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## GATE SOLVED PAPER

Mechanical Engineering
Fluid Mechanics

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neither Nodia nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and Nodia nor its
authors shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This book
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to render engineering or other professional services.

## NODIA AND COMPANY

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Ph : +91 - 141 - 2101150
www.nodia.co.in
email : enquiry@nodia.co.in
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME
FLUID MECHANICS

## YEAR 2013 ONE MARK

Q. 1 For steady, fully developed flow inside a straight pipe of diameter D , neglecting
gravity effects, the pressure drop Dp over a length L and the wall shear stress tw
are related by
DpD DpD2
(A) tw = (B) tw =
4L 4L2
DpD 4DpL
(C) tw = (D) tw =
2L D

n
Q. 2 In order to have maximum power from a Pelton turbine, the bucket speed must

i
be
(A) equal to the jet speed

o.
c
(B) equal to half of the jet speed.
(C) equal to twice the jet speed

a .
i
(D) independent of the jet speed.

YEAR 2013
o d TWO MARKS

Q. 3

. n
Water is coming out from a tap and falls vertically downwards. At the tap opening,

w
the stream diameter is 20 mm with uniform velocity of 2 m/s. Acceleration due
to gravity is 9.81 m/s2 . Assuming steady, inviscid flow, constant atmospheric

w
pressure everywhere and neglecting curvature and surface tension effects, the

w
diameter in mm of the stream 0.5 m below the tap is approximately.
(A) 10 (B) 15

Q. 4
(C) 20 (D) 25

A hinged gate of length 5 m, inclined at 30c with the horizontal and with water
mass on its left, is shown in the figure below. Density of water is 1000 kg/m3 . The
minimum mass of the gate in kg per unit width (perpendicular to the plane of
paper), required to keep it closed is

(A) 5000
(B) 6600
(C) 7546
(D) 9623
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## YEAR 2012 ONE MARK

Q. 5 Oil flows through a 200 mm diameter horizontal cast iron pipe (friction factor,
f = 0.0225 ) of length 500 m. The volumetric flow rate is 0.2 m3 /s . The head loss
(in m) due to friction is (assume g = 9.81 m/s2 )
(A) 116.18
(B) 0.116
(C) 18.22
(D) 232.36

Q. 6 The velocity triangles at the inlet and exit of the rotor of a turbomachine are
shown. V denotes the absolute velocity of the fluid, W denotes the relative
velocity of the fluid and U denotes the blade velocity. Subscripts 1 and 2 refer to
inlet and outlet respectively. If V2 = W1 and V1 = W2 , then the degree of reaction

n
is

. i
c o
a .
di
(A) 0
o (B) 1

.n
(C) 0.5 (D) 0.25

w
w
YEAR 2012 TWO MARKS

w
Q. 7 An incompressible fluid flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient. The
boundary layer thickness is 1 mm at a location where the Reynolds number is

1000. If the velocity of the fluid alone is increased by a factor of 4, then the
boundary layer thickness at the same location, in mm will be
(A) 4 (B) 2
(C) 0.5 (D) 0.25

Q. 8 A large tank with a nozzle attached contains three immiscible, inviscide fluids as
shown. Assuming that the change in h1, h2 and h 3 are negligible, the instantaneous
discharge velocity is

r1 h1 r2 h2
2gh 3 c1 +
r3 h 3 r3 h 3 m
(A) + (B) 2g (h1 + h2 + h 3)

r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h 3 r1 h2 h 3 + r2 h 3 h1 + r3 h1 h2
(C) 2g c m (D) 2g
r1 + r2 + r3 r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h 3
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Q. 9 A streamline and an equipotential line in a flow field

(A) are parallel to each other (B) are perpendicular to each other
(C) intersect at an acute angle (D) are identical

## YEAR 2011 TWO MARKS

Q. 10 Figure shows the schematic for the measurement of velocity of air (density
= 1.2 kg/m3 ) through a constant area duct using a pitot tube and a water tube
manometer. The differential head of water (density = 1000 kg/m3 ) in the two
columns of the manometer is 10 mm. Take acceleration due to gravity as 9.8 m/s2
. The velocity of air in m/s is

. in
c o
a .
d i
o
(A) 6.4 (B) 9.0

n
(C) 12.8 (D) 25.6

.
w
Q. 11 A pump handing a liquid raises its pressure from 1 bar to 30 bar. Take the density
of the liquid as 990 kg/m3 . The isentropic specific work done by the pump in kJ/

w
kg is

w
(A) 0.10 (B) 0.30
(C) 2.50 (D) 2.93

YEAR 2010 ONE MARK

Q. 12 For the stability of a floating body, under the influence of gravity alone, which of
the following is TRUE ?
(A) Metacenter should be below centre of gravity.
(B) Metacenter should be above centre of gravity.
(C) Metacenter and centre of gravity must lie on the same horizontal line.
(D) Metacenter and centre of gravity must lie on the same vertical line.

## Q. 13 The maximum velocity of a one-dimensional incompressible fully developed

viscous flow, between two fixed parallel plates, is 6 ms-1 . The mean velocity (in
ms-1 ) of the flow is
(A) 2 (B) 3
(C) 4 (D) 5
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Q. 14 A phenomenon is modeled using n dimensional variables with k primary

dimensions. The number of non-dimensional variables is
(A) k (B) n
(C) n - k (D) n + k

## Q. 15 A hydraulic turbine develops 1000 kW power for a head of 40 m. If the head is

reduced to 20 m, the power developed (in kW) is
(A) 177 (B) 354
(C) 500 (D) 707

## Q. 16 Velocity vector of a flow field is given as V = 2xyi - x2 zj . The vorticity vector at

(1, 1, 1) is

i n
(A) 4i - j (B) 4i - k
(C) i - 4j
.
(D) i - 4k

o
c
A smooth pipe of diameter 200 mm carries water. The pressure in the pipe at

.
Q. 17

## section S1 (elevation : 10 m) is 50 kPa. At section S2 (elevation : 12 m) the

i a
pressure is 20 kPa and velocity is 2 ms-1 . Density of water is 1000 kgm-3 and

d
acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 ms-2 . Which of the following is TRUE

o
(A) flow is from S1 to S2 and head loss is 0.53 m

.n
(B) flow is from S2 to S1 and head loss is 0.53 m
(C) flow is from S1 to S2 and head loss is 1.06 m

w
(D) flow is from S2 to S1 and head loss is 1.06 m

Q. 18
w
Match the following
P.
w
Compressible flow U. Reynolds number

Q. Free surface flow V. Nusselt number
R. Boundary layer flow W. Weber number
S. Pipe flow X. Froude number
T. Heat convection Y. Mach number
Z. Skin friction coefficient
(A) P-U; Q-X; R-V; S-Z; T-W (B) P-W; Q-X; R-Z; S-U; T-V
(C) P-Y; Q-W; R-Z; S-U; T-X (D) P-Y; Q-W; R-Z; S-U; T-V

## Q. 19 Consider steady, incompressible and irrotational flow through a reducer in a

horizontal pipe where the diameter is reduced from 20 cm to 10 cm. The pressure
in the 20 cm pipe just upstream of the reducer is 150 kPa. The fluid has a vapour
pressure of 50 kPa and a specific weight of 5 kN/m3 . Neglecting frictional effects,
the maximum discharge (in m3 /s) that can pass through the reducer without
causing cavitation is
(A) 0.05 (B) 0.16
(C) 0.27 (D) 0.38
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 20 You are asked to evaluate assorted fluid flows for their suitability in a given
laboratory application. The following three flow choices, expressed in terms of the
two dimensional velocity fields in the xy -plane, are made available.
P: u = 2y, v =- 3x
Q: u = 3xy, v = 0
R: u =- 2x, v = 2y
Which flow(s) should be recommended when the application requires the flow to
be incompressible and irrotational ?
(A) P and R (B) Q
(C) Q and R (D) R

Q. 21 Water at 25c C is flowing through a 1.0 km long. G.I. pipe of 200 mm diameter
at the rate of 0.07 m3 /s . If value of Darcy friction factor for this pipe is 0.02 and
density of water is 1000 kg/m3 , the pumping power (in kW) required to maintain
the flow is
(A) 1.8 (B) 17.4
(C) 20.5 (D) 41.0

in
Q. 22 The velocity profile of a fully developed laminar flow in a straight circular pipe,

2
dp 2
u (r) =- R b lc1 - r 2 m
.
as shown in the figure, is given by the expression

o
. c
4m dx R

a
dp
Where is a constant. The average velocity of fluid in the pipe is

i
dx

o d
. n
w
w
2
dp 2
dp
(A) - R b l (B) - R b l
8m dx 4m dx
2

w
dp
(C) - R b l
2
dp
(D) - R b l

2m dx m dx

## Q. 23 For the continuity equation given by d : V = 0 to be valid, where V is the

velocity vector, which one of the following is a necessary condition ?
(A) steady flow (B) irrotational flow
(C) inviscid flow (D) incompressible flow

## YEAR 2008 TWO MARKS

Q. 24 Water, having a density of 1000 kg/m3 , issues from a nozzle with a velocity of
10 m/s and the jet strikes a bucket mounted on a Pelton wheel. The wheel rotates
at 10 rad/s. The mean diameter of the wheel is 1 m. The jet is split into two equal
streams by the bucket, such that each stream is deflected by 120c as shown in the
figure. Friction in the bucket may be neglected. Magnitude of the torque exerted
by the water on the wheel, per unit mass flow rate of the incoming jet, is
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## (A) 0 (N-m)/(kg/s) (B) 1.25 (N-m)/(kg/s)

(C) 2.5 (N-m)/(kg/s) (D) 3.75 (N-m)/(kg/s)

. i n
o
Common Data For Q. 25 and 26

. c
The gap between a moving circular plate and a stationary surface is being

a
continuously reduced, as the circular plate comes down at a uniform speed V

i
towards the stationary bottom surface, as shown in the figure. In the process, the

d
fluid contained between the two plates flows out radially. The fluid is assumed to

o
be incompressible and inviscid.

.n
w
w
w
Q. 25
The radial velocity Vr at any radius r , when the gap width is h , is
(A) Vr = Vr (B) Vr = Vr
2h h
(C) Vr = 2Vh (D) Vr = Vh
r r
Q. 26 The radial component of the fluid acceleration at r = R is
2 2
(A) 3V 2R (B) V R
4h 4h2
2 2
(C) V R 2 (D) V h2
2h 2R

## YEAR 2007 ONE MARK

Q. 27 Consider an incompressible laminar boundary layer flow over a flat plate of length
L, aligned with the direction of an incoming uniform free stream. If F is the ratio
of the drag force on the front half of the plate to the drag force on the rear half,
then
(A) F < 1/2 (B) F = 1/2
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 28 In a steady flow through a nozzle, the flow velocity on the nozzle axis is given
by v = u 0 (1 + 3x/L), where x is the distance along the axis of the nozzle from its
inlet plane and L is the length of the nozzle. The time required for a fluid particle
on the axis to travel from the inlet to the exit plane of the nozzle is
(A) L (B) L ln 4
u0 3u 0
(C) L (D) L
4u 0 2.5u 0
Q. 29 Consider steady laminar incompressible anti-symmetric fully developed viscous
flow through a straight circular pipe of constant cross-sectional area at a Reynolds
number of 5. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force on a fluid particle is
(A) 5 (B) 1/5
(C) 0 (D) 3

## YEAR 2007 TWO MARKS

Q. 30 The inlet angle of runner blades of a Francis turbine is 90c. The blades are so

in
shaped that the tangential component of velocity at blade outlet is zero. The flow
velocity remains constant throughout the blade passage and is equal to half of the

(A) 25%
o.
blade velocity at runner inlet. The blade efficiency of the runner is
(B) 50%
(C) 80%
. c
(D) 89%

Q. 31

i a
A model of a hydraulic turbine is tested at a head of 1/4 th of that under which the

d
full scale turbine works. The diameter of the model is half of that of the full scale

o
turbine. If N is the RPM of the full scale turbine, the RPM of the model will be

. n
(A) N/4 (B) N/2
(C) N (D) 2N

w
w

w
forced vortex flow is correct ?
P: Shear stress is zero at all points in the flow.

Q: Vorticity is zero at all points in the flow.
R: Velocity is directly proportional to the radius from the center of the vortex.
S: Total mechanical energy per unit mass is constant in the entire flow field.
(A) P and Q (B) R and S
(C) P and R (D) P and S

Q. 33 Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given
below the lists :

List-I List-II
P. Centrifugal compressor 1. Axial flow
Q. Centrifugal pump 2. Surging
R. Pelton wheel 3. Priming
S. Kaplan turbine 4. Pure impulse
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Codes :
P Q R S
(A) 2 3 4 1
(B) 2 3 1 4
(C) 3 4 1 2
(D) 1 2 3 4

## Common Data For Q. 34 and 35

Consider a steady incompressible flow through a channel as shown below.

. i n
c o
a .
d i
o
.n
The velocity profile is uniform with a value of U 0 at the inlet section A. The
velocity profile at section B downstream is

w
Z y
]Vm d , 0#y#d

w
]
u = [Vm, d # y # H-d

w
] H-y
]Vm , H-d # y # H
d

\
Q. 34 The ratio Vm /U 0 is

(A) 1 (B) 1
1 - 2 (d/H)
(C) 1 (D) 1
1 - (d/H) 1 + (d/H)
p - pB
Q. 35 The ratio A (where pA and pB are the pressures at section A and B )
1 rU 2
0
2
respectively, and r is the density of the fluid) is
1 1
(A) 2 -1 (B)
81 - ^ d/ H hB [ 1 - (d /H )] 2
1 1
(C) 2 -1 (D)
61 - ( 2 d/ H )@ 1 + (d/H )

## Q. 36 For a Newtonian fluid

(A) Shear stress is proportional to shear strain
(B) Rate of shear stress is proportional to shear strain
(C) Shear stress is proportional to rate of shear strain
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Q. 37 In a two-dimensional velocity field with velocities u and v along the x and y

directions respectively, the convective acceleration along the x -direction is given
by
(A) u2v + v2u (B) u2u + v2v
2x 2y 2x 2y
(C) u2u + v2u (D) v2u + u2u
2x 2y 2x 2y
Q. 38 In a Pelton wheel, the bucket peripheral speed is 10 m/s, the water jet velocity is
25 m/s and volumetric flow rate of the jet is 0.1 m3 /s . If the jet deflection angle
is 120c and the flow is ideal, the power developed is
(A) 7.5 kW (B) 15.0 kW
(C) 22.5 kW (D) 37.5 kW

## YEAR 2006 TWO MARKS

Q. 39 A two-dimensional flow field has velocities along the x and y directions given by
u = x2 t and v =- 2xyt respectively, where t is time. The equation of stream line

in
is
(A) x2 y = constant (B) xy2 = constant
(C) xy = constant

o.
(D) not possible to determine

Q. 40

. c
The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a pipe of diameter D is

a
given by u = u 0 (1 - 4r2 /D2), where r is the radial distance from the center. If the

i
viscosity of the fluid is m, the pressure drop across a length L of the pipe is

d
mu 0 L 4mu 0 L
(A) (B)

o
2
D D2

n
8m u 0 L 16mu 0 L

.
(C) 2 (D)
D D2

w
Q. 41 A siphon draws water from a reservoir and discharge it out at atmospheric

w
pressure. Assuming ideal fluid and the reservoir is large, the velocity at point P
in the siphon tube is

w

## (A) 2gh1 (B) 2gh2

(C) 2g (h2 - h1) (D) 2g (h2 + h1)

## Q. 42 A large hydraulic turbine is to generate 300 kW at 1000 rpm under a head of

40 m. For initial testing, a 1 : 4 scale model of the turbine operates under a head
of 10 m. The power generated by the model (in kW) will be
(A) 2.34 (B) 4.68
(C) 9.38 (D) 18.75
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 43 A horizontal-shaft centrifugal pump lifts water at 65cC . The suction nozzle is one
meter below pump center line. The pressure at this point equals 200 kPa gauge
and velocity is 3 m/s. Steam tables show saturation pressure at 65cC is 25 kPa,
and specific volume of the saturated liquid is 0.001020 m3 /kg . The pump Net
Positive Suction Head (NPSH) in meters is

(A) 24 (B) 26
(C) 28 (D) 30

. i n
c o
.
Common Data For Q. 44 and 45

a
A smooth flat plate with a sharp leading edge is placed along a gas stream

d i
flowing at U = 10 m/s . The thickness of the boundary layer at section r - s is
10 mm, the breadth of the plate is 1 m (into the paper) and the density of the

o
gas r = 1.0 kg/m3 . Assume that the boundary layer is thin, two-dimensional, and

.n
follows a linear velocity distribution, u = U (y/d), at the section r-s, where y is
the height from plate.

w
w
w
Q. 44
The mass flow rate (in kg/s) across the section q - r is
(A) zero (B) 0.05
(C) 0.10 (D) 0.15

## Q. 45 The integrated drag force (in N) on the plate, between p-s, is

(A) 0.67 (B) 0.33
(C) 0.17 (D) zero

## Q. 46 The velocity components in the x and y directions of a two dimensional potential

flow are u and v , respectively. Then 2u/2x is equal to
(A) 2v (B) -2v
2x 2x
(C) 2v (D) -2v
2y 2y
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Q. 47 A venturimeter of 20 mm throat diameter is used to measure the velocity of water

in a horizontal pipe of 40 mm diameter. If the pressure difference between the
pipe and throat sections is found to be 30 kPa then, neglecting frictional losses,
the flow velocity is
(A) 0.2 m/s (B) 1.0 m/s
(C) 1.4 m/s (D) 2.0 m/s

## Q. 48 A U-tube manometer with a small quantity of mercury is used to measure the

static pressure difference between two locations A and B in a conical section
through which an incompressible fluid flows. At a particular flow rate, the mercury
column appears as shown in the figure. The density of mercury is 13600 kg/m3
and g = 9.81 m/s2 . Which of the following is correct ?

. in
c o
a .
(A) Flow direction is
(B) Flow direction is
A
B
to B
to A
and

d
and i pA - pB = 20 kPa
pA - pB = 1.4 kPa
(C) Flow direction is A

n o
to B and pB - pA = 20 kPa
(D) Flow direction is
. B to A and pB - pA = 1.4 kPa

Q. 49
w
A leaf is caught in a whirlpool. At a given instant, the leaf is at a distance of

w
120 m from the centre of the whirlpool. The whirlpool can be described by the

w
following velocity distribution:
3 3
Vr =-b 60 # 10 l m/s and Vq = 300 # 10 m/s

2pr 2p r
Where r (in metres) is the distance from the centre of the whirlpool. What will
be the distance of the leaf from the centre when it has moved through half a
revolution ?
(A) 48 m (B) 64 m
(C) 120 m (D) 142 m

## Q. 50 An incompressible fluid (kinematic viscosity, 7.4 # 10-7 m2 /s , specific gravity,

0.88) is held between two parallel plates. If the top plate is moved with a velocity
of 0.5 m/s while the bottom one is held stationary, the fluid attains a linear
velocity profile in the gap of 0.5 mm between these plates; the shear stress in
Pascals on the surfaces of top plate is
(A) 0.651 # 10-3 (B) 0.651
(C) 6.51 (D) 0.651 # 103
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Q. 51 A fluid flow is represented by the velocity field V = axi + ayj , where a is a

constant. The equation of stream line passing through a point (1, 2) is
(A) x - 2y = 0 (B) 2x + y = 0
(C) 2x - y = 0 (D) x + 2y = 0

## YEAR 2004 TWO MARKS

Q. 52 The following data about the flow of liquid was observed in a continuous chemical
process plant :

Flow Rate 7.5 to 7.7 7.7 to 7.9 7.9 to 8.1 8.1 to 8.3 8.3 to 8.5 8.5 to 8.7
(litres / sec)
Frequency 1 5 35 17 12 10
Mean flow rate of the liquid is

i n
(A) 8.00 litres/sec (B) 8.06 litres/sec
(C) 8.16 litres/sec
.
(D) 8.26 litres/sec

o
c
For a fluid flow through a divergent pipe of length L having inlet and outlet radii

.
Q. 53

## of R1 and R2 respectively and a constant flow rate of Q , assuming the velocity to

i a
be axial and uniform at any cross-section, the acceleration at the exit is

d
2Q (R1 - R2) 2Q2 (R1 - R2)
(A) (B)

o
pLR 23 pLR 23

.n
2Q2 (R1 - R2) 2Q2 (R2 - R1)
(C) (D)
p2 LR 25 p2 LR 25

w
Q. 54 A closed cylinder having a radius R and height H is filled with oil of density r

w
. If the cylinder is rotated about its axis at an angular velocity of w, then thrust
at the bottom of the cylinder is

w
rw2 R2
(A) pR2 rgH (B) pR2
4

(C) pR2 (rw2 R2 + rgH) (D) pR2 c
rw2 R2
4
+ rgH m

Q. 55 For air flow over a flat plate, velocity (U) and boundary layer thickness (d) can
be expressed respectively, as
U = 3y - 1 y 3 ; d = 4.64x
U3 2d 2 a d k Re x
If the free stream velocity is 2 m/s, and air has kinematic viscosity of 1.5 # 10-5 m2 /s
and density of 1.23 kg/m3 , the wall shear stress at x = 1 m, is

## (A) 2.36 # 102 N/m2 (B) 43.6 # 10-3 N/m2

(C) 4.36 # 10-3 N/m2 (D) 2.18 # 10-3 N/m2

## Q. 56 A centrifugal pump is required to pump water to an open water tank situated

4 km away from the location of the pump through a pipe of diameter 0.2 m
having Darcy’s friction factor of 0.01. The average speed of water in the pipe is
2 m/s. If it is to maintain a constant head of 5 m in the tank, neglecting other
minor losses, then absolute discharge pressure at the pump exit is
(A) 0.449 bar (B) 5.503 bar
(C) 44.911 bar (D) 55.203 bar
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 57 The pressure gauges G1 and G2 installed on the system show pressure of pG1 = 5.00
bar and pG2 = 1.00 bar. The value of unknown pressure p is

## (A) 1.01 bar (B) 2.01 bar

(C) 5.00 bar (D) 7.01 bar

Q. 58 At a hydro electric power plant site, available head and flow rate are 24.5 m
and 10.1 m3 /s respectively. If the turbine to be installed is required to run at 4.0
revolution per second (rps) with an overall efficiency of 90%, the suitable type of
turbine for this site is
(A) Francis (B) Kaplan

in
(C) Pelton (D) Propeller

.
Q. 59 Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

o
below the lists :
List-I
. c
List-II

i a
P. Reciprocating pump 1. Plant with power output below 100 kW

d
Q. Axial flow pump 2. Plant with power output between 100 kW

o
to 1 MW

n
R. Microhydel plant 3. Positive displacement
S.
.
Backward curved vanes 4. Draft tube

w
Codes :
P Q R S P Q R S
(A) 3
5
5
6
1
2
6
(B)
(D)
3
4
5
5
2
1
6
6

## Q. 60 A cylindrical body of cross-sectional area A, height H and density rs , is immersed

to a depth h in a liquid of density r, and tied to the bottom with a string. The
tension in the string is
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## (A) rghA (B) (rs - r) ghA

(C) (r - rs) ghA (D) (rh - rs H) gA

## Q. 61 A water container is kept on a weighing balance. Water from a tap is falling

vertically into the container with a volume flow rate of Q ; the velocity of the
water when it hits the water surface is U . At a particular instant of time the
total mass of the container and water is m . The force registered by the weighing
balance at this instant of time is
(A) mg + rQU (B) mg + 2rQU
2
(C) mg + rQU /2 (D) rQU 2 /2

n
Q. 62 A centrifugal pump running at 500 rpm and at its maximum efficiency is delivering

. i
a head of 30 m at a flow rate of 60 litres per minute. If the rpm is changed to

o
1000, then the head H in metres and flow rate Q in litres per minute at maximum

c
efficiency are estimated to be

.
(A) H = 60, Q = 120

i a
(B) H = 120, Q = 120

d
(C) H = 60, Q = 480

o
(D) H = 120, Q = 30

.n
Q. 63 Match List-I with the List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

w
below the lists :

w
List-I List-II
P Curtis 1. Reaction steam turbine
Q
w
Rateau 2. Gas turbine

R Kaplan 3. Velocity compounding
S Francis 4. Pressure compounding
5. Impulse water turbine
6. Axial turbine
7. Mixed flow turbine
8. Centrifugal pump
Codes :
P Q R S
(A) 2 1 1 6
(B) 3 1 5 7
(C) 1 3 1 5
(D) 3 4 7 6

Q. 64 Assuming ideal flow, the force F in newtons required on the plunger to push out
the water is
(A) 0 (B) 0.04
(C) 0.13 (D) 1.15
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 65 Neglect losses in the cylinder and assume fully developed laminar viscous flow
throughout the needle; the Darcy friction factor is 64/Re. Where Re is the
Reynolds number. Given that the viscosity of water is 1.0 # 10-3 kg/s-m, the
force F in newtons required on the plunger is
(A) 0.13 (B) 0.16
(C) 0.3 (D) 4.4

Q. 66 Air flows through a venturi and into atmosphere. Air density is r ; atmospheric
pressure is pa ; throat diameter is Dt ; exit diameter is D and exit velocity is U .
The throat is connected to a cylinder containing a frictionless piston attached to
a spring. The spring constant is k . The bottom surface of the piston is exposed
to atmosphere. Due to the flow, the piston moves by distance x . Assuming
incompressible frictionless flow, x is

. in
c o
a .
i
(A) (rU 2 /2k) pD s2

d
2
(B) (rU 2 /8k) c D 2 - 1m pD s2

o
Dt

n
2
(C) (rU 2 /2k) c D 2 - 1m pD s2

.
Dt

w
4
(D) (rU 2 /8k) c D 4 - 1m pD s2

w
Dt

YEAR 2002
w ONE MARK

Q. 67
If there are m physical quantities and n fundamental dimensions in a particular
process, the number of non-dimentional parameters is
(A) m + n (B) m # n
(C) m - n (D) m/n

Q. 68 If x is the distance measured from the leading edge of a flat plate, the laminar
boundary layer thickness varies as
(A) 1 (B) x 4/5
x
(C) x2 (D) x1/2

## Q. 69 Flow separation in flow past a solid object is caused by

(A) a reduction of pressure to vapour pressure
(D) the boundary layer thickness reducing to zero
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 70 The value of Biot number is very small (less than 0.01) when
(A) the convective resistance of the fluid is negligible
(B) the conductive resistance of the fluid is negligible
(C) the conductive resistance of the solid is negligible
(D) None of the above

## YEAR 2002 TWO MARKS

Q. 71 The properties of mercury at 300 K are; density = 13529 kg/m3 , specific heat at
constant pressure = 0.1393 kJ/kg -K , dynamic viscosity = 0.1523 # 10-2 N-s/m2
and thermal conductivity = 8.540 W/m -K . The Prandtl number of the mercury
at 300 K is
(A) 0.0248 (B) 2.48

n
(C) 24.8 (D) 248

. i
YEAR 2001

c o ONE MARK

Q. 72

a .
The SI unit of kinematic viscosity (u) is
(A) m2 /s
(C) m/s 2

d i (B) kg/m-s
(D) m3 /s2

o
.n
Q. 73 A static fluid can have
(A) non-zero normal and shear stress

w
(B) negative normal stress and zero shear stress

w
(C) positive normal stress and zero shear stress

w
(D) zero normal stress and non-zero shear stress

Q. 74 Lumped heat transfer analysis of a solid object suddenly exposed to a fluid
medium at a different temperature is valid when
(A) Biot number < 0.1
(B) Biot number > 0.1
(C) Fourier number < 0.1
(D) Fourier number > 0.1

## YEAR 2001 TWO MARKS

Q. 75 The horizontal and vertical hydrostatic forces Fx and Fy on the semi-circular gate,
having a width w into the plane of figure, are

## (A) Fx = rghrw and Fy = 0 (B) Fx = 2rghrw and Fy = 0

(C) Fx = rghrw and Fy = rgwr2 /2 (D) Fx = 2rghrw and Fy = prgwr2 /2
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Q. 76 The two-dimensional flow with velocity v = (x + 2y + 2) i + (4 - y) j is

(A) compressible and irrotational (B) compressible and not irrotational
(C) incompressible and irrotational (D) incompressible and not irrotational

Q. 77 Water (Prandtl number = 6 ) flows over a flat plate which is heated over the
entire length. Which one of the following relationships between the hydrodynamic
boundary layer thickness (d) and the thermal boundary layer thickness (dt) is
true?
(A) dt > d (B) dt < d
(C) dt = d (D) cannot be predicted

**********

. in
c o
a .
d i
n o
.
w
w
w
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

SOLUTION

## Sol. 1 Option (A) is correct.

For steady, fully developed flow inside a straight pipe, the pressure drop and wall
shear stress are related by
Dp = 4Ltw
D
DpD
or tw =
4L
Sol. 2 Option (B) is correct.

n
The force imposed by the jet on the runner is equal but opposite to the rate of

. i
momentum change of the fluid.
F =- m ^Vf - Vi h =- rQ 6^- Vi + 2u h - Vi@

o
=- rQ ^- 2Vi + 2u h = 2rQ ^Vi - u h

c
.
where u is the bucket speed and Vi is the jet speed.

a
Power P = Fu

## For maximum power

d i
= 2rQ ^Vi - u h u

o
^ i
dP = 2rQ V - 2u = 0
h

.n
du
or u = Vi 2rQ ! 0

w
2
Hence bucket speed ^u h must be equal to half of the jet speed.
Sol. 3
w
Option (B) is correct.

w
Applying the bernoulli’s equation at the tap opening and the 0.5 m below the tap
p1 V 12 p 2

+ + Z1 = 2 + V 2 + Z 2
pg 2g pg 2g
2 2
V 2 - V1 = Z - Z
or
2g 1 2 ^ p 1 = p 2h
or V 22 - V 12 = ^Z1 - Z2h 2g Z1 - Z2 = 0.5 m
or V 22 = 2 # 9.81 # 0.5 + ^2 h2 V1 = 2 m/ sec
or V2 = 3.72 m/ sec
Now applying the continuity equation
A1 V1 = A2 V2
p d 2V = p d 2V
4 1 1 4 2 2
or d 22 = V1 d 12 = 2 # ^20h2
V2 3.72
d2 = 15 mm
Sol. 4 Option (D) is correct.
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

In equilibrium condition
Torque due to pressure of water = Torque due to weight of the plate
Now Torque due to pressure at distance s for infinitesimal length (pressure
force acts normal to the surface)
T0 = ^pgy ds h s = rgs2 sin qds = rg sin qs2 ds
Torque due to weight of the gate is
= mg # L cos q
2
rg sin qs2 ds = mg # L cos q
L
Thus
0
# 2
2
2rL tan q
or m = = 2 # 103 # ^5 h2 # tan 30c = 9623 kg
3 3
Sol. 5 Option (A) is correct.
From Darcy Weischback equation head loss
2
h = f # L #V ...(1)
D 2g
Given that h = 500 m, D = 200 = 0.2 m , f = 0.0225

in
1000

.
Since volumetric flow rate

o
no = Area # velocity of flow (V)

c
V = n = 0. 2
o

.
= 6.37 m/s
Area p (0.2) 2

a
4 #

Hence,

d i
h = 0.0225 # 500 #
0.2
(6.37) 2
2 # 9.81

o
h = 116.33 m - 116.18 m

n
.
Sol. 6 Option (C) is correct.

w
Degree of reaction
(V12 - V22)

w
R = 1-
(V12 - V22) + (U12 - U22) + (W22 - W12)

w
where V1 and V2 are absolute velocities

W1 and W2 are relative velocities
U1 and U2 = U for given figure
Given W2 = V1, W1 = V2
(V12 - V22)
Hence R = 1- 2
(V1 - V22) + (U 2 - U 2) + (V12 - V22)
(V12 - V22)
= 1- = 1 - 1 = 0.5
2 (V12 - V22) 2
Sol. 7 Option (C) is correct.
For flat plate with zero pressure gradient and Re = 1000 (laminar flow).
Boundary layer thickness
1/2
d (x) = 4.91x = 4.91x = 4.91x
Re x Vx V
u u
1/2
& x
d \ 1/2 For a same location (x = 1)
V
d \ (V ) -1/2
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

d1 = V1 -1/2
d2 bV2 l
d2 = bV1 l # d1 = b V1 l # 1
1/2 1/2
V2 = 4V1 (Given)
V2 4V1
= b 1 l # 1 = 1 = 0.5
1/2

4 2
Sol. 8 Option (A) is correct.
Takes point (1) at top and point (2) at bottom
By Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)
V 2 (p + p2 + p 3) 2
p1 + r1 gh1 + r2 gh2 + r3 gh 3 + 1 1 = patm. + V 2
2g 2g
At Reference level (2) z2 = 0 and V1 = 0 at point (1)
Therefore
2
p1 + r1 gh1 + r1 gh2 + r3 gh 3 = patm. + V 2

n
& ...(1)
2g
Since
. i
p1 = atmospheric pressure (because tank is open)
Hence p1 = p atm.

c o
.
Therefore V2 = 2g # [r1 gh1 + r2 gh2 + r3 gh 3]

a
r gh r gh

i
= 2g # ; 1 1 + 2 2 + h 3E
r3 g r3 g

=
o d
2g # ;
r1 h1 r2 h2
r3
+
r3
+ h 3E = 2gh 3 # ;1 +
r1 h1 r2 h2
r3 h 3 r3 h 3 E
+

.n
Sol. 9 Option (B) is correct.
dy

w
For Equipotential line, =- u = Slope of equipotential line ...(i)
dx v
For stream function,

w dy
= v = Slope of stream line ...(ii)

w
dx u
It is clear from equation (i) and (ii) that the product of slope of equipotential line

and slope of the stream line at the point of intersection is equal to - 1.
- u # v =- 1
v u
And, when m1 m2 =- 1, Then lines are perpendicular, therefore the stream
line and an equipotential line in a flow field are perpendicular to each other.
Sol. 10 Option (C) is correct.
Given : pa = 1.2 kg/m3 , rw = 1000 kg/m3 , x = 10 # 10-3 m , g = 9.8 m/ sec2
If the difference of pressure head ‘h ’ is measured by knowing the difference of the
level of the manometer liquid say x . Then
. w - 1 = x rw - 1
h = x :SG
SG
. a D : ra D

## = 10 # 10-3 :1000 - 1D = 8.32 m

1.2
Weight density of liquid
Where S.G =
Weight density of water
S.G \ Density of Liquid
Velocity of air V = 2gh = 2 # 9.8 # 8.32 = 12.8 m/ sec
Sol. 11 Option (D) is correct.
3
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Isentropic work down by the pump is given by,

W = ndp = m dp n=m
r r
W = 1 dp = 1 (30 - 1) # 105 pascal
m r 990 #
= 2929.29 J/kg = 2.93 kJ/kg
Sol. 12 Option (B) is correct.

. in
As shown in figure above. If point Bl is sufficiently far from B , these two forces

o
(Gravity force and Buoyant force) create a restoring moment and return the body

. c
to the original position.

a
A measure of stability for floating bodies is the metacentric height GM , which

i
is the distance between the centre of gravity G and the metacenter M (the

d
intersection point of the lines of action of the buoyant force through the body

o
before and after rotation.)

n
A floating body is stable if point M is above the point G , and thus GM is

.
positive, and unstable if point M is below point G , and thus GM is negative.

w
Stable equilibrium occurs when M is above G .

w
Sol. 13 Option (C) is correct.

w
In case of two parallel plates, when flow is fully developed, the ratio of Vmax and
Vavg is a constant.

Vmax = 3 Vmax = 6 m/ sec
Vavg 2
Vavg = 2 # Vmax = 2 # 6 = 4 m/ sec
3 3
Sol. 14 Option (C) is correct.
From Buckingham’s p-theorem
It states “If there are n variable (Independent and dependent variables) in a
physical phenomenon and if these variables contain m fundamental dimensions
(M, L, T), then variables are arranged into (n - m) dimensionless terms.
Here n = dimensional variables
k = Primary dimensions (M, L, T)
So, non dimensional variables, & n - k
Sol. 15 Option (B) is correct.
Given : P1 = 103 kW , H1 = 40 m , H2 = 40 - 20 = 20 m
If a turbine is working under different heads, the behavior of turbine can be easily
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

So Pu = P3/2
H
P1 = P2
H 13/2 H 23/2
P2 = b H2 l # P1 = b 20 l # 1000 = 353.6 . 354 kW
3/2 3/2

H1 40
Sol. 16 Option (D) is correct.
Given : V = 2xyi - x2 zj P (1, 1, 1)
The vorticity vector is defined as,
i j k
Vorticity Vector = 2x 2y 2z
2 2 2

u v w
Substitute, u = 2xy , v =- x2 z , w=0
i j k
So, = 2x

i n
2 2 2

.
2y 2z
2xy - x2 z 0

c o
= i :- 2 ^- x2 z hD - j :- 2 (2xy)D + k ; 2 (- x2 z) - 2 (2xy)E
2z

a . 2z 2x 2y

i
= x2 i - 0 + k [- 2xz - 2x]

d
Vorticity vector at P (1, 1, 1), = i + k [- 2 - 2]= i - 4k

o
Sol. 17 Option (C) is correct.

.n
Given : p1 = 50 kPa , Z1 = 10 m , V2 = 2 m/ sec , p2 = 20 kPa , Z2 = 12 m ,
r = 1000 kg/m3 , g = 9.8 m/ sec2

w
w
w
Applying continuity equation at section S1 and S2 ,
A1 V1 = A2 V2
V1 = V2 D1 = D2 so A1 = A2 ... (i)
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at section S1 and S2 with head loss hL ,
p1 V 12 p 2
+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + h L
rg 2g rg 2g
p1 p
+ z1 = 2 + z 2 + h L From equation (i)
rg rg
^50 - 20h # 10
3
p1 - p 2
hL = b
rg l
+ (z 1 - z 2) = + (10 - 12)
(1000 # 9.8)
= 3.058 - 2 = 1.06 m
Head at section (S1) is given by,
3
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

p2 3
H2 = + Z2 = 203# 10 + 12 = 14.04 m
rg 10 # 9.8
From H1 and H2 we get H1 > H2 . So, flow is from S1 to S2
Sol. 18 Option (D) is correct.
Here type of flow is related to the dimensionless numbers (Non-dimensional
numbers). So
P. Compressible flow Y. Mach number
Q. Free surface flow W. Weber number
R. Boundary layer Z. Skin friction coefficient
S. Pipe flow U. Reynolds number
T. Heat convection V. Nusselt number
So, correct pairs are P-Y, Q-W, R-Z, S-U, T-V
Sol. 19 Option (B) is correct.

. in
c o
a .
d i
n o
.
w
Given : pV = 50 kPa , w = 5 kN/m3 = rg

w
Consider steady, incompressible and irrotational flow and neglecting frictional
effect. First of all applying continuity equation at section (1) and (2).

w A1 V1 = A2 V2

p (d ) 2 V = p (d ) 2 V
4 1 # 1 4 2 # 2
Substitute the values of d1 and d2 , we get
p (20) 2 V = p (10) 2 V
4 # 1 4 # 2

## 400V1 = 100V2 & V2 = 4V1 ...(i)

Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid
in a region where the pressure of liquid falls below the vapor pressure [pL < pV ]
So, we can say that maximum pressure in downstream of reducer should be equal
or greater than the vapor pressure. For maximum discharge
pV = p2 = 50 kPa
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at point (1) and (2)
p1 V 12 p 2
+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2
rg 2g r g 2g
Here z1 = z2 for horizontal pipe and w = rg = 5 kN/m2
2
150 V 12 50 (4V1)
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

150 - 50 = 16V 12 - V 12
5 5 2g 2g
2
20 = 15V 1
2g
V 12 = 40 # 9.81 = 5.114 m/sec
15
And V2 = 4V1 = 4 # 5.114 = 20.46 m/ sec
Maximum discharge,
Q max = A2 V2 = p (d2) 2 V2 = p (10 # 10-2) 2 # 20.46
4 4
= p # 10-2 # 20.46 = 0.16 m3 / sec
4
Sol. 20 Option (D) is correct.
Given :

n
P: u = 2y,V =- 3x
Q: u = 3xy,V = 0
. i
o
R: u =- 2x,V = 2y

c
For incompressible fluid,

a.
2u + 2v + 2w = 0 ...(i)

i
2x 2y 2z

d
For irrotational flow z z = 0 ,

n o
z z = 1 c2v - 2u m
2 2x 2y

.
1 2v - 2u = 0
2 c2x 2y m

w 2v - 2u = 0

w
...(ii)
2x 2y

w
From equation (i) and (ii), check P, Q and R
2u = 0 , 2u = 2

For P : u = 2y ,
2x 2y
v =- 3x , 2v = 0 , 2v =- 3
2y 2x
2u + 2v = 0 & 0+0 = 0 (Flow is incompressible)
2x 2y
Or, 2v - 2u = 0
2x 2y
-3 - 2 = 0 & -5 ! 0 (Rotational flow)
For Q : u = 3xy 2u = 3y , 2u = 3x
2x 2y
v =0 2v = 0 , 2v = 0
2y 2x
2u + 2v = 0 & 3y =
Y 0 (Compressible flow)
2x 2y
Or, 2v - 2u = 0
2x 2y
0 - 3x = 0 & - 3x =
Y 0 (Rotational flow)
For R : u =- 2x 2u =- 2 , 2u = 0
2x 2y
2v , 2v
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

2u + 2v = 0
2x 2y
-2 + 2 = 0 & 0=0 (Incompressible flow)
Or, 2v - 2u = 0
2x 2y
0-0 = 0 & 0=0 (Irrotational flow)
So, we can easily see that R is incompressible and irrotational flow.
Sol. 21 Option (A) is correct.
Given : L = 1 km = 1000 m , D = 200 mm = 0.2 m , Q = 0.07 M3 / sec
f = 0.02 , r = 1000 kg/m3
fLV 2 fL 4Q 2 16fLQ2 8fLQ2 2
hf = = c m = = Q = pD # V
D # 2g D # 2g pD 2 2 5
p D # 2g 2
pDg5 4
8 # 0.02 # 1000 # (0.07) 2
=
(3.14) 2 # (0.2) 5 # (9.81)
= 0.784 = 2.61 m of water Pumping power required,
0.30

in
P = rgQ # h f = 1000 # 9.81 # 0.07 # 2.61
= 1752.287 = 1.752 kW . 1.8 kW

o.
c
Sol. 22 Option (A) is correct.

a .
d i
n o
.
w
w 2
dp
u (r) =- R b lc1 - r 2 m
2

w
4m dx R

Therefore, the velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a pipe is parabolic
with a maximum at the center line and minimum at the pipe wall.
The average velocity is determined from its definition,
R 2
dp 2
Vavg = u (r) rdr =- 22 # R b lc1 - r 2 m rdr
R
#0 R 0 4m dx R
dp R 3
=- 1 b l # cr - r 2 m dr
2m dx 0 R
R
dp 2 4
dp 2 4
=- 1 b l;r - r 2 E =- 1 b l;R - R 2 E
2m dx 2 4R 0 2m dx 2 4R
dp 2 2
dp
=- 1 b l # R =- R b l
2m dx 4 8m dx

Alternate Method :
Now we consider a small element (ring) of pipe with thickness dr and radius r .
We find the flow rate through this elementary ring.
dQ = (2pr) # dr # u (r) Put the value of u (r)
2 2
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Now for total discharge integrate both the rides within limit.
Q & 0 to Q and R & 0 to R
Q 2
dp R 2
So
0
# dQ =- 2p 4Rm b dx l#
0
r c1 - r 2 m dr
R
4 R
R dp r
2 2
r
6Q@0 =- 2p 4m b dx l; 2 - 4R2 E
Q

0
Now put the limits, we have
2
dp 2 4 2
dp 2 2
Q =- 2p R b l;R - R 2 E =- 2p R b l:R - R D
4m dx 2 4R 4m dx 2 4
2
dp 2 4
dp
=- 2p c R mb l:R D =- pR b l
4m dx 4 8m dx
Now Q = Area # Average velocity = A # Vavg.

n
Q 4
dp 2
dp
Vavg. = = - pR b l # 1 2 =- R b l
A 8m dx

. i
pR 8m dx

o
Sol. 23 Option (D) is correct.

c
The continuity equation in three dimension is given by,

.
2 (ru) + 2 (rv) + 2 (rw) = 0

a
2x 2y 2z

d
For incompressible flow r =Constant
i
o
r ;2u + 2v + 2w E = 0
2x 2y 2z

.n
2u + 2v + 2w = 0

w
2x 2y 2z
d : V =0

w
So, the above equation represents the incompressible flow.

w
Sol. 24 None of these is correct.

## Given : r = 1000 kg/m3 , V = 10 m/sec , q = 180 - 120 = 60c, R = 0.5 m

Initial velocity in the direction of jet = V
Final velocity in the direction of the jet =- V cos q .
Force exerted on the bucket
Fx = rAV 6V - (- V cos q)@ = rAV 61 + cos q@ V
= Q (1 + cos q) V Mass flow rate Q = rAV
Torque, Tx = Fx # R = QV (1 + cos q) R
Torque per unit mass flow rate
Tx = V (1 + cos q) R = 10 (1 + cos 60c) 0.5
Q #
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## And Fy = rAV (0 - V sin q) =- QV sin q

Torque in y -direction
Ty = Fy # R = 0 R=0
Total Torque will be
T = T x2 + T y2 = Tx = 7.5 N - m/kg/ sec
Sol. 25 Option (A) is correct.

. in
Here Gap between moving and stationary plates are continuously reduced, so we

o
can say that

c
Volume of fluid moving out radially

.
= Volume of fluid displaced by moving plate within radius r

a
i
Volume displaced by the moving plate

d
= Velocity of moving plate # Area = V # pr2 ...(i)

o
Volume of fluid which flows out at radius r

n
= Vr # 2pr # h ...(ii)

.
Equating equation (i) and (ii),

w
V # pr2 = Vr # 2prh

w Vr = 2Vr h & Vr = Vr
2h

w
Alternate Method :
Apply continuity equation at point (i) and (ii),

© A1 V1 = A2 V2
V # pr2 = Vr # 2prh
Vr = Vr
2h
Sol. 26 Option (B) is correct.
From previous part of question,
Vr = Vr
2h
Acceleration at radius r is given by
ar = Vr # dVr = Vr # d :Vr D = Vr # V ...(i)
dr dr 2h 2h
2
At r = R ar = VR # V = V R
2h 2h 4h2
Sol. 27 Option (D) is correct.
rAV 2 rAV 2
FD = CD # = 1.33 # CD = 1.33
2 2
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

rVL
= 1.33 1 r bLV 2
rV # 2 #
Re L =
m
m
= rV # 1 rbV 2 L
1 . 33 ...(i)
m
2
So from equation (i) FD \ L ...(ii)
Drag force on front half of plate
FD/2 = L = FD From Equation (ii)
2 2
Drag on rear half,
FlD/2 = FD - FD/2 = c1 - 1 m FD
2
Now ratio of FD/2 and FlD/2 is
FD
FD/2 1
F = = 2
= >1
FlD/2 _1 - 1
i FD 2 -1

n
2

## Option (B) is correct.

. i
Sol. 28

o
Given : v = u 0 b1 + 3x l
L

. c
dx = u 1 + 3x = u 0 (L + 3x)
0b
Ll
a
dt L
dt = L #
d i 1
u 0 (L + 3x)
dx

o
On integrating both the sides within limits t & 0 to t and x & 0 to L , we get

.n
#0 dt = uL0 #0 (L +1 3x) dx
t L

w L
6t @t0 = 3u 0 6ln (L + 3x)@ 0
L

w t = L 6ln 4L - ln L@ = L ln 4

w
3u 0 3u 0

Sol. 29 Option (A) is correct.
rAV 2 rVL
Re = Inertia force = = = 5 = I.F .
Viscous force m# #AV m V.F.
L
Sol. 30 Option (C) is correct.
Given figure shows the velocity triangle for the pelton wheel.
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Given :
Flow velocity at Inlet Vf 1 = flow velocity at outlet Vf 2
Vf1 = Vf 2 = u1 (blade velocity)
2
V2 = Vf2
u1 = Vw1 q = 90c
V 12 = (Vf1) 2 + (Vw 1) 2 = a u1 k + (u1) 2 = 5 u 12
2
From Inlet triangle,
2 4
5 2
2 2
u - 1 u2
Blade efficiency = V 1 -2V 2 # 100 = 4 15 24 1 # 100 = 80%
V1 4 u1

## Sol. 31 Option (C) is correct.

u = pDN = 2gH
60
From this equation, H \ DN
H = Constant
DN

in
So using this relation for the given model or prototype,

.
H H
c DN m = c DN m

o
p m

c
Np Hp Dm

.
= ...(i)
Nm Hm # D p

i
Given : Hm = 1 H p , Dm = 1 D p , N p = N
4 2
a
N =
o d Hp
1D
2 p = 4#1 =1

n
Nm 1H # Dp 2

.
4 p

w
So, Nm = N

w
Sol. 32 Option (B) is correct.
For forced Vortex flow the relation is given by,

w V = rw ...(i)

From equation (i) it is shown easily that velocity is directly proportional to the
radius from the centre of the vortex (Radius of fluid particle from the axis of
rotation)
And also for forced vortex flow,
1 rw2 (r 2 - r 2) - rg (z - z ) = 0
2 1 2 1
2
D K.E. - D P.E. = 0 & DK.E = D P.E.
Now total mechanical energy per unit mass is constant in the entire flow field.
Sol. 33 Option (A) is correct.
List-I List-II
P. Centrifugal compressor 2. Surging
Q. Centrifugal pump 3. Priming
R. Pelton wheel 4. Pure Impulse
S. Kaplan Turbine 1. Axial Flow
So, correct pairs are P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-1
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Sol. 34 Option (C) is correct.

Let width of the channel = b
From mass conservation
Flow rate at section A = flow rate at B
or Velocity A # Area of A = Velocity at B # Area of B
U 0 # (H # b) = Velocity for (0 # y # d) # dy # b
+ velocity for (d # y # H - d) # dy # b
+ velocity for (H - d # y # H) # dy # b
dy H-d H H-y
or U 0 # H = Vm #
0 d
dy + Vm
d
# dy + Vm#H-d d
dy

or U 0 # H = Vm d + Vm (H - 2d) + Vm d
2 2
U 0 # H = Vm d + Vm (H - 2d) = Vm (d + H - 2d)

or Vm = H = H = 1 d
. i n
o
U0 d + H - 2d H-d 1- H

c
Sol. 35 Option (A) is correct.

.
Applying Bernoulli’s Equation at the section A and B .

a
i
pA V A2 p 2
+ + zA = B + V B + zB

d
rg 2g rg 2g

o
Here, zA = zB = 0

.n
pA - pB V B2 - V A2
So, =
rg 2g

w
pA - pB V B2 - V A2 V m2 - U 02
= = VB = Vm and VA = U 0

w
r 2 2
2
U 02 ;V m2 - 1E

w =
U0
2

© pA - pB V m2
2
2 rU 0
1 = 2 - 1 = bVm l - 1
U0 U0
2

U0 1 - Hd
pA - pB 1
= 2 -1
61 - d/H @
2
2 rU 0
1

## Sol. 36 Option (C) is correct.

From the Newton’s law of Viscosity, the shear stress (t) is directly proportional
to the rate of shear strain .
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

So, t \ du = m du
dy dy
Where m = Constant of proportionality and it is known as coefficient of Viscosity.
Sol. 37 Option (C) is correct.
Convective Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity due to the
change of position of fluid particles in a fluid flow.
In Cartesian coordinates, the components of the acceleration vector along the x
-direction is given by.
ax = 2u + u2u + v2u + w2u
2t 2x 2y 2z
In above equation term 2u/2t is known as local acceleration and terms other then
this, called convective acceleration.
Hence for given flow.
Convective acceleration along x -direction.
ax = u2u + v2u [w = 0]
2x 2y
Sol. 38 Option (C) is correct.

in
The velocity triangle for the pelton wheel is given below.

o.
. c
i a
o d
. n
w
w
Given : u = u1 = u2 = 10 m/ sec , V1 = 25 m/ sec , Q = 0.1 m3 / sec
Jet deflection angle = 120c C

## w f = 180c - 120c = 60c

rQ [Vw1 + Vw2] # u
P = kW ...(i)
1000
From velocity triangle,
Vw1 = V1 = 25 m/ sec
Vw = Vr cos f - u2
2 2
Vr 2 = Vr = V1 - u1
1

## = 15 cos 60c - 10 = 25 - 10 = 15 m/ sec

= 15 - 10 =- 2.5 m/ sec
2
Now put there values in equation (i)
1000 # 0.1 [25 - 2.5] # 10
P = kW = 22.5 kW
1000
Sol. 39 Option (D) is correct.
Given : u = x2 t , v =- 2xyt
The velocity component in terms of stream function are
2y
= v =- 2xyt ...(i)
2x
2y 2
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Integrating equation (i), w.r.t ‘x ’, we get

#
y = (- 2xyt) dx =- x2 yt + K ...(iii)
Where, K is a constant of integration which is independent of ‘x ’ but can be a
function of ‘y ’
Differentiate equation (iii) w.r.t y , we get
2y
=- x2 t + 2K
2y 2y
2y
But from equation (ii), =- x2 t
2y
2y
Comparing the value of , we get
2y
- x2 t + 2K =- x2 t
2y
2K = 0
2y
K = Constant(K1)
. i n
From equation (iii)

c o
.
y =- x2 yt + K1

i a
The line for which stream function y is zero called as stream line.

d
So, - x2 yt + K1 = 0

o
K1 = x2 yt

.n
If ‘t ’ is constant then equation of stream line is,
x 2 y = K1 = K 2

w
t

w
But in the question, there is no condition for t is constant. Hence, it is not
possible to determine equation of stream line.
Sol. 40

w
Option (D) is correct.

2 2
Given : u = uo c1 - 4r2 m = uo c1 - r 2 m
D R
Drop of pressure for a given length (L)of a pipe is given by,
32muL
r
Dp = p 1 - p 2 = 2 ..(i)
D
(From the Hagen poiseuille formula)
Where ur = average velocity
R R 2
And ur = 22 u (r) rdr = 22
# # uo c1 - r 2 m rdr
R 0 R 0 R
3 2 4 R
= 2u2o r - r 2 m dr = 2u2o ;r - r 2 E
R

R 0
# c R R 2 4R 0
2 4 R 2
= 2u2o ;R - R 2 E = 2u2o :R D
R 2 4R 0 R 4
u = uo
2
Substitute the value of u in equation(1)
32mL uo 16muo L
So, Dp = 2 # 2 =
D D2
Note : The average velocity in fully developed laminar pipe flow is one-half of the
maximum velocity.
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Sol. 41 Option (C) is correct.

In a steady and ideal flow of incompressible fluid, the total energy at any point of
the fluid is constant. So applying the Bernoulli’s Equation at section (1) and (2)
p1 V 12 p 2
+ + Z1 = 2 + V 2 + Z 2
rg 2g r g 2g
V1 = 0 = Initial velocity at point (1)

in
Z2 = 0 = At the bottom surface

.
p1 = p2 = patm

o
And z1 = h 2 - h1

. c
2
So, h 2 - h1 = V 2
2g

i a
V 22 = 2g (h2 - h1)

o d
V2 = 2g (h2 - h1)

n
So, velocity of fluid is same inside the tube

. Vp = V2 = 2g (h2 - h1)
Sol. 42
w
Option (A) is correct.

w
Given : P1 = 300 kW , N1 = 1000 rpm , H1 = 40 m

w
d2 = 1 , H = 10 m
2
d1 4

Specific power for similar turbine is same. So from the relation, we have
P = Constant
d H 3/2
2

## For both the cases,

P1 = P2
d 1 H 13/2
2
d 22 H 23/2
P2 = b d2 l b H2 l # P1 = b 1 l b 10 l # 300 = 2.34
2 3/2 2 3/2

d1 H1 4 40
Sol. 43 Option (A) is correct.
Pressure difference, Dp = 200 - (- 25)= 225 kPa
(Negative sign shows that the pressure acts on liquid in opposite direction)
Dp = 225 # 103 Pa = 2.25 bar = 2.25 # 10.33 m = 22.95 m of water
1.013
Static head = 1 m (Given)
Now, NPSH = 22.95 + 1 = 23.95 - 24 m of water
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Given : U = 10 m/ sec , d = 10 mm = 10-2 meter , r = 1.0 kg/m3 ,

y
B = 1 m and u = U a k
d
From the figure we easily find that mass entering from the side qp

i n
= Mass leaving from the side qr + Mass Leaving from the side rs

.
m pq = (m pq - mrs) + mrs

o
So, firstly Mass flow rate entering from the side pq is
m
.c
o pq = r # Volume = r # (A # U) = 1 # (B # d) # U

a
Substitute the values, we get
m

d i
o pq = 1 # (1 # 10-2) # 10 = 0.1 kg/ sec
For mass flow through section r - s , we have to take small element of dy thickness.

o
Then Mass flow rate through this element,

.n
dmo = r # Volume = r # (A # u)

w
y
= r # u # B # (dy) = rBU a k dy
d

w
For total Mass leaving from rs , integrating both sides within the limits,

w
dm & 0 to m
y & 0 to d

© #0 dmo = #0 yb rUB
m d

d l
dy
2 d
6mo @m0 = rUB ;y E
d 2 0

o = r UB d 2 = 1 rUBd
m #
d 2 2
So, o rs = 1 # 10-2 # 10 # 1 # 1 = 5 # 10-2 = 0.05 kg/ sec
m
2
Mass leaving from qr
oqr = m
m o pq - m
o rs = 0.1 - 0.05 = 0.05 kg/ sec
Sol. 45 Option (D) is correct.
Von Karman momentum Integral equation for boundary layer flows is,
to = 2q
rU 2 2x
d
u 1 - u dy
and q = momentum thickness =
0 U 9 UC #
to = 2 d
u 1 - u dy u =y
rU 2 2x ; Uk E
So, #0 Ua U d
2 d y y 2 d y y2
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Integrating this equation, we get

y2 y3 d 2 3
= 2 >c - 2 m H = 2 =c d - d 2 mG = 2 : d D = 0
2x 2d 3d 0 2x 2d 3d 2x 6
to = 0
And drag force on the plate of length L is,
L
FD = # t # b # dx = 0
0
o

## Sol. 46 Option (D) is correct.

We know that potential flow (ideal flow) satisfy the continuity equation. The
continuity equation for two dimensional flow for incompressible fluid is given by,
2u + 2v = 0
2x 2y
2u =-2v
2x 2y
Sol. 47 Option (D) is correct.

. in
c o
a .
d i
n o
Given : d2 = 20 mm = 0.020 m , d1 = 40 mm = 0.040 m

. Dp = p1 - p2 = 30 kPa

w
Applying continuity equation at section (1) and (2),

w
A1 V1 = A2 V2

w
p 2
d
V1 = c A2 m V2 = p4 22 # V2
A1 4 d1

2
= d 22 # V2 = b 20 l V2 = V2
2

d1 40 4
V2 = 4V1 ..(i)
Now applying Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2),
p1 V 12 p 2
+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 For horizontal pipe z1 = z2
rg 2g r g 2g
p1 - p2 V 22 - V 12
=
rg 2g
Dp V 22 - V 12
=
r 2
2 2
30 # 103 = (4V1) - V 1 From equation (i)
1000 2
2 2 2
30 = 16V 1 - V 1 = 15V 1
2 2
V 12 = 30 # 2 = 4 & V1 = 2 m/ sec
15
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Sol. 48 Option (A) is correct.

It is a U -tube differential Manometer.
In this manometer A and B at different level and the liquid contain in manometer
has the same specific gravity (only mercury is fill in the manometer)
Given : rmercury = 13600 kg/m3 , g = 9.81 m/ sec2 , Dh = 150 mm = 0.150 meter
Static pressure difference for U -tube differential manometer is given by,
pA - pB = rg (hA - hB) = rgDh
= 13600 # 9.81 # 0.150
= 20.01 # 103 Pa = 20.01 kPa . 20 kPa
Hence pA - pB is positive and pA > pB , Flow from A to B .
Sol. 49 Option (B) is correct.
3
Given : Vr =-b 60 # 10 l m/ sec ...(i)
2pr

i n
3
Vq = 300 # 10 m/ sec

.
And ...(ii)
2pr
Dividing equation (i) by equation (ii), we get

c o
.
Vr =- 60 # 103 2p r =- 1
2pr # 300 # 103

a
Vq 5
Vr =-Vq

d i5
...(iii)

o
In this equation (iii)

.n
Vr = Radial Velocity = dr
dt

w
Vq = Angular Velocity = rw = r dq
dt

w
So, dr =- 1 r dq
dt 5 dt

w dr =- 1 dq

r 5
On integrating both the sides and put limits, between r & 120 to r and q & 0 to p
(for half revolution).
#120 drr =- 15 #0 dq
r p

6ln r @120
r
=- 1 6q@ 0p
5
ln r - ln 120 =- 1 [p - 0] =- p
5 5
ln r =- p
120 5
r = e- p/5 = 0.533
120
r = 0.533 # 120 = 64 meter
Sol. 50 Option (B) is correct.
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## Given : u = 7.4 # 10-7 m2 / sec , S = 0.88 , y = 0.5 mm = 0.5 # 10-3 meter

Density of liquid = S # density of water
= 0.88 # 1000 = 880 kg/m3
m Dynamic viscosity
Kinematic Viscosity u = =
r Density of liquid
m = u # r = 7.4 # 10-7 # 880
= 6.512 # 10-4 Pa- s
From the Newton’s law of viscosity,
t = m # u = 6.512 # 10-4 # 0.5 = 0.6512 N/m2
y 0.5 # 10-3
= 0.651 Pa
Sol. 51 Option (C) is correct.
Given : V = axi + ayj ...(i)
The equation of stream line is,
dx = dy = dz ...(ii)
ux uy uz

in
From equation (i), ux = ax , uy = ay and uz = 0

.
Substitute there values in equation (ii), we get

o
dx = dy

c
ax ay
dx = dy

a .
i
x y

d
Integrating both sides, we get

n o
# dxx = # dyy

## . log x = log y + log c = log yc & x = yc ...(iii)

At point (1, 2),
w 1 = 2c & c = 1

w
2
y

w
From equation (iii), x = & 2x - y = 0
2
Sol. 52 Option (C) is correct.

In this question we have to make the table for calculate mean flow rate :

## Flow rate litres/ Mean flow rate Frequency fx

sec. x + xf f
x=b i
2 l
7.5 to 7.7 7.6 1 7.6
7.7 to 7.9 7.8 5 39
7.9 to 8.1 8.0 35 280
8.1 to 8.3 8.2 17 139.4
8.3 to 8.5 8.4 12 100.8
8.5 to 8.7 8.6 10 86
Sf = 80 Sfx = 652.8
Sfx
Mean flow rate, x = = 652.8 = 8.16 litres/ sec
Sf 80
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Sol. 53 Option (C) is correct.

Flow rate, Q = AV
Q Q Q
Inlet velocity, V1 = = = A1 = p d 12
A1 p (2R1) 2 pR 12 4

n
4

i
Q Q
Outlet Velocity, V2 = =

.
A2 pR 22

o
Therefore, resultant velocity will be,

c
Q

.
dV = V2 - V1 = ; 12 - 12 E
p R 2 R1
Acceleration at the exit section,
i a
o d
a = dV = V dV
dt dx

.n
In this case dV = V2 - V1
V = V2 and dx = L

w
2
Q Q 1 1 = Q R 12 - R 22
pL ;R 22 R 12 E p 2 R 22 L ; R 12 R 22 E
So, a = -

w
#
pR 22

w
Q 2 (R1 + R2) (R1 - R2)
p R 22 L = G
= 2
R 12 R 22

Considering limiting case R1 " R2
Q 2 (R1 - R2) 2R2 2Q 2 2Q2 (R1 - R2)
Then, a = 2 2 =
p R2 L R 22 R 22 G = p2 R 5 L 6R1 - R2@ = p2 R 25 L
2
Sol. 54 Option (D) is correct.

## Total thrust at the bottom of cylinder = Weight of water in cylinder

+ Pressure force on the cylinder
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

2p rV 2 rr2 w2
For rotating motion, = = = rw2 r p = Pressure, V = rw
2r r r
And 2p = rw2 rdr
Integrating both the sides within limits p between 0 to p and r between 0 to r ,
p r
#0 2p = #0 rw2 rdr
2 r
2 r
6p@0p = rw : 2 D
0
For calculating the total pressure on the cylinder,
2
rw2 r2
p = rw2 # :r - 0D =
2 2
Dividing whole area of cylinder in the infinite small rings with thickness dr ,
Force on elementary ring
rw2 r2
Pressure intensity # Area of ring = 2prdr
2 #
Total force,
rw2 r2 4 R

in
4
r3 dr = prw2 :r D = prw2 R
R R
F = #0 2 #
2prdr = prw2 #0 4 0 4
Weight of water = mg = rng

o. m = rn

c
= rpR2 # Hg = rgHpR2 A = pR 2

a .
Net force = rgHpR2 + rw2 pR = pR2 ;
4
rw2 R2
+ rgH E

i
So,
4 4
Sol. 55 Option (C) is correct.
Given relation is,
o d
.
U = 3 y - 1 y 3 and d = 4.64x
U3 2 d 2 a d k n ...(i)

w
Re x
U3 = U = 2 m/ sec , v = 1.5 # 10-5 m2 /s , r = 1.23 kg/m3 , L = x = 1

w
Kinematic viscosity,

w
m
u =
r

## © m = u # r = 1.5 # 10-5 # 1.23 = 1.845 # 10-5 kg/m sec

Reynolds Number is given as,
rUx 1.23 # 2 # 1
Re x = = = 1.33 # 105
m 1.845 # 10-5
d = 4.64 # 1 5 = 0.0127
1.33 # 10
U = 3y - 1 y 3
2 d 2a d k
And
U3
2
dU = U d 3 y - 1 y 3 = U 3 1 - 3y
dy 3
dy :2 d 2 a d k D 3 ;2 d 2 d3 E
#

## where U3 = Free stream velocity = U

dU = U3 : 3 D = 3U3
c dy m 2d 2d
y=0
We know that shear stress by the Newton’s law of viscosity,
t0 = m c dU m = 1.845 # 10-5 # 3U3
dy y = 0 2d
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Substitute the values of U3 and d, we get

= 1.845 # 10-5 # 3#2
2 # 0.0127
= 435.82 # 10-5 N/m2 = 4.36 # 10-3 N/m2
Sol. 56 Option (B) is correct.
Given : L = 4 km = 4 # 1000 = 4000 m , d = 0.2 m f = 0.01, V = 2 m/ sec ,
H = 5 meter
Head loss due to friction in the pipe,
fLV 2 0.01 # 4000 # (2) 2
hf = = = 40.77 m of water
2gd 2 # 9.81 # 0.2
Now total pressure (absolute discharge pressure) to be supplied by the pump at
exit = Pressure loss by pipe + Head pressure of tank + Atmospheric pressure

i n
Total pressure, p = rgh f + rgH + rghatm

p
o.
p = rg [h f + H + hatm] Pressure head,

c
= H & p = Hrg

.
rg
= 1000 # 9.81 [40.77 + 5 + 10.3]

i a
= 5.5 # 105 N/m2 = 5.5 bar For water hatm = 10.3 m
Option (D) is correct.
d
Sol. 57

o
Given : pG = 5.00 bar , pG = 1.00 bar , patm = 1.01 bar

.n
1 2

## Absolute pressure of G2 = Atmospheric pressure + Gauge pressure

w
= 1.01 + 1.00 = 2.01 bar

w
Absolute pressure of G1 = pG1 + pabs (G2) = 5.00 + 2.01 = 7.01 bar
Option (A) is correct.

w
Sol. 58

## Given : H = 24.5 m , Q = 10.1 m3 / sec , h0 = 90% ,

N = 4 rps = 4 # 60 = 240 rpm
h0 = Shaft Power in kW = P
Water Power in kW r#g#Q#H
b 1000 l
h r g Q H
P = 0# # # # = 0.90 # 1000 # 9.81 # 10.1 # 24.5
1000 1000
= 2184.74 kW rwater = 1000 kg/m3
For turbine Specific speed,
NS = N 5/P4 = 240 2184 .74 = 205.80 rpm
5/4
H (24.5)
Hence, 51 < NS < 255 for francis turbine.
Sol. 59 Option (B) is correct.
List-I List-II
P. Reciprocating pump 3. Positive Displacement
Q. Axial flow pump 5. High Flow rate, low pressure ratio
R. Microhydel plant 2. Plant with power output between
100 kW to 1 MW
S. Backward curved vanes 6. Centrifugal pump impeller
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Sol. 60 Option (D) is correct.

Given :
Cross section area of body = A
Height of body = H
Density of body = rs
Density of liquid = r
Tension in the string = T
We have to make the FBD of the block.
B = Buoyancy force

. in
From the principal of buoyancy,

o
Downward force = Buoyancy force m = rn

c
T + mg = rhAg
T + rs ng = rhAg

a . n = A#H

i
T + rs AHg = rhAg
T

o d
= rhAg - rs AHg = Ag (rh - rs H)

n
Sol. 61 Option (A) is correct.

.
w
w
w
Given : Flow rate = Q
Velocity of water when it strikes the water surface = U
Total Mass (container + water) = m
Force on weighing balance due to water strike = Change in momentum
DP =Initial Momentum - Final momentum
= rQU - rQ (0) = rQU Final velocity is zero
Weighing balance also experience the weight of the container and water.
So, Weight of container and water = mg
Therefore, total force on weighing Balance = rQU + mg
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## Sol. 62 Option (B) is correct.

Given : N1 = 500 rpm , H1 = 30 meter , N2 = 1000 rpm , Q1 = 60 litres per minute
From the general relation,
U = pDN = 2gH
60

DN \ H & N\ H
D
Centrifugal pump is used for both the cases. So D1 = D2
N\ H
H1 = N 12
H2 N 22
2
2
(1000)
H2 = N 22 # H1 = # 30 = 120 m
N1 (500) 2

n
The specific speed will be constant for centrifugal pump and relation is,

Ns =
N Q
= Constant
. i
o
H 3/4

c
N1 Q 1 N Q

.
So, 3/4 = 2 3/4 2 For both cases
H1 H2

i a
Q2 = N1 # b H2 l # Q1 = 500 # b 120 l # 60
3/4 3/4

d
N2 H1 1000 30

o
= 1 # (2) 3/2 # 60
2

.n
Squaring both sides

w
Q2 = 1 # 8 # 60 = 120 litre/ min
4
Alternate :
w
w
From unit quantities unit speed
N u = N1 = N 2 N1 = N 2

H1 H2 H1 H2
H 2 = N 2 H1
N1
2
2
(1000) # 30
or H2 = N 2 #2 H1 = = 120 m
N1 (500) 2
Q Q2
Unit discharge Qu = 1 =
H1 H2
Q1 Q2
=
H1 H2
Q H2
or Q2 = 1 = 60 # 120 = 120 litre/ min
H1 30
Sol. 63 None of these is correct.
List-I List-II
P. Curtis 3. Velocity compounding
Q. Rateau 4. Pressure compounding
R. Kaplan 6. Axial flow turbine
S. Francis 7. Mixed flow turbine
So, correct pairs are P-3, Q-4, R-6, S-7.
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## Sol. 64 Option (B) is correct.

Given : L = 100 mm , d = 1 mm , D = 10 mm , V1 = 10 mm/ sec
We have to take the two sections of the system (1) and (2).

## Apply continuity equation on section (1) and (2),

A1 V1 = A2 V2 Q = AV , Q = flow rate
2
p/4 (0.01)
V2 = c A1 m # V1 = # 0.010 = 1 m/ sec
A2 p/4 (0.001) 2
Again applying the Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2),
p1 V 12 p 2
+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2
rg 2g r g 2g
The syringe and the plunger is situated on the same plane so z1 = z2 ,

in
Take p2 = 0 = Atmospheric pressure (Outside the needle)
p1
.
2 2
= V 2 - V1
rg 2g

c o
.
r
p1 = (V 22 - V 12) = 1000 [(1) 2 - (0.01) 2] = 499.95 N/m2

a
2 2
Force required on plunger,

d i
F = p1 # A1 = 499.95 # p (0.01) 2 = 0.04 N

o
4

n
Sol. 65 Option (C) is correct.

.
Given : f = 64 , m = 1 # 10-3 kg/s - m

w
Re

w
rVd rV2 d2
Re = = = 1000 # 1 #-30.001 = 1000 For Needle
m m 1 # 10
And
w f = 64 = 64 = 0.064
Re 1000

From the help of f we have to find Head loss in needle,

hf =
fLV 22
2gd2
=
0.064 # 0.1 # (1) 2
2 # 9.81 # 0.001
= 0.3265 m of water
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2) with the head loss in account.
p1 V 12 p 2
+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + h f
rg 2g r g 2g
z1 = z 2 At the same plane
And p2 = 0 Atmospheric pressure
p1 2 2
= cV 2 - V 1 m + h f
rg 2g
r
p1 = (V 22 - V 12) + rgh f
2
= 1000 6(1) 2 - (0.01) 2@ + 1000 # 9.81 # 0.3265
2
= 499.95 + 3202.965 = 3702.915 N/m2
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F = p1 # A1 = 3702.915 # p # (0.01) 2
4
= 0.3 N

## First of all we have to take two section (1) and (2)

.
Applying Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2).
i n
p1 V 12 p
o
2
+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

c
+

a.
rg 2g rg 2g
p1 V 12 p 2
= 2 + V2

i
+ z1 = z 2
r 2 r 2

o
r
d
p1 - p2 = (V 22 - V 12)
2
...(i)

. n
Apply continuity equation, we get
A1 V1 = A2 V2

w
w
p D 2 V = p D2 U V = U . Let at point (1) velocity = V
4 t 1 4 2 1

w V1 = b D l # U
2
...(ii)
Dt

Substitute the value of V1 from equation (ii) into the equation (i),
r r
p1 - p2 = ;U 2 - b D l U 2E = U 2 ;1 - b D l E
4 4
...(iii)
2 Dt 2 Dt
From the figure, we have
Spring force = Pressure force due to air
- kx = As (p1 - p2) = p D s2 # (p1 - p2)
4
r
= p D s2 # U 2 ;1 - b D l E
4
From equation (iii)
4 2 Dt
kx = p D s2 rU 2 ;b D l - 1E
4

8 Dt
rU 2 D 4
8k ;b Dt l
x = - 1E pD s2

## Sol. 67 Option (C) is correct.

From Buckingham’s p-theorem,
“If there are m variables (Indepenent and dependent variables) in a physical
phenomenon and if these variables contain n fundamental dimensions (M, L, T)
then variables are arranged into (m - n ) dimensionless terms.
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## Sol. 68 Option (D) is correct.

The laminar boundary layer generation along a flat plate for this flow, is
d + 1
L Re L
If we substitute x for L and for a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate, where
V (x) = V = constant, then d grows like the square root of x .
d + 1
x Vx
u
d + 1 &d\ x
x V
Sol. 69 Option (C) is correct. u
The pressure is minimum at point C . Along the region CSD of the curved surface,
the area of flow increases and hence velocity of flow along the direction of Fluid
decreases.

. in
c o
a .
d i
n o
.
w
w
Due to decrease of velocity, the pressure increases in the direction of flow and
dp

w
pressure gradient dp/dx is positive or >0
dx

Option (C) is correct.
Biot Number Bi = hl
k
where h = Convective heat transfer coefficient
k = thermal conductivity
l = linear dimension
Biot Number gives an indication of the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance
to the surface (convection) resistance.
A small value of Bi implies that the fluid has a small conduction resistance i.e.
Conduction resistance << Convection resistance
Sol. 71 Option (A) is correct.
Given : c p = 0.1393 k -J/kg -K
m = 0.1523 # 10-2 N-s/m2
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mc p
Prandtl Number Pr =
k
-2 3
Pr = 0.1523 # 10 # 0.1393 # 10
8.540
Pr = 0.0248
Sol. 72 Option (A) is correct.
The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is m2 / sec .
dy
m t du
u = = t = m du
r r dy
F dy
A # du
u =
r
Substitute the units of all the parameters

i n
Newton m

.
2 # m/ sec
m kgm
u = N=

o
3
kg/m sec3

c
kgm m sec

.
kg
2
m
= sec m3 = m
2 2
= sec m 3

i a
kg/m kg/m sec
Sol. 73 Option (C) is correct.

o d
Fluid static deals with problems associated with fluids at rest. In static fluid,
there is no relative motion between adjacent fluid layers and thus there are no

.n
shear (tangential) stresses in the fluid trying to deform it.

w
The only stress in static fluid is the normal stress, which is the pressure and the
variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the fluid and it is always positive.

w
Therefore, the topic of fluid statics has significance only in gravity field.

w
Sol. 74 Option (A) is correct.
Biot number gives an indication of internal (conduction) resistance to the surface

(convection) resistance.
Bi = hl
k
If the value of Biot number is less than 0.1, then lumped that transfer analysis
is valid.
i.e. Biot Number < 0.1.
Sol. 75 Option (D) is correct.

## Here F1 = weight of water column above the top surface.

F2 = weight of water column above the bottom surface.
At the depth h , pressure is given by,
p = rgh
then horizontal force,
GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

## where A = Normal area, when viewed in the direction of Fx

Fx = 2rghrw
Fy = F2 - F1 = weight of water contained in volume of semi circular gate.
Fy = mg = a p r2 # w k rg m = rv and v = A # w
2
prgwr2
Fy =
2
Sol. 76 Option (D) is correct.
Given : v = (x + 2y + 2) i + (4 - y) j
where u = x + 2y + 2 , v = 4 - y
2u = 1 ; 2u = 2 2v =- 1; 2v = 0
2x 2y 2y 2x
We know, for Incompressive flow
2u + 2v = 0
2x 2y
1-1 = 0
So, flow is incompressible.

in
And for irrotational flow, z z = 0
z z = 1 c2v - 2u m = 0
2 2x 2y
o.
.c
& 2v - 2u = 0
2x 2y
0-2 = 0
i a
-2 ! 0
So, flow is not irrotational.
o d
Sol. 77 Option (B) is correct.
. n
w
The non-dimensional Prandtl Number for thermal boundary layer is given by,
d = (Pr) 1/3

w
dt

w
where d = hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness
dt = thermal boundary layer thickness