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Note from the editor

Although the 27 FINAT Test Methods described in this publication have been prepared with the utmost care and
accuracy, it should be noted that the safety, efficiency and performance of these test methods and associated
procedures is the responsibility of the end-user. FINAT cannot be held liable for any loss, damage or injury
resulting from their application. Furthermore, the test methods and associated information do not in themselves
imply any specification of performance relating to the materials under test.

Copyright © 2009 by FINAT, The Hague, The Netherlands.


All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be translated, reproduced,


stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

FINAT
The Hague, February 2009

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 1


2 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009
Preface to the eighth edition

It is a pleasure to introduce our eighth edition of the FINAT Technical


Handbook. The Handbook has, over the years, become one of the Technical
Commi ttee’
smos ti mpor t
antiniti
at i
vesandi snowagl oball
yaccept ednor
mfor
testing and handling self-adhesive laminates and labels.

This edition contains two new test methods (FTM 26 and FTM 27), covering
wash-off labels and the rub-resistance of printed labels. In this edition we have
also made a full review of sections 2-11, the second part of the Handbook.
Some sections have been removed, some have been completely re-written,
others have only been slightly modified. By removing some sections and
shortening others we have tried to keep the Handbook as compact as possible,
still making sure it contains all relevant and important information.

The world is continually becoming more global and more digital. Most FINAT
members access the latest versions of the Handbook and the test methods
through the "members only" web pages, however, we believe there is still a need for printed copies. Maybe not
for too long; let's see!
English is the global language, but we truly believe there is a need for translations into as many languages as
we have the capacity to cover.

I would like to thank all members of the Technical Committee for their excellent work in creating, translating and
proofreading the content. A special thanks to Jacques Lechat, Chairman of the Test Method Sub-Committee,
for organising and leading this project.

I would like to encourage all members to provide input and feedback about the contents of the Handbook.
Together we can make the next edition even more useful!

Håkan Saxén
Chairman FINAT Technical Committee

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 3


4 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009
Contents

Page

Section 1 FINAT Test Methods 6

Section 2 Test Equipment 73


2.1 Standard FINAT Test Roller 73
2.2 Automatic Rolling Device 73
2.3 Sources of Test Equipment 73

2.4 tesa Test tapes and worldwide addresse s 82
Section 3 Recommended joins in self-adhesive laminates for roll labels 86

Section 4 Processing recommendations 87

Section 5 Surfaces requiring caution 89

Section 6 Safety guide for users of self-adhesive label stock products 90

Section 7 Handling and storage of label stock throughout printing and converting 92

Section 8 Qualitative Adhesion testing 94

Section 9 Adhesives 95

Nomenclature for adhesives used in self-adhesive laminates 96

Section 10 Unwind roll chart 97

Section 11 Recommendations regarding static electricity 98

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 5


Section 1 FINAT Test Methods for
Self-adhesive Materials
Page

FTM 1 Peel adhesion (180°) at 300 mm per minute 8


FTM 2 Peel adhesion (90°) at 300 mm per minute 10
FTM 3 Low speed release force 13
FTM 4 High speed release Force 15
FTM 5 Accelerated ageing –Extended storage 17
FTM 6 Resistance to ultra-violet light 18
FTM 7 Silicone Coat Weight by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry 20
FTM 8 Resistance to shear from a standard surface 22
FTM 9 Loop’t
ackmeas
urement 24
FTM 10 Quality of silicone coated substrates for self-adhesive laminates: release force 27
FTM 11 Quality of silicone coated substrates for self-adhesive laminates: subsequent adhesion 29
FTM 12 Adhesive coat weight 32
FTM13 Low temperature adhesion 33
FTM14 Dimensional stability 35
FTM15 Surface tension of plastic films 37
FTM16 Chemical resistance –Spot method 40
FTM17 Chemical resistance –Immersion method 41
FTM18 Dynamic shear 43
FTM19 Recycling compatibility of self-adhesive labels 46
FTM20 Fluorescence and whiteness 51
FTM21 Ink adhesion - basic 54
FTM22 Ink adhesion - advanced 56
FTM23 Die-strike 58
FTM23b Testing for die-strike on clear filmic liners 60
FTM24 Mandrel hold 62
FTM25 Evaluation of the silicone coverage of coated papers by use of a water based stain test 64
FTM 26 Wash-off paper and film labels 68
FTM 27 Ink rub test for UV printed labels ink surface against substrate or ink surface 69

6 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Reference list

Construction Test relevant to Method Description

Face stock Adhesion FTM 1 Peel adhesion (180°) at 300 mm per minute
Face stock Adhesion FTM 2 Peel adhesion (90°) at 300 mm per minute
Laminate Delamination FTM 3 Low speed release force
Laminate Delamination FTM 4 High speed release force (10 - 300 m per
minute)
Laminate Ageing FTM 5 Accelerated ageing –Extended storage
Laminate Ageing FTM 6 Resistance to ultra-violet light
Liner Coating quality FTM 7 Silicone coat weight
Face stock Adhesion FTM 8 Resistance to shear from a standard surface
Face stock Adhesion FTM 9 Loop tack measurement
Liner Delamination FTM 10 Quality of silicone coated substrates for self
adhesive laminates: release force (300 mm
per minute)
Liner Silicone Cure FTM 11 Quality of silicone coated substrates for self
adhesive laminates: subsequent adhesion
Face stock Coating quality FTM 12 Adhesive coat weight
Face stock Adhesion FTM 13 Low temperature adhesion
Face stock Stability FTM 14 Dimensional stability
Face stock Printing FTM 15 Surface tension of plastic films
Face stock Stability FTM 16 Chemical resistance - Spot method
Face stock Stability FTM 17 Chemical resistance - Immersion method
Face stock Adhesion FTM 18 Dynamic shear
Face stock Recycling FTM 19 Recycling compatibility of self-adhesive
labels
Face stock Printing FTM 20 Fluorescence and whiteness
Face stock Printing FTM 21 Ink adhesion (basic)
Face stock Printing FTM 22 Ink adhesion (advanced)
Laminate Delamination FTM 23 Die-strike (a. paper; b. filmic materials)
Face stock Adhesion FTM 24 Mandrel hold
Liner Coating quality FTM 25 Silicone coverage
Face stock Adhesives FTM 26 Wash-off paper and film labels
Laminate Printing FTM 27 I
nkr
ubt
estf
orUVpr
int
edl
abel
s’i
nks
urf
ace
against substrate or ink surface

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 7


FTM1 FINAT Test Method no. 1
Peel adhesion (180°) at 300 mm per minute

Scope This test method is designed to quantify the permanence of adhesion or peel
ability of self-adhesive pressure sensitive materials.

Definition Peel adhesion is defined as the force required to remove pressure sensitive
coated material, which has been applied to a standard test plate under
specified conditions from the plate at a specified angle and speed.

Adhesion is measured 20 minutes and 24 hours after application, the latter


being considered as the ultimate adhesion.

Test Equipment A tensile tester or similar machine, capable of peeling a laminate through an
angle of 180° with a jaw separation rate of 300mm per minute with an accuracy
of ± 2%.

Test plates made of float glass or similar plate glass (Kristallspiegelglas, verre
glace).

A standard FINAT test roller.

Test Pieces These should be strips taken from a representative sample of material. The
strips should be 25 mm wide and have a minimum length of 175 mm in the
machine direction. The cuts should be clean and straight. At least three strips
should be taken from each material sample.

Test Conditions Temperature 23°C ± 2°C, 50 % RH ± 5% RH.


The test sample or test strips should be conditioned for not less than 4 hours
before testing.

Procedure Remove the backing material from each strip and place the adhesive coated
facing material, adhesive side down, on to a clean test plate using light finger
pressure.
Roll twice in each direction with the standard FINAT test roller at a speed of
approximately 10 mm per second to obtain intimate contact between the
adhesive mass and the surface.

After applying the strips to the test plate, leave for a period of 20 minutes
before testing. Repeat the procedure with a second set of strips and leave for a
period of 24 hours before testing.

Fix the test plate and strip in the machine so that the angle of peel is 180°. Set
the machine at 300mm per minute jaw separation rate. Carry out the test taking
at least five readings at 10 mm intervals from the centre section of each test
strip.
Average the five or more readings for each strip.

8 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Results Peel adhesion (180°) is expressed as the average result for the strips tested in
Newton per 25mm width for either 20 minutes or 24 hours application time.

Failure Description Code

CP Clear Panel - no visible stain on panel.


PS Panel Stain - discoloration of test area, but no tacky residue of
adhesive on both the panel and the front material.
CF Cohesive Failure - the adhesive film is split during the test, leaving
residue of adhesive on both the panel and the front material.
AT Adhesive Transfer - the adhesive separates clearly from the front
material, leaving adhesive film on the test panel.
The approximate extent of transfer should be quoted as percentage
PT Paper Tear - the adhesive force exceeds the strength of a paper facing
material. The results quoted should be the maximum reached before
the paper tears.

Notes 1. The test plates must be thoroughly cleaned so that no trace of adhesive,
grease, silicone or moisture is left on the surface. The following solvents
can be used to clean the test plates:
– Diacetone alcohol non-residual, technical grade or better
– Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
– Acetone
– Methanol 95 %
– n-Heptane
– Ethyl Acetate

The cleaning material must be absorbent, e.g. surgical gauze, cotton wool
or tissue. To be suitable, materials must be lint-free during use, absorbent,
contain no additives that are soluble in the solvents listed above, and made
exclusively from virgin materials.

Dispense one of the solvents listed above on to the panel, wiping it to


dryness with fresh absorbent cleaning material. Repeat for a total of three
washes with the solvent. Final wipe shall be with MEK or acetone.

Alternative methods which remove contamination properly can be adopted


e.g. ultrasonic cleaning.

Prior to use, the cleaned plates should be left for 4 hours under standard
test conditions. Care should be taken to handle clean plates by the edge
only.

2. Alternative surfaces to plate glass can be used such as stainless steel or


aluminium or polyester film, but this must be clearly stated alongside the
results.

3. If adhesion values are required when paper tear has occurred, then this
test can be conducted at lower jaw separation rates quoting the latter
against the results.

4. Conversion 1kgf- = 9.81 N

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 9


FTM 2 FINAT Test Method no. 2
Peel adhesion (90°) at 300 mm per minute

Scope This test method differs from FTM 1 in that it can allow the end user to
compare the repositionability of different laminates. Measuring peel adhesion
at 90° normally gives a lower value than at 180° and allows values to be
measured for materials normally giving paper tear.

Definition Peel adhesion is defined as the force required to remove pressure sensitive
coated material, which has been applied to a standard test plate under
specified conditions, from the plate at a specified angle and speed. Adhesion is
measured 20 minutes and 24 hours after application, the latter being
considered as the ultimate adhesion.

Test Equipment A tensile tester or similar machine capable of peeling a laminate through an
angle of 90° with a jaw separation rate of 300 mm per minute and an accuracy
of ± 2%. The apparatus must be equipped in a manner which ensures that the
test plate can move freely in a horizontal position when the pressure sensitive
material is removed in order to maintain an angle of peel of 90°.

Test plates made of float glass or similar plate glass (Kristallspiegelglas, verre
glace).

A standard FINAT test roller.

Test Pieces These should be strips from a representative sample of material. The strips
should be 25 mm wide and have a minimum length of 175 mm in the machine
direction. The cuts should be clean and straight. At least three strips should be
taken from each material sample.

Test Conditions 23°C ± 2°C and 50% RH ± 5% RH


The test sample or test strips should be conditioned for not less than 4 hours
before testing.

Procedure Remove the backing material from each strip and place the adhesive coated
facing material, adhesive side down, on to a clean test plate using light finger
pressure. Roll twice in each direction with the standard FINAT test roller at a
speed of approximately 10 mm per second to obtain intimate contact between
the adhesive mass and the surface.

10 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


After applying the strip to the test plate, leave for a period of 20 minutes before
testing. Repeat the procedure with a second set of strips and leave for a period
of 24 hours before testing.

Fix the test plate and strip into the horizontal support which has been secured
into the bottom jaw of the tensile tester. Set the machine at 300mm per minute
jaw separation rate. Carry out the test taking at least five readings at 10 mm
intervals from the centre section of the test strip. Average the five or more
readings for each strip.

Results Peel adhesion (90°) is expressed as the average result for the strips tested in
Newtons per 25 mm width for either 20 minutes or 24 hours application time.

Failure Description Code


CP Clear Panel - no visible stain on panel.
PS Panel Stain - discoloration of test area, but no tacky residue.
CF Cohesive Failure - the adhesive film is split during the test, leaving
residue of adhesive on both the panel and the front material.
AT Adhesive Transfer - the adhesive separates cleanly from the front
material, leaving adhesive film on the test panel.
The approximate extent of transfer should be quoted as percentage
PT Paper Tear - the adhesive force exceeds the strength of a paper facing
material. The results quoted should be the maximum reached before
the paper tears

Notes 1. The test plates must be thoroughly cleaned so that no trace of adhesive,
grease, silicone or moisture is left on the surface. The following solvents
can be used to clean the test plates:

– Diacetone alcohol non-residual, technical grade or better


–Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
– Acetone
–Methanol 95 %
– n-Heptane
– Ethyl Acetate

The cleaning material must be absorbent, e.g. surgical gauge, cotton wool
or tissue. To be suitable, materials must be lint-free during use, absorbent,
contain no additives that are soluble in the solvents listed above, and made
exclusively from virgin materials.

Dispense one of the solvents listed above on to the panel, wiping it to


dryness with fresh absorbent cleaning material. Repeat for a total of three
washes with the solvent. Final wipe shall be with MEK or acetone.

Alternative methods which remove contamination properly can be adopted,


e.g. ultrasonic cleaning.

Prior to use, the cleaned plates should be left for 4 hours under standard
test conditions. Care should be taken to handle clean plates by the edge
only.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 11


2. Alternative surfaces to plate glass can be used such as stainless steel or
aluminium, but this must be clearly stated alongside the results.

3. If adhesion values are required when paper tear has occurred then this test
can be conducted at lower jaw separation rates quoting the latter against
the results.

4. Conversion 1 kgf = 9.81 N

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

12 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 3 FINAT Test Method no. 3
Low speed release force

Scope This test method allows the end user to determine the force required to
separate the release backing from the pressure sensitive adhesive coated face
material. It may be used in the preliminary evaluation of the conversion aspects
of the laminate, - very low values may create label fly during conversion or
application - high values may produce web break when skeleton stripping die
cut labels or dispensing failure during automatic application.

Definition Low speed release force is defined as the force required to separate a
pressure sensitive adhesive coated material from its backing or protective
sheet (or vice versa) at an angle of 180° and a jaw separation rate of 300mm
per minute.

Test Equipment A tensile tester or similar machine, capable of peeling a laminate through an
angle of 180° with a jaw separation rate of 300 mm per minute with an
accuracy of ± 2%. The equipment should be fitted with a back plate to which
the test strip can be attached in order to maintain an angle of peel of 180°.

Metal or glass pressure plates loaded to give a pressure of 6.86 kPa (70 g/cm2)
on the test piece.

Test Pieces These should be strips taken from a representative sample of material. The
strips should be 50mm wide and have a minimum length of 175mm in the
machine direction. The cuts should be clean and straight. At least three strips
should be taken from each sample.

Test Conditions Place the strips under test between two flat metal or glass plates and keep for
20 hours at 23°C ± 2oC under a pressure of 6.86 kPa (70 g/cm 2) to ensure
good contact between the release material and the adhesive. Up to 20 strips
can be kept between the plates. After storage in this manner, take the strips
from between the plates and keep for not less than 4 hours at the standard test
conditions of
23 ± 2°C and 50 % RH ± 5 % RH.

Procedure Fix each strip to the plate by means of a double sided tape (which should cover
the full test area of the sample), so that the laminate can be peeled apart at an
angle of 180°. The facing material may be peeled from the release substrate,
or vice versa, depending on how the sample is applied to the plate. The
method of peel must be quoted with the results.

Set the machine at 300 mm per minute jaw separation rate, carry out the test
taking five readings at 10 mm intervals from the centre section of the test strip.
Average the five readings for each strip.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 13


Results Low speed release force is expressed as the average result for the strips
tested in centiNewton per 50mm width.

Notes: Conversion 1 kgf = 981cN.

Revised March 1990


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

14 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 4 FINAT Test Method no. 4
High speed release force

Scope This test method allows the label user to assess the separation force of a
laminate at speeds comparable to those typically used to convert and dispense
the material. It therefore gives a far more meaningful assessment of the
conversion characteristics than FTM 3. Very low values may create label fly
during conversion or application. High values may produce web break when
skeleton stripping die cut labels or dispensing failure during automatic
application.

Definition High speed release force is defined as the force required to separate:

(mode 1) a pressure sensitive adhesive coated material from its backing or


protective sheet
(mode 2) the backing from the adhesive coated material, both at an angle of
180° and at jaw separation rates between 10 m and 300 m per minute.
The two modes will mostly give different results.

Test Equipment A machine capable of peeling a laminate through an angle of 180° with a jaw
separation rate range of 10 - 300 m per minute. The machine should preferably
have a facility for recording the release force continuously (see notes).

Test Pieces These should be taken from a representative sample of material. The strips
should be 25 mm wide and have a minimum length of 300mm in the machine
direction. The testing device may require extra length for clamping the material.
The strips must be free from damage (creases, blisters etc.) and cut with clean
edges.

Test Conditions The material under test is placed between two flat metal or glass plates and
kept for 20 hours at 23°C ± 2°C under a pressure of 6.87 kPa (70 g/cm2) to
ensure good contact between the release paper and the adhesive.

Up to 20 strips can be kept between the plates.

After storage in this manner, the strips should be taken from between the glass
plates and kept for not less than 4 hours at the standard test conditions of 23°C
± 2°C and 50% RH ± 5% RH.
Accelerated ageing may be carried out by placing a similar set of strips
between two flat metal or glass plates and keeping for 20 hours in an air
circulating oven at 70°C ± 5°C. The strips should then be removed and
conditioned for at least 4 hours as above. See also FTM 5

Procedure Mode 1: Separating adhesive coated face material from release backing
When the adhesive component is pulled from the backing by a roller
mechanism it may be necessary to prevent the adhesive sticking to the rollers
in the drive mechanism. This may be achieved by a strip of glassine release
base covering the exposed adhesive. The protective strip should be 5-10 mm

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 15


wider and 20-30 mm longer than the adhesive component test piece, to
minimise the risk of misalignment.

The procedure is as follows:


1. Place the test piece in the machine and fix the release backing in the load
cell clamp.
2. Place the protective strip (silicone side) squarely on and parallel to the
adhesive side of the adhesive face component, in such a way that the
protective strip will follow the adhesive component during the release test.
3. Set the machine at the desired test speed.
4. Place the adhesive component with protective strip in the drive roller
mechanism and carry out the test, noting either the individual display
reading or the average reading from the recorder.
If a sample width of 50mm is used, the adhesive coated face paper cannot
be removed in the described way.
Check the manual of the testing device whether release values below 15
cN/25mm are reliable.

Mode 2. Separating release backing from adhesive coated face material


The procedure is as described above except that the position of the laminate
components is reversed and it is not necessary to use a protective strip.

Results High speed release force is expressed as the peak or average result for the
strips tested in centiNewtons (cN) per 25 mm width. This should be quoted
alongside the test speed used and the means of peeling employed:
(mode 1 ) facing material from release backing or
(mode 2) release paper from facing material. The type of result (peak or
average) should be quoted.

Notes 1. Results based on merely peak and/or average release force values may be
misleading, particularly at high separation speeds. It is strongly
recommended that the release test device be used with a high speed trace
recorder.

2. Conversion 1 kgf = 981 cN

Issued October 1988


Revised October 1995
Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

16 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 5 FINAT Test Method no. 5
Accelerated ageing –Extended storage

Scope This test method is suitable for rating laminate constructions according to their
ability to withstand extended storage periods. The final test can be anything
(e.g. adhesion, migration, release) and is combined with other FINAT Test
Methods.

Procedure Place the strips, still covered with their protective backing material in the test
oven under the test conditions without allowing them to come into contact with
each other (i.e. hanging freely). Retain the control set of strips at 23°C ± 2°C
and 50% RH ±  5 % RH.

At the end of the accelerated ageing test period, remove the strips from the
ageing cabinet and allow them to condition according to the appropriate
FINAT test method (FTM 1, 2, 8 or 9). Test the aged strips, together with the
control (non aged) strips.

To evaluate the migration –strike through, the single strip and a control should
also be evaluated for discoloration and strike through of the adhesive, by
removing them from their protective release material, then adhering the
samples to black card and carrying out a visual examination. Alternatively a
spectrophotometer can be used.

Test conditions Ageing tests are typically carried out for a period of 4 weeks, and the tests are
done once a week.
The test should always include a previously tested, known product reference.
This makes it easier to interpret the results.

1. Drying ov en ageing
Typical purpose: testing of adhesive migration
Temperature: + 500C
Samples kept under pressure of approximately 25g/cm 2 (15kg/A4 sheet)

2. Climate chamber testing


Typical purpose: testing of changes in adhesion properties
Temperature: + 350C
Relative humidity: 75% RH
Samples not kept under pressure

Results Resistance to accelerated ageing by submitting test samples to elevated


temperature is expressed as the percentage reduction (any increase being
denoted as such) in each average value, when compared to the control.

The discoloration and strike through should be reported descriptively as nil,


slight, moderate or severe.

All conditions should be carefully reported.

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001
Revised October 2008

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 17


FTM 6 FINAT Test Method no. 6
Resistance to ultra-violet light

Scope This test method offers a means of comparing the weathering characteristics of
self adhesive laminates.

Ultra-violet light is the high energy light which is largely responsible for the
deterioration of adhesive coated materials during weathering.

The resistance of a pressure sensitive material to ultra-violet light is defined as


the reduction in peel adhesion (FTM 1 or 2), shear (FTM 8), loop tack (FTM 9)
and the degree of adhesive discoloration and strike through after exposure to a
defined amount of radiation similar in spectrum to that of solar radiation.

Test Equipment Any apparatus capable of exposing samples to a mercury vapour lamp, xenon
arc or other radiation source with similar spectral characteristics to that of solar
radiation. The temperature reached by the sample should not exceed 50°C.

Test Pieces These should be strips taken from a representative sample of material. The
strips should be 25mm wide and have a minimum length of 175 mm in the
machine direction. The cuts should be clean and straight. A minimum of three
strips are required for each physical property being tested together with a
single strip for evaluation of discoloration and strike through. A duplicate set of
strips is also required to act as control.

Test Conditions The distance of the samples from the radiation source and the time of
exposure should be such that, at this distance/time combination, a standard
Blue Wool Scale No. 4 will fade by Grey Scale step 3 (see Notes). This defines
the total quantity of radiation falling on the sample and is approximately
equivalent to 1 month summer sunlight. Since lamp characteristics change with
time, the distance/time combination should be checked at intervals during the
life of the lamp.

The test may also be conducted under more severe conditions when
appropriate by using Blue Wool Scale No. 5 or No. 6 as the starting point for
the standard, each unit step in the Blue Wool Scale approximately doubling the
exposure level.

Procedure Expose the strips to the lamp for the time and distance defined under "Test
Conditions". The strips should be exposed as a laminate with the facing
material towards the lamp. Retain the control set of strips at 23°C ± 
2 °C and
50% RH ±  5 % RH.

At the end of the test period remove the strips from the apparatus and, after
allowing the specified conditioning period appropriate to each test method, test
the strips, together with the control strips, by the appropriate test method (FTM
1, 2, 8 or 9).

The single strip and a control should also be evaluated for discoloration and
strike through of adhesive by removing them from their protective release
material, then adhering to black card and carrying out a visual examination.

Results Resistance to ultra-violet light is expressed as the percentage reduction (any


increases being denoted as such) in each average value when compared to
the control samples.

18 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


The discoloration and strike-through should be reported descriptively as nil,
slight, moderate or severe.

If conditions other than the standard (Blue Wool Scale 4 - Grey Wool Scale 3)
are used, then this must be stated.

Notes 1. The exposure levels are taken from the International Standard ISO 105:
1978

Textil
es- Testsf orCol ourFas t
nes s’
.Theequi v al
entBr it
ishSt andardis
BS 1006:1978 –‘ ColourFas t
nes sofText i
lesandLeat her’
.

2. The Blue Wool Scales and Grey Scales are obtainable from various
national Standard Organisations including:

British Standards Institution


389 Chiswick High Road,
London W4 4AL, United Kingdom
Tel.: +44-20-89969001
URL: www.bsi-global.com

DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normung e.V.


Beuth Verlag GmbH
Burggrafenstrasse 6
D-10787 Berlin, Germany
Tel.: +49-30-2601-0
Fax: +49-30-26011231
URL : www.din.de

Japanese Standards Association


4-1-24 Akasaka 4
Minatoku, Tokyo 107-8440, Japan
Tel.: +81-3-35838005
URL : www.jsa.or.jp

Institut Belge de Normalisation IBN


Av. de la Brabançonne 29
B-1040 Brussels, Belgium
Tel.: +32-2-7380101
Fax : +32-2-7334264
URL : www.ibn.be

Association Française de Normalisation


11, avenue Francis de Pressensé
F-93571 Saint-Denis La Plaine Cedex, France
Tel.: +33-1-41628000
Fax: +33-1-49179000
URL: www.afnor.fr

Issued 1985
Revised October 1995
Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001
Addresses revised February 2009

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 19


FTM 7 FINAT Test Method no. 7
Silicone Coat Weight by Energy-Dispersive
X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry

Scope This test method provides a rapid and precise determination of the amount of
silicone release coating with minimal sample preparation. The release coating
is present on the release base materials used in the manufacture of pressure
sensitive laminates for self adhesive labels or other release liner applications.
The applicable concentration range is 0 to 4 g/m 2.

Definition Silicone coat weight is expressed as the quantity of cured silicone release
coating on a standard area of release base material. It is expressed in grams
per square metre (g/m 2). Silicone coat weight can be one of the key
parameters in asse ssing the quality of release base performance.

Test Equipment This method is for the laboratory determination and also routine production
measurement of silicone coat weight using the principle of X-ray fluorescence
spectrometry (XRF). A number of benchtop XRF analysers are commercially
available; the most commonly used being the Oxford Instruments Lab-X
3000/3500 series, the Metorex X-MET 800 and the Spectro T200/Titan.
Wherever possible, the instrument should remain switched on to maintain
optimum stability. (supplier addresses and websites ref. section 2.3 test
equipment).

Test Specimens A suitable number of test specimens are taken from the representative area of
the release base sheet of laminate or from the pure siliconied release material
under investigation. With each type of XRF analyser a suitable sample cutter is
generally available. Contamination of the samples especially from any silicone
materials present in the area must be avoided. Sample discs should be cut or
punched onto a dry, clean and flat sheet of tissue paper and should then be
handled on the edge of the sample with tweezers. Samples require no pre
conditioning.

Procedure With most analysers samples are placed into a special sample holder designed
by the manufacturers to handle paper or film substrates, ensuring that a flat
reproducible sample surface is measured by the analyser. The samples are
introduced into the analyser where they are ultimately moved into a special
measurement chamber where irradiation with primary X-rays results in the
emission of resultant secondary fluorescence X- rays characteristic of the
element being analysed, in this case silicon. After a period of time e.g. 30-60
second measurements are complete and the software will provide a read out of
coat weight directly in g/m2 of silicone. (Polydimethylsiloxane). Ref: Results
below.

The exact procedure for the operation of these instruments has to be followed
from t heoper ator’smanual of the appropriate instrument supplier. However
some general points are worth noting. The operator inputs are accomplished
via software control and are activated using an integral keypad or linked
computer system. Software messages and results are shown on the analyser
liquid crystal displays or on the monitor of the computer system.

The XRF technique is a comparative rather than an absolute method of


analysis and therefore a calibration curve must be established before routine
analysis can be performed.
Typically, the calibration procedure involves setting up the instrument for
recording silicon X-ray intensities followed by the measurement of known
standards. The precise procedure is explained by the supplier of each
instrument. However it has to be emphasized that each backing substrate
contributes to a different matrix in XRF.

20 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Therefore, it is necessary to obtain calibration curves not only for a set of
different silicone coat weights but also on each backing substrate separately.
This includes for instance kinds of papers like Glassine and Clay coated
papers from different suppliers as well as filmic substrates, for instance
different types of Polyethylene, Polypropylene and Polyester films. Some other
elements like Calcium, Titanium, Potassium, Aluminium, Chlorine and Argon
interfere with the silicon XRF signal. This error source is in general eliminated
by calibration, but in certain cases special filters are needed to reduce the
analysis window to eliminate irregular influence of interfering elements. For
example for clay coated papers an Aluminium filter may often be required and
then a calibration for each type of base paper using these filters is the only way
to assure precise results.

Not only variations in technique are needed to accommodate different types of


substrate e.g. Glassine paper or Clay coated paper but also a blank sample of
substrate is always needed to correct for silicon present in the uncoated base
paper or film.

Results These are directly provided in grams per square meter silicone.

Care should be taken when converting from elemental silicon to silicone as


release coating. The majority of polymers are based upon polydimethylsiloxane
but some silicones, in particular radiation cured may need a different
conversion factor to allow for different chemistries. If in doubt consult the
silicone supplier.

Several samples should be taken from a representative coated substrate, and


for wide off coater samples the position across the web should be noted since
variations can occur.

In general the greater the count time the greater the precision.

Precision within the range of +/- 0.05 to 0.01 (g/m2) have been reported within
the industry.

Quality Control The use of quality control programs can assist in maintaining statistical control
of this test method. For the purpose of establishing the statistical control status
of the testing process since the last valid calibration, a quality control sample is
to be regularly tested as if it was an unknown production sample.
Results are recorded and analyzed by control charts to ascertain statistical
control status of the total testing process. Any out of control data shall trigger
investigation which may result in instrument recalibration.

Reference: L .Price and L. Morrison, Spectroscopy, Vol. 7, No 6, July/August 1992 pp 32-


38
Coatings Technology Handbook, 2nd ed., edited by D. Satas and A.A.Tracton,
Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, 2001, pp. 97-101

Issued April 2001


Revised October 2005

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 21


FTM 8 FINAT Test Method no. 8
Resistance to shear from a standard surface

Scope This test method measures the ability of an adhesive to withstand static forces
applied in the same plane as the label stock.
It gives an indication of the likely mode of bond failure, i.e. adhesive failure or
cohesion failure.

Definition Resistance to shear from a standard surface is defined as the time required for
a standard area of pressure sensitive coated material to slide from a standard
flat surface in a direction parallel to the surface.

Test Equipment A rack or jig to hold the test plate precisely 2° from the vertical (see diagram
below).

1 kg weight.

A standard FINAT Test roller.


Test plates made of float glass or similar plate glass (Kristallspiegelglas, verre
glace).

Test Pieces These should be strips taken from a representative sample of material. The
strips should be 25 mm wide and have a minimum length of 175 mm in the
machine direction. The cuts should be clean and straight. At least three strips
should be taken from each material sample.

Test Conditions 23°C +2°C and 50 % RH + 5 % RH.


The test sample or test strips should be conditioned for not less than 4 hours
before testing.

Procedure Remove the backing material from


each strip and place the adhesive
coated facing material, adhesive
side down, on to a clean test plate
using light finger pressure, so that
a square of pressure sen sitive
coated material, 25 mm x 25 mm,
is in actual contact with the
surface. Roll twice in each
direction with the standard FINAT
test roller at a speed of
approximately 10 mm per second
to obtain intimate contact between
the adhesive mass and the
surface. Any strips found by
inspection to have air bubbles
trapped between the adhesive
mass and test plate should be
discarded.

Place the test plate into the rack of


jig and attach the 1 kg weight to
the free end of the test strip (not
less than 5 minutes and not more
than 10 minutes after rolling).

Note the time taken for the strips to part from the plate.

22 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Results Resistance to shear from a standard surface is expressed as the average time
taken for the three strips to shear from the test plate.

Failure Description Code:


CP Clear Panel - no visible stain on panel.
PS Panel Stain - discoloration of test area, but no tacky residue.
CF Cohesive Failure - the adhesive film is split during the test, leaving residue
of adhesive on both the panel and the front material.
AT Adhesive Transfer - the adhesive separates cleanly from the front material,
leaving adhesive film on the test panel.
The approximate extent of transfer should be quoted as percentage

Notes 1. The test plates must be thoroughly cleaned so that no trace of adhesive,
grease, silicone or moisture is left on the surface. The following solvents
can be used to clean the test plates:
–Diacetone alcohol non-residual, technical grade or better
–Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
–Acetone
–Methanol 95 %
–n-Heptane
–Ethyl Acetate

The cleaning material must be absorbent, e.g. surgical gauze, cotton wool
or tissue. To be suitable, materials must be lint-free during use, absorbent,
contain no additives that are soluble in the solvents listed above, and made
exclusively from virgin materials.

Dispense one of the solvents listed above on to the panel, wiping it to


dryness with fresh absorbent cleaning material. Repeat for a total of three
washes with the solvent. Final wipe shall be with MEK or acetone.

Alternative methods which remove contamination properly can be adopted,


e.g. ultrasonic cleaning.

Prior to use, the cleaned plates should be left for 4 hours under standard
test conditions. Care should be taken to handle clean plates by the edge
only.

2. Alternative surfaces to plate glass can be used such as stainless steel or


aluminium but this must be clearly stated alongside the results.

3. Alternative weights can be used, but these must be clearly stated


alongside the results.

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 23


FTM 9 FINAT Test Method no. 9

Loop’tack measurement

Scope This test method describes a means of asse ssing probably the most important
and yet the hardest to measure property of pressure sen sitive materials, the
tack. The method described should allow the end user to compare the "initial
grab" or "application tack" of different laminates and can be extremely useful to
those working with automatic labelling equipment where this property is of
particular importance.

Definition The‘ loop’tackval ueofapr es


sur esensit
ivemat er i
alisexpr essed as the force
required to separate, at a specified speed, a loop of material (adhesive
outermost) which has been brought into contact with a specified area of a
standard surface.

Test Equipment A tensile tester or similar machine with reversing facility and a vertical jaw
separation rate of 300mm per minute with an accuracy of ± 2%. It should also
have a capability of measuring direct loads up to at least 20 Newton with an
accuracy of +2%.
A flat plate made of float glass or equivalent plate glass measuring 25 + 0.5
mm x 30 ± 2.0 mm x minimum thickness 3.0 mm. A metal peg is attached at
the centre of one face of the plate. The dimensions of the peg should be such
that the peg can be clamped in the lower jaw of the tensometer.

Test Pieces These should be strips taken from a representative sample of material. The
strips should be 25 mm wide and have a minimum length of 175 mm in the
machine direction. The cuts should be clean and straight. At least five strips
should be taken from each sample.

Test Conditions 2°C and 50% RH ± 


23°C + 5 % RH.

The test sample or test strips should be conditioned for not less than 4 hours
before testing.

24 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Procedure Remove the backing material from each strip immediately prior to the test
being carried out. Hold the two ends of the adhesive coated facing material
strip and from the strip into a loop, adhesive surface outermost, by bringing
the two ends together. Clamp the ends of the loop for a distance of 10 mm
into the top jaw of the ensile tester leaving the loop hanging vertically
downwards. The sides of the jaw should be protected from the adhesive
coating.

Clamp the glass plate in the lower jaw with the longer axis of the plate
positioned at right angles to the long axis of the strip. Start the machine and
bring the loop into contact with the glass plate at a speed of 300 mm per
minute. When full contact over the glass plate has been achieved (25 mm x
25 mm) immediately reverse the direction of the machine and allow
separation to take place at a speed of 300 mm per minute. It is important that
delay in reversing direction is kept to an absolute minimum. Record the
maximum force necessary to completely separate each loop from the glass
plate.

Results ‘Loop’tacki sexpr es sedast heaver agevalue(


ignor
ingt
hei
nitial peak) and
range for the five strips tested in Newton.

If the force exceeds the strength of a paper facing material, the result quoted
should be the maximum reached before the paper tears and this result should
be followed by the postscript PT (paper tear)

If adhesive transfer occurs, this should be indicated by the letters AT, and the
approximate extend of transfer quoted as percentage.

Notes 1. The rigidity of the sample affects the results and must be considered
when comparing different adhesives on different facing materials.
2. The test plates must be thoroughly cleaned so that no trace of adhesive,
grease, silicone or moisture is left on the surface. The following solvents
can be used to clean the test plates:
–Diacetone alcohol non-residual, technical grade or better
–Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
–Acetone
–Methanol 95 %
–n-Heptane
–Ethyl Acetate

The cleaning material must be absorbent, e.g. surgical gauze, cotton wool or
tissue. To be suitable, materials must be lint-free during use, absorbent,
contain no additives that are soluble in the solvents listed above, and made
exclusively from virgin materials.

Dispense one of the solvents listed above on to the panel, wiping it to


dryness with fresh absorbent cleaning material. Repeat for a total of three
washes with the solvent. Final wipe shall be with MEK or acetone.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 25


Alternative methods which remove contamination properly can be adopted,
e.g. ultrasonic cleaning.

Prior to use, the cleaned plates should be left for 4 hours under standard test
conditions. Care should be taken to handle clean plates by the edge only.

3. Conversion 1 kgf- = 9.81 Newton.

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

26 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 10 FlNAT Test Method no. 10
Quality of silicone coated substrates for self-
adhesive laminates: release force

Scope This test method describes a simple method of asse ssing the suitability of a
siliconised (or indeed any other type of release) backing material for pressure
sensitive lamination.

Definition Release force is defined as the force required to separate a pressure sen sitive
adhesive coated material from its backing or protective sheet (or vice versa)
under specified conditions and at a specified angle and speed.

Test Equipment A tensile tester or similar machine, capable of peeling a laminate through an
angle of 180° at a jaw separation rate of 300 mm per minute and with an
accuracy of + 2%.
A circulating hot air oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 70+2°C.
A standard FINAT test roller.
Metal or glass pressure plates loaded to give a pressure of 6.86 kPa (70 g/cm2)
on the test pieces.
A standard pressure-sen sitive adhesive tape, 25 mm wide e.g. tesa 7475
(acrylic) or tesa 7476 (rubber), or a standard pressure sensitive adhesive
coated facing paper (see Notes).

Test Pieces The silicone coated substrate may be tested either against the standard tape
or against a standard pressure sen sitive adhesive coated facing paper, the
adhesive chosen being that which will simulate the end application for which
the release paper is intended.
Take a representative sample of the silicone coated substrate of minimum
dimensions 450 mm x 250 mm. Apply to this, using light finger pressure, the
adhesive tape in strips along the machine direction. Alternatively apply a
suitable sized sheet of pressure sen sitive adhesive coated facing paper to the
sample.
Cut test strips 25 mm wide and 175 mm in the machine direction. The cuts
should be clean and straight. Roll the strips twice in each direction with the
standard FINAT test roller at a speed of approximately 10 mm per second. At
least six strips should be prepared from each sample if subsequent adhesion
tests are to be carried out. In the case of samples showing very low release
force, the width (and hence the width of tape) may be 50mm in order to obtain
a meaningful measurement. However, release force should still be expressed
as release force per 25 mm width.

Test Conditions Place the strips under test between two flat metal or glass plates and keep for
20 hours at 23°C + 2 °C under a pressure of 6.86 kPa (70 g/cm2) to ensure
good contact between the silicone coated substrate and the adhesive.
After storage in this manner take the strips from between the plates and keep
for not less than 4 hours at the standard test conditions of 23°C + 
2 °C, 50 %
RH + 5% RH.
Accelerated ageing may be carried out by placing a similar set of strips
between two flat metal or glass plates and keeping it for 20 hours in an air
circulating oven at 70°C + 5°C. The strips should then be removed and
conditioned for at least 4 hours as above.

Procedure Fix each strip in the machine so that the tape or facing material can be stripped
away from the silicone coated substrate at an angle of peel of 180°. Set the
machine to operate at 300 mm per minute jaw separation rate. Carry out the
test taking at least five readings at 10 mm intervals from the centre section of
the test trip. Average the five or more readings for each strip.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 27


Results Release force is expressed as the average result for the strips tested in
Newton per 25 mm width either under standard conditions or under
accelerated ageing conditions.

Notes 1. The strips should be retained for subsequent adhesion testing.


2. See FTM 11 for interpretation of results.
3. The adhesive tape or adhesive coated facing paper used should be as
stable to changes in temperature as possible and of steady and
reproducible adhesion value.
4. Conversion 1 kgf- = 9.81 Newton.

See also notes for FTM 11.

Issued October, 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001
Revised October 2008

28 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 11 FINAT Test Method no. 11
Quality of silicone coated substrates for self-
adhesive laminates: subsequent adhesion

Scope This test method describes a technique whereby the effect of the release
surface on the adhesive properties can be assessed. It is of particular interest
both to manufacturers of release paper and also to pressure sen sitive laminate
manufacturers in determining the key and degree of cure of the release
system.

Definition Subsequent adhesion is defined as the force required, at a specified angle and
speed, to remove a pressure sensitive adhesive coated material from a
standard test plate after it has previously been in contact with a silicone coated
substrate under specified conditions.
Percentage subsequent adhesion is expressed as the percentage ratio of this
result compared with the adhesion of similar material which has not been in
contact with the silicone coated substrate.

Test Equipment A tensile tester or similar machine, capable of peeling a laminate through an
angle of 180° with a jaw separation rate of 300mm per minute with an accuracy
of +2%.
Test plates made of float glass or equivalent plate glass (Kri stallspiegelglas,
verre glace).
A standard FINAT test roller.
The test samples from FTM 10.
A standard pressure sensitive tape, 25 mm wide, or a standard pressure
sensitive adhesive coated facing paper (see Notes to FTM 10 and FTM 11).

Test Pieces These are the 175 mm x 25 mm tape or pressure sensitive adhesive coated
facing
paper strips which were peeled from the silicone coated substrate in FTM 10,
plus a control set of at least three strips from the standard tape or pressure
sensitive adhesive coated facing paper which have not been in contact with the
silicone coated substrate under test.

Test Conditions 23°C +2°C and 50 % RH + 5% RH.


The test strips should be conditioned for not less than 4 hours before testing.

Procedure Apply the test strips of adhesive coated tape or facing paper from FTM 10,
adhesive side down, on to a clean test plate using light finger pressure. Roll
twice in each direction with the standard FINAT test roller at a speed of
approximately 10 mm per second to obtain intimate contact between the
adhesive mass and the surface. After applying the strip to the test plate leave
for a period of 20 minutes before testing. Prepare a second set of strips and
leave for a period of 24 hours before testing.

Fix the test plate and sample in the machine so that the angle of peel is 180°.
Set the machine at 300 mm per minute jaw separation rate. Carry out the test
taking at least five readings at 10mm intervals from the centre section of each
test strip.
Average the five or more readings for each strip.

This procedure should then be repeated for the control set of tape or adhesive
coated facing paper strips which have not been in contact with the silicone
coated substrate in order to determine percentage subsequent adhesion.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 29


Results Subsequent adhesion is expressed as the average result for the strips tested
in Newtons per 25 mm width for either 20 minutes or 24 hours application
time.
Force required to remove test tape
Subsequent adhesion % = 100 X
Force required to remove control tape
If the adhesive force exceeds the strength of a paper facing material the
result quoted should be the maximum reached before the paper tears and
this result should be followed by the postscript PT. If adhesive transfer
occurs, this should be indicated by the letters AT.

Notes 1. Low values of release force (FTM 10) in conjunction with high subsequent
adhesion (FTM 11) usually indicate that the silicone coating has been
properly applied and cured.

2. High values of release force (FTM 10) usually indicate that the silicone
coating is inadequate or uneven (unless the product is designed to give high
release) or that the adhesive has reacted with an improperly cured film.

3. Low values of release force (FTM 10) with low percentage subsequent
adhesion values indicate silicone migration. However, the subsequent
adhesive strength of an adhesive after contact with silicone coated paper is
very much dependent on the surface texture of the substrate to which the
release coating has been applied. In general, the smoother the surface of the
substrate, the higher will be the percentage subsequent adhesion value
obtained. Values of 70-80% are not unusual.

4. Care should be taken in the interpretation of the results obtained from the
accelerated ageing release test carried out at elevated temperature as the
rheological properties of adhesives are temperature dependent. Excessive
flow of adhesive at high temperature can give high release values,
particularly with pinholed or imperfect silicone coatings.

5. The test plates must be thoroughly cleaned so that no trace of adhesive,


grease, silicone or moisture is left on the surface. The following solvents can
be used to clean the test plates:
–Diacetone alcohol non-residual, technical grade or better
–Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
–Acetone
–Methanol 95 %
–n-Heptane
–Ethyl Acetate

The cleaning material must be absorbent, e.g. surgical gauze, cotton wool or
tissue. To be suitable, materials must be lint-free during use, absorbent,
contain no additives that are soluble in the solvents listed above, and made
exclusively from virgin materials.
Dispense one of the solvents listed above on to the panel, wiping it to
dryness with fresh absorbent cleaning material. Repeat for a total of three
washes with the solvent. Final wipe shall be with MEK or acetone.
Alternative methods which remove contamination properly can be adopted,
e.g.ultrasonic cleaning.

30 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Prior to use, the cleaned plates should be left for 4 hours under standard test
conditions. Care should be taken to handle clean plates by the edge only.

6. Alternative surfaces to plate glass can be used such as stainless steel or


aluminium but this must be clearly stated alongside the results.

7. If adhesion values are required when paper tear has occurred, then this test
can be conducted at lower jaw separation rates quoting the latter against the
results.

8. Conversion 1 kgf- = 9.81 Newton.

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 31


FTM 12 FINAT Test Method no. 12
Adhesive coat weight

Scope This test may be used to determine with reasonable accuracy the amount of
dry adhesive material applied to the surface of a pressure sensitive label
construction.

Definition Adhesive coat weight is expressed as the weight of dry adhesive on a standard
area of material - in grams per square meter (g/m 2).

Test Equipment 1. A press or template enabling samples to be cut 100 cm 2 in area to a high
degree of accuracy.
2. A circulated hot air oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 105°C
+2°C.
3. A balance capable of recording sample weights to an accuracy of at least
+
0 .001 g.
4. A beaker of solvent - suitably chosen to enable the adhesive film to be
softened prior to removal.

Recommendations:
a) for an acrylic adhesive - aliphatic solvent (e.g. SBP 2) + trace of aromatic
solvent (e.g. toluene);
b) for a rubber/resin adhesive - aliphatic solvent.

Test Specimens Samples of 100 cm2 cut from representative positions in the web.

Test Procedure 1. The specimen is placed in an oven at 105° for five minutes.
2. It is removed and any release liner is detached.
3. Exactly one minute after removal from the oven, the weight of the
specimen is recorded to at least 3 decimal places.
4. Soak the specimen in the beaker of solvent to soften the adhesive -
approximately one minute.
5. Remove from the beaker and carefully scrape the adhesive off completely,
rinsing in clean solvent to remove any residue.
6. When all adhesive has been removed, return specimen to oven for further
five minutes.
7. Exactly one minute after removal from the oven reweigh and record new
weight of specimen.

Results Subtract the final weight from the initial weight and multiply this figure by 100 to
express the final result in g/m 2. Carry out the test taking five specimens per
sample and record the average coat weight obtained.

Note Particular care should be taken when testing laminates manufactured from
specialty papers or synthetic films (particularly vinyls) since the solvent used to
remove the adhesive may also dissolve components of the face material
resulting in significant errors.

Issued October, 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

32 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 13 FINAT Test Method no. 13
Low temperature adhesion

Scope This test method allows a subjective asse ssment to be made of the ability of a
pressure sensitive material to adhere under low temperature conditions.

Definition Low temperature adhesion is defined as the ability of a pressure sensitive


coated material to adhere at temperatures below 5°C. This test method allows
a subjective asse ssment to be made of the ability of a pressure sensitive
material to adhere under chill (4°C) and deep freeze (-25°C) conditions. Other
test conditions are possible (see note 1) and if used should be reported with
the results.

Test Equipment A cabinet capable of maintaining a temperature of 4°C + 1°C.


A chest freezer capable of maintaining a temperature of -25°C + 
1 °C.
Both should be large enough to allow examination of the test specimens
without removal.
A standard FINAT test roller.

Test Pieces These should be cut from a representative sample of material. The test piece
should be 25 mm x 15 mm cut with the machine direction parallel to the short
edge.

Test Surfaces Polyester


Glass
Stainless steel
Aluminum foil
Low Density Polyethylene (PE - LD)
High Density Polyethylene (PE - HD)
Oriented Polypropylene (OPP)
Where laminates or adhesives are being designed for specific applications the
test surfaces should be chosen to represent the final end use. Other test
surfaces may be used and should be reported with the results (see note 2).

Procedure Place the test surfaces in the cabinet set at 4°C and the chest freezer set at
-25°C twenty four hours before the start of the test. The surfaces should be
dry before they are placed into the test cabinets and any filmic materials should
be placed in contact with glass plates to ensure an even temperature
distribution. The test surfaces should remain in the test cabinets at all times
during the test.
Holding the test pieces by the edge, remove the backing material. Place the
test piece, adhesive side down, on the test surface - do not press down as this
can lead to local heating - then roll once in each direction with the standard
FINAT test roller, that has been conditioned for at least 4 hours to the test
conditions, at a speed of approximately 10 mm/sec to obtain intimate contact
between the adhesive mass and the surface. At least three test pieces from
each laminate under test should be applied to each test surface.

The labelled test surfaces should then be stored in the test cabinets for the
prescribed period. The recommended periods are 1 hour and seven days
though other time periods are possible (see note 3). The time period used
should be reported with the results.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 33


After the test period, remove the test pieces from the test surfaces with the test
surfaces remaining in the test cabinet and asse ss the adhesion. Removal of
the test piece should start at one corner. If the label starts to tear removal
should be attempted from the opposite corner and continued even if the label
tears again.
Rate the adhesion in the following manner:

Rating Description
0 Label detached from the test surface.
1 Poor bond-no label tear.
2 Moderate bond - no label tear.
3 Good bond - no label tear.
4 Very good bond - up to 50% of label surface left on test plate after removal.
5 Excellent bond greater than 50% of label surface left on test plate after
removal
.
Results For each surface average the score of the test pieces. To obtain the overall
score of the laminate average the score per surface by the number of surfaces.
For adhesives designed for specific surfaces the results on those surfaces
should be quoted as well as the average (see notes 4 and 5).

Notes 1. The test conditions listed in the method are only two of many possibilities.
Other conditions that can be used are:
* apply the labels at -40°C, test at -40°C;
* apply the labels at ambient, test at 4°C, -25°C, -40°C; apply the labels
at ambient to moist test surfaces, test at 4°C, -25°C, -40°C; apply the
labels at -25°C,-40°C to icy surfaces, test at -25°C, -40°C. In all cases
the test conditions chosen should reflect as closely as possible the final
end use of the material. The chosen test conditions should be recorded
with the results.

2. The test surfaces listed in the method are recommended surfaces only.
Each is subject to the variations normal for commercial suppliers and the
test s
urfacesus eds houl dber epresentativeofthatsuppl ier
’spr oduct.

3. The test periods indicated in the method are recommended periods only.
Other time periods such as 24 hours or 1 month can be used if required.
In all cases the chosen time period should reflect the final application and
be recorded with the results.

4. The label substrate has considerable effect on the adhesion performance


as described by this test method. As such this method should be
regarded as measuring the low temperature adhesion of the label
construction rather than the adhesive in isolation.

5. The maximum rating possible for a removable construction is 3.

6. Label constructions using plastic films such as PVC which may embrittle
at low temperatures can give high readings on this test but be unsuitable
for the final end use.

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

34 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 14 FINAT Test Method no. 14
Dimensional stability

Scope This test method allows the user to assess the dimensional stability of a
pressure sensitive material when subjected to specified test conditions. It is
particularly relevant to synthetic film based materials such as Polyvinyl chloride
(PVC), Polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polyester etc.

Definition This property is defined as the dimensional change of a pressure sensitive


material which has been applied to a standard test plate under specified
conditions when subjected to elevated temperatures.

Test Equipment An air circulating oven maintained at 70°C ± 2°C.


Test plates made of smooth aluminium or aluminium alloy 150 mm x 100 mm x
0.6 mm gauge.
A rubber covered roller of sufficient width and a mass of 1 kg per 25 mm width.
A scaled magnifying glass.

Test Condition The material to be tested should be conditioned at 23°C ± 2°C and 50% RH ±
5% RH for not less than 4 hours before application.

Test Pieces These should be cut from a representative sample of material min. 165 mm x
115 mm with the 165 mm edge running parallel to the length-wise edge of the
test material.

Procedure Remove the backing material and place the adhesive coated facing material
adhesive side down onto a clean test plate using light finger pressure and
without stretching the material. Roll twice in each direction with the rubber-
covered roller at a speed of approximately 10-mm per second to obtain
intimate contact between the adhesive and the aluminium plate surface. Then
condition the applied material for 72 hours at 23°C ± 2°C and 50% RH ± 5%
RH. After this conditioning procedure the applied material should be trimmed to
the dimension of the test plate. Cut with a sharp knife, parallel to the sides of
the test plate, a crosscut in the middle of the test sample.
Insert the test plate into the oven at 70°C ± 2°C for 1 week after which it is
removed and conditioned at 23°C ± 2°C for 10 - 15 minutes to cool. Measure
the shrinkage in the crosscut to the nearest 0.05 mm in both the length-wise
direction and cross to the length-wise direction of the label.

Results The dimensional stability (shrinkage) is expressed in mm, as the change in


dimensions at the cross cut, in both the length-wise direction and cross to the
length-wise direction of the label.

Optional Forr emov ableapplication(adver t


isingoncoaches ’etc.)thetype of adhesive
failure can be observed by peeling the label from the aluminium panel by hand
at an angle of approx. 135°.

Failure description code:


CP Clean Panel - no visible stain on panel.
PS Panel Stain –discoloration of test area, but no tacky residue.
CF Cohesive failure - the adhesive film is split during the test, leaving
residue of adhesive film on both the panel and the front material.
AT Adhesive Transfer - the adhesive separates cleanly from the front
material, leaving the adhesive film on the test panel.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 35


Notes 1. The test conditions given can be varied to suit any particular application,
whereby the conditioning time and/or the exposure time and/or the
substrate (e.g. glass) and/or the temperature of the oven can be
changed. This should be clearly stated alongside the test results.

2. The quality finish and thickness of the aluminium used should be


recorded.

3. Dimensions of the recommended test plate (150 mm x 100 mm x 0.6 mm


gauge) are those of a panel of the QUV Accelerated weathering tester.

4. Dimensional stability quoted as a percentage can be misleading and


should be avoided e.g. 0.2% on 150 mm dimension cannot be related to
a one meter dimension.

Issued April 1991


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001
Revised April 2003
Revised May 2004

36 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 15 FINAT Test Method no. 15
Surface tension of plastic films

Scope This method covers measurement of the surface tension of plastic film surfaces
in contact with drops of specific test fluids. Surface tension (wettability) of
plastic films is one of the properties used to judge surface characteristics
related to printability and adhesion of other coatings/adhesives. Although the
print key or adhesion property is not dependent on the surface tension only,
this method is often used as a quick practical method. It is furthermore
important to note that the determined wettability characterises the immediate
surface condition only, and that this condition can change during storage.

Definition The surface tension is measured by applying to the surface of the plastic film, a
test fluid of known surface tension and recording the time taken for the
continuous film of the fluid to break into droplets. The surface tension is
defined as that level when a continuous film of the test fluid remains intact for 2
seconds.

Test Equipment A range of test fluids.


A stopwatch.

Test Pieces The test specimens must be at least 200 mm x 10 mm taken with their length in
the cross direction of the roll.

Test Condition 23°C + 2°C and 50% RH + 5% RH. The test sample should preferably be
conditioned for not less than four hours before testing, unless an immediate
reading is required.

Test Fluids For polyethylene, polypropylene, polyester and/or similar type of films, test
fluids A, according to Table 1 are prepared by mixing Formamide (surface
tension = 58 mN/m and 2 ethoxyethanol (surface tension 30 mN/m). These
chemical raw materials may not be readily available. In that case FINAT
recommends the use of ready prepared solutions as listed at the end of this
test method.
Approximately 1 gram of a blue dye (e.g. Victoria blue or Methylene blue) is
added to each litre of test fluid.
For plastic films such as polyvinylchloride (PVC) which are affected (e.g.
swelling) by the test fluids of series A, the test fluids B shown in Table 2 are
prepared by mixing methanol (surface tension 23 mN/m) and distilled water, or
water of similar quality (surface tension 73 mN/m). Approximately 1 gram of a
red soluble dye (e.g. Fuchsine) is added to each litre of test fluid.

Procedure Lay the specimen on a smooth flat surface. Spread the test fluid of known
surface tension using a felt tip pen or soft brush lightly over an area of
approximately 200 mm x 10 mm of the test specimen. Note the time taken for
the continuous film of the fluid to break into droplets. Breaking of the fluid into
drops in less than two seconds, a lower numbered test fluid should be tried.
Shrinkage of the liquid film on the sides of the applied fluid does not
necessarily indicate a lack of wetting. The aim is to establish the lowest reading
at an optimal dwell time of two seconds.
Extreme care must be taken to ensure that the film surface is not touched or
contaminated in the areas in which the tests are to be made as this will
influence the test results.

Results The lowest reading (surface tension) at an optimum dwell of two seconds is
deemed equivalent to the surface tension of the test piece, and is recorded in
mN/m (see Notes).

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 37


Notes 1. Ready made test fluids of series A (see Table 1) can be obtained from:

Sherman Treaters (part of Pillar Technologies) (business contact)


475 Industrial Drive
Hartland, WI 53029-0110
USA
Tel.: +1-262-9127200
Fax: +1-262-9127272
E-mail: info@pillartech.com
URL: www.pillartech.com or www.shermantreaters.co.uk

ITW Surface Treatment Service Center Europe and Asia (Service Partner)
Blauenstrasse 67-69
D-79576 Weil am Rhein
Tel.: +49-7621-7905510
Fax: +49-7621-7905511
E-mail: service@itw-st.com
URL: www.pillartech.com

Arcotec GmbH
Postfach 1138
Rotweg 24
D-71297 Mönsheim
Germany
Tel.: +49 –7044 –92120
E-mail: info@arcotec.com
URL: www.arcotec.com

2. The test fluids must be kept in brown glass containers. The test fluids
should be renewed depending on frequency of use, e.g. when used on a
daily basis dispose of remaining fluid after three months.

3. All precautions must be maintained when handling the chemicals used in


the test fluids as they can be injurious to health and can cause skin
irritation.

4. The Sl unit for this property is mN/m and replaces the formerly used
Dyne/cm, conversion factor being one to one.

5. Preparation of solution by volume is best done by measuring separately


and adding together.

6. For more accurate determination of surface tension, contact angle


measuring equipment is used. Such units can be purchased from
Lorentzen & Wettre as a L & W Surface Wettability Tester, Code 28.
However, it must be noted that the results obtained may not necessarily be
comparable.

7. DIN 53 364 and ASTM D2578-67 are standards relating to surface tension
measurement.

8. FINAT FTM 15 is an effective tool for quick and reliable printability


assessment of print substrates in terms of their surface tension.
Experience has shown that print substrates tend to show poor printability if
their surface tension is below 38 mN/m. In this case, test prints should

38 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


be produced. With surface tension levels below 31 mN/m, print substrates
are no longer printable with standard printing inks at all, but will generally
require special inks. The surface tension limit value (38 mN/m) is
correspondingly valid for other upgrading processe s, such as varnishing,
gluing, laminating and hot film embossing.

Table 1 : Test Fluid Series A


Surface tensions of 2-Ethoxyéthanol Formamide
Test Fluids Series A vol. % vol. %
[mN/m]
30 100.0 -
32 89.5 10.5
34 73.5 26.5
36 57.5 42.5
38 46.0 54.0
40 36.5 63.5
42 28.6 71.5
44 22.0 78.0
46 17.0 83.0
48 13.0 87.0
50 9.3 90.7
52 6.3 93.7
54 3.5 96.5
56 1.0 99.0

Table 2. Test Fluid Series B

Surface tensions of Methanol Water


Test Fluids Series B vol. % vol. %
[mN/m]
30 67.0 33.0
32 59.8 40.2
34 53.5 46.5
36 47.9 51.1
38 42.8 57.2
40 38.3 61.7
42 34.2 65.8
44 30.5 69.5
46 27.1 72.9
48 24.0 76.0
50 21.1 78.9
52 18.5 81.5
54 16.0 84.0
56 13.7 86.3

These chemical raw materials may not be readily available. In that case FINAT recommends the use of ready
prepared solutions as listed previously.

Issued April 1991


Revised March 2005

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 39


FTM 16 FlNAT Test Method no. 16
Chemical resistance - Spot method

Definition Chemical resistance here is defined as the ability of the pressure sensitive
coated material to resist colour change when subjected to a chemical
substance placed on its surface for 24 hours or 7 days at 23°C +2°C.

Test Equipment Test plates.

A standard FINAT test roller.

Test chemical.

Procedure Remove the backing material from the test piece and place the adhesive
coated facing material, adhesive side down, onto a clean test plate. Roll twice
in each direction with the standard FINAT test roller.

Place the test specimen horizontally. Cover up to 50% of the exposed surface
area with the test substance ensuring that it does not reach the edge of the
sample, thus avoiding edge attack. Leave undisturbed for 7 days at 23°C +
2°C. It may be necessary to cover the test container to prevent excess
evaporation if a volatile chemical substance is used.

At the end of the test period, wash the test specimen in a detergent solution to
remove all residual chemical substance and dry carefully employing an
abs orbentpaperorcl ot
h.I fthes ur
facer emai ns‘wet’
,i ndicating that the
chemical substance still remains, an inert solvent such as industrial alcohol or
white spirits should be used to remove the test chemical. Dry again carefully
using absorbent paper or cloth.

Immediately asse ss any colour change of the material or permanence of


legend if a printed substrate has been employed, either as a general colour
change or for individual printing ink colours.

Results Colour change is asse ssed against the untreated control either descriptively as
nil, slight, moderate or severe attack, rate 0 to 5 (5 excellent resistance, 0 non
resistant) or by determining colour fastness against the Blue Wool Scale 4 or
Grey Wool Scale 3 standards.

Printing ink permanency can be asse ssed by measuring the key of the printing
ink before and after the chemical test employing standard tesa tapes.

Notes 1. The time of surface contact can be varied to suit any given end
application.
Temperature can also be changed by placing the test piece in an oven
set at the required condition.

2. This test method only allows an assessment of the chemical resistance of


the surfacing material. For total product resistance, the immersion
technique (FTM 17) is employed followed by bond assessment.

3. It is essential that detergents or inert solvents used for cleaning purposes


are such that they have no influence on the perceived colour(s) after the
completion of chemical contact.

Issued October 1995


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

40 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 17 FINAT Test Method no. 17
Chemical resistance - Immersion method

Definition Chemical resistance here is defined as the ability of the pressure sensitive
coated material to maintain its physical and adhesive characteristics after being
completely immersed in a chemical substance for 24 hours at 23°C + 2 °C.

Test Equipment Test plates made of float glass or similar plate glass (see Note).

A standard FINAT test roller.

Test chemical/large beaker.

Metal rule.

Test Pieces For subsequent testing against FTM1, or asse ssing colour change, strips
should be taken from a representative sample of material, which should be
25 mm wide and have a minimum length of 175 mm in the machine direction.
The cuts should be clean and straight. At least two sets of above strips should
be taken from each material sample.

For measurement of dimensional change after chemical immersion, a test


piece of 10 cm x 10 cm is ideally required cut with one edge running parallel to
the lengthwise edge of the product.

Test Conditions 23°C +


2°C and 50 % RH + 5% RH.

The test substance or test strips should be conditioned for not less than four
hours before testing.

Procedure Remove the backing paper from each strip/sample and place the adhesive
coated material, adhesive side down, onto a clean test plate using light finger
pressure.
Roll twice in each direction with the standard FINAT test roller at a speed of
approximately 10 mm per second, to obtain intimate contact between the
adhesive and the test surface. Condition for 24 hours at 23°C + 2°C.

Carry out peel adhesion (180°) at 300 mm per minute (as described in FTM1)
on a set of three strips.

Completely immerse the second set of test samples in the chemical substance
for 24 hours at 23°C +
2 °C (see note 1). It may be necessary to cover the test
container to prevent excess evaporation if a volatile chemical substance is
used.

At the end of the test period, wash the test specimen in a detergent solution to
remove all residual chemical substance and dry carefully employing an
abs orbentpaperorcl ot
h.I fthes ur
facer emai ns‘wet’
,i ndicati
ngt hatt he
chemical substance still remains, an inert solvent such as industrial alcohol or
white spirits should be used to remove the chemical substance. Dry again
carefully using absorbent paper or cloth.

Condition for 1 hour at 23°C + 2°C, then measure peel adhesion (180°) as
before.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 41


Recovery of bond can be additionally asse ssed by repeating the above but
allowing the test samples to condition for 24 hours at 23°C +2°C before re-
measuring peel adhesion (FTM 1). Any colour change on the test samples
should also be noted. For asse ssment of dimensional change, immerse the
‘100mm x100mm’t es tsampl eint hechemi calsubs tancef or24hour sat
23°C +2 °C. Dry as before and remeasure in both directions.

In all of the above tests, asse ss any colour change of the material or
permanence of legend if a printed substrate has been employed, either as a
general colour change or for individual printing ink colours. Any other
deterioration of the test piece, e.g. blisters, should also be noted.

Results 1. Peel Adhesion


An average is taken of the three strips prior to and after immersion.
Determine the percentage loss in peel adhesion (180°) against the non-
immersed sample.
Chemical resistance (bond) can be expressed as follows:

Loss Resistance
0 Excellent
5% Good
50% Moderate
75% Poor
100% Non-resistant

2. Colour Fastness
Colour change is asse ssed against the untreated control either
descriptively as nil, slight, moderate or severe, rated 0 to 5 as above (5
excellent, 0 non resistant) or by determining colour fastness against the
Blue Wool Scale 4 or Grey Wool Scale 3 standard.

3. Dimensional Stability
This is expressed as the increase or reduction in millimetres (denoted +
or -) after immersion of each sample against its original length.

Notes 1. The temperature and time of immersion can be varied and alternative
test substrates other than float plate glass may be used to suit any given
application.

2 This test method allows an assessment of the chemical resistance of the


total laminate. For an asse ssment of the face material only, the Spot
Method (FTM16) should be employed.

3. It is essential that detergents or inert solvents used for cleaning purposes


are such that they have no influence on the perceived colour(s) after the
completion of chemical contact.

Issued October 1995


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

42 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 18 FINAT Test Method no. 18
Dynamic Shear

Scope This method is designed to determine the resistance of an adhesive coated


label stock on a standardised surface, to shear at a constant speed.

Definition Dynamic shear is defined as the maximum force per unit width required to
remove the adhesive coated label stock from a specified area in the direction
parallel to the surface.

Principle A test piece is partly adhered to a test panel under controlled pressure. A
constant speed of deformation is applied to the free end of the test piece in the
length direction of the test piece. The adhesive layer resists this deformation.
This resisting force grows during the increased deformation of the adhesive,
until the adhesive cannot follow the deformation any more and starts to fail.
The maximum force during the test is measured.

Test equipment An electronic tensile tester with capability of jaw separation with an accuracy of
1% or better. The movable grip should be capable of being driven at a rate of
5.0 mm/min.

An accurate cutting device to cut test pieces conforming to the required


dimensions.
Flat stainless steel panels of at least 50 mm x 50 mm, with two scribed lines
over the total width of the panel: one at 12.7 mm and one at 25 mm as
indicated in figure 1.

Rubber covered steel roller as described in FINAT Test Method no. 1;


Automatic rolling device is strongly recommended.

Aluminium foil or polyester coated with a permanent (pressure sensitive)


adhesive to eliminate elongation effects in the front material of the sample. The
overlaminating film to withstand 100 Newton.

Test conditions 23°C + 2°C and 50 % RH + 5 % RH. The samples shall be conditioned for at
least 4 hours before testing.

Sample Preparation Laminate the aluminium foil or the polyester on the front of the sample. Then
cut five test pieces of 12.7 ± 0.1 mm width and at least 50 mm length in the
machine direction.

Procedure Prior to testing, clean five test


panels thoroughly with n-heptane.
Slowly remove the backing from a
test piece.
Gently place the test piece in the
middle of the panel, without
applying pressure. The small
edge of the test piece shall be
placed against the scribed line, at
12.7 mm from the edge of the
panel as shown in the next
picture:

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 43


Cover the adhesive of the free part of the test piece with a strip of material. Do
not use siliconised material, to prevent slip in the grips. Support the free part of
the test piece with an extra panel and roll down the test piece with the roller,
twice in each direction with a speed of 10 mm/s, without applying any
additional pressure. An automatic rolling device is strongly recommended.

Set the tensile tester to the following conditions:


•i
nitialdi s
tanc ebet weent hegr i
ps:40mm
•grips epar ations peed:5mm/ min

After a dwell time of 20 + 2 minutes, the test panel shall be placed in the fixed
grip of the tensile tester. The bottom of the grip shall be in line with the scribed
line at 25 mm. In case of the fixed grip is connected to the load cell: set the
force reading of the tensile tester to zero, to adjust for the weight of the panel.
Move the lower grip to its starting position and tighten the free end of the test
piece firmly to prevent slipping. Start the tensile tester and wait until panel and
construction are completely separated. Record the maximum force during this
test and the mode of failure for each test piece individually. The codes for the
failures modes are listed below.

Failure description code


CP Clear Panel - no visible stain on panel.
PS Panel Stain - discoloration of test area, but no tacky residue.
CF Cohesive Failure - the adhesive film is split during the test, leaving
residue of adhesive on both the panel and the front material.
AT Adhesive Transfer - the adhesive separates cleanly from the front
material, leaving adhesive film on the test panel.
The approximate extent of transfer should be quoted as percentage

Results Calculate and report the mean value as well as the standard deviation of the
maximum forces in Newton per 12.7 mm width (N/12.7 mm). Also report the
failure code in case the same failure mode occurred for all five measurements.
In case different failure modes occurred, calculate and report the mean,
standard deviation and number of measurements for each code individually
(results with failure codes CP and PS can be combined).

Repeatability The variance coefficient for five measurements is about 3-6%.

Remarks The relationship between shear force and test area is curvilinear. The standard
deviation increases with the width of test piece.

Notes 1. The test plates must be thoroughly cleaned so that no trace of adhesive,
grease, silicone or moisture is left on the surface. The following solvents
can be used to clean the test plates:
–Diacetone alcohol non-residual, technical grade or better
–Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
–Acetone
–Methanol 95 %
–n-Heptane
–Ethyl Acetate

44 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


The cleaning material must be absorbent, e.g. surgical gauze, cotton wool
or tissue. To be suitable, materials must be lint-free during use, absorbent,
contain no additives that are soluble in the solvents listed above, and made
exclusively from virgin materials.

Dispense one of the solvents listed above on to the panel, wiping it to


dryness with fresh absorbent cleaning material. Repeat for a total of three
washes with the solvent. Final wipe shall be with MEK or acetone.

Alternative methods which remove contamination properly can be adopted,


e.g. ultrasonic cleaning.

Prior to use, the cleaned plates should be left for 4 hours under standard
test conditions. Care should be taken to handle clean plates by the edge
only.

2. Static (FTM8) and dynamic shear do not correlate.


3. Changes in speed and substrate need to be reported.
4. Panels of float glass can also be used.

Issued October 1995


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 45


FTM 19 FINAT Test Method no. 19
Recycling compatibility of self-adhesive labels

Introduction The method is based on information from various sources which all have been
dealing with this topic. This test should be the basis for further developments in
adhesive technologies in future as well as for testing existing technologies. It
does not simulate all recycling conditions used in the Paper and Board
Industry. As certain paper mills are using waste paper as a raw material up to
80 or even100%, 'stickies' became a serious problem in the papermaking
process. The self adhesive industry has been challenged to help finding
solutions. This test method is a first step in that direction. Further steps will
have to be taken in close cooperation with the paper making industry in order
to find solutions acceptable for both parties.

Scope This test method allows the user to determine how self-adhesive paper labels
will behave in the recycling of waste paper. Waste paper contains many types
of paper labels and these can produce stickies that reduce the quality of waste
paper products, or lead to problems in processing.

Definition Recycling compatible labels are labels whose adhesive does not interfere with
the processing of waste paper. The adhesive must form no stickies and must
not add to the burden in the water circuit of the paper mill (as measured by
Chemical Oxygen Demand).

Test Equipment Standard disintegrator ISO 5263


2 ltr/1330 ml water ± 70 g. paper
Zellcheming ZM V/4/61

Slot fractionator 0.15 mm, e.g.


Haindl Type 9310
Fractionator Zellcheming V/1.4/86
Industriestr. 3a,
D-86438 Kissing
Germany
or
L&W Sommerville Fractionator
AB Lorentzen & Wettre
P.O. Box 4
SE-16493 Kista
Sweden
Tel.: +46-8-4779000
URL: www.lorentzen-wettre.com

Pump, reservoir
Flotation cell DIN 54606/11, Voith 18 litres
or
PTS flotation cell, 2 litres

Laboratory facility for Chem. Oxygen Demand ISO 6060

Suction filter
Paper mould ISO 5269/2 DIN 54358/1
e.g. Rapid-Kothen

Heatable press (e.g. photo print dryer)

46 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Test Material Label paper coated with adhesive

Uncoated paper consists of uncoated wood-free paper with a weight of


80 g/m2 neutral sized preferred. Fully de-ionised water, de-inking chemicals
(soap, H202, alkali silicate, NaOH), H2SO4

Test Conditions The testing procedure consists of several test methods that are carried out one
after the other. These are:

test 1
Disintegration ISO 5263 >> Sheet forming ISO 5269/2

test 2
Fractionation >> Sheet forming ISO 5269/2

Flotation DIN 54606/1

Sheet forming ISO 5269/2

Chem. Oxygen Demand (COD) ISO 6060; DIN 38409-41

The adhesive coated label paper is applied to uncoated paper. The papers,
thus bonded together, are cut into pieces of about 1 x 1 cm.

Uncoated paper is cut into pieces 1 x 1 cm.

If an 18-l Voith flotation cell is used in conjunction with a pulp concentration of


0.6%, a quantity of exactly 108 g. of paper moulding, 140 g. of pulp is required
for a complete test series. If smaller flotation cells, such as the PTS, are used,
smaller quantities are adequate.

Procedure Desintegration
Pulp concentration: 5%
Adhesive concentration: 1 % calculated on pulp.

Place 3.5 g. label paper with adhesive; 66.5 g. uncoated paper and 330 g.
deionised water at 45°C in a pre-warmed disintegrator vessel and wash the
whole with 1000 g water at 45°C. Adjust to pH 10-11 with a caustic soda
solution of 20%. Disintegrate for 10 min at 3000 rpm.
Transfer the entire contents to a 2 litres glass beaker, add 200 ml of water, to
give a total quantity of 1600 ml water and 70 g. paper fibres. Prepare two lots
to obtain 140 g. of fibres.

Fractionation (screening)
Fractionators, e.g. Haindl or Sommerville fractionators, are devices that were
originally designed for fractionating groundwood. In this test, they are used to
simulate screening processe s in the recycling of waste paper. To meet the
requirements of this simulation, it is necessary to deviate slightly from the
manufacturer's operating instructions.

Apart from the fractionator, a drum is required as a reservoir. The drum is filled
with the quantity of water required to supply the fractionator. When the
manufacturer's instructions are followed, this requires more than 200 l of water.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 47


To keep the degree of dilution as small as possible, only 20 l are used and
are recycled.

A 60 μm-filter is installed between the drum and the fractionator to retain the
fractionated fibers. The quantities given below take into account subsequent
flotation in an 18-l Voith cell.
Dilute the entire suspension (3200 ml with 140 g of fibres) to 4200 ml with
deionised water and divide it in 12 parts of 300 ml (10 g. of fibres each),
which will be diluted further to 2000 ml with de-ionised water. Discard the
rest. Fit the fractionator with a 0.15 mm slot plate. Pour 20 l of water into the
drum and install a 60 μm filter. Pour an above described 2000 ml suspension
part into the fractionator and fractionate according to the instructions.
Then remove the 60 μm filter, transfer the fibers to a glass beaker, filter off
and dry at 120°C without the filter paper (corresponds to the thickening step).
Reuse the water from above filtration step to fractionate the next sample.
Repeat this procedure 12 times to provide 120 g of fibres for paper moulding
and flotation. Reuse the same water to keep the volume that has to be filtered
as small as possible, to avoid losing any stickies that it contains.
Filter off the circuit water and add the filter residue to the fibres.

Flotation
Take a quantity of fibres that corresponds to a dry weight of 108 g., dilute to
1600 ml with water and mix for 10 min at 3000 rpm in a disintegrator.
Disintegrate the paper moulded samples, add the de-inking chemicals in the
following order and proportions, calculated on the fibres:
0.5% soap (e.g. Servax) (100%)
3.0% alkali silicate (100%)
1.0% H2O2 (30%)
Adjust to pH 10-11 with a caustic soda solution at 20%.
Reaction time: stir slowly for 60 min at 45°C. Then repeat again the
disintegration step for 3 min to disintegrate the paper molded samples in the
disintegrator.
Fill 5 l of water into the Voith cell, add the above sample and then fill to the
brim with water. This gives 18 l of suspension with 108 g. of fibers, i.e. a pulp
density of 0.6%.
Treat for 10 min with an air throughput of 240 l/h. The level must be
maintained constant throughout the test and water added accordingly. Push
foam towards the automatic scraper manually using a hand-held scraper.
Catch the overflow, filter and dry it and calculate the loss. Remove the
reclaimed pulp and immediately adjust to pH 6.5-7 with H2SO4 to prevent
alkali yellowing.

Sheet forming
The paper is moulded in a Rapid-Kothen paper mould according to PTS PR
252/90 (DIN 54 358 Part 1 or ISO 5269/2). Take a quantity of suspension to
give a sheet with an oven-dry weight of about 2 g. (equivalent to 62 g/m2).
Place the sample in the sheet mould dilute to 3 l with water, then apply
vacuum to the wire.
Transfer the sheet that has formed on the wire to a filter paper, smooth it and
first allow it to dry in the air.
Then place this sample paper sheet between two sheets of filter paper and
dry at 90°C for 5 min in a heated press.

48 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Results Specify test equipment, e.g. Fractionator, Flotation cell. Sheets moulded
according to PTS PR 252/90 are evaluated.
Determine:
•whet herthesampl esheet sticks to the upper or lower filter paper;
•whet herthesampl es heeti sdamagedwheni ti speel edf r
om thef i
lt
er
papers;
•whet heritcontainss ti
ckies ,visibl
east rans par entspot swhenhel dagai ns
t
the light. Record size and frequency of the spots.
If the sample sheets contain neither transparent spots, nor any spots of
contamination that are visible to the naked eye, nor any adhesive impurities,
the label paper is regarded as repulpable or recycling compatible.

Notes Recycling compatible labels (or self adhesive laminate) should provide
positive results at sheet forming described above and COD analysis carried
out at the flotation step.
Hydrodispersable self adhesive laminates already exhibit no contamination in
the sheets obtained after the disintegration step.

PTS references above concern recommendations of Papier Technische


Stiftung and the ISO and DIN standards to which they relate are given where
appropriate.

Issued December 1995


Revised March 1999
Revised May 2001
Addresses revised February 2009

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 49


66,5 g uncoated Label paper (80 g/m 2)
3,5 g adhesive coated label paper (80 g/m2 paper + 20 g/m2 adhesive)
no release liner used

Paper samples cut in 1 x 1 cm Quantity of pulp relates to Voith Flotation Cell, size 18 liters.
No swelling Quantity to be changed with other cell volumes

Test 1

Disintegration Standard Desintegrator


5 % Pulp 2 l/1330 ml Water + 70 g Paper
1 % Adhesive Adhesive Zellcheming ZM V/4/61 - ISO 5263
45° C 10 min x 3000 Rpm = 30 000 R
deionised water/pH 10-11 (NaOH)

Sheet Forming
Test 2 3 - 5 sheets
pH = 7
Sheet Test PTS 252/90 ISO 5269/2
Drying minimum 90° C, 5 min heated
press
Screening
Fractionator
e.g. Haindl or Sommerville
Slot Screen 0,15 mm
Filtrate :
Flotation COD ISO 6060
Addition of Deinking Chemicals
0,1 % Soap
3,0 % Waterglass, Sodium Silicate approx. 2
%
NaOH to pH 10-11 1 % H2O2

Reaction time 90 min 40 - 45° C


Homogenisation, slow stirring
Sheet Forming
Flotation pH = 7
0,6 Pulp Konz. in deionised water Sheet Test PTS 252/90
pH = 10,5 ISO 5269/2
Temp.: 45° C Drying 90° C, 5 min heated press

Filtrate:
COD ISO 606 1986
Laser Detector to be introduced

50 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 20 FINAT- Test Method no. 20
Fluorescence and whiteness

Introduction Fluorescent substances in papers, inks and coatings are used in labels for
spotting and identifying particular types of labels. Fluorescent brighteners
impart increased brightness or whiteness to label papers. Asse ssment of
whiteness requires a specified standard light spectrum including a defined
range and intensity of ultraviolet radiation.

Fluorescence is the emission of light in the visible or adjacent UV or IR


spectrum, from matter that is suitably energized by incident radiation. The
whiteness of paper or textiles may be enhanced by the fluorescence of 'optical
brighteners' that convert the invisible UV component of daylight into visible
light. The material thus appears brighter and whiter.

The whiteness of an optically brightened paper depends on:


1. chemical structure of the optical brightener;
2. concentration of brightener;
3. the 'activation potential' of paper fibres in relation to the brightener;
4. the UV component of incident light (this means that for correct
measurement of whiteness a well defined standard light source is
required).

Test methods For inspection and control purposes test methods outlined here concern (A)
fluorescence and (B) whiteness.

A. Fluorescence
1. A surface printed with fluorescent inks or optical brighteners is viewed
under UV light which reveals whether the print is as intended.

2. Actual measurement of fluorescence is possible with equipment (as


supplied by SICK or LAETUS) that emits ultraviolet light of controlled
intensity and measures reflected light at longer wavelengths. A pre-set
threshold allows the equipment to decide whether the printing is
satisfactory or whether a label is present or not.

B. Whiteness
Whiteness is the result of basic white colour of the material and the effect of
optical brightener added. The effect of optical brighteners can only be
appreciated under a light source containing ultraviolet similar to daylight.

1. A set of twelve whiteness calibration plates was available from CIBA-


GEIGY.
Steps 1 to 4 do not contain any optical brightener but have decreasing
doses of yellow pigment. Steps 5 to 12 have increasing doses of optical
brightener. CIBA GEIGY no longer produces this set, but it is still used as
common standard.
Based on the same concept, LAETUS has developed a ruler with a twelve
step whiteness scale allowing visual assessment of the whiteness of a
paper surface.
Again, the light used for such an asse ssment should combine UV-light,
otherwise no fluorescence will occur. Comparative testing is also possible
using the analogue output (in milliamps) of a fluorescence testing device.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 51


2. The best asse ssment of whiteness is obtained using a
spectrophotometer that allows UV calibration of its light source (normally
standard source D65).
One such device is the Datacolor Elrepho 3000.
White is in fact a colour like red, green or blue and may be determined
with colorimetric methods. The difference is that white has high
brightness and low saturation, which makes measurement more difficult
than for a high saturation colour. In the literature one finds over 100
whiteness formulas. The most practical whiteness formula is the one
developed by E. Ganz (see appendix). Ganz ratings correlate with the
CIBA GEIGY scale as follows:

GANZ rating CIBA-GEIGY scale


-2 1
5 2
25 3
50 4
70 5
90 6
105 7
130 8
150 9
175 10
185 11
210 12

Appendix Fluorescence is a form of luminescence, the emission of radiation in the form


of light when an electron changes from a state of higher energy to a lower
state. In fluorescence this is caused by absorbed radiation, mostly ultraviolet
followed by emission in longer, visible wavelengths. Luminescence covers
fluorescence and phosphorescence, fluorescence lifetimes being from 10-6 to
10-9 second, phosphorescence lifetimes being from 10-4 to 10-2 second.

For measurement of these phenomena a well defined light source is


important, i.e. constant output and constant spectral characteristic. Three
types of standard light sources have been defined: A, C, D65.
For FTM 20 only source type D65 is of interest, as it approximates average
daylight with a colour temperature of 6500K. It emits sufficient ultraviolet to
induce fluorescence of optical brighteners.

Light sources 1. For a first approximation, natural daylight may be used instead of a
standard light source. However, daylight varies in colour temperature
and intensity.

2. Artificial daylight sources such as those available from HERAEUS


provide a much more constant source approximating D65.

3. Light cabinets are offered on the market, having lamps with different
dominant wavelengths, E.S. 254 nm and 360 nm. With such a cabinet
one can observe the activity of different optical brighteners.

52 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


4. When the purpose is to test fluorescence as such, without a basic
whiteness of the material (for instance, a transparent film overprinted with
fluorescent ink), an ultraviolet source should be used, normally a UV-A
source with 380 nm dominant wavelength.

5. The best source for testing whiteness is a standard D65 source used under
the standard lighting conditions of an Ulbricht integrating sphere. Also, the
UV spectrum of the source (generally a flash tube) needs to be calibrated.
These requirements are fulfilled in instruments such as the Datacolor
Elrepho 2000 and similar instruments from other suppliers.

Test Equipment See Section 2 of this Handbook.

For any verification or calibration of the LAETUS scale, please contact the
scale maker: Laetus (former Romaco).

Ganz w hiteness formula Judgment of neutral whiteness varies from person to person. That is why in the
GANZ formula (or Ganz-Griesser formula)

W=(D.Y)+(P.x)+(Q.y)+C

where Y, x, y are luminance or luminosity and chromaticity coefficients or


tristimulus reflectance factors, GANZ parameters D, P, Q, C are introduced.
They reflect the judgment of the majority of observers.

Literature 1. E. Ganz, Whiteness: photometric specification and colorimetric


evaluation. Appl. Optics 15 (1976) 9 pp 2039-2058.
2. Rolf Griesser (1979), Methods and uses of colorimetric evaluation of
paper. CIBA-Geigy pamphlet 7009, pp 25-29.

Fluorescent marking standard negotiations are going on in the labelling


industry to establish a standard for fluorescent identification of labels, to ensure
optimal detection by an appropriate luminescence probe. Enquiries: Sick
VertriebsGmbH, tel: +49 –211-53010, www.sick.de. (See also Section 2.3).

Issued March 1999


Revised May 2001
Revised May 2004
Addresses revised February 2009

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 53


FTM 21 FINAT Test Method no. 21
Ink Adhesion - basic

Scope This method allows rapid asse ssment of the degree of adhesion of a printing
ink or lacquer to a filmic label stock.

Definition The printing ink or lacquer is applied to the substrate and cured on the printing
press or using a standard method appropriate for the type of ink.

The ink adhesion is then estimated by the amount of ink that can be removed
when adhesive tape is applied and peeled off.

The resistance of the ink to mechanical removal is also measured by


scratching the ink and by deformation under pressure.

Test Equipment A means of applying and curing the ink.


Adhesive tape of high peel adhesion( 'aggr
ess
ive’
),f
orex
ampl
etesa 4102 or
3M Scotch 810 MagicTM tape.

FINAT roller to smooth the tape over the test piece.

Metal spatula.

Gloves.

Test Pieces If the required ink has not already been applied to the substrate as part of the
printing process, prepare samples for testing by coating the ink to a uniform
thickness (for example, with a Meyer bar for low-viscosity inks) and curing the
coating as recommended by the supplier. A-4 sheets are a conveniently-sized
sample for this test.

Test condition 23°C ± 2°C and 50 % RH ± 5% RH.


If practical, the test pieces should be conditioned for at least four hours prior to
testing.

Procedure 1. Tape test


Lay the specimen on a smooth, flat, hard surface and apply the adhesive tape,
leaving a small part of the tape unfixed to the test piece, ensuring that no air
bubbles are trapped under the tape.

Using the FINAT roller, press down the tape by passing the roller twice in each
direction over the specimen, and then bend the unattached part of the tape
back on itself at an angle of 180°.

Within 20 minutes after rolling down the tape, mount the specimen in a frame
or use one hand to hold the specimen firmly, then pull the free piece of tape
towards you using the other hand: at first slowly under constant speed, then
very rapidly and accelerating. (The faster speed is the more aggressive test).

The performance of the specimen is recorded by comparison with control


samples which have been previously measured, or by reference to the
following grading:
Grade 1 No removal of ink
Grade 2 Slight removal of ink (< 10%)
Grade 3 Moderate removal of ink (10 - 30%)
Grade 4 Severe removal of ink (30 - 60%)
Grade 5 Almost complete removal of ink (> 60%)

54 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


2. Mechanical tests
• Scratch test
Place the test piece against a firm, flat backing, and rub a blunt metal
implement (for example, a spatula) back and forth over the test piece until the
ink starts to be removed from the substrate. Record the number of rubs
required to fail the sample, and compare this to standard samples to determine
if the sample passes or fails.
Note: an instrument should be chosen which does not cut the ink (a printer's
knife is not suitable) and which is consistent between operators (a fingernail is
not).

• Rub test
Place the test piece against a firm, flat backing, and press your thumb firmly
onto the test piece and twist it back and forth. Compare the test piece with
previously-assessed control samples to determine if the piece has passed.
Note: it is recommended that appropriate Health & Safety measures are taken
in case the ink is insufficiently cured.

Notes 1. The presence of waxes and silicones in some inks and varnishes can
result in poor adhesion between the adhesive tape and the ink
surface, and consequently the tape is unable to separate ink from the
substrate even whent headhes i
onispoor ,leadingt oaf al
se‘ pas s’result.
To address this risk, it is recommended to adopt both a tape test and
another method of testing ink adhesion when evaluating unfamiliar inks.

2 Different batches of the same adhesive tape can have very different peel
strengths (in excess of the minimum specified), and therefore give
difference results on the same print, so a possibly false "fail" can arise. For
rigorous work, or where ink adhesion is critical, it is recommended to
calibrate new lots of tape by testing them on printed samples of known
performance before testing unknown samples.

3. If a numerical result from the adhesive tape test is required, the percentage
adhesion can be obtained by using a cross-hatching tool to score the ink
into 2 mm squares before applying the tape, and then measuring the
number of squares remaining after the tape test is performed. The cutting
tool needs to be constructed to cut entirely through the ink layer but
through no more than a small fraction of the substrate, otherwise tear of
the substrate will occur.

4. Substrates of weak cohesive strength may split during this test. In this case
the result of the test cannot be used to determine the ink anchorage.

Issued March 1999


Revised June 2001
Revised May 2004
Revised October 2008

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 55


FTM 22 FINAT Test Method no. 22
Ink Adhesion - advanced

Scope This method allows rapid asse ssment of the degree of adhesion of a printing
ink or lacquer to a label stock. It is designed for the testing of digital print
media.

Definition The printing ink or lacquer is applied to the substrate and cured on the printing
press or using a standard method appropriate for the type of ink.
The ink adhesion is then estimated by the amount of ink that can be removed
when adhesive tape is applied and peeled off.

Test Equipment A means of applying and curing the ink.

Adhesive tape of high peel adhesion ('aggressive'), for example tesa 7475
(acrylic based), tesa 7476 (rubber based), tesa 4102 or 3M Scotch 810
MagicTM tape.

A standard FINAT test roller.

A tensile tester or similar machine, capable of peeling a laminate through an


angle of 180° at a jaw separation rate of 300 mm per minute and with an
accuracy of ± 2%.

Spectrophotometer, e.g. X-Rite DTP22, Datacolor Elrepho 3000, Hunterlab


Ultrascan XE.

Test Pieces The ink is brought onto the substrate. After that, a certain period of time has to
be taken into consideration, to make absolutely sure that the ink is completely
hardened and/or dry. If the print system works with a one or more colour
system, is preferred that the adhesion of the pure colours is evaluated, and
not that of a combination of colours.

The adhesion of the ink can be evaluated by measuring the colour before and
after the application of the adhesive tape. The amount of ink that has been
removed can be expressed, in ΔE, by the colour change measured by the
spectrophotometer, on the ink coated sample before and after application of
the adhesive tape.

Test condition 23°C ± 2°C and 50 % RH ± 5 % RH.


If practical, the test pieces should be conditioned for at least four hours prior to
testing.

Procedure 1. Tape test


Lay the specimen (30 mm by 175 mm) on a smooth, flat, hard surface and
apply the adhesive tape, ensuring that no air bubbles are trapped under the
tape.
Using the FINAT roller, press down the tape by passing the roller twice in each
direction over the specimen, and then bend the unattached part of the tape
back on itself at an angle of 180°.
Fix each strip in the machine, so that the tape can be stripped away from the
printed substrate at an angle of peel of 180°. Set the machine to operate at 300
mm/min jaw separation rate.

56 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Ev aluation The peel value is expressed as the average result for the strips tested in
Newton per 25 mm.
The peel force gives an indication of the force that has affected the ink and an
approximate measurement of the adhesion of an overlaminate to the ink.
The colour is measured on the printed substrate before and after removing the
tape. The colour difference is expressed in ΔE.

ΔE measurements can be rated as:


ΔE = 0 - 3 Excellent
ΔE = 3 - 5 Very good
ΔE = 5 - 10 Good
ΔE = 10 - 15 Acceptable
ΔE = 15 - 20 Poor
ΔE = 20 - 25 Unacceptable

Remark This test is based on FTM 21.

Note The presence of waxes and silicones in some inks can lead to false "pass"
results.
Therefore it is important to mention the peel adhesion value.

Issued June 2001


Revised: October 2008

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 57


FTM 23 FINAT Test Method no. 23
Die-Strike

Scope This test method allows the converter to asse ss the degree and consistency of
die strike and cutting during the conversion process.
The method can be used during press make ready to assess the condition and
settings of cutters, to prevent label dispensing failures or web breaks during
high speed dispensing. The test is applicable to paper based liners.

Definition The display, by use of a green water based dye, of silicone or paper damage
caused by die-cutting.

Test Equipment Malachite Dye


Electronic Balance
1 litre measuring cylinder
Latex Gloves
Cotton Swabs
Sample Bath
Clean Water
Clock

Test Pieces The test specimen should be at least one complete width and repeat of the
cutter.

Test Conditions No special conditions apply.

Procedure Preparation of Malachite Solution


Take a 1 litre container (a capped polyethylene bottle is suitable). Place the
container on an electronic balance.

Wearing latex gloves and taking care not to spill or touch the dye, weigh
carefully 1 gram of Malachite into the container.

Measure out 1 litre of distilled water using a measuring cylinder and add to the
container.

Shake the bottle to dissolve the dye stuff.

1. Quick - End of Press Test


Remove the labels from the die cut sample.

Wet the swab liberally with the Malachite Solution.

With the swab, wipe the silicone surface of the liner where the labels
have been with the swab.

Wipe off the excess solution with a dry swab and asse ss the die-cutting.

2. Formal Assessment - Laboratory Conditions


Wearing latex gloves: Prepare two baths of appropriate size, one
containing not more than 1 cm height of the prepared Malachite Solution
and one of clean water.

Slowly delaminate and/ remove labels from the die cut sample under
evaluation. Take care not to damage /or crease the liner in any way.

58 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


With each hand take the ends of the sample and float it silicone side
down on the surface of the Malachite Solution. Take care that the
Malachite Solution does not make contact with the reverse side of the
liner.

Allow the sample to remain in contact with the solution for 30 seconds
and then remove the sample. Allow the Malachite Solution to drain back
into the bath.

Place the sample silicone side down in the clean water bath and agitate
to remove any remaining Malachite Solution.

When washed, remove and place the sample between any suitable paper
materials to dry e.g. tissue paper or cotton wool swab.

Results Assess the die-strike pattern for intensity and consistency. Look at the reverse
side of the liner for complete penetration. There should be no signs of
Malachite penetration through the backing.

The deeper the visible die-cutting, the greater the risk of the adhesive adhering
into the backing, this which will cause the label to failure to dispense.
Excessive visible damage of the paper can also give rise to liner breaks.

Retain samples indicating acceptable results in envelopes to support


traceability.
Malachite may fade when exposed to a strong light source. To avoid this
problem, electronic scanning and storage of the image may be used.

Safety Avoid any direct skin contact with the Malachite Solution.
Always wear gloves.

Notes Malachite Solution should be stored in a well-closed container and away from
direct day light.
Storage life is about 1 month.
Alternative dye chemicals could be used, e.g. crystal violet.

Issued May 2001

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 59


FTM 23b FINAT Test Method no. 23b
Testing for Die-Strike on clear filmic liners

Scope: This test method describes a technique for assessing die-strike on filmic
release liners.

Definition: The evaluation of backing damage or marking to the liner that may be caused
due to kiss cutting via a die.

Background Label stock generally consists of face stock on a backing liner. Once the matrix
has been stripped from the face stock the web integrity is maintained by the
liner. If a misaligned die should cut into the liner excessively this could reduce
the tensile strength of the web sufficiently to cause a web break. As such,
damage in the transverse direction (TD) across the web can be more of an
issue than in the machine direction (MD) along the web.

When placed under increasing tension most filmic materials will show elastic
behaviour up to the yield point, after which they will deform irreversibly and
eventually break. In labelling applications the tensions used will generally not
be above the yield point and so if the liner can be tensioned to this point
successfully without breakage then any die-strike impressions should not
cause a problem.

For some materials, for example polyester films such as polyethylene


terephtalate (PET), the yield point can be difficult to locate accurately.
In this case measurement of F5 (ensuring that the liner can be loaded to 5%
strain) can be used as a substitute target.

Test Equipment: Tensometer (e.g. Instron, Hounsfield, Lloyds, etc.); cutting implement.

Test Conditions: No special conditions apply

Test Procedure: 1. Take a length of die-cut labels equivalent to at least twice the repeat of
the die-cutter.

2. Remove all labels from the backing liner and note the position of each label
relative to the die-cutter.

3. Visually inspect the die-cut quality to check for any obvious, excessive
damage. If an area of damage is observed that causes concern,
particularly in the transverse direction, then a tensile test should be carried
out on this area.

4. Cut a strip of appropriate width and length for the tensometer test in use
(jaw width and separation) to include the area of damage. Take care not to
introduce any edge knicks that may cause unrelated failure by using a
sharp cutting tool.

5. Place each end of the liner strip into the respective jaws of the tensometer
& secure tightly.

6. Perform a tensile test according to the standard operating conditions for


the instrument.

60 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Results: 1. Each strip should achieve a yield point prior to snapping –this constitutes
a pass.
2. If the liner snaps prior to reaching the yield point then this is a fail.
a. If this is achieved on the cut from the die, then note & advise that the
die cutter should be adjusted accordingly.
b. If the sample damage has not occurred on the die-cut portion of the
sample then repeat the test, as the break may have been initiated by
edge damage when cutting into strips, or similar miscellaneous
damage.

Note Die-strike through filmic liners can be influenced by several parameters. We


recommend to carefully check them in case of die-strike problems:

 the solidity and robustness of die-cutting unit.

 the tool diameter should be adjusted according to the width of the printing
equipment

 the tolerance between magnetic and anvil cylinder

 the quality of the flexible die (weareness - height profile of the die)

 the consistency of the liner thickness

 the temperature at which the die-cutting operation take place (influence of


UV light on the film and adhesive softness

 In case of problems:
- Adjust the cutting angle to improve the die-cutting operation
- Verify the tension of the web (avoid too high tension)
- Strip the matrix immediately after the die-cutting operation to avoid
recovery of the adhesive between the die-cutting and the stripping
steps. Cool down the laminate before die-cutting operation

Issued October 2005

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 61


FTM 24 FINAT Test Method no. 24
Mandrel Hold

Scope This test is used to determine the ability of a pressure sensitive adhesive to
adhere to cylindrical curved surfaces.

Definition Mandrel adhesion is defined as the edge lifting (expressed in mm) of pressure
sensitive adhesive coated material from standard cylindrical rod / tubes of
small diameter, after being applied with light finger pressure for a specified
amount of time.

Test Equipment Rack to support tubes/rods without having contact between test samples and
supporting rack.

Rods/tubes of 8mm and 15mm diameter (the diameter of the mandrel should
be representative of the end-use). Rods/tubes made of glass and polyethylene.
Other materials and diameters may be used as necessary, and reported as
such.

The results of the tests are very much dependant of the face materials used.
These materials need to be well identified and their specification well known.

Test pieces The test piece dimensions should be adapted so that the length of the sample
label covers 3/4 of the circumference of the test tube/rod.
The width of the sample should be half of the length of the label.
Examples: 10 mm x 20 mm for a 8 mm diameter tube/rod
15 mm x 35 mm for a 15 mm diameter tube/rod

Test pieces should be cut in the machine direction AND in the cross direction.
3 test pieces should be taken from material sample. Cuts should be clean and
straight.

Test Conditions Test pieces should be conditioned at 23°C ± 2°C and 50 % ± 5 % RH during at
least 16 hours before being cut. Other conditions might be used, but this must
be clearly reported.

Procedure Use new test materials for any new test.


Cl eant heglas stubes /r odswi t
hacet oneorothers uit
abl es olvent(hept ane…)
before using them, to avoid any deposit, grease or dust. Other tubes/rods not
made from glass should be used such as supplied. Avoid to touch them with
fingers before any test.
Remove the backing from the face material avoiding curling of the face
material, and touching the adhesive surface.
Apply the sample around the tube/rod with the long side of the sample
perpendicular to the axis of the rod/tube.

Put some light finger pressure to obtain sufficient adhesion/contact between


the whole adhesive coating area and the test tube/rod. (It may be easier to cut
the label longer than needed and to trim the excess of label sample at time of
application on the tubes/rods.)
The labelled tubes/rods are inspected after 1 week. The edge lifting if any, is
measured in mm at each side of the label (l 1, l 2).
Edge lift is the total length of each label no longer in contact with the test
tube/rod divided by 2, e.g.: (l 1 + l 2)/2.

62 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Results Report identification of the samples and test tubes/rods materials.
Calculate and report the mean value of the 3 tests for the edge lift
measurement described above for each sample/testing material, and the time
evolved since application of the face material.
Describe the type of failure (AF, CF, AT).

Failure Description Code


CF Cohesive Failure - the adhesive film is split during the test, leaving
residue of adhesive on both the panel and the front material.
AF Adhesive Failure - the adhesive separates cleanly from the front
material, leaving adhesive film on the test sample.
AT Adhesive Transfer - the adhesive separates cleanly from the front
material, leaving adhesive film on the test panel.
The approximate extent of transfer should be quoted as percentage

Indicate any deviations from above procedure.

Note: Specific application equipment can be used to reduce variation of results due
t
o“li
ghtf inger”appl icat
ionprocedur e.

Issued May 2001

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 63


FTM 25 FINAT Test Method no. 25
Evaluation of the silicone coverage of coated papers
by use of a water based stain test

Scope This test method describes a technique for assessing the quality of coverage of
silicone coatings. This test can only be carried out on paper based liners which
can be coloured by the stain test solution utilised.

Definition Coverage quality is commonly evaluated by water soluble dye stain testing.
There are many dye stains used, available both in solution and powder form
(These include Shirlastain A, Malachite Green, Methylene Blue, Hahn Stain,
Rhodamine 6 GDN, Neocarmine A).
For paper substrates only, a quantity of liquid dye stain is applied to the
silicone coated liner for a finite period of time, rinsed or wiped off and the liner
dried.
Coverage is evaluated either qualitatively by visual inspection or quantitatively
with a colorimeter. For the water based stain test, an area where the dye had
contacted the coated paper should be totally uncoloured or of uniform and light
colour if the quality of the silicone coating is perfect (i.e. uniform and complete
coverage of paper fibres and well cured). Imperfections or discontinuities (such
as exposed paper fibres) in the coverage typically result in "dark" areas. These
"dark" areas are where the dye has been absorbed by the paper substrate. The
background colour and the colour associated with the silicone defects is
characteristic of the specific dye stain employed. With a paper substrate and
Shirlastain A dye, a "well cured" silicone release coating with excellent
coverage will yield a "yellow" colour in the test area. Defects will appear as red-
to-brown coloured stained areas.

In general the darker the coloration from the stain solution, the poorer the
silicone coverage. Poor silicone coverage will, in many cases, lead to problems
of release as the adhesive will adhere strongly to any unprotected paper fibres
thus causing elevated release values.

Test Equipment 1. Cobb Tester with ring of an approximate diameter of 11.5cm.


2. Count down stopwatch with alarm function.
3. Small container, marked to show level occupied by 200ml of Stain.
4. Test stain solution.
5. Absorbent cleaning paper.

Test pieces Where possible, several samples should be evaluated from the release sheet.
If these are from a known position on the web their location should be noted for
reference.

Test condition No special conditions apply

Procedure ForShi rlast ain“A”


1. Cut a 14cm x 14cm (or size suited to Cobb tester used) sample of release
liner (or liner of self-adhesive laminate after removal of face material). Care
must be taken to ensure that there are no holes or perforations present in
the backing paper.
In all cases, regardless of the substrate or dye used, care should be taken
to avoid contact with the silicone surface prior to testing since this may
introduce imperfections to the stain result.

2. Place the backing paper sample on the base of the Cobb tester, silicone
side up, under the test ring.

64 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


3. Clamp the ring securely in place to prevent the stain leaking out during
the test.

4. Add200mlofShi
rl
ast
ain‘
A’s
olut
iont
otheCobbands
tar
tthes
topwat
ch.

5. At the time of exposure chosen for the test immediately drain off the stain
solution, unclamp the test ring and lift away from the sample.
Shirlastain –typically 2 minute exposure time (for other stain types see
later section)

6. Blot the test piece dry with absorbent paper (DO NOT RUB) and allow
the dried sample to sit for a further five minutes (method usually
recommendedwi t
hShi r
lastain‘ A’).
Alternatively the sample can be rinsed under a running tap and then
blotted dry (method usually recommended with malachite green).

Results 1. After five minutes visually examine the test sample. There should be NO
sign of penetration by the stain solution. Penetration of the stain solution
is identified by the appearance of dark brown lines or spots. If the sample
is deemed satisfactory, it should be used as a benchmark for future
tested samples. Each backing paper type should have a benchmark
sample (i.e. a siliconised sample with acceptable stain
performance/coverage).

2. For future tests compare results against the benchmark sample for the
backing paper type. Results should be the same as or better than the
accepted standard.

3. Samples are commonly graded on a scale of 0 –10


0 = Total stain with coloration as for unsiliconised paper
10 = Perfect stain with no sign of coloration
The acceptable level would need to be asse ssed in correlation with other
application tests.

4. For more quantitative assessment the degree of coloration of the coated


paper can be measured by means of a colorimeter. In these cases a
comparative measure is made Vs the base paper and a delta E value is
quoted. This method can give a quantification of the stain test but
attention must be paid to regularity of the coating and usually this test
must be accompanied by a descriptive comment.

Typical stain solutions used


Shi rl
as t
ai n‘A’s oluti
onr eact swi thuns il
iconisedpaperf i
bres turning them
dark brown. The better the quality of the silicone coating, the better the paper
fibres will be protected to give a clean yellow stain. The darker the stain, the
poorer the coating quality.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 65


Shi r l
ast
ai n‘A’issuppl iedby:
SDL Atlas,
P.O. Box 162
Crown Royal, Shawcross Street,
Stockport,
Cheshire, SK1 3JW,
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 - 161 - 480 8485
Fax: +44 - 161 - 480 8580
E-mail: test@sdlatlas.com
URL: www.sdlatlas.com

Whilst Shirlastain is a commonly used stain material there are occasions


where other materials are more suitable (either due to toxicity constraints or
from coloration of the base paper)

Alternativ e stain solutions


Malachite green –typically 0.5% solution left in contact for 1 minute
Grade - Malachite Green Oxalate (Basic green 4)
Supplied as crystals for dilution in water
C.I. Number - C.I.42000
For yellow coloured papers it can be more suitable than Shirlastain.
Neocarmine A –typical 1 minute exposure of prepared dye solution. This dye
tends to show up faults in the coating as red spots. For yellow coloured
papers it can be more suitable than Shirlastain.

Methylene Blue –typically 0.5% solution, 2 minute exposure time.

Crystalline Violet - typically 0.5% solution, 2 minute exposure time.

Notes 1. It must be noted that a paper coated with a poorly cured silicone can
absorb dye stain and provide false results. For paper substrates, another
sheet of coated substrate, ideally taken from an adjacent position to the
first sample, can be re-heated in a laboratory oven for two minutes at
120ºC for example.
After the sample has been allowed to cool back to room temperature, the
dye stain test can be performed. If there is no significant difference in the
uniformity of the colour between the samples, it can be assumed that the
initial sample was "well-cured." If there is a significant difference, the
state of cure of the initial sample of coated liner is in question.

2. In all cases the hydrophobic of the base paper should be taken into
account and a test of the base paper with the stain solution must show a
deep coloration. In the case of some hydrophobic papers where
penetration of the liquid stain is much lower a moderate silicone coverage
can give a perfect stain and in such cases the test may need to be
adapted (for example longer time in contact with stain solution or
increased solution concentration).

N.B. Care must be taken in interpretation of phenomena mentioned in


notes 1 & 2 as obviously the heat treatment recommended in note 1
could lead also to the phenomenon mentioned in note 2.

66 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


3. Larger areas of silicone coated release liner can be evaluated by preparing
a solution of dye in a large shallow dish and then bringing the silicone
surface of the liner into contact with the solution. Care should be taken to
avoid entrapment of air bubbles under the silicone surface or through foam
on the surface of the dye solution.

4. Forf il
msorpol ycoat edk rafts ubstr
at esa“ powderdy et est”isus edt o
reveal faults in the silicone coated surface. Whilst this method can not
show the differences in coating quality as well as the solution based dyes
used on papers it is useful to give an overall picture of coating continuity,
highlighting miscoats, marks or streaks. A dry powder dye is lightly applied
to the surface and carefully spread over the area to be tested. The fine
powder has a tendency to cling to the silicone coating and not the
uncoated film or poly coating.
Of specific interest is the uniformity of colour which results after the dye
stain is removed. For the powder test on films or polycoated kraft
substrates, light coloured areas are indicative of poor coverage (or
conversely, a uniform dark colour is indicative of good coverage) with the
Waxoline violet powder dye.

Nigrosin dye for pow der dye cov erage test


Grade Nigrosin, Alcohol soluble (Solvent black 5)
Supplied as very fine powder for direct use as solid
C.I. Number C.I.50415

Other dyes for pow der test


Waxoline blue, green & violet
Darkcol our ed“ ey
es hadow”
Any other fine powdered dye/pigment which clings to silicone surface

Issued August 2005

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 67


FTM 26 FINAT Test Method no. 26
Wash-off paper and film labels

Scope This test procedure describes the preparations and testing of pressure-
sensitive adhesives, which can be washed off with aqueous alkaline solution.

This test procedure can be used for the testing of the detachability of
pressure-sensitive adhesives in a hot, aqueous alkaline solution.

Definition “Wash-of
fabi
li
ty”i
stheabi
l
ityofanadhes
ivet
odet
achi
tsel
fqui
ckl
yand
completely in a 1.0-2.0 % solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 65 - 75
°C.
The content of NaOH and the wash-off temperature has to be noted in the
report.

Test equipment Heatable magnetic stirrer.


Magnetic stirring bar.
2 - 5 litre glass beaker.
Thermometer.
Glass bottles (glass bottle type and the pre-treatment of the glass
surface, such as specific coatings, washings, etc. have to be mentioned
in the report).

Preparation: Label and adhesive should be adapted for wash-off purpose.


The label material can be paper or filmic.
Cut out labels with the dimensions 60 x 80 mm from the finished coating.
Prior to testing, clean the glass bottles in a dishwasher at min. 65 °C.
The use of an alkaline cleaner is recommended.

Most of the glass bottles are recycled or re-used bottles. The life / cycling time
of the glass bottle may influence the test results. It is recommended to use new
bottles after the first washing. In any case, the state of the glass bottle should
be mentioned in the report.

Test pieces Prior to testing, remove the silicone release backing from the label and
stick the label onto the glass bottle. Store the bond for at least 24 hours
under standard climate conditions: 23°C ± 2°C, 50 % RH ± 5% RH.

Procedure After storage, fill the bottles with water at the testing temperature
and immediately immerse the bottle in the prepared solution of
sodium hydroxide at the testing temperature.

Results Indicate the time in seconds until the labels become detached.

Report where you find the adhesive after the label has detached:
- On the bottle
- On the label
- Both on the label and the bottle

Note: The type of face stock material, paper or filmic, its properties and condition
suchaspor ous ,nonpor ous,s emiper meabl e,etc,infl
uencet he“ was h-off
abili
ty”s igni
ficantly.Fur thermor e,printing coverage, especially UV-varnish,
affects the wash-off times. It is recommended to perform trials with printed
labels. Additionally, ageing of the labelled glass bottles e.g. outdoor storage,
UV-light or humidity may affect also the wash-off result.
Deviations from the testing method have to be mentioned in the report.

Issued October 2008

68 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FTM 27 FINAT Test Method no. 27
Ink rub test for UV printed labels ink surface against
substrate or ink surface
Scope This test method is suitable for checking out rub resistance of
printed UV ink: ink surface against substrate or ink surface
against ink surface.
Bad adhesion cannot be detected with this method as long as
scratch or rub resistance is good. The specific resistances must be
elicited with different methods, e.g. FTM 21. In difficult cases bad
adherence and bad rub resistance can occur together.

This test procedure can be handled by lab personnel of a printing factory or a


pressman / production manager who is instructed to the Ink Rub Tester
equipment.

Definition Normally rub resistance is a question of through curing or reactivity of


an ink film.
Rubbing off or scratching off describes the damage of an ink
surface by mechanical influence, e.g. two labelled bottles
rubbing against each other during transport.
Scratch or rub resistance describes the mechanical resistance of an ink or
varnish surface.

Test equipment - Ink Rub Tester by Testing Machines Inc.


www.testingmachines.com
- heating cabinet

Pic 1+2: Ink Rub Tester

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 69


Test pieces Printed labels should be fresh from the press.
Blank substrate should be from the same real currently is
printed on.

Conditions Condition should be at 23° +-2° C / 70 - 77° F +- ;


50 % RH +- 5 % RH.

Preparation and 1. Remove one label from the master reel sample.
procedure
2. Cut of a short piece of blank substrate from the reel in the
size of the rubber bed on the right hand side of the Ink Rub
Tester.

3. Adhere blank substrate to the rubber bed on the right hand


side of the Ink Rub Tester and adhere the printed label to the
rubber of the 2 lbs* weight. It is important that the sample on
the 2 lbs weight is covered with ink all over the test area.

4. Place the 2 lbs weight completely with label onto the


retaining clip. Both printed label and substrate should be
facing each other ink side to substrate surface.

5. Set up the machine to 100 moves per minute

6. Set the machine to 25 cycles and press start

7. At the end of the cycles, observe the labels for ink rub of or
scratch of.

8. If ink rub of or scratch of is present, repeat the test after the


following improvement trials using fresh printed labels for
every trial:
a. decrease printing speed or
b. add suitable photo initiator to the UV ink if available
c. choose an anilox roll with less volume as long as colour shade is still
sufficient or
d. add 5 % of blending varnish as long as colour shade is still sufficient
e. replace UV bulb
f. clean up UV lamp reflector

It is important to do the tests step by step to expose the real cause of bad rub
or scratch resistance. If the problem cannot be solved 100 % at any test take a
second sample and repeat the related test with the best result after 2 h in an
oven at 40 ° C –104° F or 8 h at room temperature 21° C –70° F*. If the
problem persists change the batch of ink. If there is still no improvement,
contact the ink supplier.

*N.B. The radical UV system has an element of post cure, which can take up to
24 hours.

70 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Results To give an impression of good and bad test results please look
at the following pictures.

Pic. 3: Slightly scratched ink surface: sufficient result

Pic 4: Substrate in comparison: surface is scratched

Pic. 5: Bad rub resistance caused by bad ink reactivity or through curing. Ink
can be scratched and rubbed easily
FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 71
Rating scale
Level 1: Slightly scratched surface < 5 % damage, no scratch
off, no rub off, no substrate visible
Level 2: Scratched of ink film or rubbed of ink film, < 10 %
substrate visible
Level 3: Scratched of ink film or rubbed of ink film, 10 - 30 %
substrate visible
Level 4: Scratched of ink film or rubbed of ink film, 30 - 60 %
substrate visible
Level 5: Scratched of ink film or rubbed of ink film, > 60 %
substrate visible

Remark For sure the ink surface will be scratched by this test method
also if there is a proper curing (Level 1). But it should not be
scratched of (please view picture 3)! Level 1 is always that
one to be achieved.
Depending on the substrate quality also this can be scratched by this
test method (please view picture 4).
If the ink should be peeled of by this test than ink adhesion is an issue
together with poor reactivity (picture 5).

Silicone in inks If inks consist of silicone this migrates to the surface and works like a
lubr icati
on.Thenar ubres i
stancet estcanendi na “ fak
ed”goodr es ul
t.
Silicone residues should be carefully wiped of with a 70 % isopropyl alcohol
before starting this test.

Note This test is to be repeated with ink side to ink side if required.
Then also the sample on the rubber bed should have an ink
coverage all over the test area.

If wet rub resistance shall be checked repeat the test with a drop of water
applied onto the sample mounted on the rubber bed on the right hand side of
the Ink Rub Tester.

Combination In cases of combining water born inks with a UV Flexo overprint


Printing varnish it is reasonable to set up the test as a wet rub resistance test. Then
beside damage of the varnish surface ink bleeding can be the indicator for bad
curing of the overprint varnish. If ink bleeding occurs not only the curing of the
overprint varnish might be insufficient but also the curing/drying of the
waterborne ink. Then the curing of ink and varnish should be checked
individually.

Required material
- pipette
- water
- Label sundsubs t
rat
easdes
cri
bedonpaget
woi
nchapt
er“
tes
tpi
eces

* 1 lb = 453.6 g

Issued October 2008

72 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


SECTION 2 Test equipment

2.1 Standard FINAT Test Roller


Performance requirements for this test roller are that it applies a standard pressure irrespective of the variation
in hand pressure on the handle.

Specifications Diameter of roll: mm 85 ± 2.5


Roll cover: rubber to hardness scale Shore A 80 ± 5
Width of roll: mm 50 ± 1
Weight of roller: kg 2 ± 0.05
Rollers made to the earlier specifications 92 –98 mm diameter are still
acceptable.

2.2 Automatic Rolling Device


The FINAT automatic roller unit ensures correct guidance of the contact roll and electronic adjustment of the
rolling speed. The number of roll movements can be set at between 1 and 9 by a selector switch. The roll can
easily be taken from its mounting. Rolls to other standards can also be used. The roll can also be safely lifted
from the substrate in the end position.

Technical data Roller speed 3 levels 5, 10, 200 (± 1 %) mm/s


Length of roll area adjustable max 300mm Mains connection 220 V/50 or
110V/60

Roll data Diameter: mm 85 ± 2.5


Width: mm 50 ± 1
Weight: kg 2 ± 0.05
Hardness of rubber surface: Shore A 80 ± 5
Thickness of rubber layer: mm 6 ± 0.5
Rolls can be supplied to other standards

2.3 Sources of test equipment


Test equipment is available in a wide variety. A number of manufacturers of such equipment are listed below,
where possible with an indication of the type of their equipment. Please check the FINAT website
(www.finat.com) frequently for updates.

Adhesive Technical Serv ices Test equipment for adhesives


Botany Way Industrial Park (agents for Chemsultants)
Purfleet, Essex RM19 1SY
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –1708 –867 355
Fax: +44 –1708 –869 804
E-mail: sales@adhtechnical.com
URL: www.adhtechnical.com

Ametek GmbH Adhesion test apparatus


Rudolf-Diesel-Strasse 16
D-40670 Meerbursch
Germany
Tel.: +44 –2159 –913 60
Fax: +44 –2159 –913 639
E-mail: info@ametek.de
URL: www.ametek.de

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 73


Brookfield Viscometers Ltd Viscometers
1 Whitehall Estate
Flex Meadow, Pinnacles West
Harland, Essex CM19 5TJ
Tel.: +44 –1279 - 451 774
Fax: +44 –1279 - 451 775
E-mail: info@brookfield.co.uk
URL: www.brookfieldengineering.com

Brookfield Engineering Laboratories Vertriebs Viscometers


GmbH
Hauptstrasse 18
D-73547 Lorch
Germany
Tel.: +49 –7172 –927 100
Fax: +49 –7172 –927 105
E-mail: info@brookfield-gmbh.de
URL: www.brookfield-gmbh.de

Büro Mayr Standard Test Roller


Forst strasse 81
D-85521 Riemerling
Germany
Tel.: +49 –89 - 609 9679
Fax: +49 –89 - 609 8436

ChemInstruments Inc. (FTM 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 18,


Part of the Chemsultants Intl. Network 21,24)
510 Commercial Drive European sales agents: ATS, ICHEMCO
Fairfield, OH 45014
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1 –513 –860 1598
Fax: +1 –513 –860 1597
URL: www.cheminstruments.com
URL: www.chemsultants.com

Datacolor AG Colour Measurement (FTM 20, FTM 22)


Brandbachstrasse 10
CH-8305 Dietikon/Zürich
Switzerland
Tel.: +41 –44 –835 3830
E-mail: info@datacolor.eu
URL: www.datacolor.eu

Erichsen GmbH & Co KG Tensile Testers


Am Iserbach 14 Adhesion Testers
D-58675 Hemer Humidity Cabinets
Germany Thickness Gauges
Tel.: +49 –2372 –968 30
Fax: +49 –2372 –643 0 Agent: Chemsultants Int. Network
E-mail: info@erichsen.de
URL: www.erichsen.de
74 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009
Frank PTI GmbH Tensile Tester
Auf der Aue 1 Adhesion Tester
D-69488 Birkenau
Germany
Tel.: +49 –6201 –840
Fax: +49 –6201 –842 90
E-mail: office@frank-pti.com
URL: www.frank-pti.com

Fusion UV Systems Inc. Supplier of UV Curing Systems


910 Clopper Road
Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878-1357
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1 –301 –527 2660
Fax : +1 –301 –527 2661
URL: www.fusionuv.com

Gretag Macbeth AG Supplier of colorimetric equipment


See X-Rite Europe GmbH

Hach Lange GmbH Colour measurement


Willstätterstr. 11
D-40549 Düsseldorf
Tel.: +49 –211 –528 80
Fax: +49 –211 –528 8143
E-mail: info@hach-lange.de
URL: www.hach-lange.de

Hermann Klemmt Mess- und Prüftechnik GbR Agent Sneep Industries BV


Oberbernbacher Weg 1C (see below)
D-86551 Aichach
Germany
Tel.: +49 –8251 –890 860
Fax: +49 –8251 –890 8622
E-mail: info@klemmt.de
URL: www.klemmt.de

Hunter Associates Laboratory Inc. Colour Measurement (FTM 20, FTM 22)
11491 Sunset Hills Rd
Reston, VA 20190-5280
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1 - 703 - 471 6870
Fax +1 - 703 - 471 4237
E-mail: info@hunterlab.com
URL: www.hunterlab.com

Imass Inc. High Speed Release Tester


P.O. Box 134
Accord, MA 02018-0134
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1 –781 –834 3063
Fax: +1 –781 –834 3064
E-mail: sales@imass.com
URL: www.imass.com

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 75


Instron Worldw ide headquarters
825 University Avenue Tensile Tester
Norwood, MA 02062-2643 Adhesion Tester
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1 –781 –828 2500
URL: www.instron.com

Instron (European headquarters) Tensile Tester


Coronation Road Adhesion Tester
High Wycombe, Bucks HP12 3SY
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –1494 –456 815
URL: www.instron.com

Kiffe Engineering GmbH Dynamic Cohesion


Am Krebsgraben 18
D-78048 VS-Villingen
Germany
Tel.: +49 –7721 –800 30
Fax: +49 –7721 –800 320
E-mail: info@kiffe.net
URL: www.kiffe.net

Konica Minolta Sensing Europe B.V. Colour Measurement


Riedstrasse 6
CH-8953 Dietikon
Switzerland
Tel.: +41 –43 - 322 9800
Fax: +41 –43 - 322 9809
E-mail: info.switzerland@sev.konicaminolta.eu
URL: www.konicaminolta.eu

Köttermann GmbH & Co KG Humidity Tester


Industriestrasse 2-10
D-31311 Uetze-Hänigsen
Germany
Tel.: +49 –5147 –976 0
Fax: +49 –5147 –976 50
E-mail: systemlabor@koettermann.de
URL: www.koettermann.com

Laetus GmbH Colour Measurement (FTM 20, 22)


Sandwiesenstrasse 27
D-64665 Alsbach-Hähnlein
Germany
Tel.: +49 –6257 –500 90
Fax: +49 –6257 –311 9
E-mail: contact@laetus.com
URL: www.laetus.com

Lloyd Instruments Ltd. FTM 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, 11 and 18


12 Barnes Wallis Road
Segensworth East
Fareham, Hants PO15 5TT
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –1489 –486 399
Fax: +44 –1489 –885 118
E-mail: uk-far.general@ametek.co.uk
URL: www.lloyd-instruments.co.uk
76 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009
Lorentzen & Wettre GmbH Paper testing equipment
Box 4
SE-16493 Kista
Tel.: +46 –8 –477 9000
Fax: +46 –8 –477 9199
E-mail: info@lorentzen-wettre.com
URL: www.lorentzen-wettre.com

M.C. TEC BV FTM 1, 2, 3, 8 & 9 Hand Rollers, Rolling Ball Tack


Distributiestraat 27 Testers, Contact O Meter for surface wetting
NL-4283 JN Giessen properties, Viscometers, Rub Testers, Gloss meters,
The Netherlands Colorimeters and Spectrophotometers
Tel.: +31 - 183 –445 050
Fax +31 –183 –445 059
E-mail: info@mctec.nl
URL: www.mctec.nl

M.C. TEC England FTM 1, 2, 3, 8 & 9 Hand Rollers, Rolling Ball Tack
P.O. Box 1067 Testers, Contact O Meter for surface wetting
BB9 4DD properties, Viscometers, Rub Testers, Gloss meters,
United Kingdom Colorimeters and Spectrophotometers
Tel.: +44 –1282 –798 086
Fax: +44 –1282 –798 224
E-mail: info@mctec.co.uk
URL: www.mctec.co.uk

Mecmesin Ltd. Peel and adhesion test equipment


Newton House
Spring Copse Business Park
Slinfold, West Sussex RH13 0SZ
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –1403 –799 979
Fax: +44 –1403 –799 975
E-mail: info@mecmesin.com
URL: www.mecmesin.com

Metorex International Oy X-ray spectrometers (XRF) (FTM7)


See Oxford Instruments OES Analyzers

MTS Systems Tensile Testers for release, tack and peel


14000 Technology Drive Specimen cutters, rollers
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1 - 800 –328 2255
Fax: +1 –952 –937 4515
E-mail: info@mts.com
URL: www.mts.com

MTS Systems Tensile Testers for release, tack and peel


Rue Auguste Perret, Europarc Specimen cutters, rollers
F-94200 Creteil
France
Tel.: +33 –1 –584 39000
Fax: +33 –1 –584 39001
E-mail: contact.ance@mts.com
URL: www.mts.com

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 77


Oxford Instruments X-ray spectrometers (XRF) (FTM7)
Halifax Road, High Wycombe
Bucks HP12 3SE
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –1494 –479 224
Fax: +44 –1494 –524 129
E-mail: ia-hotline@oxinst.co.uk
URL: www.oxinst.co.uk

Pausch Messtechnik Q-Sun and QUV weathering Testers


Nordstrasse 53 Outdoor Weathering Services
D-42781 Haan Colour Measurement
Germany Shear Testers FTM 8 for ambient and oven shear
Tel.: +49 –2129 –939 60 testing
Fax: +49 –2129 –939 610 Hand Rollers
E-mail: info@pausch.com
URL: www.pausch.com

Pearson Panke Equipment Ltd. Special Tensile Testers:


1-3 Hale Grove Gardens Release (FTM 3),1800 Peel (FTM 1), 900 (FTM 2),
London NW7 3LR Loop tack (FTM 9)
United Kingdom Rolling Ball Tack Testers
Tel.: +44 - 20 –895 93232 Contact O Meter for surface wetting properties
Fax: +44 - 20 –895 95613 Viscometers
E-mail: 50years@pearsonpanke.co.uk Rub Testers
URL: www.pearsonpanke.co.uk Gloss meters
Colorimeters and Spectrophotometers

Printech Tools & Technology Standard FINAT Test Roller


Trön 9 Special Peel, Release and Tensile Testers
CH-9225 St. Pelagiberg (FTM 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11)
Switzerland Resistance Spot Proofer (FTM 16)
Tel.: +41 –71 –430 04 40 UV Light Spectrometer (to check UV curing and
Fax: +41 –71 –430 04 41 Exposure units for exact wave length and intensity)
E-mail: info@printech.ch
URL: www.printech.ch

RK PrintCoat Instruments Ltd. Sample preparation equipment (coating, proofing and


Litlington, Royston printing)
Herts SG8 0QZ
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –1763 –852 187
Fax: +44 –1763 –852 502
E-mail: sales@rkprint.com
URL: www.rkprint.com

Rocholl GmbH Test panels


Schwarzacher Strasse 15
D-74757 Aglasterhausen
Germany
Tel.: +49 –6272 –916 780
Fax: +49 –6272 –916 7810
E-mail: post@rocholl.eu
URL: www.rocholl.eu

78 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Romaco Pharmatechnik GmbH Colour Measurement (FTM 20, FTM 22)
(See Laetus)

SDL Atlas Textile testing machines


P.O. Box 162 Shirlestain
Crown Royal, Shawcross Street
Stockport, Cheshire, SK1 3JW
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 - 161 - 480 8485
Fax: +44 - 161 - 480 8580
E-mail: test@sdlatlas.com
URL: www.sdlatlas.com

Sheen Instruments Ltd. Supplier of instruments for use in the coating and
Unit 4, St. Georges Industrial Estate paint industry, incl. abrasion, coating thickness,
Richmond Road colour match, gloss, hardness, moisture measuring
Kingston-Upon-Thames, Surrey KT2 5BQ
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –20 –854 143 33
Fax: +44 –20 –854 933 74
E-mail: info@sheeninstruments.com
URL: www.sheeninstruments.com

Sick Vertriebs-GmbH Fluorescence Measurement


Willstätterstrasse 30 Industrial sensors
D-40549 Düsseldorf
Germany
Tel.: +49 - 211 –530 10
Fax: +49 –211 - 530 11 00
E-mail: info@sick.de
URL: www.sick.de

Sneep Industries BV Shear testers, hot melt/holding power at elevated


P.O. Box 5726 temperature
NL-3290 AA Strijen High and low speed peel and release testers
The Netherlands Hand rollers, test plates of stainless steel and glass
Tel.: +31 –78 –610 76 90 Automatic roll down machine
Fax: +31 –78 –610 76 91 FTMs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8 and 9
E-mail: info@sneepindustries.com Custom built testers
URL: www.sneepindustries.com

SPECTRO Analytical Instruments X-ray spectrometers (XRF) (FTM7)


GmbH. & Co. KG
Boschstrasse 10
D-47533 Kleve
Germany
Tel.: +49 –2821 –892 0
Fax: +49 –2821 –892 2200
E-mail: spectro.info@ametek.com
URL: www.spectro-ai.com

Stable Micro Systems Ltd. Tensile/Compression equipment


Vienna Court, Lammas Road FTM 1,2,3,5,6,9,18,22
Godalming, Surrey GU7 1YL
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 - 1483 –427 345
Fax: +44 - 1483 –427 600
E-mail stable@stablemicrosystems.com
URL: www.stablemicrosystems.com

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 79


Techkon GmbH Supplier of colorimetric equipment
Wiesbadener Strasse 27
D-61462 Königstein
Germany
Tel.: +49 –6174 –924 450
Fax: +49 –6174 –924 499
E-mail: info@techkon.com
URL: www.techkon.de

tesa AG tesa test tapes 7475 and 7476, and 4102


Quickbornstrasse 24 (FTM 10, 11, 21, 22)
D-20253 Hamburg see also list of agents world-wide
Germany
Tel.: +49 –40 –4909-3400
Fax: +49 –40 - 49093520
URL: www.tesa.com

Testing Machines Inc. Sw itzerland Ink Rub Tester (FTM 27)


Mr Jörn Krüger
Albert Isliker & Co. AG
CH-8057 Zurich
Switzerland
E-mail: switzerland@testingmachines.com
URL: www.testingmachines.com

Testometric Company Ltd. Tensile, Compression, Loop Tack, Probe Tack, 90 &
Unit 1, Lincoln Business Park 180 degree Peels, Friction, Dynamic Shear and
Lincoln Close, Rochdale Adhesion/Peel Tests, conducted at cryogenic and
Lancashire OL11 NR elevated temperatures.
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 - 1706 –654 039
Fax: +44 - 1706 –646 089
E-mail info@testometric.co.uk
URL: www.testometric.co.uk

Thermo Fisher Scientific Viscometers


81 Wyman Street
Waltham, MA 02454
USA
Fax: +1 –781 –622 1207
URL: www.thermo.com

Thomas Systeme GmbH Barcode Readability Tester


Wilhelmstrasse 8
D-32602 Vlotho-Bonneberg
Germany
Tel.: +49 –5733 –910 00
Fax: +49 –5733 –910 050
E-mail: info@thomassysteme.de
URL: www.thomassysteme.de

80 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


3M United Kingdom Plc 3M Scotch 810 MagicTM tape for FTM 21 & 22
3M Centre
Cain Road
Bracknell RG12 8HT
United Kingdom
Tel.: +44 –1344 –858 000
URL: www.3Mselect.co.uk
www.mmm.com

Weiss Umwelttechnik GmbH Humidity Tester


Simulationsanlagen - Messtechnik
Greizer Strasse 41-49
D-35447 Reiskirchen-Lindenstruth
Germany
Tel.: +49 –6408 –840
Fax: +49 –6408 –848 710
E-mail: info@wut.com
URL: www.wut.com

X-Rite Europe GmbH (European Headquarters) X-Rite Equipment to FTM 22


Althardstrasse 70
CH-8105 Regensdorf
Switzerland
Tel.: +41 –44 –842 2400
Fax: +41 –44 –842 2222
E-mail: emeaorders@xrite.com
URL: www.xrite.com

X-Rite Inc. (Corporate Headquarters) X-Rite Equipment to FTM 22


4300 44th street SE
Grand Rapids
Michigan 49512
U.S.A.
Tel.: +1 –800 –248 9748 or
+1 –616 –534 7664
E-mail: info@xrite.com
URL: www.xrite.com

Zw ick GmbH & Co. Prüfmaschinen Tensile Tester


August Nagel Strasse 11
D-89079 Ulm
Germany
Tel.: +49 - 7305 - 100
Fax: +49 - 7305 –102 00
E-mail: info@zwick.de
URL: www.zwick.de

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 81


2.4 Tesa test tapes

tesa test tape 7476 , 7475, and 4102

1. Product design

Product t esa® 7476 t esa® 7475 t esa® 4102

Tackified Natural
Adhesive Tackified Acrylic Acrylic
rubber

Backing Cloth, grey PVC, white Polypropylene (PP)

Silicone coated Silicone coated


Liner Transparent Film
paper paper

2. Application
®
tesa test tapes 7476 (rubber based) and 7475 (acrylic based) are designed and recommended for the
testing and evaluation of FTM 10 and FTM 11 Silicone release coatings on films and papers and
Silicone developments.
®
tesa test tapes 4102 are recommended for the testing and evaluation of test method 21 and 22: Ink
Adhesion.

3. Test tape tesa® 7475

The test tape 7475 is used to obtain the following prediction:


Release properties regarding a tackified acrylic pressure sensitive adhesive and the degree of cross-
linking of the silicone coating (subsequent adhesion).

4. Test tape tesa® 7476

The test tape 7475 is used to obtain the following prediction:


Release coating properties regarding a typical rubber based pressure sensitive adhesive.

5. Test tape tesa® 4102

82 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 83
FINAT approved test tapes tesa® world-wide

Australia China China Finland


tesa tape Australia Pty. Ltd. tesa tape (Beijing) Co Ltd. tesa tape (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. tesa OY
Unit 5, 1 Foundati on Place Rep. Office Beijing Bldg 3, No 1388 Hovirinnanti e 5
Prospec t, N.S.W. 2148 Rm 2605- 2606 Building 1 Kang Qiao East Road 20780 Kaarina
Sydney Blue Cas tle Inter national C entre Kang Qiao Industrial Zone Tel.: +358-2 2103 400
Tel.: +61-2 9849- 3929 No. 3 Wes t Dawang Road Pudong, Shanghai 201319 Fax: +358-2 4103 291
Fax: +61-2 9849- 3928 Chaoyang District Tel.: +86 21- 6818-3110 URL: www.tesa.dk
Beijing 100026 Fax: +86 21- 6818-3120
Tel.: +86 -10-85997648
Fax: +86-10-85997172

Austria China Colombia France


Tesa GmbH tesa tape (Hong Kong) Ltd. tesa tape Col ombia Ltda tesa s .a.s.
Laxenburger Str. 151 Rep. Office Guangzhou Calle 67 Norte #7, N59 Edificio 15, rue du Bois des Saints
1100 Vi enna Rm 1202- 03 Metro Plaz a no. 183 Centro del Pacifico Pères
Tel.: +43-1- 614000 Tianhe North R d, Tianhe District Piso 3, Barrio Menga 77176 Savigny le Temple
Fax: +43-1- 61400455 Guangzhou 510620 P.O. Box 7983 Tel.: +33 1 64 87 82 30
URL: www.tesa.at Tel.: +86-20-38465740 Cali-Valle del C auca Fax: +33 1 64 87 82 50
Fax: +86-20-38465741 Tel.: +57-2 6878484 URL: www.tesa.fr
Fax: +57-2 6758535

Belgium China Croatia German y


tesa s a nv Tesa tape (Hong Kong) Limited tesa tape Kft. R epres entati ve Tesa AG
Chauss ée de R uisbroek 76 Rep. Office Shenzhen Office Quickborns trasse 24
B-1180 Bruss els Room 410, Excellence Mansion Tijardovic eva 8 D-20253 Hamburg
Tel.: +32 2 525 08 11 No. 98 Fuhua 1 R d 10 000 Zagreb Tel. +49-40-4909101
Fax: +32 2 525 08 33 Futian C entral Z one Tel: +385 1 37 34 743 Fax: +49-40-49096060
Url : www.tes a.be Shenzen 518048 Fax: +385 1 39 06 586 URL: www.tesa.de
Tel. +86-755-82877110
Fax +86-755-82877115

Brasil China Czech Republic Greece


tesa Brasil Ltda. Tesa tape (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. tesa tape s pol s.r.o. tesa tape A.E.
Ave. J oa Gual berto, no. 1259, Rep. Office Xiamen Pekars ká 14 2, Agiou Nektariou Str.
18th floor, 09 room 08 floor, Par agon 155 00 Praha 5 GR-153 44 Gerakas / Atti ki
Centro Empresarial Lais Peretti Center, N o. 1 Lianyue Road Tel.: +420-296- 824 546 Tel.: +30-210 6600 290
Alto da Gl oria Xiamen 361004 Fax: +420-296- 824 549 Fax: +30-210 6610 657
80030-000 C uritiba PR Tel.: +86-592-5166952/3 URL: www.tesa-tape.cz URL : www.tesa.gr
Tel.: +55-41 30218100 Fax: +86-592-5166957
Fax: +55-41 30218110
URL: www.tesatape.com.br
Bulgaria China Denmark Guatemala
Tesa tape A.E. Representati ve tesa tape (Shanghai) Co. Ltd tesa A/S tesa tape Centro América S.A.
Office Rep. Office Wuhan Klintehøj Vaenge 12 Calzada Roos evelt 22-43 Zona
See address Greece Rm 710, 7/F New World Centr e 3460 Bir kerød 11
Tower A Tel.: +45-45-99 8200 Edificio Ti kal Futura,
Hangkong Rd, Ji efang Avenue Fax: +45-45-81 0145 Torre Luna Ni vel 14, Officina
Wuhan 430022 URL: www.tesa.dk 14b
Tel.: +86-27-68838547 Guatemala City
Fax: +86-27-68838710 Tel.: +502 24403747/24403748
Fax: +502 24403780

Chile China Estonia Hungary


tesa tape Chile S.A. tesa tape (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. tesa A/S Estonia tesa tape Kft.
Camino Lo Es pejo 501, M aipu Rep Offide Ti anjin Sepise st. 18/20 Szabads ág út 117
Santi ago, Chile Room 11D 1, Bl dg A, DaAn 11415 T allinn 2040 Budaörs
Tel.: +56-2- 3688 871 Mansion Tel.: +372 640 1366 Tel.: +36-23-814154
Fax: +56-2- 5573 181 No. 41, Friendship Rd, HeXi Fax: +372 640 1359 Fax: +36-23-814160
URL: www.tesa.cl District URL: www.tesa.dk URL: www.tesa.hu
Tianjin 300211
Tel.: +86-22-28362660
Fax: +86-22-28361990

84 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


India Mexico Russia Taiwan
tesa T apes (India) Pvt.Ltd. Technical T ape México S.A. de tesa tape OOO tesa tape (Hong Kong) Ltd.
B 703, 7th Floor, C.V. Shabolovka 10 Business Center Taiwan Branch
Hermes Atrium, Av. Santa Fe N o. 170 Konkord 17F - 1, 33, Sec. 1, Min Sheng
Plot No. 57, Sector 11, German Centre P 6-3- 3 119047 Moscow Road
CBD Belapur, Col. Lomas de Santa Fe Tel.: +7-495-258 4024 Pan C hiao, Taipei Hsien
Navi Mumbai –400614, D.F. C.P. 01210 Fax: +7-495-792-3245 22069
Maharas htra, Tel.: +52-55 5292 - 6978 URL: www.tesatape.ru Tel.: +886-2-2957 9662
Tel.: +91-22 27564139 URL: www.tesatape.com Fax: +886-2-2957 9433
Fax: +91-22 27564138

Indonesia Netherlands Singapore Thailand


tesa tape Asi a Pacific Pte. Ltd. tesa BV tesa tape Asi a Pacific Pte.Ltd. tesa tape Thailand Li mited
11th floor, Suite A, Per wata Stationgebouw, Sati onplein 3-1 164 Gul Circle, 185/80 17th Fl oor, Nation
Tower NL-1211 EX Hilversum Singapore 629621 Tower
CBD Plut, Jl Pluit Selatan R aya Tel.: +31-35-625 02 00 Tel.: +65-68-612026 Bangna-Trad Road,
Jakarta Utara 14440 Fax: +31-35 625 02 40 Fax: +65-68-612361 Bangna
Tel.: +62-21 66672978 URL : www.tesa.nl URL: www.tesa-asia.com Bang kok 10260
Fax: +62-21 66672985 Tel.: +66-2- 7514025-29
Fax: +66-2- 7514030

Italy New Zealand Slovakia Turkey


tesa SpA tesa tape New Z ealand Ltd. tesa tape s.r.o. organizacna tesa Bant San. Ve Tic. A.S.
Via L. Cadorna 69 Unit 1, Building D 30, zlozka Slovens ko Spring Giz Plaz a Kat 1
20090 Vimodrone(Milano) Vestey Drive Riznerova 5 Kayisdagi Caddesi, Kar Plaza
Tel.: +39-02-250108 11 Mt. Wellington, Aukland 81101 Bratislava Kat 11
Fax: +39-02-250108 41 Tel.: +64 9 5261444 Tel.: +421 257 101 620 34752 Içerenköy, Istanbul
Fax: +64 9 5264333 Fax: +421 257 101 600 Tel.: +90-216-5789000
URL: www.tesa.s k Fax: +90-216-5789001
URL: www.tesabant.com.tr

Japan Norway Slovenia Ukraine


tesa tape K.K. tesa AS tesa tape d.o.o. Representative Office tesa
Shinagawa Intercity Tower A, Tevling vn 23 Pot k s ejmisc u 30 Tape Kft
22F 1081 Oslo 1231 LJ Crnuce Shevc henko Avenue 46V
2-15-1 Konan, Minato- ku Tel.: +47-22 90 79 79 Tel.: +386-1-5602409 Office #2
Tokyo 108-6022 Fax: +47-22 30 03 76 Fax: +386-1-5602415 01032 Kiev
Tel.: +81-3 67161400 URL: www.tesa.dk URL: www.tesa.si Tel.: +380-44-2357884
Fax: +81-3 67161422 Fax: +380-44-2353655
URL: www.tesa.j p

Korea Philippines South Africa United Kingdom


tesa tape Korea tesa tape Asi a Pacific Pte. Ltd. tesa SA tesa UK Ltd.
Room 1805, City Air Tower Rep. Office Philippines 1A Phumel ela Park Yeomans Drive, Bl akelands
159-9, Sams eong-dong See address Si ngapore Montague Gar dens Mil ton Keynes ,
Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-973 Montague Drive Buc ks MK 14 5LS
Tel.: +822-569 -84 51 7441 Cape T own Tel .: +44-1-908 211 333
Fax: +822-569 -84 55 Tel.: +27-21 552 2499 Fax: +44-1-908 211 555
Fax: +27-21 552 0516 URL : www.tesa.co.uk

Latvia Poland Spain USA


tesa A/S tesa tape Sp. z o.o. tesa tape S.A. tesa tape inc .
Vienibas gatve 109 ul.Gniez niens ka 32 Ctra. de Matar ó a Granollers, P. 5825 Carnegie Boulevard
LV 1058, Riga 61-021 Poznan Km. 5,4 Charlotte, N.C. 28209
Tel.: +371-679-30180 Tel.: +48 61 8746 210 08310 Argentona Tel.: +1-704 554 07 07
Fax: +371-679-30179 Fax: +48 61 874 6 019 Tel.: +34-93 758 33 00 Fax: +1-704 553 56 34
URL; www.tesa.dk URL: www.tesa.pl Fax: +34-93 758 34 44 URL; www.tesatape.com
URL: www.tesatape.es
Lithuania Portugal Sweden Vietnam
tesa A/S Lithuania tesa Portugal, Lda. tesa AB tesa tape Asi a Pacific Pte Ltd.
Eisiskiu pl. 8a Rua Soerio Pereira Gomes, 59 Energigatan 11 Unit 705A, 7th Floor, Me Li nh
LT 02184 Vilni us Queluz de Bai xo, Apartado 87 43437 Kungsbac ka Point T ower
Tel.: +370 5 2159245 PT 2746-901 Queluz Tel.: +46-300 55350 No. 2 Ngo Duc Ke Street,
Fax: +370 5 2159242 Tel.: +351-21-4 349 600 Fax: +46-300 19494 District 1
URL: www.tesa.dk Fax: +351-21-4 351 499 URL: www.tesa.dk Ho Chi Minh City,
URL : www.tesa.pt Tel.: +84-8- 823 7850 Ext 2805
Fax: +84-8- 823 7840

Malaysia Romania Switzerland Vietnam


tesa tape (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd. tesa tape SR L tesa Bandfi x AG Unit 15A, 2nd floor, 63 Ly Thai
No. 15, Jal an P/2, Calea Turzii Nr.–74-76 Industriestr. 19 To
Kawasan Perusahaan Beranang 400193 Cluj-Napoc a, Cluj 8962 Bergdieti kon Room 210, 2nd floor, V-tower
43700 Beranang, Tel: +40-364-401-140 Tel.: +41-44-744 31 11 649, Ki m Ma Street
Selangor Dar ul Ehs an Fax: +40-364-401-141 Fax: +41-44-741 26 72 BaDinh District
Tel.: +60-3- 87692626 URL: www.tesatape.ro URL: www.tesa.c h Hanoi
Fax: +60-3- 8766 7645 Tel. +84-4-7667800
Fax +84-4-7667801

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 85


SECTION 3 Recommended joins in self-
adhesive laminates for roll
labels
Conversion
It is important that a join in a self-adhesive laminate should be
made in such a way that it will minimize problems when
converted into roll labels. The join should be angled so that the
feed-in is gradual, the width of facing tape and backing tape
should differ so that there is not too great a step in increased
thickness and the total thickness of the join should be kept to a
minimum in order to avoid damage to or misplacement of the
cutters.

The following specification is recommended:


a) The angle of the join should be 10° - 30° from the cross
direction.

b) The width of tape on the facing paper should be at least >


30 mm.

c) The width of tape on the backing paper should be broader


than the tape of the face material > 36 mm.

d) The tape between the face and the backing paper should be
a smaller tape, at least < 20 mm.

e) The tapes should have a thickness of no more than


0.063mm inclusive of adhesive.

f) The tape used on the backing paper should be a colored


tape for ease of identification but the tape on the face
material can either be a colored tape for a similar reason, or
a white printable tape for use with laminates which are to be
converted to security or sequentially numbered labels, i.e.
when all labels must be accounted for.

g) Where applicable the tapes should withstand the


temperatures involved in label printing processe s.

Tape

Adhesive Face material

Adhesive
Adhesive

Tape
Silicone

Adhesive
Backing paper
Tape

Issued October 1985


Revised March 1999
Revised October 2008

86 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


SECTION 4 Processing
recommendations

Roll stock
1. Generally, self-adhesive paper roll stock can regular intervals on UV output of the lamps . It
be considered as normal paper with respect to is advisable to keep the web temperature on
ink choice etc. synthetics, filmic and foil roll re-wind under 24°C.
stock, however often need special materials
involving consultation with ink suppliers. 11. It is advisable to use an antistatic bar at the
point of matrix de-lamination for easy matrix
2. Corona treatment is required for filmic face removal by neutralizing the generated static
stock to enhance the ink adhesion. When the charge by de-lamination. This prevents matrix
substrate is corona pre-treated, it is advisable break.
to refresh the corona treatment on press.
12. Avoid excessive tension in reels of finished
3. Chemically top coated filmic face stock labels. This will prevent bleeding and label
substrates should not be corona treated on shifting.
press without prior contact with the supplier.
13. Wind finished labels on to cores of an
4. Always check with the Supplier if his material appropriate size. Large labels should not be
can withstand the intended process conditions, wound on to small cores. It is therefore
particularly if excessive temperatures or advisablet ous e6”c orei ns
teadof3”c or
et o
unusual web feed patterns are involved. prevent the label curling.

5. Do not change the winding direction of the roll 14. Finished work should be shrouded in
prior to conversion, as this will alter the release polythene prior to packing.
properties and could affect curl problems.
15. Wher everpos sible,t
hemanuf actur er’
s
6. Always use the correct die for the product. batch/order references should be retained in
Therefore it is advisable to mention to die case of complaints.
manufacturer the type of face stock substrate.
16. To take dust out of the roll stock it is advisable
7. Labels should be designed with matrix to use a web cleaner on un-wind section.
stripping in mind. Refer to the supplier if
complex shapes are involved. Wherever 17. To reduce the static electricity mainly from the
possible, use round corners for labels and filmic roll stock it is advisable to use antistatic
avoid narrow matrices. devices between the printing units and before
web rewinding.
8. Check the depth of die-cutting before
proceeding with any lengthy run. Revised May 2001
Excessive die pressure will cause weakening Revised October 2008
of the backing paper / liner and should be
avoided in products intended for high speed
automatic application. Check also the
dimensional size of the label because on filmic
you can have a retraction of the material
generally on wide press or during processing.

9. Use the minimum amount of heat for hot air


drying inks e.g. water and solvent based inks
to avoid the temperature increase of the web.
It is advisable to keep the web temperature on
re-wind under 24°C.

10. With UV cured inks, always check the cure


before proceeding. Checks should be made at

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 87


Filmic sheet stock Paper sheet stock
1. Check that the ink is compatible with the 1. Self-Adhesive paper sheet stock can be
product to be used and is approved or considered as normal paper with respect to ink
recommended by the ink supplier. type, dryers, retarders, etc.

2. Allow sufficient unprinted edge trim on the 2. When using self-adhesive sheet stock in offset
screen to prevent edge lift due to shrinkage. litho printing, however the following points
should be noted:
3. Avoid excessive amounts of thinners or a) Reset the impression nip between the
retarders to prevent shrinkage. blanket and plate cylinder to allow for the
extra thickness. This will reduce problems
4. Ensure that all machinery in the vicinity of of tail edge creasing, misregister etc.
solvent fumes is fitted with anti-static devices
and solvent extractors where possible. b) The double sheet trip should always be
used to prevent any damage to plates, etc.
5. Use a minimum of heat to dry the ink in order
to avoid sheet curl. c) Always use minimum of damping to
prevent edge waving, etc.
6. When using a jet drier for multi-colour runs,
shroud the sheets in polythene between runs d) To prevent edge curl, always shroud
to prevent sheet curl. sheets in polyethylene between colors if
multi-colour machines are not being used.
7. When rack drying, avoid changes in
temperature or humidity between runs to 3. Finished work should be shrouded in
prevent sheet curl. polyethylene until cut and boxed.

8. Always allow sufficient time between passes 4. The Manufacturer's recommendations on


for each colour to dry. This is of particular guillotining and slitting should be used.
importance in the case of flood coating.
5. Wherever possible, retain the Manufacturer's
9. Print successive close-register colors as soon batch/order references in case of complaint.
as possible after each other. Printing separate
colors under different atmospheric conditions
will cause difficulties with register. Issued May 1987

10. Finished work should be shrouded in


polythene until cut and boxed.

11. Alwaysf
oll
owt heManuf act ur er’s
recommendations on guillotining and slitting.

12. Wherever possible, retain the Manufacturer's


batch/order references in case of complaint.

88 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


SECTION 5 Surfaces requiring caution

Caution should be exercised when labeling surfaces Ageing


listed below. In many cases products are available Surfaces where adhesive may be significantly
which will overcome the problems of application and exposed over time to severe environmental
you are strongly recommended to contact your conditions resulting in eventual breakdown and
material supplier . failure of the adhesive, e.g. drum labeling,
exposure to salt water, and or high levels of
Surfaces w here damage can be caused by sunlight.
application or removal of self adhesiv e products
Weaker bonded surface finishes e.g. Applications w here specific advice should be
(plasticized/soft) PVC, flock coated fabric, acrylic sought
vehicle paint, paper, card. Animal skins and natural Direct food labeling, toy labeling, any medical or
fibres, e.g. suede, leather wool. pharmaceutical applications, e.g. direct skin
Tarnishable metal surfaces, e.g. copper, brass, contact, blood bags, phials, items requiring
silver. sterilization processes. Apparel and fabric labeling,
Some coated glass surfaces e.g. self cleaning, and leather, luxury goods, extreme environment
optical lenses. exposures e.g. temperatures 80°C or -20°C,
direct/continuous exposure to sunlight, UV,
Surfaces to w hich it is difficult to obtain seawater or chemicals.
satisfactory adhesion
Low energy surfaces where 'wetting' is difficult e.g. See also Section 8 Qualitativ e Adhesion testing
PT.F.E., untreated polyolefins, silicone treated or
contaminated surfaces, surfaces chemically treated
for corrosion resistance, waxed surfaces, printed Issued March 1987
polyethylene (polyamide inks), greasy surfaces. Revised May 2001
Surface energy changes due to migration or loss of Revised October 2008
effectiveness of pre-treatment.

Rough surfaces where surface contact is likely to be


low, lacquered finishes, cork, foam, open weave
fabrics, embossed finishes, unglazed pottery.

Moist and/or cold surfaces where adhesive tack will


be momentarily deadened by either water or the low
temperature e.g. surfaces with condensation bloom,
ice, deep frozen food and chilled packs.

Irregular shaped surfaces in particular curved


surfaces of less than 25 mm diameter where label is
applied to the convex surface (phials, ampoules,
bottle miniatures).

Dusty, friable, oily surfaces where adhesive tack


may be destroyed on surface contact, e.g. plaster,
rusty metal, masonry, concrete and tires.

Surfaces prone to gassing (caused by undercure)


which if it occurs after label application, may lead
to eventual bond failure, e.g. polycarbonate,
fibreglass, sealant.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 89


SECTION 6 Safety guide for users of
self-adhesive label stock
products

Storage Fire
Normal storage principles should be applied when The laminates will burn in the event of contact with
storing and stacking laminate rolls. See also section a flame, smoky fumes being given off by the
7. adhesive itself. Fires may be extinguished with
Materials involved are generally flammable and water provided that live electrical equipment is not
therefore should be stored away from all sources of in the vicinity. Otherwise powder or C02 should be
heat and ignition. used. The advice of your Fire Officer should be
Consideration should be given to listing types of initially sought having regard for the layout of your
material stored to assist the Fire Brigade in the premises and the particular operations involved.
event of fire. The following extra precautions are applicable to
the products stated.
Usage 1. Films
Plastic films pass through a melt stage and will
1. Handling therefore drip before burning - this may cause
Safe methods of roll and pallet handling should severe burns if skin contact is made. In the
be applied. During un-banding pallets, care event of a fire, the use of self contained
should be exercised to avoid whiplash when breathing apparatus is recommended during
banding is cut –eye protection and gloves are fire-fighting.
recommended. It is important to remember that
the outside wrappers, or laps, of a roll are for 2. PVC (v inyl)
protection only and should not be relied upon to During combustion, hydrochloric acid gas is
support the roll if excessive stresse s are evolved, as well as dense smoke and other
applied. Ideally, lifting and movement should be acrid fumes which can have a corrosive and
conducted in a safe horizontal manner using irritant effect. Self contained positive-air
centre core support where possible. breathing equipment should be readily
Operators should be forewarned that self- available for fire fighting and rescue work.
adhesive laminate rolls show a greater tendency
to Health and safety
telescope than rolls of plain paper and therefore
greater care should be exercised.
Under normal conditions of handling, no hazards
2. Conversion are anticipated, but good industrial hygiene should
Care should be taken to avoid cuts from always be observed. For specialized applications
exposed paper or laminate edges during e.g. food, toy or surgical labeling, advice should be
handling. During the conversion of pressure sought from the individual supplier.
sensitive laminates static build-up may occur.
Therefore, conversion equipment should be
adequately earthed. In situations where highly
flammable solvents or inks are being used,
specialist recommendations on static elimination
may be necessary.

90 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Waste disposal Other information
Waste laminate is usually classified in most The Technical Department of the Supplier should
countriesas“ non-hazardous" but local and national be contacted for any additional specific information
regulations must be examined and complied with. required.

The following points should be noted:


Issued January 1987
Vinyl laminate should only be considered for Supplement FINAT Waste Management Systems
incineration if the incinerator is suitably constructed Issued December 1995
to cope with corrosive fumes and dense smoke, and Revised March 1999
operates under conditions that prevent the formation Revised October 2008
of dioxins.

FINAT Solutions
While research and development efforts continue
towards material recycling solutions, FINAT has
arranged a disposal system for release liners in a
number of countries.

For laminate waste, thermal recycling is


recommended. This is based on high temperature
combustion as a substitute for fuel in the cement
industry and in power stations.

For release liner there are possibilities for material


recycling, provided the waste is clean. In Benelux,
France, Germany and UK, a separate collection
scheme for release liner waste is available to label
converters and users.
Such schemes can only be set up and implemented
in a collective approach for the industry.

For information, contact the FINAT secretariat.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 91


SECTION 7 Handling and storage of
label stock throughout
printing and converting

Roll stock

Receipt of goods Preparation of material for processing


On receiving goods into premises, inspect for signs Pay attention not to damage the reels when
of damage. Inform supplier of any shortage or transporting material with forklift trucks.
damage immediately. Remove moisture-proof wrapping and leave to
Store all material on a clean dry floor. Where goods attain print room conditions for at least 24 hours
are supplied on pallets, it is advisable to retain the before processing, as handling cold or hot material
material on these, and in the original package, until in a shop with normal temperatures may cause
needed. wavy edges and curling.
Rolls can be stored in horizontal or vertical position.
If stored horizontally, there is a risk for pressure Storage and Handling of finished product
mark in the area touching the ground Store in a cool and dry place.
Ideal storage conditions are 20-25°C and 40-50 %
RH.
Store finished coils on end (vertical storage),
ideally use two-side silicone release coated
interleaving sheets between the coils.
Wrap in polythene and pack in boxes or on pallets
to give protection during transport and further
handling.

Horizontal storage = cor e aligned horizontally


Sheet Stock

Receipt of goods
On receiving goods into premises, inspect for
signs of damage. Inform supplier of any shortage
or damage immediately.
Store all material on a clean dry floor.
Transport and store the material supported on a
Vertical storage = core aligned vertically
flat base to prevent bending.
Storage conditions Storage Conditions
Store in a cool and dry place. Store in a cool and dry place.
Ideal storage conditions are 20-25°C and 40-50 % Ideal storage conditions are 20-25°C and 40-50 %
RH. RH.
High temperatures might cause adhesive bleeding. High temperatures might cause adhesive bleeding.
Fluctuations in humidity might cause cockles or wavy Fluctuations in humidity might cause cockles or
edges. wavy edges.
Materials should not be stored near to sources of Avoid stacking more than 10 packages on a pallet.
heat and ignition, or in direct sunlight. Do not stock pallets with stacked reams on top of
Do not unwrap rolls until required. each other.
Pay particular attention to the supplier's Materials should not be stored near to sources of
recommended shelf-life and ensure correct stock heat and ignition, or in direct sunlight.
rotation. Do not unwrap pallets and reams until required.
Pay particular attention to the supplier's
recommended shelf-life and ensure correct stock
rotation.

92 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Preparation of material for processing
The material should be allowed to condition (still in
the wrapper) for at least 24 hours at printing room
conditions. Longer times might be needed if the
storage conditions are radically different from the
conditions in the print room.
Failure to condition sheets at print room conditions
may create curling or wavy edges.
If sheets require cutting before printing, then the
knife of the guillotine should be sharp and clean. Cut
the minimum number of sheets practicable, referring
to the manufacturer for advice if necessary. Use
minimum pressure to avoid adhesive bleed.
Some filmic materials are best cut face down.
If stacks are left overnight, protect from humidity
changes by shrouding with polythene.
Before printing, fan out the sheets.

Storage and Handling of finished product


Store in a cool and dry place.
Ideal storage conditions are 20-25°C and 40-50 %
RH.
Wrap in polythene and pack flat in boxes or on
pallets to give protection during transport and further
handling.
Take care, if banding, to avoid pressure marking.

Issued April 1987


Revised March 1999
Revised October 2008

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 93


SECTION 8 Qualitative adhesion
testing
Recommended adhesion test
Issued 1987
1. Cut out several labels, same size and in the
same machine direction as the proposed Revised March 1999
Revised October 2008
printed label.
2. Peel off backing and apply to object to be
labelled in the same position as the eventual
requirement. Rub down lightly with fingers or a
rubber pad.
3. Ideally, prepare several samples and place
one in a dry atmosphere and one in high
humidity or other specific conditions simulating
potential end applications..
4. Leave for 24 hours minimum before
assessment of adhesion.

Assessment of adhesion

1 Examine visually for edge lift.


2. Lift up corner of the label and peel with a firm,
slow pull.
3. Good adhesion should result in at least 30%
fibre tear (by area) in the label paper.
Filmic labels can only be asse ssed by the peel
force required to remove the label.
Removable labels can be tested in the same
way, but should not give any fibre tear or
surface damage when removed.

Surfaces to be labeled

1. Surfaces may not be what they appear to be.


For example glass may have a protective
coating or antiscuff agent on the surface.
There is no substitute for a test carried out on
the actual object to be labeled.
2. Test for adhesion under conditions which are
as close as possible to the end application.
This should take into consideration
temperature and humidity.
3. Do not carry out the test on a flat, empty
plastic bag when the end user is labeling one
filled with product.
4. Check whether the label is to be applied to a
plain or a printed part of the pack.
5. On plastic or filmic surfaces, materials that can
migrate to the surface may be present. Advice
should be sought from suppliers since these
materials can have a detrimental effect on
adhesion.

94 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


SECTION 9 Adhesives

Pressure sensitive adhesives were first developed in Acrylic adhesives which are also available as water-
the mid nineteenth century for self-adhesive based emulsions, have excellent ageing properties.
bandages. However, it was only ninety years later They are easy to coat and clearly eliminate the
that the idea was used to make self-adhesive labels. hazards linked with solvent coating.
Hot melt adhesives can be coated at very high
At that time the adhesive used was made from coating weights, because there is no drying or curing
natural rubber and applied by coating from a solvent process involved.
solution. Today solvents are not very popular any
more, and alternative self-adhesive materials are Due to modern coating and drying technology both
available. types of adhesives are able to be applied at high
machine speeds.

Types of pressure sensitive adhesives and major applications


Permanent An adhesive with high ultimate adhesion, where labels are not intended to be
removed. Available from standard to very high coating weights, depending on
the end application.

Remov able, Peelable An adhesive with a low ultimate adhesion to a wide range of surfaces. Careful
choice of adhesive must be made, particularly for surfaces like fabrics, paper
and plastic films.

Water removable An adhesive which releases the label by contact with water. Certain adhesives
already lose their adhesion force with plain water, others need alcaline water.

Low Temperature An adhesive capable of functioning at temperatures below + 5°C, i.e. chill
conditions (+ 5°C to-5°C), deep freeze conditions (-5°C to-25°C) and blast
freeze conditions (-25°C to -50°C).

Re-positionable An adhesive which permits removal and repositioning shortly after


application, prior to the development of ultimate adhesion.

Food Contact An adhesive with the appropriate F.D.A., BfR. or other appropriate
approval for application to foodstuffs.

Recycling friendly An adhesive which is designed to be less harmful to paper recycling; already
used in N.A. for self-adhesive stamps these adhesives support the trend of
trouble free recycling of self-adhesive materials.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 95


Nomenclature for adhesives used in self-adhesive laminates

Purpose: To offer a standard nomenclature for describing different types of adhesives


used in self-adhesive laminates. This nomenclature can be used in technical
leaflets, brochures and other documents, and it makes it easier to describe
and understand the basic composition and character of each adhesive.

Content: Each adhesive should be categorized in four ways. The three first categories
are compulsory, the last one optional:
1. Chemical basis
2. Physical state + drying/curing
3. Mains final use
4. Additional significant properties

1. Chemical basis:
•Acrylic(pur e,tack
if
ied)
•Rubber( nat ur
al,s
yntheti
c)
•Other

2. Physical state + drying/curing


•Wat erbor ne
•Sol ventbor ne
•Hotmel t
•Radi ationcur edhotmel t

3. Main final use


•Per manent
•Removabl e
•Deep-freeze
•Re-positionable
•Foodc ontact
•Was h-off
•Ot her

4. Additional significant properties,


e.g.“di r
ectf oodcont actacc or dingt
oFDA 175.
125”orf
orphar
maceut
ical
purposes.

Issued May 2005


Revised October 2008

96 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


SECTION 10 Unwind roll chart

Indicate unwind direction by number as follows

Extract from TLMI Manual of Recommended Standards (where the chart has 16 positions).

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 97


SECTION 11 Recommendations
regarding static electricity
What is static electricity? When a material holds a net electrical charge, either negative or positive,
it is said to have a static charge. Polymeric substrates (plastics)
generally have high resistivities. This allows them to maintain static
charges for long periods of time; on the other hand metals have very low
resistances. Paper has lower resistivity than plastics, due to moisture
content and polarity.

Static electricity is usually measured in volts. The voltage present on a


material is dependent of two factors:
a) the amount of charge on the material
b) the capacitance of the material
The simple relationship is Q=CV where Q is the charge, V the voltage
and C the capacitance of the material.

There are two major type of static electricity, volumetric and surface.
Volumetric static charges are charge imbalances within the body of a
material, whereas surface static electricity is only present on the very
outer surface of a material. All the static electricity problems found in the
web printing and converting industry relate to surface charges. Whether
the charge is volumetric or on the surface of the substrate depends of
the conductivity of the substrate.

How is static electricity created? Static charges are generated by friction, contact and separation of the
material as it is being pulled from the feed roll and as the material passe s
over the idler rollers of a press or a converting machine.
Friction leads to closer contact thus more contact points and therefore
increases the level of charge generation..
As two materials are rubbed together the electrons associated with the
surface atoms on each material come into very proximity with each other,
and can be moved from one material to the other.
When static electricity is created by separation of materials, the faster
the separation, the higher the charge generated and conversely, the
slower the separation the lower the charge. As an example, when
printing a PVC substrate the web is moving over a PTFE (Teflon®)
coated roller. When the materials separate, the electrons tend to adhere
to the PTFE, generating a negative charge on the PTFE and a positive
charge on the PVC-film.

Factors influencing
static electricity: Among the many factors that affect the generation and retention of static
electricity are humidity, the substrate type, repetition and change in
temperature.

Substrate:
Generally all polymeric substrates and polymeric coated or laminated
paper tend to become charged with static electricity, and some of them
are more readily charged than others. Paper is less prone to become
charged, but it can happen especially in very dry conditions. Whether a
substrate charges positively or negatively depend on the other material
with which it has come into contact. For example, when a polyamide
(PA) film passe s over a rubber nip roller, it becomes negatively charged,
a polyethylene will be positively charged

98 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009


Humidity:
The dryer the environment of the print room, the higher the level of static
charge, and conversely the higher the humidity, the lower the static
charge.

Repetition:
Repeated action such as friction or separation will increase the level of
static electricity on the web. When the web passes over many idler
rollers the static charge will be higher.

Battery effect:
Rewinding the many layers of a low charged web can lead to extremely
high voltage charges. This is noticeable on the roller of a rewind unit on a
printing press or a slitter.

Change in temperature:
As a material cools down, it has a tendency to generate charge. For
example, when a web passes UV-lamps or IR-dryer it gets heated; then
the surface temperature of the web will be cooled down by passing over
a chill roller or the web will cool down by itself at the room temperature,
Overall, this will create static charge on the surface.

Problems and Elimination


of static electricity: Problems
Static charges result in electrostatic attraction to the substrate surface, of
dirt and airborne particles present around the press and converting
machines. Web speeds complicate this process, because the faster the
web speed the higher the static charge level. This problem affects all
printers and converters, especially when converting filmic substrates. In
the label printing industry dust attraction decreases the print quality.

Material misbehavior is another type of electrostatic attraction. This can


be noticed on a sheeter, stacker, conveyer, where the sheets would stick
to themselves or will be misrouted or repelled each other on the
equipment,

Elimination
The basic principle for neutralization of static charges is the same
whatever the technique used: one should re-establish the electrical
neutrality of the surface by adding or removing the electrons which
create the imbalance of the surface charge. As previously mentioned the
moisture in the press room has an impact on static charge, therefore it
makes sense to control the moisture. We suggest to maintain the relative
humidity at 50-65% and the room temperature at about 22-24°C.

Passive ionisation:
Carbon or stainless steel fibre earthed brushes placed closely over the
surface of the web of a press or a converting machine will leach away
the static charges down to earth. Passive eliminators are thus useful for
reduc ingver yhighlevelofs tati
cchar ges ,sayt ensofk V’ sdownt o
medi um hi ghlevelsofaf ewk V’s.However by their very nature, they are
not able to completely neutralize the surface electricity, therefore residual
charges remains on the substrate surface.

FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009 99


Active ionisation:
By using high voltage AC or DC bars over the web of a press or
converting machine, ionized air can be produced which can be used to
neutralize the surface charge of the substrate. Around the ionizing
pin/head a cloud of positive and negative ions will be produced. In the
absence of outside influences, the positive and negative ions are
attracted to each other or a nearby earth, and would either neutralize
each other or be dissipated to earth. However with the presence of a
nearby static charged surface an ion will be attracted to an opposite
charge on the surface of the substrate and the surface will be completely
neutralized.

Measuring the static charge There is a variety of measuring instruments for static electricity available
in the market.
Some instruments are calibrated to measure the field at a given distance.
The surface voltage and the polarity are then displayed on the screen.
Other instruments indicate the electrical field strength in kV/m. To
calculate the surface voltage, the reading has to be multiplied by the
distance between instrument and surface.

Glossary Coulomb: The unit of measure of electrical charges. (Symbol : C)


19
Electron: A small atomic particle with a negative charge (1.6x10ˉ
coulombs).
Ion: A molecule or atom with an electrical imbalance (a
negative ion has an excess of electrons, a positive ion has a
deficit of electrons)
Resistance: The higher the resistance of a material, the harder it is
for a charge to flow through it. Insulators e.g. all
polymeric substances (plastics) are very resistive. Unit:
Ohm ( Ω)
Capacitance: A measure of the ability of a substrate to hold the
charge. Unit: farad (F)

Issued October 2008

100 FINAT Technical Handbook 8th edition, 2009