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SECTION IV

Abbreviations and Symbols

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


1st MC* 1st metacarpal Ant* anterior
A-a alveolar-arterial [gradient] anti-CCP anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide
AA Alcoholics Anonymous, amyloid A Ao* aorta
AAMC Association of American Medical Colleges AOA American Osteopathic Association
Aao* ascending aorta AP action potential, A & P [ribosomal binding sites]
Ab antibody APAF-1 apoptotic protease activating factor 1
AC adenylyl cyclase APC antigen-presenting cell, activated protein C
ACA anterior cerebral artery Apo apolipoprotein
Acetyl-CoA acetyl coenzyme A APP amyloid precursor protein
ACD anemia of chronic disease APRT adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme APSAC anistreplase
ACh acetylcholine aPTT activated partial thromboplastin time
AChE acetylcholinesterase APUD amine precursor uptake decarboxylase
ACL anterior cruciate ligament AR attributable risk, autosomal recessive, aortic regurgitation
ACom anterior communicating [artery] ara-C arabinofuranosyl cytidine (cytarabine)
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone ARB angiotensin receptor blocker
AD* Alzheimer disease ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome
ADA adenosine deaminase, Americans with Disabilities Act Arg arginine
ADH antidiuretic hormone ARPKD autosomal-recessive polycystic kidney disease
ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder AS aortic stenosis
ADP adenosine diphosphate ASA anterior spinal artery
ADPKD autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease ASD atrial septal defect
AFP α-fetoprotein ASO anti–streptolysin O
Ag antigen, silver AST aspartate transaminase
AICA anterior inferior cerebellar artery AT angiotensin, antithrombin
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ATCase aspartate transcarbamoylase
AIHA autoimmune hemolytic anemia ATN acute tubular necrosis
AKT protein kinase B ATP adenosine triphosphate
AL amyloid light [chain] ATPase adenosine triphosphatase
ALA aminolevulinate ATTR transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis
ALL acute lymphoblastic (lymphocytic) leukemia AUB Abnormal uterine bleeding
ALP alkaline phosphatase AV atrioventricular
α1, α2 sympathetic receptors AZT azidothymidine
ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis β1, β2 sympathetic receptors
ALT alanine transaminase BAL British anti-Lewisite [dimercaprol]
AMA American Medical Association, antimitochondrial BCG bacille Calmette-Guérin
antibody BH4 tetrahydrobiopterin
AML acute myelogenous (myeloid) leukemia BIMS Biometric Identity Management System
AMP adenosine monophosphate BM basement membrane
ANA antinuclear antibody BMR basal metabolic rate
ANCA antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody BOOP bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia
ANOVA analysis of variance BP bisphosphate, blood pressure
ANP atrial natriuretic peptide BPG bisphosphoglycerate
ANS autonomic nervous system BPH benign prostatic hyperplasia

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700 SEC TION IV ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


BT bleeding time COL1A2 collagen, type I, alpha 2
BUN blood urea nitrogen COMT catechol-O-methyltransferase
Ca* capillary COOH carboxyl group
Ca2+ calcium ion COP coat protein
CAD coronary artery disease COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
CAF common application form CoQ coenzyme Q
CALLA common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen COX cyclooxygenase
cAMP cyclic adenosine monophosphate Cp plasma concentration
CBG corticosteroid-binding globulin CPAP continuous positive airway pressure
Cbl cobalamin CPK creatine phosphokinase
Cbm* cerebellum CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CBSE Comprehensive Basic Science Examination Cr creatinine
CBSSA Comprehensive Basic Science Self-Assessment CRC colorectal cancer
CBT computer-based test, cognitive behavioral therapy CREST calcinosis, Raynaud phenomenon, esophageal dysfunction,
sclerosis, and telangiectasias [syndrome]
CC* corpus callosum
CRH corticotropin-releasing hormone
CCA* common carotid artery
CRP C-reactive protein
CCK cholecystokinin
CS clinical skills
CCS computer-based case simulation
C-section cesarean section
CD cluster of differentiation
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
CDK cyclin-dependent kinase
CT computed tomography
cDNA complementary deoxyribonucleic acid
CTP cytidine triphosphate
CEA carcinoembryonic antigen
CVA cerebrovascular accident
CETP cholesteryl-ester transfer protein
CVID common variable immunodeficiency
CF cystic fibrosis
CXR chest x-ray
CFTR cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator
Cys cysteine
CFX circumflex [artery]
DA dopamine
CGD chronic granulomatous disease
DAF decay-accelerating factor
cGMP cyclic guanosine monophosphate DAG diacylglycerol
CGN cis-Golgi network dATP deoxyadenosine triphosphate
CH1–CH3 constant regions, heavy chain [antibody] DCIS ductal carcinoma in situ
ChAT choline acetyltransferase DCT distal convoluted tubule
CHD* common hepatic duct ddC dideoxycytidine [zalcitabine]
χ2 chi-squared ddI didanosine
CI confidence interval DES diethylstilbestrol
CIN candidate identification number, carcinoma in situ, DHAP dihydroxyacetone phosphate
cervical intraepithelial neoplasia
DHB dihydrobiopterin
CIS Communication and Interpersonal Skills
DHEA dehydroepiandrosterone
CK clinical knowledge, creatine kinase
DHF dihydrofolic acid
CK-MB creatine kinase, MB fraction
DHS Department of Homeland Security
CL constant region, light chain [antibody]
DHT dihydrotestosterone
CL clearance DI diabetes insipidus
Cl− chloride ion DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation
CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia DIP distal interphalangeal [joint]
CMC carpometacarpal (joint) DKA diabetic ketoacidosis
CML chronic myelogenous (myeloid) leukemia Dlco diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide
CMV cytomegalovirus DM diabetes mellitus
CN cranial nerve DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
CN− cyanide ion DNR do not resuscitate
CNS central nervous system dNTP deoxynucleotide triphosphate
CNV copy number variation DO doctor of osteopathy
CO carbon monoxide, cardiac output DPGN diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis
CO2 carbon dioxide DPM doctor of podiatric medicine
CoA coenzyme A DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4
COL1A1 collagen, type I, alpha 1
DPPC dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

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ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS SEC TION IV 701

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


DS double stranded FADH2 reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide
dsDNA double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid FAP familial adenomatous polyposis
dsRNA double-stranded ribonucleic acid F1,6BP fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
d4T didehydrodeoxythymidine [stavudine] F2,6BP fructose-2,6-bisphosphate
dTMP deoxythymidine monophosphate FBPase fructose bisphosphatase
DTR deep tendon reflex Fc fragment, crystallizable
DTs delirium tremens FcR Fc receptor
dUDP deoxyuridine diphosphate 5f-dUMP 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate
dUMP deoxyuridine monophosphate Fe2+ ferrous ion
DVT deep venous thrombosis Fe3+ ferric ion
E* euthromatin, esophagus Fem* femur
EBV Epstein-Barr virus FENa excreted fraction of filtered sodium
EC ejection click FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 second
ECA* external carotid artery FF filtration fraction
ECF extracellular fluid FFA free fatty acid
ECFMG Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates FGF fibroblast growth factor
ECG electrocardiogram FGFR fibroblast growth factor receptor
ECL enterochromaffin-like [cell] FISH fluorescence in situ hybridization
ECM extracellular matrix FKBP FK506 binding protein
ECT electroconvulsive therapy FLAIR fluid-attenuated inversion recovery
ED50 median effective dose f-met formylmethionine
EDRF endothelium-derived relaxing factor FMG foreign medical graduate
EDTA ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid FMN flavin mononucleotide
EDV end-diastolic volume FN false negative
EEG electroencephalogram FNHTR febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reaction
EF ejection fraction FP, FP* false positive, foot process
EGF epidermal growth factor F1P fructose-1-phosphate
EHEC enterohemorrhagic E coli F6P fructose-6-phosphate
EIEC enteroinvasive E coli FRC functional residual capacity
ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
EM electron micrograph/microscopy FSMB Federation of State Medical Boards
EMB eosin–methylene blue FTA-ABS fluorescent treponemal antibody––absorbed
EPEC eneteropathogenic E coli FTD* frontotemporal dementia
Epi epinephrine 5-FU 5-fluorouracil
EPO erythropoietin FVC forced vital capacity
EPS extrapyramidal system GABA γ-aminobutyric acid
ER endoplasmic reticulum, estrogen receptor GAG glycosaminoglycan
ERAS Electronic Residency Application Service Gal galactose
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography GBM glomerular basement membrane
ERP effective refractory period GC glomerular capillary
eRPF effective renal plasma flow G-CSF granulocyte colony-stimulating factor
ERT estrogen replacement therapy GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
ERV expiratory reserve volume GFAP glial fibrillary acid protein
ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate GFR glomerular filtration rate
ESRD end-stage renal disease GGT γ-glutamyl transpeptidase
ESV end-systolic volume GH growth hormone
ETEC enterotoxigenic E coli GHB γ-hydroxybutyrate
EtOH ethyl alcohol GHRH growth hormone–releasing hormone
EV esophageal vein GI G protein, I polypeptide
F bioavailability GI gastrointestinal
FA fatty acid GIP gastric inhibitory peptide
Fab fragment, antigen-binding GIST gastrointestinal stromal tumor
FAD flavin adenine dinucleotide GLUT glucose transporter
FAD+ oxidized flavin adenine dinucleotide GM granulocyte macrophage

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702 SEC TION IV ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


GM-CSF granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor HL hepatic lipase
GMP guanosine monophosphate HLA human leukocyte antigen
GnRH gonadotropin-releasing hormone HMG-CoA hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A
GP glycoprotein HMP hexose monophosphate
G3P glucose-3-phosphate HMWK high-molecular-weight kininogen
G6P glucose-6-phosphate HNPCC hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer
G6PD glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase hnRNA heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleic acid
GPe globus pallidus externa H2O2 hydrogen peroxide
GPi globus pallidus interna HOCM hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy
GPI glycosyl phosphatidylinositol HPA hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [axis]
GRP gastrin-releasing peptide HPL human placental lactogen
GS G protein, S polypeptide HPO hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian [axis]
GS glycogen synthase HPV human papillomavirus
GSH reduced glutathione HR heart rate
GSSG oxidized glutathione HRE hormone receptor element
GTP guanosine triphosphate HSV herpes simplex virus
GTPase guanosine triphosphatase 5-HT 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)
GU genitourinary HTLV human T-cell leukemia virus
H* heterochromatin HTN hypertension
H+ hydrogen ion HTR hemolytic transfusion reaction
H1, H2 histamine receptors HUS hemolytic-uremic syndrome
H2S hydrogen sulfide HVA homovanillic acid
HAART highly active antiretroviral therapy HZV herpes zoster virus
HAV hepatitis A virus IBD inflammatory bowel disease
HAVAb hepatitis A antibody IBS irritable bowel syndrome
Hb hemoglobin IC inspiratory capacity, immune complex
Hb+ oxidized hemoglobin ICa calcium current [heart]
Hb− ionized hemoglobin If funny current [heart]
HBcAb/HBcAg hepatitis B core antibody/antigen ICA internal carotid artery
HBeAb/HBeAg hepatitis B early antibody/antigen ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule
HBsAb/HBsAg hepatitis B surface antibody/antigen ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator
HbCO2 carbaminohemoglobin ICE Integrated Clinical Encounter
HBV hepatitis B virus ICF intracellular fluid
HCC hepatocellular carcinoma ICP intracranial pressure
hCG human chorionic gonadotropin ID identification
HCO3− bicarbonate ID50 median infective dose
Hct hematocrit IDL intermediate-density lipoprotein
HCTZ hydrochlorothiazide I/E inspiratory/expiratory [ratio]
HCV hepatitis C virus IF immunofluorescence, initiation factor
HDL high-density lipoprotein IFN interferon
HDN hemolytic disease of the newborn Ig immunoglobulin
HDV hepatitis D virus IGF insulin-like growth factor
H&E hematoxylin and eosin IK potassium current [heart]
HEV hepatitis E virus IL interleukin
HF heart failure IM intramuscular
Hfr high-frequency recombination [cell] IMA inferior mesenteric artery
HGPRT hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase IMED International Medical Education Directory
HHb human hemoglobin IMG international medical graduate
HHV human herpesvirus IMP inosine monophosphate
5-HIAA 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid IMV inferior mesenteric vein
HIE hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy INa sodium current [heart]
His histidine INH isoniazid
HIT heparin-induced thrombocytopenia INO internuclear ophthalmoplegia
HIV human immunodeficiency virus INR International Normalized Ratio

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ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS SEC TION IV 703

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


IO inferior oblique [muscle] LOS lipooligosaccharide
IOP intraocular pressure LP lumbar puncture
IP3 inositol triphosphate LPA* left pulmonary artery
IPV inactivated polio vaccine LPL lipoprotein lipase
IR current × resistance [Ohm’s law], inferior rectus [muscle] LPS lipopolysaccharide
IRV inspiratory reserve volume LR lateral rectus [muscle]
ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura LT labile toxin leukotriene
IUD intrauterine device LUL* left upper lobe (of lung)
IUGR intrauterine growth restriction LV left ventricle, left ventricular
IV intravenous Lys lysine
IVC inferior vena cava M1-M5 muscarinic (parasympathetic) ACh receptors
IVDU intravenous drug use MAC membrane attack complex, minimal alveolar concentration
IVIG intravenous immunoglobulin MALT mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
JAK/STAT Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription MAO monoamine oxidase
[pathway] MAOI monoamine oxidase inhibitor
JGA juxtaglomerular apparatus MAP mean arterial pressure, mitogen-activated protein
JVD jugular venous distention MASP mannose-binding lectin–associated serine protease
JVP jugular venous pulse Max* maxillary sinus
K+ potassium ion MBL mannose-binding lectin
KatG catalase-peroxidase produced by M tuberculosis MC midsystolic click
Ke elimination constant MCA middle cerebral artery
Kf filtration constant MCAT Medical College Admissions Test
KG ketoglutarate MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
Km Michaelis-Menten constant MCL medial collateral ligament
KOH potassium hydroxide MCP metacarpophalangeal [joint]
L left, liver MCV mean corpuscular volume
LA left atrial, left atrium MD maintenance dose
LAD left anterior descending coronary artery MDD major depressive disorder
LAF left anterior fascicle Med cond* medial condyle
LAP leukocyte alkaline phosphatase MELAS mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-
Lat cond* lateral condyle syndrome like episodes
Lb* lamellar body MEN multiple endocrine neoplasia
LCA left coronary artery Mg2+ magnesium ion
LCAT lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase MGN medial geniculate nucleus
LCC* left common carotid artery MgSO4 magnesium sulfate
LCFA long-chain fatty acid MGUS monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance
LCL lateral collateral ligament MHC major histocompatibility complex
LCME Liaison Committee on Medical Education MI myocardial infarction
LCMV lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus MIF müllerian inhibiting factor
LCX left circumflex coronary artery MIRL membrane inhibitor of reactive lysis
LD loading dose MLCK myosin light-chain kinase
LD50 median lethal dose MLF medial longitudinal fasciculus
LDH lactate dehydrogenase MMC migrating motor complex
LDL low-density lipoprotein MMR measles, mumps, rubella [vaccine]
LES lower esophageal sphincter 6-MP 6-mercaptopurine
LFA leukocyte function–associated antigen MPGN membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
LFT liver function test MPO myeloperoxidase
LGN lateral geniculate nucleus MPO-ANCA/ perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody
LGV left gastric vein p-ANCA
LH luteinizing hormone MR medial rectus [muscle], mitral regurgitation
LLL* left lower lobe (of lung) MRI magnetic resonance imaging
LLQ left lower quadrant miRNA microribonucleic acid
LM light microscopy, left main coronary artery mRNA messenger ribonucleic acid
LMN lower motor neuron MRSA methicillin-resistant S aureus

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704 SEC TION IV ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


MS mitral stenosis, multiple sclerosis OMT osteopathic manipulative technique
MSH melanocyte-stimulating hormone OPV oral polio vaccine
MSM men who have sex with men OR odds ratio
mtDNA mitochondrial DNA OS opening snap
mtRNA mitochondrial RNA OTC ornithine transcarbamoylase
mTOR mammalian target of rapamycin OVLT organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis
MTP metatarsophalangeal [joint] P-body processing body (cytoplasmic)
MTX methotrexate P-450 cytochrome P-450 family of enzymes
MUA/P Medically Underserved Area and Population PA posteroanterior, pulmonary artery
MVO2 myocardial oxygen consumption PABA para-aminobenzoic acid
MVP mitral valve prolapse Paco2 arterial Pco2
N* nucleus Paco2 alveolar Pco2
Na+ sodium ion PAH para-aminohippuric acid
NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide PAN polyarteritis nodosa
NAD+ oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Pao2 partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood
NADH reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide Pao2 partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar blood
NADP+ oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate PAP Papanicolaou [smear], prostatic acid phosphatase
NADPH reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate PAPPA pregnancy-associated plasma protein A
NBME National Board of Medical Examiners PAS periodic acid–Schiff
NBOME National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners Pat* patella
NBPME National Board of Podiatric Medical Examiners PBP penicillin-binding protein
NE norepinephrine PC plasma colloid osmotic pressure, platelet count, pyruvate
NF neurofibromatosis carboxylase
NFAT nuclear factor of activated T-cell PCA posterior cerebral artery
NH3 ammonia PCC prothrombin complex concentrate
NH4+ ammonium PCL posterior cruciate ligament
NIDDM non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus Pco2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide
NK natural killer [cells] PCom posterior communicating [artery]
NM muscarinic ACh receptor in neuromuscular junction PCOS polycystic ovarian syndrome
NMDA N-methyl-d-aspartate PCP phencyclidine hydrochloride, Pneumocystis jirovecii
pneumonia
NMJ neuromuscular junction
PCR polymerase chain reaction
NMS neuroleptic malignant syndrome
PCT proximal convoluted tubule
NN nicotinic ACh receptor in autonomic ganglia
PCWP pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
NRMP National Residency Matching Program
PD posterior descending [artery]
NNRTI non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
PDA patent ductus arteriosus, posterior descending artery
NO nitric oxide
PDC pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
N2O nitrous oxide
PDE phosphodiesterase
NPH neutral protamine Hagedorn, normal pressure
hydrocephalus PDGF platelet-derived growth factor
NPV negative predictive value PDH pyruvate dehydrogenase
NRI norepinephrine receptor inhibitor PE pulmonary embolism
NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor PECAM platelet–endothelial cell adhesion molecule
NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Peco2 expired air Pco2
NSE neuron-specific enolase PEP phosphoenolpyruvate
NSTEMI non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction PF platelet factor
Nu* nucleolus PFK phosphofructokinase
OAA oxaloacetic acid PFT pulmonary function test
OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder PG phosphoglycerate
OCP oral contraceptive pill Pi plasma interstitial osmotic pressure, inorganic phosphate
OH hydroxy PICA posterior inferior cerebellar artery
OH2 dihydroxy PID pelvic inflammatory disease
1,25-OH D3 calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) Pio2 Po2 in inspired air
25-OH D3 storage form of vitamin D PIP proximal interphalangeal [joint]
3′ OH hydroxyl PIP2 phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

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ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS SEC TION IV 705

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


PIP3 phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-bisphosphate RPGN rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
PKD polycystic kidney disease RPR rapid plasma reagin
PKR interferon-α–induced protein kinase RR relative risk, respiratory rate
PKU phenylketonuria rRNA ribosomal ribonucleic acid
PLP pyridoxal phosphate RS Reed-Sternberg [cells]
PLS Personalized Learning System RSC* right subclavian artery
PML progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy RSV respiratory syncytial virus
PMN polymorphonuclear [leukocyte] RTA renal tubular acidosis
Pnet net filtration pressure RUL* right upper lobe (of lung)
PNET primitive neuroectodermal tumor RUQ right upper quadrant
PNS peripheral nervous system RV residual volume, right ventricle, right ventricular
Po2 partial pressure of oxygen RVH right ventricular hypertrophy
PO4 salt of phosphoric acid [S] substrate concentration
PO43− phosphate SA sinoatrial
Pop* popliteal artery SAA serum amyloid–associated [protein]
Pop a* popliteal artery SAM S-adenosylmethionine
Post* posterior SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome
PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor SC subcutaneous
PPD purified protein derivative SCC squamous cell carcinoma
PPI proton pump inhibitor SCD sudden cardiac death
PPV positive predictive value SCID severe combined immunodeficiency disease
PR3-ANCA/ cytoplasmic antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody SCJ squamocolumnar junction
c-ANCA SCM sternocleidomastoid muscle
PrP prion protein SCN suprachiasmatic nucleus
PRPP phosphoribosylpyrophosphate SD standard deviation
PSA prostate-specific antigen SE standard error of the mean
PSS progressive systemic sclerosis SEP Spoken English Proficiency
PT prothrombin time SER smooth endoplasmic reticulum
PTH parathyroid hormone SERM selective estrogen receptor modulator
PTHrP parathyroid hormone–related protein SGLT sodium-glucose transporter
PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder SHBG sex hormone–binding globulin
PTT partial thromboplastin time SIADH syndrome of inappropriate [secretion of] antidiuretic
PV plasma volume, venous pressure hormone
Pv* pulmonary vein SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
PVC polyvinyl chloride SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
PVR pulmonary vascular resistance SLL small lymphocytic lymphoma
R correlation coefficient, right, R variable [group] SLT Shiga-like toxin
R3 Registration, Ranking, & Results [system] SMA superior mesenteric artery
RA right atrium SMX sulfamethoxazole
RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system SNARE soluble NSF attachment protein receptor
RANK-L receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B ligand SNc substantia nigra pars compacta
RAS reticular activating system SNP single nucleotide polymorphism
RBF renal blood flow SNr substantia nigra pars reticulata
RCA right coronary artery SNRI serotonin and norepinephrine receptor inhibitor
REM rapid eye movement snRNP small nuclear ribonucleoprotein
RER rough endoplasmic reticulum SO superior oblique [muscle]
Rh rhesus antigen SOAP Supplemental Offer and Acceptance Program
RLL* right lower lobe (of lungs) Sp* spleen
RLQ right lower quadrant spp species
RML* right middle lobe (of lung) SR superior rectus [muscle]
RNA ribonucleic acid SS single stranded
RNP ribonucleoprotein ssDNA single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid
ROS reactive oxygen species SSPE subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
RPF renal plasma flow SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

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706 SEC TION IV ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

ABBREVIATION MEANING ABBREVIATION MEANING


ssRNA single-stranded ribonucleic acid TRH thyrotropin-releasing hormone
St* stomach tRNA transfer ribonucleic acid
ST Shiga toxin TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
StAR steroidogenic acute regulatory protein TSI triple sugar iron
STEMI ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction TSS toxic shock syndrome
STI sexually transmitted infection TSST toxic shock syndrome toxin
STN subthalamic nucleus TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
SV splenic vein, stroke volume TTR transthyretin
SVC superior vena cava TV tidal volume
SVT supraventricular tachycardia Tx translation [factor]
T* trachea TXA2 thromboxane A2
t1/2 half-life UDP uridine diphosphate
T3 triiodothyronine UMN upper motor neuron
T4 thyroxine UMP uridine monophosphate
TAPVR total anomalous pulmonary venous return UPD uniparental disomy
TB tuberculosis URI upper respiratory infection
TBG thyroxine-binding globulin USMLE United States Medical Licensing Examination
3TC dideoxythiacytidine [lamivudine] UTI urinary tract infection
TCA tricarboxylic acid [cycle], tricyclic antidepressant UTP uridine triphosphate
Tc cell cytotoxic T cell UV ultraviolet
TCR T-cell receptor V̇1, V̇2 Vasopressin receptors
TDF tenofovir disoproxil fumarate VC vital capacity
TdT terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase Vd volume of distribution
TE tracheoesophageal VD physiologic dead space
TFT thyroid function test V(D)J heavy-chain hypervariable region [antibody]
TG triglyceride VDRL Venereal Disease Research Laboratory
TGA trans-Golgi apparatus VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor
TGF transforming growth factor VH variable region, heavy chain [antibody]
TGN trans-Golgi network VHL von Hippel-Lindau [disease]
Th cell helper T cell VIP vasoactive intestinal peptide
THF tetrahydrofolic acid VIPoma vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting tumor
TI therapeutic index VJ light-chain hypervariable region [antibody]
TIA transient ischemic attack VL ventral lateral [nucleus]; variable region, light chain
Tib* tibia [antibody]
TIBC total iron-binding capacity VLDL very low density lipoprotein
TIPS transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt VMA vanillylmandelic acid
TLC total lung capacity VMAT vesicular monoamine transporter
Tm maximum rate of transport Vmax maximum velocity
TMP trimethoprim VPL ventral posterior nucleus, lateral
TN true negative VPM ventral posterior nucleus, medial
TNF tumor necrosis factor VPN vancomycin, polymyxin, nystatin [media]
TNM tumor, node, metastases [staging] V̇/Q̇ ventilation/perfusion [ratio]
TOP topoisomerase VRE vancomycin-resistant enterococcus
ToRCHeS Toxoplasma gondii, rubella, CMV, HIV, HSV-2, syphilis VSD ventricular septal defect
TP true positive VT tidal volume
tPA tissue plasminogen activator vWF von Willebrand factor
TPO thyroid peroxidase, thrombopoietin VZV varicella-zoster virus
TPP thiamine pyrophosphate VMAT vesicular monoamine transporter
TPR total peripheral resistance XR X-linked recessive
TR tricuspid regurgitation XX/XY normal complement of sex chromosomes for female/male
TRAP tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase ZDV zidovudine [formerly AZT]

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