand the other’s parties concerns in order to gain respect in the society. Developers, contractors and consultant engineers must try to
understand the responsibilities and obligations of one another respectively in order to minimise unnecessary conflicts from occurring.

Abstract

Conflicts of professional interest frequently arises in the work environment of an engineer is one of the situation happened in Malaysian environment.
There are a few factors who cause the situation happened. The main parties that will involve in the conflict of interest are the developers, contractors and
consultant engineers. In order to overcome the problems, the conflict have to be figured out and overcome the problems with optimal solution. The
conflict should be decrease as to help the company growth better.

Introduction
Conflict always happen on our surrounding, especially in the world which is full of sophistication and complexity. We face many kinds of conflicts in
daily life which involves our family, friends and colleagues in learning or working environment or even the boss. Everyone has his/her opinion and
interest on a certain issue or thing. When one is disagree with another person’s point of view and interest, conflict will occur. In Malaysia’s working
environment, to work as an engineer in the related field, these conflicts can’t be avoided. However, the conflict of professional interest is a current issue in
the career of an engineer. If this type of working environment does not improve or changed, it will bring negative effects to the employer, employees who
are working in the company and also the company’s own reputation.
A true profession is an occupation which requires skills and knowledge in a specified field that was for the benefit of the society. A professional able to
demonstrate their knowledge and skills which they done by training and it was used to provide service which is unique and it was used to serve the
community. A professional was a person who can distinguish others from all the occupational groups by showing their expertise in the particular area of
which utilizes the knowledge and skill which he already had.

The knowledge and skills which an engineer has was a result of training, researching and experience. Through these processes, an engineer was able to
develop more critical knowledge and professional ideas. What they learnt was tested, examined and evaluated before they are qualified as a professional
engineer. Through disciplined academic training and experience, they will obtain a certain level of knowledge in their area of practice. It required certain
level of standards, also with rules and regulations to ensure that the person can be called as a professional engineer.

Problem Statement
As mentioned in the earlier section, conflict occurs as a result of different opinions and interests in one from that of others. Engineers involved themselves
in the industry which is a wide, fast-growing and competitive profession. The main parties that will involve in the conflict of interest are the developers,
contractors and consultant engineers.

Objectives
 To figure out the conflict happen among the engineers with professional.
 To overcome the conflict between professional and the engineers.

Discussion
A construction project needs a quite big amount of funds. A construction developer mostly was an organization involved in the act of acquiring, buying
goods, services which works for a land and also the construction activity of the land. There are also wealthy individual developers which can build
construction project by having considerable amount of funds, but it is more common for a group containing all wealthy individuals which forms a
development company to separate the lost and risk of a construction project. They are usually considered as business men that do investment in the
property to build building to gain more profit. As an engineer, it is important to think what others think. The developer side will only consider about the
cost and profit issue. An engineer should be reporting about the amount and cost of the material used in the construction project. Besides that, any raise of
price of material well also affect the distribution of developer’s funds to each sectors regarding the construction project.
The next party would also have conflict of interest with the engineers was the contractors. Contractors will also have concerns on the cost of the project
but it is not the main issue for him. The main task for him was to ensure the progress of building the project within the timeframe and will be completed at
the expected date. It is important that engineers let the contractors know how to arrange the human resources available at the construction site. Contractor
also would needed to be suggested to follow the schedule for the construction project as any delay in time will cause a lost in the construction cost.

Another side which has the conflict of interest was the consultant engineers. Consultant engineer’s job was to ensure the construction were carried out in
relevant and was following the engineering codes and complying with international best practices. The main responsible for the consultant engineers was
to keep an eye on the quality of working activities in the construction site. It is important that the safety measurements of a construction site are following
the protocols set by the local government. Workers or anyone authorized to enter the construction site must wear safety helmets and gloves as prevention
to any incident that may happen when they are in the construction site. A first aid emergency centre should be at standby condition with simple medical
assistance and staffs on site. If any accident occurs, the casualty was able to get treated at instant.

One of the types of conflict in the working environment was conflicting client interests. The classic case involving conflicting client interests occurs when
a forest professional is required to serve a client whose interests directly clash with those of another current client. Obviously, a forester representing a
landowner in a timber trespass case cannot also work for the logger who allegedly committed the trespass, but many more subtle situations can also
present conflicts.

Another type of conflict which will be occur was financial conflicts. Financial conflicts of interest are not always as clear-cut as one might assume. For
example, when a forester who owns a partial interest in a wood-using manufacturing plant sells wood on behalf of a forest landowner, the forester has an
obligation to make the landowner aware of this other business interest.
The solution was first, the engineer must recognize, before accepting an assignment from the second party, that there is a potential conflict of interest. A
prudent engineer will explain to the municipality’s representative that a report was prepared for one of the land developers. The municipality may well
deem this to be a conflict and select another engineer for the assignment, thereby ending the potential conflict. Alternatively, the municipality could
decide that there is no conflict and be willing to continue with the engineer. However, this does not resolve the engineer’s potential conflict, because the
developer, who is the first client, is not party to this decision. The engineer should advise the municipality that the assignment will be accepted only if the
developer agrees in writing that there is no conflict. Once that written agreement is obtained, the second assignment can be accepted. If no waiver is
provided, the municipality may agree to retain the professional engineer generally but obtain a different one for this specific land owner.

Solution of to this issue was first to create mutual respect. Building trust between the engineers is key in this case. We should know that everyone who
works in the company has his/her own vision and commands on the company in terms of the company’s policy, the organization of the company and the
company’s future prospects. We also should understand that engineers might perceive a conflict of interest, and that the perception would damage mutual
understanding and credibility. The lack of trust by engineers might be extended to the entire management of the company. The loss to the company might
be substantial, but we need to put the interests of the company’s employer and its employees before their personal interests. We should able to understand
the concerns of the engineers to the company and try to acknowledge and respect the suggestion given by them. Avoiding the conflict would guarantee
continued mutual respect between the engineers.

Establishing common goals and objectives of the company are vital. The common goal can unite all the staffs of the company which allows them to fight
together to achieve the goals set by the company. The objective of a company is to establish a foundation or the base for the company. Shared objectives
can help engineers to be motivated in their work and became more innovative to produce better and useful solutions which make sure that they can reach
the objectives. If the engineers have positive relationships and work together as a strong team, it will reduce the conflict of professional interest as they are
moving in the same direction for sake of the company. The company was able to obtain more benefit and profit. More than that, the company was able to
improve its performance and will be having a better future.

In a company, effective communication has a very important role to avoid conflict of interest. It is nice to see engineers having meeting each week
discussing about the issue of the company. However, if the outcome of the meeting was still unable to solve the problem, this was considered an
ineffective communication. Another example was only one of the sides was giving opinion and suggestions but does not receive any feedback from others.
It was known as a one way communication, which was also ineffective. The strategy of having an effective communication was information should
always be clear and easy to understand for everyone involved. It may have different communications plans for different sides in a meeting such as the
administration board, the engineers and the technicians. Just go straight to the point, expect what information they want to hear and present to them. A
two-way communication should be build up. Both sides listen, discuss and debate the opinions and suggestion given and came out with a best solution as
the outcome of the meeting between the engineers.

To decrease the gap of conflict of interest between two parties, each person needs to be considerate. It should be a good practice if one was able to put
himself/herself in their shoes. As an engineer, it was good to provide your own ideas and opinions. But, what is more important was to consider what they
will feel and think if they accept the opinion and ideas given by your side. As an example, if one of the engineers proposed the idea of a new product,
there will be concerns on the design, cost, building material, target customers, and functionality. Therefore, before proposing an idea of your own, try also
to consider the problems and difficulties which will be faced by the other engineers or departments. However, it was impossible to take consideration for
all the sides, but at least you tried your best to reduce the burden of the other engineers and departments when the proposed product was approve to be
mass produced. It was a challenge to an engineer to optimize all the resources of a company and produced a solution which can benefit the company and
give good reputation to the company.

Developing a positive relationship between the engineers is important. If the trusts were built in the organization, they will be more likely to compromise
and work towards goals. Therefore, having good working relationship among engineers will reduce the conflict of interest. In a working environment,
engineers meet different peoples from different department. Everyone has his/her standards and restrictions towards their position. As an engineer,
building good relationship will help to develop your working practices and were able to understand the point of view of your colleagues and able to know
how they think and how they solve problem in different ways. What you practice will influence others to practice the similar approach in the whole
working environment. Having good relationship also improves your networking skills, which able yourself to have wider access to more information. It
will also be a stepping stone for your career development.

Engineers faced a lot of issues and decision making moments in the working environment. There should be having frequent discussion for a quick
solution. Engineers solve issues by providing solutions to solve the problem. Discussion can be made during meeting to find out the best way to overcome
a problem. The discussion also can be done in small groups which involve members from the same department. The outcome of the discussion was to
solve the problem in only one way which was effective, reasonable and acceptable by all the members of the group. If no discussion was been done
between the engineers, everyone will do their routine job in their own way. When problems arise, there will be conflicts on the method used was not good
enough which may lead to argument. To avoid the conflicts and argument, engineers should make discussions often.

Conclusion
As a conclusion, the conflict of professional interest should be decrease to a minimum in the working environment of Malaysia. This would help
companies grow stronger and better. It allows the employees to imagine the future of the company’s plans and visions. It will also help the development of
an engineer’s personal value and career. It is important to change the working environment of a workplace which can produce a more effective but still
competitive environment.

10. Most projects are awarded on a competitive bidding basis. Supposing you had been the designated engineer of one of the bidders which was not
awarded the letter of intent by the Client; and you are then approached by the ‘winner’ to join the Consultant Team; should you accept the
second appointment? If yes, describe the situations, which might be seen as conflict of interests. If no, describe the reasons and/or clear-cut
situations why you should decline the second appointment.

Engineers shall not accept compensation, financial or otherwise, from more than one party for services on the same project, or for services pertaining to the
same project, unless the circumstances are fully disclosed and agreed to by all interested parties

Engineers shall act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.

Introduction

We, as engineers, do not injure directly or indirectly the prospect of another engineer. In the same time, we shall be faithful and honest with our client and
employer. In discharging our duty and carrying our works, we shall bear in mind that fair and honest dealing with all parties is essential principle. If there is
conflict of interest of oneself with others, we shall act with integrity and fair toward others.

For the scenario which I was approached by the “winner” to join his consultant team, I presume the invitation to bid and the project are of design and build
contract. I was the engineer of another contractor who has not successful bidding the contract. Upon announcement of the “winner”, the “winner” offers the
appointment as their engineer to us.

In my view of points, I may accept the invitation because of the following reasons and with the following conditions.

Completion of duty and responsibility to current employer

For design and build contract, which both contractor and consultant are working together to bid the project, contractor is the leader and appoint his
consultant. The letter of appointment is often issued after successful bidding of the project. For ethical practise in the construction industry, the original
engineer working together with contractor shall be appointed. In other words, no letter of appointment is issued or no official appointment of engineer will
be carried out if the bidding is not successful.

During the bidding process, engineer shall be faithful and honest to his employer. He applies his best knowledge, skills and efforts in assisting his employer
to bid the contract. Upon successful bidding and with the official appointment, he works together with his employer to ensure successful implementation.

If fail in the bidding stage, engineer’s duty and responsibility to original employer has completed. Hence, I may consider the invitation of the “winner”
subject to condition in the following paragraphs.

No improper termination of consultant of “winner”

For construction industry, it is only considered ethical and appropriate to appoint consultant who have assisted the contractor during the bidding works once
successful in the bidding process. However, there is always some bad “apples”. Errant people may like make use of another’s efforts.

Therefore, I shall communicate and check the reasons of termination of the consultant of the “winner”. I shall consider accepting new appointment if there
is no errant happening in the termination of services of another engineer. If the works have started, I shall only take over if there is written consent by the
engineer and formal notification by “winner” that the services of other engineer have been terminated and no arrear is due.
In other words, I shall only accept the appointment of “winner” after receipt of release letter of the engineer.

No fee reduction or discount

In order to prevent unethical practises by errant players in the industry, there shall not be fee reduction or similar like discount, for acceptance of
appointment as new engineer to the “winner”. Engineering consultancy services (ECP) are professional services to design and advice the client for reliable,
valued and front end engineering works. It is unavoidable for clients to bargain for cheaper price but engineers shall not compete with one another by
slashing their fee. The act will downgrade the technical competency of engineers in the long term and make the profession an unattractive one.

In my view of points, it is good if the scale of fee recommended by BEM to be adhered to.

No disclosure of business information and copyright with current employer

All works, done with current employer, could be considered property and business information of current employer. Though we fail to bid, we shall not or
simply disclose the information to the “winner”. This is because current employer could still compete and bid for other project with current information,
which are works of both current employer and us. Furthermore, I will possibly his engineer too. If I disclose the information to the “winner”, it is conflict of
interest.

Rights to review, redesign, use and not to apply the design of original engineer of the “winner”

Engineer bears his responsibility with him to grave. Though the design of other engineer is well prepared and done, the engineer who take over the jobs
shall monitor and ensure successful implementation and construction. He therefore need to review, check and possible redesign if not all but still there could
be substantial part needed to be checked.

By accepting the invitation or appointment of the “winner”, it is merely change of responsible engineers to monitor, supervise and handle the project. The
new engineer shall still discharge his duty and responsibility to “winner”.

Hence, engineers shall not accept wrongful offer by “winner” with the all kind of reasons to substitute engineer and try to appoint a cheaper one.

Conclusion

As an ethical and responsible engineer, we shall take care the interest of our employer and ensure duty and professional services rendered to him are
completed. We shall avoid conflict of interests by not assisting two clients who are opposite competing sides at the same time. If it is unavoidable, we shall
inform both of them and let them to make decision or we choose one.

In the same time, we do not attempt to take over the business prospect of another engineer unless the engineer consents and there is no unethical and errant
practise in replacing the original engineer.

11. You are in a position of responsibility administering an institution of higher learning with limited resources. You have been assigned to revise the
engineering curriculum and directed to increase the number of graduates. From the standpoint of professional conduct, describe the necessary
curriculum contents which must be included so as not to compromise the engineering standards.

This is refering to the conservative universities which offer fundamental engineering curriculum without compromising engineering standards. With
limited resources, e.g. lecturers, facilities and funds, the design of the curriculum is as follows;

Mathematics Courses- Even though mathematics courses are not engineering courses in and of themselves, proficiency is very
important for those who wish to be successful in engineering. In my revision of the engineering curriculum, a fair share of mathematics classes will be at a
higher priority. Algebra, Calculus, Trigonometry, Differential Equations and coordinate geometry are an integral part of the engineering curriculum.

Science Courses- Science courses are another big component in our engineering curriculum, particularly if student’s concentration is in an area like
biological or chemical engineering. Physics, chemistry and computer science are all important aspects of an engineering program. Even if the student’s
concentration is in civil engineering, they will be expected to cover at least the introductory areas of chemistry and physics. The computer sciences are
often tailored to the specific needs of the engineering curriculum, and they will probably find that proficiency in this area will be very helpful to the rest of
their studies.

Engineering Courses- Engineering courses themselves are at the heart of every engineering curriculum. The types of classes students participate will
depend in large part upon your area of concentration. In the first year however, engineering courses tend to be more introductory and also focused on the
tools they need to do the job; computers in particular. Once they understand the basics, their engineering curriculum will concentrate on their area of
specialization. For example, if the student’s focus on electronics engineering, he will take a lot of solid state physics and semiconductor device classes, in
addition to classes on circuit theory and logic circuits.

General Studies Courses – Most four-year universities in the United States and Japan want to ensure that their graduates are well-rounded and conversant
in areas apart from their specialization. As a result, their engineering curriculum will include diverse classes like English composition, Japanese
literature, economics, anthropology, music appreciation and political science. I will revise these subjects and compile them into General Subject in the
first year and Engineering Management in the final year.

12. Corruption has undermined integrity in professional practice in the engineering industry. The professional engineer who steadfastly embraces
the IEM Regulations on Professional Conduct is left in a dilemma. His option is that he could just ignore it or turn whistle blower. Explain how
you would handle this problem.

He shall not under any circumstances solicit advisory or consultative work, either directly or by an agent, nor shall he pay, by commission or otherwise,
any person who may introduce clients to him.

13. Assuming that you are the principal partner of a reputable engineering-based firm in a small state in the country. Your family is very well
reputed, respected and influential, having lived and worked in the state for decades.

Leaders of a certain political party approach you seeking your assistance to campaign for them in a forthcoming state by-election. Amongst
others, they have promised upon winning the said elections, to award your company with all the major projects to be awarded by the state
government. It is desirable for your firm to secure new projects. Discuss critically on your actions going forward, taking account of the IEM
Regulations on Professional Conduct.

Engineers shall perform services only in the areas of their competence.

Engineers shall undertake assignments only when qualified by education or experience in the specific technical fields involved.
Engineers shall not affix their signatures to any plans or documents dealing with subject matter in which they lack competence, nor to any plan or
document not prepared under their direction and control.

Engineers shall not offer, give, solicit, or receive, either directly or indirectly, any contribution to influence the award of a contract by public authority, or
which may be reasonably construed by the public as having the
effect or intent of influencing the awarding of a contract. They shall not offer any gift or other valuable consideration in order to secure work. They shall
not pay a commission, percentage, or brokerage fee in order to secure work, except to a bona fide employee or bona fide established commercial or
marketing agencies retained by them

Introduction

Engineer, when called upon to give opinion, shall give opinion that is reliable. Prior to any statement made, he shall ensure his qualification to make such
statement. No one shall benefit from his statement with prospect and fair treatment deserved by others being scarified.

For the scenario, which I were principal partner of a reputable engineering-based firm and my family was well reputed, respected and influential in the
small state, I believe the respect and credits to our family are due to genuine and honest contribution from all family members since decades. As an
engineer, I presume the respect earned from genuine efforts and contribution to public services, design, buildings of public amenities to the small state.

Hence, I shall continue to take the interest and benefit of community as the priority. In the same time, I shall not scarify the dignity of the engineering
profession and company.

In other words, I will reject the invitation of errant leaders of political parties to assist them in campaigning in the coming state by-election in order to
secure major projects after election.

Uphold the dignity of profession

The dignity of the profession of engineer shall be upholded. We shall not campaign for the any political party with the name of well-known engineer and
his reputable firm. Engineers are to provide professional services and accept remuneration for services rendered by them.

All engineers shall not exchange the dignity of the profession for his own benefits but harming the image of the profession.

Maintain company image and interest of fellow partners

For the scenario, which I were the principal partner of reputable engineering-based firm, I have duty and responsibility to safeguard interest of fellow
partners and all staffs too. Though the firm desires to secure new projects, the project shall be obtained via ethical appropriate channel such as via open
bidding process. This should be the successful secret of the firm to-date.

All fellow partners also have high standard of ethical behavior and competent. They are definitely not supporting to secure new project via supporting
errant leaders of political party. If I choose to support the errant political leaders, the company image and interest of fellow partners could be jeopardized
because voters definitely reject errant political leaders and unethical approaches.

Do not jeopardize the prospect of other fellow engineers

All projects, especially government initiated for the benefits of nation and people, shall only awarded via competitive and open bidding process. For the
scenario, which I were already principal partner of a reputable engineering firm, I presume I should already an elder engineer in the industry. Therefore, it
is reasonably that both my firm and I do not jeopardize fair opportunity to other fellow engineers.

All engineer with appropriate competency and skills shall be given chances to secure the projects. In the long run, all engineers will become more
competent and it is definitely good for the industry, profession and public.

Contribute to sustainable development of the profession

All benefits obtained via inappropriate and unethical approaches are short term and not sustainable. Both inappropriate and unethical approaches, may in
short period, make oneself gain. However, it is damaging both the individual and others in the industry because there could be many to follow unethical
approaches. If this situation happens, the profession will become unattractive and not sustainable.

Be integrity and competent

Engineers’ works often involve millions of ringgits. The works are often related to benefits of public, nation and clients. Hence, we shall be integrity and
transparent in both implementation of project and efforts to secure projects. With integrity, only public will perceive engineers are competent and not
errant.

Accept remuneration from employer for services rendered

Engineers accept remuneration for professional services, for their competency and professional services, rendered to clients. They only take responsibility
that they are confident to discharge.

The errant leaders of political party, though make promise to award major projects upon winning the by-election, are not client to engineers. The
administrator of the major projects is government, which are elected representatives by people. The clients are the government and people.

Should my firm was chosen for the major projects, it is remuneration for services rendered.

Make reliable public statement and relevant with qualification

Engineers are professional people with technical qualification and competency. He shall not make public statement which he is not deemed the qualified
and suitable person to make. He shall not wrongfully make statement that resulted public perception that his fellows, company and all association
memberships that he may have linked to backup and support of his statement. If he does otherwise, no one indeed will benefit but creation of bad image to
his own and others.

Do not improperly solicit work

By assisting the errant leaders of political party and in return for award of major project, in my opinion, is improper act to solicit works too. It is because
there is no ethical method to secure jobs and it can be considered benefits accepted other than employers.
Both the government and the people indeed, are the employers and clients, if the projects awarded to engineers.
Conclusion

Though it is desirable for a firm to secure projects, the process shall be transparent and via competitive bidding process. Jobs awarded with hidden secrets
and unethical method will not be sustainable for the firm. It is because the firm could have lost his competency. Furthermore, as an elder reputable
engineer, he has greater responsibility to show good sample to his peers for advancement of the profession.

In other words, I will reject the request of the errant leaders of political party. If he is willing to listen, I will further advise them to listen to people and
sincerely to provide services to people. With that, only will they gain victory in the by-election and supports from people.

Introduction
Engineer, when called upon to give opinion, shall give opinion that is reliable. Prior to any statement made, he shall ensure his qualification to make such
statement. No one shall benefit from his statement with prospect and fair treatment deserved by others being scarified.
For the scenario, which I were principal partner of a reputable engineering-based firm and my family was well reputed, respected and influential in the
small state, I believe the respect and credits to our family are due to genuine and honest contribution from all family members since decades. As an
engineer, I presume the respect earned from genuine efforts and contribution to public services, design, buildings of public amenities to the small state.
Hence, I shall continue to take the interest and benefit of community as the priority. In the same time, I shall not scarify the dignity of the engineering
profession and company.
In other words, I will reject the invitation of errant leaders of political parties to assist them in campaigning in the coming state by-election in order to
secure major projects after election.

Uphold the dignity of profession


The dignity of the profession of engineer shall be upholded. We shall not campaign for the any political party with the name of well-known engineer and
his reputable firm. Engineers are to provide professional services and accept remuneration for services rendered by them.
All engineers shall not exchange the dignity of the profession for his own benefits but harming the image of the profession.

Maintain company image and interest of fellow partners


For the scenario, which I were the principal partner of reputable engineering-based firm, I have duty and responsibility to safeguard interest of fellow
partners and all staffs too. Though the firm desires to secure new projects, the project shall be obtained via ethical appropriate channel such as via open
bidding process. This should be the successful secret of the firm to-date.
All fellow partners also have high standard of ethical behavior and competent. They are definitely not supporting to secure new project via supporting
errant leaders of political party. If I choose to support the errant political leaders, the company image and interest of fellow partners could be jeopardized
because voters definitely reject errant political leaders and unethical approaches.

Do not jeopardize the prospect of other fellow engineers


All projects, especially government initiated for the benefits of nation and people, shall only awarded via competitive and open bidding process. For the
scenario, which I were already principal partner of a reputable engineering firm, I presume I should already an elder engineer in the industry. Therefore, it
is reasonably that both my firm and I do not jeopardize fair opportunity to other fellow engineers.
All engineer with appropriate competency and skills shall be given chances to secure the projects. In the long run, all engineers will become more
competent and it is definitely good for the industry, profession and public.

Contribute to sustainable development of the profession


All benefits obtained via inappropriate and unethical approaches are short term and not sustainable. Both inappropriate and unethical approaches, may in
short period, make oneself gain. However, it is damaging both the individual and others in the industry because there could be many to follow unethical
approaches. If this situation happens, the profession will become unattractive and not sustainable.

Be integrity and competent


Engineers’ works often involve millions of ringgits. The works are often related to benefits of public, nation and clients. Hence, we shall be integrity and
transparent in both implementation of project and efforts to secure projects. With integrity, only public will perceive engineers are competent and not
errant.

Accept remuneration from employer for services rendered


Engineers accept remuneration for professional services, for their competency and professional services, rendered to clients. They only take responsibility
that they are confident to discharge.
The errant leaders of political party, though make promise to award major projects upon winning the by-election, are not client to engineers. The
administrator of the major projects is government, which are elected representatives by people. The clients are the government and people.
Should my firm was chosen for the major projects, it is remuneration for services rendered.

Make reliable public statement and relevant with qualification


Engineers are professional people with technical qualification and competency. He shall not make public statement which he is not deemed the qualified
and suitable person to make. He shall not wrongfully make statement that resulted public perception that his fellows, company and all association
memberships that he may have linked to backup and support of his statement. If he does otherwise, no one indeed will benefit but creation of bad image to
his own and others.

Do not improperly solicit work


By assisting the errant leaders of political party and in return for award of major project, in my opinion, is improper act to solicit works too. It is because
there is no ethical method to secure jobs and it can be considered benefits accepted other than employers.
Both the government and the people indeed, are the employers and clients, if the projects awarded to engineers.

Conclusion
Though it is desirable for a firm to secure projects, the process shall be transparent and via competitive bidding process. Jobs awarded with hidden secrets
and unethical method will not be sustainable for the firm. It is because the firm could have lost his competency. Furthermore, as an elder reputable
engineer, he has greater responsibility to show good sample to his peers for advancement of the profession.
In other words, I will reject the request of the errant leaders of political party. If he is willing to listen, I will further advise them to listen to people and
sincerely to provide services to people. With that, only will they gain victory in the by-election and supports from people.

Other Question:

To discuss the roles and key challenges in the academic profession to ensure that local university produces competent and responsible engineers.
To identify differences, if any between the local and oversea experiences.

In a book book entitled “Citizen Engineer” by David Douglas, I understand that being an engineer today means being far more than an engineer. We need
to consider not only the design requirements of our projects but the full impact of our work–from an ecological perspective, an intellectual property
perspective, a business perspective, and a sociological perspective.

Therefore in this era, the author integrate “a competent” and “a responsible” engineer to a new nomenclature, i.e. Citizen Engineer. The book also
explains a critical transition of the engineering profession from technical focus to include social responsibilities and business context. This shift has
changed the very nature of engineering as it is practiced today and as it must be taught in engineering degree programs.

The traditional university restricted itself mainly to a close circle of professors and students from the upper strata of society and lived in relative isolation.
It produced the elite of the nation, and society — so to speak — had to adopt to the elite. Research was the privilege of the professors, determined to a
large extent by personal interests and their contacts among each other. Consequenly, this university lost contact with society until it was completely
isolated and did not understand the issues of its surroundings.

Furthermore, in this IT era, where students can access to unlimited amount of information, the role of the institution of higher learning is increasing. As
students always confused by the abundant of information they have in hands, students at all levels need to be challenged to recognize the foundational
importance of practical knowledge in problem solving.

The key challenge that universities are facing is how to promote a culture of continuous improvement and accountability. Students are not really
motivated into inventions any more these days. Most of them seem satisfied with what others have invented. Students are more into computers
communication rather than physically see the lecturers. This therefore will deteriorate their basic important skill which is oral communication.
Universities need to minimize this trend by introducing more society related projects such mentoring secondary school students to develop
microcontrollers etc.
When I was in Japan, I saw many collaboration works being carried out with the industry. Laboratories received a lot of funds to do research. Nippon
Telegraph and Telephone (NTT) developed numbers of commercialized projects with University of Tokyo. This trends need to be further discuss in the
university for a better future.