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Mechanical Engineering

Fluid Mechanics

Information contained in this book has been obtained by authors, from sources believes to be reliable. However,

neither Nodia nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and Nodia nor its

authors shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This book

is published with the understanding that Nodia and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting

to render engineering or other professional services.

B-8, Dhanshree Tower Ist, Central Spine, Vidyadhar Nagar, Jaipur 302039

Ph : +91 - 141 - 2101150

www.nodia.co.in

email : enquiry@nodia.co.in

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME

FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 1 For steady, fully developed flow inside a straight pipe of diameter D , neglecting

gravity effects, the pressure drop Dp over a length L and the wall shear stress tw

are related by

DpD DpD2

(A) tw = (B) tw =

4L 4L2

DpD 4DpL

(C) tw = (D) tw =

2L D

n

Q. 2 In order to have maximum power from a Pelton turbine, the bucket speed must

i

be

(A) equal to the jet speed

o.

c

(B) equal to half of the jet speed.

(C) equal to twice the jet speed

a .

i

(D) independent of the jet speed.

YEAR 2013

o d TWO MARKS

Q. 3

. n

Water is coming out from a tap and falls vertically downwards. At the tap opening,

w

the stream diameter is 20 mm with uniform velocity of 2 m/s. Acceleration due

to gravity is 9.81 m/s2 . Assuming steady, inviscid flow, constant atmospheric

w

pressure everywhere and neglecting curvature and surface tension effects, the

w

diameter in mm of the stream 0.5 m below the tap is approximately.

(A) 10 (B) 15

Q. 4

©

(C) 20 (D) 25

A hinged gate of length 5 m, inclined at 30c with the horizontal and with water

mass on its left, is shown in the figure below. Density of water is 1000 kg/m3 . The

minimum mass of the gate in kg per unit width (perpendicular to the plane of

paper), required to keep it closed is

(A) 5000

(B) 6600

(C) 7546

(D) 9623

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 5 Oil flows through a 200 mm diameter horizontal cast iron pipe (friction factor,

f = 0.0225 ) of length 500 m. The volumetric flow rate is 0.2 m3 /s . The head loss

(in m) due to friction is (assume g = 9.81 m/s2 )

(A) 116.18

(B) 0.116

(C) 18.22

(D) 232.36

Q. 6 The velocity triangles at the inlet and exit of the rotor of a turbomachine are

shown. V denotes the absolute velocity of the fluid, W denotes the relative

velocity of the fluid and U denotes the blade velocity. Subscripts 1 and 2 refer to

inlet and outlet respectively. If V2 = W1 and V1 = W2 , then the degree of reaction

n

is

. i

c o

a .

di

(A) 0

o (B) 1

.n

(C) 0.5 (D) 0.25

w

w

YEAR 2012 TWO MARKS

w

Q. 7 An incompressible fluid flows over a flat plate with zero pressure gradient. The

boundary layer thickness is 1 mm at a location where the Reynolds number is

©

1000. If the velocity of the fluid alone is increased by a factor of 4, then the

boundary layer thickness at the same location, in mm will be

(A) 4 (B) 2

(C) 0.5 (D) 0.25

Q. 8 A large tank with a nozzle attached contains three immiscible, inviscide fluids as

shown. Assuming that the change in h1, h2 and h 3 are negligible, the instantaneous

discharge velocity is

r1 h1 r2 h2

2gh 3 c1 +

r3 h 3 r3 h 3 m

(A) + (B) 2g (h1 + h2 + h 3)

r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h 3 r1 h2 h 3 + r2 h 3 h1 + r3 h1 h2

(C) 2g c m (D) 2g

r1 + r2 + r3 r1 h1 + r2 h2 + r3 h 3

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

(A) are parallel to each other (B) are perpendicular to each other

(C) intersect at an acute angle (D) are identical

Q. 10 Figure shows the schematic for the measurement of velocity of air (density

= 1.2 kg/m3 ) through a constant area duct using a pitot tube and a water tube

manometer. The differential head of water (density = 1000 kg/m3 ) in the two

columns of the manometer is 10 mm. Take acceleration due to gravity as 9.8 m/s2

. The velocity of air in m/s is

. in

c o

a .

d i

o

(A) 6.4 (B) 9.0

n

(C) 12.8 (D) 25.6

.

w

Q. 11 A pump handing a liquid raises its pressure from 1 bar to 30 bar. Take the density

of the liquid as 990 kg/m3 . The isentropic specific work done by the pump in kJ/

w

kg is

w

(A) 0.10 (B) 0.30

(C) 2.50 (D) 2.93

©

YEAR 2010 ONE MARK

Q. 12 For the stability of a floating body, under the influence of gravity alone, which of

the following is TRUE ?

(A) Metacenter should be below centre of gravity.

(B) Metacenter should be above centre of gravity.

(C) Metacenter and centre of gravity must lie on the same horizontal line.

(D) Metacenter and centre of gravity must lie on the same vertical line.

viscous flow, between two fixed parallel plates, is 6 ms-1 . The mean velocity (in

ms-1 ) of the flow is

(A) 2 (B) 3

(C) 4 (D) 5

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

dimensions. The number of non-dimensional variables is

(A) k (B) n

(C) n - k (D) n + k

reduced to 20 m, the power developed (in kW) is

(A) 177 (B) 354

(C) 500 (D) 707

(1, 1, 1) is

i n

(A) 4i - j (B) 4i - k

(C) i - 4j

.

(D) i - 4k

o

c

A smooth pipe of diameter 200 mm carries water. The pressure in the pipe at

.

Q. 17

i a

pressure is 20 kPa and velocity is 2 ms-1 . Density of water is 1000 kgm-3 and

d

acceleration due to gravity is 9.8 ms-2 . Which of the following is TRUE

o

(A) flow is from S1 to S2 and head loss is 0.53 m

.n

(B) flow is from S2 to S1 and head loss is 0.53 m

(C) flow is from S1 to S2 and head loss is 1.06 m

w

(D) flow is from S2 to S1 and head loss is 1.06 m

Q. 18

w

Match the following

P.

w

Compressible flow U. Reynolds number

©

Q. Free surface flow V. Nusselt number

R. Boundary layer flow W. Weber number

S. Pipe flow X. Froude number

T. Heat convection Y. Mach number

Z. Skin friction coefficient

(A) P-U; Q-X; R-V; S-Z; T-W (B) P-W; Q-X; R-Z; S-U; T-V

(C) P-Y; Q-W; R-Z; S-U; T-X (D) P-Y; Q-W; R-Z; S-U; T-V

horizontal pipe where the diameter is reduced from 20 cm to 10 cm. The pressure

in the 20 cm pipe just upstream of the reducer is 150 kPa. The fluid has a vapour

pressure of 50 kPa and a specific weight of 5 kN/m3 . Neglecting frictional effects,

the maximum discharge (in m3 /s) that can pass through the reducer without

causing cavitation is

(A) 0.05 (B) 0.16

(C) 0.27 (D) 0.38

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 20 You are asked to evaluate assorted fluid flows for their suitability in a given

laboratory application. The following three flow choices, expressed in terms of the

two dimensional velocity fields in the xy -plane, are made available.

P: u = 2y, v =- 3x

Q: u = 3xy, v = 0

R: u =- 2x, v = 2y

Which flow(s) should be recommended when the application requires the flow to

be incompressible and irrotational ?

(A) P and R (B) Q

(C) Q and R (D) R

Q. 21 Water at 25c C is flowing through a 1.0 km long. G.I. pipe of 200 mm diameter

at the rate of 0.07 m3 /s . If value of Darcy friction factor for this pipe is 0.02 and

density of water is 1000 kg/m3 , the pumping power (in kW) required to maintain

the flow is

(A) 1.8 (B) 17.4

(C) 20.5 (D) 41.0

in

Q. 22 The velocity profile of a fully developed laminar flow in a straight circular pipe,

2

dp 2

u (r) =- R b lc1 - r 2 m

.

as shown in the figure, is given by the expression

o

. c

4m dx R

a

dp

Where is a constant. The average velocity of fluid in the pipe is

i

dx

o d

. n

w

w

2

dp 2

dp

(A) - R b l (B) - R b l

8m dx 4m dx

2

w

dp

(C) - R b l

2

dp

(D) - R b l

©

2m dx m dx

velocity vector, which one of the following is a necessary condition ?

(A) steady flow (B) irrotational flow

(C) inviscid flow (D) incompressible flow

Q. 24 Water, having a density of 1000 kg/m3 , issues from a nozzle with a velocity of

10 m/s and the jet strikes a bucket mounted on a Pelton wheel. The wheel rotates

at 10 rad/s. The mean diameter of the wheel is 1 m. The jet is split into two equal

streams by the bucket, such that each stream is deflected by 120c as shown in the

figure. Friction in the bucket may be neglected. Magnitude of the torque exerted

by the water on the wheel, per unit mass flow rate of the incoming jet, is

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

(C) 2.5 (N-m)/(kg/s) (D) 3.75 (N-m)/(kg/s)

. i n

o

Common Data For Q. 25 and 26

. c

The gap between a moving circular plate and a stationary surface is being

a

continuously reduced, as the circular plate comes down at a uniform speed V

i

towards the stationary bottom surface, as shown in the figure. In the process, the

d

fluid contained between the two plates flows out radially. The fluid is assumed to

o

be incompressible and inviscid.

.n

w

w

w

Q. 25

©

The radial velocity Vr at any radius r , when the gap width is h , is

(A) Vr = Vr (B) Vr = Vr

2h h

(C) Vr = 2Vh (D) Vr = Vh

r r

Q. 26 The radial component of the fluid acceleration at r = R is

2 2

(A) 3V 2R (B) V R

4h 4h2

2 2

(C) V R 2 (D) V h2

2h 2R

Q. 27 Consider an incompressible laminar boundary layer flow over a flat plate of length

L, aligned with the direction of an incoming uniform free stream. If F is the ratio

of the drag force on the front half of the plate to the drag force on the rear half,

then

(A) F < 1/2 (B) F = 1/2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 28 In a steady flow through a nozzle, the flow velocity on the nozzle axis is given

by v = u 0 (1 + 3x/L), where x is the distance along the axis of the nozzle from its

inlet plane and L is the length of the nozzle. The time required for a fluid particle

on the axis to travel from the inlet to the exit plane of the nozzle is

(A) L (B) L ln 4

u0 3u 0

(C) L (D) L

4u 0 2.5u 0

Q. 29 Consider steady laminar incompressible anti-symmetric fully developed viscous

flow through a straight circular pipe of constant cross-sectional area at a Reynolds

number of 5. The ratio of inertia force to viscous force on a fluid particle is

(A) 5 (B) 1/5

(C) 0 (D) 3

Q. 30 The inlet angle of runner blades of a Francis turbine is 90c. The blades are so

in

shaped that the tangential component of velocity at blade outlet is zero. The flow

velocity remains constant throughout the blade passage and is equal to half of the

(A) 25%

o.

blade velocity at runner inlet. The blade efficiency of the runner is

(B) 50%

(C) 80%

. c

(D) 89%

Q. 31

i a

A model of a hydraulic turbine is tested at a head of 1/4 th of that under which the

d

full scale turbine works. The diameter of the model is half of that of the full scale

o

turbine. If N is the RPM of the full scale turbine, the RPM of the model will be

. n

(A) N/4 (B) N/2

(C) N (D) 2N

w

w

Q. 32 Which combination of the following statements about steady incompressible

w

forced vortex flow is correct ?

P: Shear stress is zero at all points in the flow.

©

Q: Vorticity is zero at all points in the flow.

R: Velocity is directly proportional to the radius from the center of the vortex.

S: Total mechanical energy per unit mass is constant in the entire flow field.

(A) P and Q (B) R and S

(C) P and R (D) P and S

Q. 33 Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

below the lists :

List-I List-II

P. Centrifugal compressor 1. Axial flow

Q. Centrifugal pump 2. Surging

R. Pelton wheel 3. Priming

S. Kaplan turbine 4. Pure impulse

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Codes :

P Q R S

(A) 2 3 4 1

(B) 2 3 1 4

(C) 3 4 1 2

(D) 1 2 3 4

Consider a steady incompressible flow through a channel as shown below.

. i n

c o

a .

d i

o

.n

The velocity profile is uniform with a value of U 0 at the inlet section A. The

velocity profile at section B downstream is

w

Z y

]Vm d , 0#y#d

w

]

u = [Vm, d # y # H-d

w

] H-y

]Vm , H-d # y # H

d

©

\

Q. 34 The ratio Vm /U 0 is

(A) 1 (B) 1

1 - 2 (d/H)

(C) 1 (D) 1

1 - (d/H) 1 + (d/H)

p - pB

Q. 35 The ratio A (where pA and pB are the pressures at section A and B )

1 rU 2

0

2

respectively, and r is the density of the fluid) is

1 1

(A) 2 -1 (B)

81 - ^ d/ H hB [ 1 - (d /H )] 2

1 1

(C) 2 -1 (D)

61 - ( 2 d/ H )@ 1 + (d/H )

(A) Shear stress is proportional to shear strain

(B) Rate of shear stress is proportional to shear strain

(C) Shear stress is proportional to rate of shear strain

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

directions respectively, the convective acceleration along the x -direction is given

by

(A) u2v + v2u (B) u2u + v2v

2x 2y 2x 2y

(C) u2u + v2u (D) v2u + u2u

2x 2y 2x 2y

Q. 38 In a Pelton wheel, the bucket peripheral speed is 10 m/s, the water jet velocity is

25 m/s and volumetric flow rate of the jet is 0.1 m3 /s . If the jet deflection angle

is 120c and the flow is ideal, the power developed is

(A) 7.5 kW (B) 15.0 kW

(C) 22.5 kW (D) 37.5 kW

Q. 39 A two-dimensional flow field has velocities along the x and y directions given by

u = x2 t and v =- 2xyt respectively, where t is time. The equation of stream line

in

is

(A) x2 y = constant (B) xy2 = constant

(C) xy = constant

o.

(D) not possible to determine

Q. 40

. c

The velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a pipe of diameter D is

a

given by u = u 0 (1 - 4r2 /D2), where r is the radial distance from the center. If the

i

viscosity of the fluid is m, the pressure drop across a length L of the pipe is

d

mu 0 L 4mu 0 L

(A) (B)

o

2

D D2

n

8m u 0 L 16mu 0 L

.

(C) 2 (D)

D D2

w

Q. 41 A siphon draws water from a reservoir and discharge it out at atmospheric

w

pressure. Assuming ideal fluid and the reservoir is large, the velocity at point P

in the siphon tube is

w

©

(C) 2g (h2 - h1) (D) 2g (h2 + h1)

40 m. For initial testing, a 1 : 4 scale model of the turbine operates under a head

of 10 m. The power generated by the model (in kW) will be

(A) 2.34 (B) 4.68

(C) 9.38 (D) 18.75

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 43 A horizontal-shaft centrifugal pump lifts water at 65cC . The suction nozzle is one

meter below pump center line. The pressure at this point equals 200 kPa gauge

and velocity is 3 m/s. Steam tables show saturation pressure at 65cC is 25 kPa,

and specific volume of the saturated liquid is 0.001020 m3 /kg . The pump Net

Positive Suction Head (NPSH) in meters is

(A) 24 (B) 26

(C) 28 (D) 30

. i n

c o

.

Common Data For Q. 44 and 45

a

A smooth flat plate with a sharp leading edge is placed along a gas stream

d i

flowing at U = 10 m/s . The thickness of the boundary layer at section r - s is

10 mm, the breadth of the plate is 1 m (into the paper) and the density of the

o

gas r = 1.0 kg/m3 . Assume that the boundary layer is thin, two-dimensional, and

.n

follows a linear velocity distribution, u = U (y/d), at the section r-s, where y is

the height from plate.

w

w

w

Q. 44

©

The mass flow rate (in kg/s) across the section q - r is

(A) zero (B) 0.05

(C) 0.10 (D) 0.15

(A) 0.67 (B) 0.33

(C) 0.17 (D) zero

flow are u and v , respectively. Then 2u/2x is equal to

(A) 2v (B) -2v

2x 2x

(C) 2v (D) -2v

2y 2y

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

in a horizontal pipe of 40 mm diameter. If the pressure difference between the

pipe and throat sections is found to be 30 kPa then, neglecting frictional losses,

the flow velocity is

(A) 0.2 m/s (B) 1.0 m/s

(C) 1.4 m/s (D) 2.0 m/s

static pressure difference between two locations A and B in a conical section

through which an incompressible fluid flows. At a particular flow rate, the mercury

column appears as shown in the figure. The density of mercury is 13600 kg/m3

and g = 9.81 m/s2 . Which of the following is correct ?

. in

c o

a .

(A) Flow direction is

(B) Flow direction is

A

B

to B

to A

and

d

and i pA - pB = 20 kPa

pA - pB = 1.4 kPa

(C) Flow direction is A

n o

to B and pB - pA = 20 kPa

(D) Flow direction is

. B to A and pB - pA = 1.4 kPa

Q. 49

w

A leaf is caught in a whirlpool. At a given instant, the leaf is at a distance of

w

120 m from the centre of the whirlpool. The whirlpool can be described by the

w

following velocity distribution:

3 3

Vr =-b 60 # 10 l m/s and Vq = 300 # 10 m/s

©

2pr 2p r

Where r (in metres) is the distance from the centre of the whirlpool. What will

be the distance of the leaf from the centre when it has moved through half a

revolution ?

(A) 48 m (B) 64 m

(C) 120 m (D) 142 m

0.88) is held between two parallel plates. If the top plate is moved with a velocity

of 0.5 m/s while the bottom one is held stationary, the fluid attains a linear

velocity profile in the gap of 0.5 mm between these plates; the shear stress in

Pascals on the surfaces of top plate is

(A) 0.651 # 10-3 (B) 0.651

(C) 6.51 (D) 0.651 # 103

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

constant. The equation of stream line passing through a point (1, 2) is

(A) x - 2y = 0 (B) 2x + y = 0

(C) 2x - y = 0 (D) x + 2y = 0

Q. 52 The following data about the flow of liquid was observed in a continuous chemical

process plant :

Flow Rate 7.5 to 7.7 7.7 to 7.9 7.9 to 8.1 8.1 to 8.3 8.3 to 8.5 8.5 to 8.7

(litres / sec)

Frequency 1 5 35 17 12 10

Mean flow rate of the liquid is

i n

(A) 8.00 litres/sec (B) 8.06 litres/sec

(C) 8.16 litres/sec

.

(D) 8.26 litres/sec

o

c

For a fluid flow through a divergent pipe of length L having inlet and outlet radii

.

Q. 53

i a

be axial and uniform at any cross-section, the acceleration at the exit is

d

2Q (R1 - R2) 2Q2 (R1 - R2)

(A) (B)

o

pLR 23 pLR 23

.n

2Q2 (R1 - R2) 2Q2 (R2 - R1)

(C) (D)

p2 LR 25 p2 LR 25

w

Q. 54 A closed cylinder having a radius R and height H is filled with oil of density r

w

. If the cylinder is rotated about its axis at an angular velocity of w, then thrust

at the bottom of the cylinder is

w

rw2 R2

(A) pR2 rgH (B) pR2

4

©

(C) pR2 (rw2 R2 + rgH) (D) pR2 c

rw2 R2

4

+ rgH m

Q. 55 For air flow over a flat plate, velocity (U) and boundary layer thickness (d) can

be expressed respectively, as

U = 3y - 1 y 3 ; d = 4.64x

U3 2d 2 a d k Re x

If the free stream velocity is 2 m/s, and air has kinematic viscosity of 1.5 # 10-5 m2 /s

and density of 1.23 kg/m3 , the wall shear stress at x = 1 m, is

(C) 4.36 # 10-3 N/m2 (D) 2.18 # 10-3 N/m2

4 km away from the location of the pump through a pipe of diameter 0.2 m

having Darcy’s friction factor of 0.01. The average speed of water in the pipe is

2 m/s. If it is to maintain a constant head of 5 m in the tank, neglecting other

minor losses, then absolute discharge pressure at the pump exit is

(A) 0.449 bar (B) 5.503 bar

(C) 44.911 bar (D) 55.203 bar

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 57 The pressure gauges G1 and G2 installed on the system show pressure of pG1 = 5.00

bar and pG2 = 1.00 bar. The value of unknown pressure p is

(C) 5.00 bar (D) 7.01 bar

Q. 58 At a hydro electric power plant site, available head and flow rate are 24.5 m

and 10.1 m3 /s respectively. If the turbine to be installed is required to run at 4.0

revolution per second (rps) with an overall efficiency of 90%, the suitable type of

turbine for this site is

(A) Francis (B) Kaplan

in

(C) Pelton (D) Propeller

.

Q. 59 Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

o

below the lists :

List-I

. c

List-II

i a

P. Reciprocating pump 1. Plant with power output below 100 kW

d

Q. Axial flow pump 2. Plant with power output between 100 kW

o

to 1 MW

n

R. Microhydel plant 3. Positive displacement

S.

.

Backward curved vanes 4. Draft tube

w

Codes :

P Q R S P Q R S

(A) 3

(C) ©3

5

5

6

1

2

6

(B)

(D)

3

4

5

5

2

1

6

6

to a depth h in a liquid of density r, and tied to the bottom with a string. The

tension in the string is

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

(C) (r - rs) ghA (D) (rh - rs H) gA

vertically into the container with a volume flow rate of Q ; the velocity of the

water when it hits the water surface is U . At a particular instant of time the

total mass of the container and water is m . The force registered by the weighing

balance at this instant of time is

(A) mg + rQU (B) mg + 2rQU

2

(C) mg + rQU /2 (D) rQU 2 /2

n

Q. 62 A centrifugal pump running at 500 rpm and at its maximum efficiency is delivering

. i

a head of 30 m at a flow rate of 60 litres per minute. If the rpm is changed to

o

1000, then the head H in metres and flow rate Q in litres per minute at maximum

c

efficiency are estimated to be

.

(A) H = 60, Q = 120

i a

(B) H = 120, Q = 120

d

(C) H = 60, Q = 480

o

(D) H = 120, Q = 30

.n

Q. 63 Match List-I with the List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given

w

below the lists :

w

List-I List-II

P Curtis 1. Reaction steam turbine

Q

w

Rateau 2. Gas turbine

©

R Kaplan 3. Velocity compounding

S Francis 4. Pressure compounding

5. Impulse water turbine

6. Axial turbine

7. Mixed flow turbine

8. Centrifugal pump

Codes :

P Q R S

(A) 2 1 1 6

(B) 3 1 5 7

(C) 1 3 1 5

(D) 3 4 7 6

Q. 64 Assuming ideal flow, the force F in newtons required on the plunger to push out

the water is

(A) 0 (B) 0.04

(C) 0.13 (D) 1.15

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 65 Neglect losses in the cylinder and assume fully developed laminar viscous flow

throughout the needle; the Darcy friction factor is 64/Re. Where Re is the

Reynolds number. Given that the viscosity of water is 1.0 # 10-3 kg/s-m, the

force F in newtons required on the plunger is

(A) 0.13 (B) 0.16

(C) 0.3 (D) 4.4

Q. 66 Air flows through a venturi and into atmosphere. Air density is r ; atmospheric

pressure is pa ; throat diameter is Dt ; exit diameter is D and exit velocity is U .

The throat is connected to a cylinder containing a frictionless piston attached to

a spring. The spring constant is k . The bottom surface of the piston is exposed

to atmosphere. Due to the flow, the piston moves by distance x . Assuming

incompressible frictionless flow, x is

. in

c o

a .

i

(A) (rU 2 /2k) pD s2

d

2

(B) (rU 2 /8k) c D 2 - 1m pD s2

o

Dt

n

2

(C) (rU 2 /2k) c D 2 - 1m pD s2

.

Dt

w

4

(D) (rU 2 /8k) c D 4 - 1m pD s2

w

Dt

YEAR 2002

w ONE MARK

Q. 67

©

If there are m physical quantities and n fundamental dimensions in a particular

process, the number of non-dimentional parameters is

(A) m + n (B) m # n

(C) m - n (D) m/n

Q. 68 If x is the distance measured from the leading edge of a flat plate, the laminar

boundary layer thickness varies as

(A) 1 (B) x 4/5

x

(C) x2 (D) x1/2

(A) a reduction of pressure to vapour pressure

(B) a negative pressure gradient

(C) a positive pressure gradient

(D) the boundary layer thickness reducing to zero

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Q. 70 The value of Biot number is very small (less than 0.01) when

(A) the convective resistance of the fluid is negligible

(B) the conductive resistance of the fluid is negligible

(C) the conductive resistance of the solid is negligible

(D) None of the above

Q. 71 The properties of mercury at 300 K are; density = 13529 kg/m3 , specific heat at

constant pressure = 0.1393 kJ/kg -K , dynamic viscosity = 0.1523 # 10-2 N-s/m2

and thermal conductivity = 8.540 W/m -K . The Prandtl number of the mercury

at 300 K is

(A) 0.0248 (B) 2.48

n

(C) 24.8 (D) 248

. i

YEAR 2001

c o ONE MARK

Q. 72

a .

The SI unit of kinematic viscosity (u) is

(A) m2 /s

(C) m/s 2

d i (B) kg/m-s

(D) m3 /s2

o

.n

Q. 73 A static fluid can have

(A) non-zero normal and shear stress

w

(B) negative normal stress and zero shear stress

w

(C) positive normal stress and zero shear stress

w

(D) zero normal stress and non-zero shear stress

©

Q. 74 Lumped heat transfer analysis of a solid object suddenly exposed to a fluid

medium at a different temperature is valid when

(A) Biot number < 0.1

(B) Biot number > 0.1

(C) Fourier number < 0.1

(D) Fourier number > 0.1

Q. 75 The horizontal and vertical hydrostatic forces Fx and Fy on the semi-circular gate,

having a width w into the plane of figure, are

(C) Fx = rghrw and Fy = rgwr2 /2 (D) Fx = 2rghrw and Fy = prgwr2 /2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

(A) compressible and irrotational (B) compressible and not irrotational

(C) incompressible and irrotational (D) incompressible and not irrotational

Q. 77 Water (Prandtl number = 6 ) flows over a flat plate which is heated over the

entire length. Which one of the following relationships between the hydrodynamic

boundary layer thickness (d) and the thermal boundary layer thickness (dt) is

true?

(A) dt > d (B) dt < d

(C) dt = d (D) cannot be predicted

**********

. in

c o

a .

d i

n o

.

w

w

w

©

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

SOLUTION

For steady, fully developed flow inside a straight pipe, the pressure drop and wall

shear stress are related by

Dp = 4Ltw

D

DpD

or tw =

4L

Sol. 2 Option (B) is correct.

n

The force imposed by the jet on the runner is equal but opposite to the rate of

. i

momentum change of the fluid.

F =- m ^Vf - Vi h =- rQ 6^- Vi + 2u h - Vi@

o

=- rQ ^- 2Vi + 2u h = 2rQ ^Vi - u h

c

.

where u is the bucket speed and Vi is the jet speed.

a

Power P = Fu

d i

= 2rQ ^Vi - u h u

o

^ i

dP = 2rQ V - 2u = 0

h

.n

du

or u = Vi 2rQ ! 0

w

2

Hence bucket speed ^u h must be equal to half of the jet speed.

Sol. 3

w

Option (B) is correct.

w

Applying the bernoulli’s equation at the tap opening and the 0.5 m below the tap

p1 V 12 p 2

©

+ + Z1 = 2 + V 2 + Z 2

pg 2g pg 2g

2 2

V 2 - V1 = Z - Z

or

2g 1 2 ^ p 1 = p 2h

or V 22 - V 12 = ^Z1 - Z2h 2g Z1 - Z2 = 0.5 m

or V 22 = 2 # 9.81 # 0.5 + ^2 h2 V1 = 2 m/ sec

or V2 = 3.72 m/ sec

Now applying the continuity equation

A1 V1 = A2 V2

p d 2V = p d 2V

4 1 1 4 2 2

or d 22 = V1 d 12 = 2 # ^20h2

V2 3.72

d2 = 15 mm

Sol. 4 Option (D) is correct.

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

In equilibrium condition

Torque due to pressure of water = Torque due to weight of the plate

Now Torque due to pressure at distance s for infinitesimal length (pressure

force acts normal to the surface)

T0 = ^pgy ds h s = rgs2 sin qds = rg sin qs2 ds

Torque due to weight of the gate is

= mg # L cos q

2

rg sin qs2 ds = mg # L cos q

L

Thus

0

# 2

2

2rL tan q

or m = = 2 # 103 # ^5 h2 # tan 30c = 9623 kg

3 3

Sol. 5 Option (A) is correct.

From Darcy Weischback equation head loss

2

h = f # L #V ...(1)

D 2g

Given that h = 500 m, D = 200 = 0.2 m , f = 0.0225

in

1000

.

Since volumetric flow rate

o

no = Area # velocity of flow (V)

c

V = n = 0. 2

o

.

= 6.37 m/s

Area p (0.2) 2

a

4 #

Hence,

d i

h = 0.0225 # 500 #

0.2

(6.37) 2

2 # 9.81

o

h = 116.33 m - 116.18 m

n

.

Sol. 6 Option (C) is correct.

w

Degree of reaction

(V12 - V22)

w

R = 1-

(V12 - V22) + (U12 - U22) + (W22 - W12)

w

where V1 and V2 are absolute velocities

©

W1 and W2 are relative velocities

U1 and U2 = U for given figure

Given W2 = V1, W1 = V2

(V12 - V22)

Hence R = 1- 2

(V1 - V22) + (U 2 - U 2) + (V12 - V22)

(V12 - V22)

= 1- = 1 - 1 = 0.5

2 (V12 - V22) 2

Sol. 7 Option (C) is correct.

For flat plate with zero pressure gradient and Re = 1000 (laminar flow).

Boundary layer thickness

1/2

d (x) = 4.91x = 4.91x = 4.91x

Re x Vx V

u u

1/2

& x

d \ 1/2 For a same location (x = 1)

V

d \ (V ) -1/2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

d1 = V1 -1/2

d2 bV2 l

d2 = bV1 l # d1 = b V1 l # 1

1/2 1/2

V2 = 4V1 (Given)

V2 4V1

= b 1 l # 1 = 1 = 0.5

1/2

4 2

Sol. 8 Option (A) is correct.

Takes point (1) at top and point (2) at bottom

By Bernoulli equation between (1) and (2)

V 2 (p + p2 + p 3) 2

p1 + r1 gh1 + r2 gh2 + r3 gh 3 + 1 1 = patm. + V 2

2g 2g

At Reference level (2) z2 = 0 and V1 = 0 at point (1)

Therefore

2

p1 + r1 gh1 + r1 gh2 + r3 gh 3 = patm. + V 2

n

& ...(1)

2g

Since

. i

p1 = atmospheric pressure (because tank is open)

Hence p1 = p atm.

c o

.

Therefore V2 = 2g # [r1 gh1 + r2 gh2 + r3 gh 3]

a

r gh r gh

i

= 2g # ; 1 1 + 2 2 + h 3E

r3 g r3 g

=

o d

2g # ;

r1 h1 r2 h2

r3

+

r3

+ h 3E = 2gh 3 # ;1 +

r1 h1 r2 h2

r3 h 3 r3 h 3 E

+

.n

Sol. 9 Option (B) is correct.

dy

w

For Equipotential line, =- u = Slope of equipotential line ...(i)

dx v

For stream function,

w dy

= v = Slope of stream line ...(ii)

w

dx u

It is clear from equation (i) and (ii) that the product of slope of equipotential line

©

and slope of the stream line at the point of intersection is equal to - 1.

- u # v =- 1

v u

And, when m1 m2 =- 1, Then lines are perpendicular, therefore the stream

line and an equipotential line in a flow field are perpendicular to each other.

Sol. 10 Option (C) is correct.

Given : pa = 1.2 kg/m3 , rw = 1000 kg/m3 , x = 10 # 10-3 m , g = 9.8 m/ sec2

If the difference of pressure head ‘h ’ is measured by knowing the difference of the

level of the manometer liquid say x . Then

. w - 1 = x rw - 1

h = x :SG

SG

. a D : ra D

1.2

Weight density of liquid

Where S.G =

Weight density of water

S.G \ Density of Liquid

Velocity of air V = 2gh = 2 # 9.8 # 8.32 = 12.8 m/ sec

Sol. 11 Option (D) is correct.

3

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

W = ndp = m dp n=m

r r

W = 1 dp = 1 (30 - 1) # 105 pascal

m r 990 #

= 2929.29 J/kg = 2.93 kJ/kg

Sol. 12 Option (B) is correct.

. in

As shown in figure above. If point Bl is sufficiently far from B , these two forces

o

(Gravity force and Buoyant force) create a restoring moment and return the body

. c

to the original position.

a

A measure of stability for floating bodies is the metacentric height GM , which

i

is the distance between the centre of gravity G and the metacenter M (the

d

intersection point of the lines of action of the buoyant force through the body

o

before and after rotation.)

n

A floating body is stable if point M is above the point G , and thus GM is

.

positive, and unstable if point M is below point G , and thus GM is negative.

w

Stable equilibrium occurs when M is above G .

w

Sol. 13 Option (C) is correct.

w

In case of two parallel plates, when flow is fully developed, the ratio of Vmax and

Vavg is a constant.

©

Vmax = 3 Vmax = 6 m/ sec

Vavg 2

Vavg = 2 # Vmax = 2 # 6 = 4 m/ sec

3 3

Sol. 14 Option (C) is correct.

From Buckingham’s p-theorem

It states “If there are n variable (Independent and dependent variables) in a

physical phenomenon and if these variables contain m fundamental dimensions

(M, L, T), then variables are arranged into (n - m) dimensionless terms.

Here n = dimensional variables

k = Primary dimensions (M, L, T)

So, non dimensional variables, & n - k

Sol. 15 Option (B) is correct.

Given : P1 = 103 kW , H1 = 40 m , H2 = 40 - 20 = 20 m

If a turbine is working under different heads, the behavior of turbine can be easily

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

So Pu = P3/2

H

P1 = P2

H 13/2 H 23/2

P2 = b H2 l # P1 = b 20 l # 1000 = 353.6 . 354 kW

3/2 3/2

H1 40

Sol. 16 Option (D) is correct.

Given : V = 2xyi - x2 zj P (1, 1, 1)

The vorticity vector is defined as,

i j k

Vorticity Vector = 2x 2y 2z

2 2 2

u v w

Substitute, u = 2xy , v =- x2 z , w=0

i j k

So, = 2x

i n

2 2 2

.

2y 2z

2xy - x2 z 0

c o

= i :- 2 ^- x2 z hD - j :- 2 (2xy)D + k ; 2 (- x2 z) - 2 (2xy)E

2z

a . 2z 2x 2y

i

= x2 i - 0 + k [- 2xz - 2x]

d

Vorticity vector at P (1, 1, 1), = i + k [- 2 - 2]= i - 4k

o

Sol. 17 Option (C) is correct.

.n

Given : p1 = 50 kPa , Z1 = 10 m , V2 = 2 m/ sec , p2 = 20 kPa , Z2 = 12 m ,

r = 1000 kg/m3 , g = 9.8 m/ sec2

w

w

w

©

Applying continuity equation at section S1 and S2 ,

A1 V1 = A2 V2

V1 = V2 D1 = D2 so A1 = A2 ... (i)

Applying Bernoulli’s equation at section S1 and S2 with head loss hL ,

p1 V 12 p 2

+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + h L

rg 2g rg 2g

p1 p

+ z1 = 2 + z 2 + h L From equation (i)

rg rg

^50 - 20h # 10

3

p1 - p 2

hL = b

rg l

+ (z 1 - z 2) = + (10 - 12)

(1000 # 9.8)

= 3.058 - 2 = 1.06 m

Head at section (S1) is given by,

3

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Head at section S2 ,

p2 3

H2 = + Z2 = 203# 10 + 12 = 14.04 m

rg 10 # 9.8

From H1 and H2 we get H1 > H2 . So, flow is from S1 to S2

Sol. 18 Option (D) is correct.

Here type of flow is related to the dimensionless numbers (Non-dimensional

numbers). So

P. Compressible flow Y. Mach number

Q. Free surface flow W. Weber number

R. Boundary layer Z. Skin friction coefficient

S. Pipe flow U. Reynolds number

T. Heat convection V. Nusselt number

So, correct pairs are P-Y, Q-W, R-Z, S-U, T-V

Sol. 19 Option (B) is correct.

. in

c o

a .

d i

n o

.

w

Given : pV = 50 kPa , w = 5 kN/m3 = rg

w

Consider steady, incompressible and irrotational flow and neglecting frictional

effect. First of all applying continuity equation at section (1) and (2).

w A1 V1 = A2 V2

©

p (d ) 2 V = p (d ) 2 V

4 1 # 1 4 2 # 2

Substitute the values of d1 and d2 , we get

p (20) 2 V = p (10) 2 V

4 # 1 4 # 2

Cavitation is the phenomenon of formation of vapor bubbles of a flowing liquid

in a region where the pressure of liquid falls below the vapor pressure [pL < pV ]

So, we can say that maximum pressure in downstream of reducer should be equal

or greater than the vapor pressure. For maximum discharge

pV = p2 = 50 kPa

Applying Bernoulli’s equation at point (1) and (2)

p1 V 12 p 2

+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

rg 2g r g 2g

Here z1 = z2 for horizontal pipe and w = rg = 5 kN/m2

2

150 V 12 50 (4V1)

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

150 - 50 = 16V 12 - V 12

5 5 2g 2g

2

20 = 15V 1

2g

V 12 = 40 # 9.81 = 5.114 m/sec

15

And V2 = 4V1 = 4 # 5.114 = 20.46 m/ sec

Maximum discharge,

Q max = A2 V2 = p (d2) 2 V2 = p (10 # 10-2) 2 # 20.46

4 4

= p # 10-2 # 20.46 = 0.16 m3 / sec

4

Sol. 20 Option (D) is correct.

Given :

n

P: u = 2y,V =- 3x

Q: u = 3xy,V = 0

. i

o

R: u =- 2x,V = 2y

c

For incompressible fluid,

a.

2u + 2v + 2w = 0 ...(i)

i

2x 2y 2z

d

For irrotational flow z z = 0 ,

n o

z z = 1 c2v - 2u m

2 2x 2y

.

1 2v - 2u = 0

2 c2x 2y m

w 2v - 2u = 0

w

...(ii)

2x 2y

w

From equation (i) and (ii), check P, Q and R

2u = 0 , 2u = 2

©

For P : u = 2y ,

2x 2y

v =- 3x , 2v = 0 , 2v =- 3

2y 2x

2u + 2v = 0 & 0+0 = 0 (Flow is incompressible)

2x 2y

Or, 2v - 2u = 0

2x 2y

-3 - 2 = 0 & -5 ! 0 (Rotational flow)

For Q : u = 3xy 2u = 3y , 2u = 3x

2x 2y

v =0 2v = 0 , 2v = 0

2y 2x

2u + 2v = 0 & 3y =

Y 0 (Compressible flow)

2x 2y

Or, 2v - 2u = 0

2x 2y

0 - 3x = 0 & - 3x =

Y 0 (Rotational flow)

For R : u =- 2x 2u =- 2 , 2u = 0

2x 2y

2v , 2v

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

2u + 2v = 0

2x 2y

-2 + 2 = 0 & 0=0 (Incompressible flow)

Or, 2v - 2u = 0

2x 2y

0-0 = 0 & 0=0 (Irrotational flow)

So, we can easily see that R is incompressible and irrotational flow.

Sol. 21 Option (A) is correct.

Given : L = 1 km = 1000 m , D = 200 mm = 0.2 m , Q = 0.07 M3 / sec

f = 0.02 , r = 1000 kg/m3

Head loss is given by,

fLV 2 fL 4Q 2 16fLQ2 8fLQ2 2

hf = = c m = = Q = pD # V

D # 2g D # 2g pD 2 2 5

p D # 2g 2

pDg5 4

8 # 0.02 # 1000 # (0.07) 2

=

(3.14) 2 # (0.2) 5 # (9.81)

= 0.784 = 2.61 m of water Pumping power required,

0.30

in

P = rgQ # h f = 1000 # 9.81 # 0.07 # 2.61

= 1752.287 = 1.752 kW . 1.8 kW

o.

c

Sol. 22 Option (A) is correct.

a .

d i

n o

.

w

w 2

dp

u (r) =- R b lc1 - r 2 m

2

w

4m dx R

©

Therefore, the velocity profile in fully developed laminar flow in a pipe is parabolic

with a maximum at the center line and minimum at the pipe wall.

The average velocity is determined from its definition,

R 2

dp 2

Vavg = u (r) rdr =- 22 # R b lc1 - r 2 m rdr

R

#0 R 0 4m dx R

dp R 3

=- 1 b l # cr - r 2 m dr

2m dx 0 R

R

dp 2 4

dp 2 4

=- 1 b l;r - r 2 E =- 1 b l;R - R 2 E

2m dx 2 4R 0 2m dx 2 4R

dp 2 2

dp

=- 1 b l # R =- R b l

2m dx 4 8m dx

Alternate Method :

Now we consider a small element (ring) of pipe with thickness dr and radius r .

We find the flow rate through this elementary ring.

dQ = (2pr) # dr # u (r) Put the value of u (r)

2 2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Now for total discharge integrate both the rides within limit.

Q & 0 to Q and R & 0 to R

Q 2

dp R 2

So

0

# dQ =- 2p 4Rm b dx l#

0

r c1 - r 2 m dr

R

4 R

R dp r

2 2

r

6Q@0 =- 2p 4m b dx l; 2 - 4R2 E

Q

0

Now put the limits, we have

2

dp 2 4 2

dp 2 2

Q =- 2p R b l;R - R 2 E =- 2p R b l:R - R D

4m dx 2 4R 4m dx 2 4

2

dp 2 4

dp

=- 2p c R mb l:R D =- pR b l

4m dx 4 8m dx

Now Q = Area # Average velocity = A # Vavg.

n

Q 4

dp 2

dp

Vavg. = = - pR b l # 1 2 =- R b l

A 8m dx

. i

pR 8m dx

o

Sol. 23 Option (D) is correct.

c

The continuity equation in three dimension is given by,

.

2 (ru) + 2 (rv) + 2 (rw) = 0

a

2x 2y 2z

d

For incompressible flow r =Constant

i

o

r ;2u + 2v + 2w E = 0

2x 2y 2z

.n

2u + 2v + 2w = 0

w

2x 2y 2z

d : V =0

w

So, the above equation represents the incompressible flow.

w

Sol. 24 None of these is correct.

Initial velocity in the direction of jet = V

Final velocity in the direction of the jet =- V cos q .

Force exerted on the bucket

Fx = rAV 6V - (- V cos q)@ = rAV 61 + cos q@ V

= Q (1 + cos q) V Mass flow rate Q = rAV

Torque, Tx = Fx # R = QV (1 + cos q) R

Torque per unit mass flow rate

Tx = V (1 + cos q) R = 10 (1 + cos 60c) 0.5

Q #

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Torque in y -direction

Ty = Fy # R = 0 R=0

Total Torque will be

T = T x2 + T y2 = Tx = 7.5 N - m/kg/ sec

Sol. 25 Option (A) is correct.

. in

Here Gap between moving and stationary plates are continuously reduced, so we

o

can say that

c

Volume of fluid moving out radially

.

= Volume of fluid displaced by moving plate within radius r

a

i

Volume displaced by the moving plate

d

= Velocity of moving plate # Area = V # pr2 ...(i)

o

Volume of fluid which flows out at radius r

n

= Vr # 2pr # h ...(ii)

.

Equating equation (i) and (ii),

w

V # pr2 = Vr # 2prh

w Vr = 2Vr h & Vr = Vr

2h

w

Alternate Method :

Apply continuity equation at point (i) and (ii),

© A1 V1 = A2 V2

V # pr2 = Vr # 2prh

Vr = Vr

2h

Sol. 26 Option (B) is correct.

From previous part of question,

Vr = Vr

2h

Acceleration at radius r is given by

ar = Vr # dVr = Vr # d :Vr D = Vr # V ...(i)

dr dr 2h 2h

2

At r = R ar = VR # V = V R

2h 2h 4h2

Sol. 27 Option (D) is correct.

rAV 2 rAV 2

FD = CD # = 1.33 # CD = 1.33

2 2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

rVL

= 1.33 1 r bLV 2

rV # 2 #

Re L =

m

m

= rV # 1 rbV 2 L

1 . 33 ...(i)

m

2

So from equation (i) FD \ L ...(ii)

Drag force on front half of plate

FD/2 = L = FD From Equation (ii)

2 2

Drag on rear half,

FlD/2 = FD - FD/2 = c1 - 1 m FD

2

Now ratio of FD/2 and FlD/2 is

FD

FD/2 1

F = = 2

= >1

FlD/2 _1 - 1

i FD 2 -1

n

2

. i

Sol. 28

o

Given : v = u 0 b1 + 3x l

L

. c

dx = u 1 + 3x = u 0 (L + 3x)

0b

Ll

a

dt L

dt = L #

d i 1

u 0 (L + 3x)

dx

o

On integrating both the sides within limits t & 0 to t and x & 0 to L , we get

.n

#0 dt = uL0 #0 (L +1 3x) dx

t L

w L

6t @t0 = 3u 0 6ln (L + 3x)@ 0

L

w t = L 6ln 4L - ln L@ = L ln 4

w

3u 0 3u 0

©

Sol. 29 Option (A) is correct.

rAV 2 rVL

Re = Inertia force = = = 5 = I.F .

Viscous force m# #AV m V.F.

L

Sol. 30 Option (C) is correct.

Given figure shows the velocity triangle for the pelton wheel.

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Given :

Flow velocity at Inlet Vf 1 = flow velocity at outlet Vf 2

Vf1 = Vf 2 = u1 (blade velocity)

2

V2 = Vf2

u1 = Vw1 q = 90c

V 12 = (Vf1) 2 + (Vw 1) 2 = a u1 k + (u1) 2 = 5 u 12

2

From Inlet triangle,

2 4

5 2

2 2

u - 1 u2

Blade efficiency = V 1 -2V 2 # 100 = 4 15 24 1 # 100 = 80%

V1 4 u1

u = pDN = 2gH

60

From this equation, H \ DN

H = Constant

DN

in

So using this relation for the given model or prototype,

.

H H

c DN m = c DN m

o

p m

c

Np Hp Dm

.

= ...(i)

Nm Hm # D p

i

Given : Hm = 1 H p , Dm = 1 D p , N p = N

4 2

a

N =

o d Hp

1D

2 p = 4#1 =1

n

Nm 1H # Dp 2

.

4 p

w

So, Nm = N

w

Sol. 32 Option (B) is correct.

For forced Vortex flow the relation is given by,

w V = rw ...(i)

©

From equation (i) it is shown easily that velocity is directly proportional to the

radius from the centre of the vortex (Radius of fluid particle from the axis of

rotation)

And also for forced vortex flow,

1 rw2 (r 2 - r 2) - rg (z - z ) = 0

2 1 2 1

2

D K.E. - D P.E. = 0 & DK.E = D P.E.

Now total mechanical energy per unit mass is constant in the entire flow field.

Sol. 33 Option (A) is correct.

List-I List-II

P. Centrifugal compressor 2. Surging

Q. Centrifugal pump 3. Priming

R. Pelton wheel 4. Pure Impulse

S. Kaplan Turbine 1. Axial Flow

So, correct pairs are P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-1

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Let width of the channel = b

From mass conservation

Flow rate at section A = flow rate at B

or Velocity A # Area of A = Velocity at B # Area of B

U 0 # (H # b) = Velocity for (0 # y # d) # dy # b

+ velocity for (d # y # H - d) # dy # b

+ velocity for (H - d # y # H) # dy # b

dy H-d H H-y

or U 0 # H = Vm #

0 d

dy + Vm

d

# dy + Vm#H-d d

dy

or U 0 # H = Vm d + Vm (H - 2d) + Vm d

2 2

U 0 # H = Vm d + Vm (H - 2d) = Vm (d + H - 2d)

or Vm = H = H = 1 d

. i n

o

U0 d + H - 2d H-d 1- H

c

Sol. 35 Option (A) is correct.

.

Applying Bernoulli’s Equation at the section A and B .

a

i

pA V A2 p 2

+ + zA = B + V B + zB

d

rg 2g rg 2g

o

Here, zA = zB = 0

.n

pA - pB V B2 - V A2

So, =

rg 2g

w

pA - pB V B2 - V A2 V m2 - U 02

= = VB = Vm and VA = U 0

w

r 2 2

2

U 02 ;V m2 - 1E

w =

U0

2

© pA - pB V m2

2

2 rU 0

1 = 2 - 1 = bVm l - 1

U0 U0

2

U0 1 - Hd

pA - pB 1

= 2 -1

61 - d/H @

2

2 rU 0

1

From the Newton’s law of Viscosity, the shear stress (t) is directly proportional

to the rate of shear strain .

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

So, t \ du = m du

dy dy

Where m = Constant of proportionality and it is known as coefficient of Viscosity.

Sol. 37 Option (C) is correct.

Convective Acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity due to the

change of position of fluid particles in a fluid flow.

In Cartesian coordinates, the components of the acceleration vector along the x

-direction is given by.

ax = 2u + u2u + v2u + w2u

2t 2x 2y 2z

In above equation term 2u/2t is known as local acceleration and terms other then

this, called convective acceleration.

Hence for given flow.

Convective acceleration along x -direction.

ax = u2u + v2u [w = 0]

2x 2y

Sol. 38 Option (C) is correct.

in

The velocity triangle for the pelton wheel is given below.

o.

. c

i a

o d

. n

w

w

Given : u = u1 = u2 = 10 m/ sec , V1 = 25 m/ sec , Q = 0.1 m3 / sec

Jet deflection angle = 120c C

©

rQ [Vw1 + Vw2] # u

P = kW ...(i)

1000

From velocity triangle,

Vw1 = V1 = 25 m/ sec

Vw = Vr cos f - u2

2 2

Vr 2 = Vr = V1 - u1

1

= 15 - 10 =- 2.5 m/ sec

2

Now put there values in equation (i)

1000 # 0.1 [25 - 2.5] # 10

P = kW = 22.5 kW

1000

Sol. 39 Option (D) is correct.

Given : u = x2 t , v =- 2xyt

The velocity component in terms of stream function are

2y

= v =- 2xyt ...(i)

2x

2y 2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

#

y = (- 2xyt) dx =- x2 yt + K ...(iii)

Where, K is a constant of integration which is independent of ‘x ’ but can be a

function of ‘y ’

Differentiate equation (iii) w.r.t y , we get

2y

=- x2 t + 2K

2y 2y

2y

But from equation (ii), =- x2 t

2y

2y

Comparing the value of , we get

2y

- x2 t + 2K =- x2 t

2y

2K = 0

2y

K = Constant(K1)

. i n

From equation (iii)

c o

.

y =- x2 yt + K1

i a

The line for which stream function y is zero called as stream line.

d

So, - x2 yt + K1 = 0

o

K1 = x2 yt

.n

If ‘t ’ is constant then equation of stream line is,

x 2 y = K1 = K 2

w

t

w

But in the question, there is no condition for t is constant. Hence, it is not

possible to determine equation of stream line.

Sol. 40

w

Option (D) is correct.

©

2 2

Given : u = uo c1 - 4r2 m = uo c1 - r 2 m

D R

Drop of pressure for a given length (L)of a pipe is given by,

32muL

r

Dp = p 1 - p 2 = 2 ..(i)

D

(From the Hagen poiseuille formula)

Where ur = average velocity

R R 2

And ur = 22 u (r) rdr = 22

# # uo c1 - r 2 m rdr

R 0 R 0 R

3 2 4 R

= 2u2o r - r 2 m dr = 2u2o ;r - r 2 E

R

R 0

# c R R 2 4R 0

2 4 R 2

= 2u2o ;R - R 2 E = 2u2o :R D

R 2 4R 0 R 4

u = uo

2

Substitute the value of u in equation(1)

32mL uo 16muo L

So, Dp = 2 # 2 =

D D2

Note : The average velocity in fully developed laminar pipe flow is one-half of the

maximum velocity.

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

In a steady and ideal flow of incompressible fluid, the total energy at any point of

the fluid is constant. So applying the Bernoulli’s Equation at section (1) and (2)

p1 V 12 p 2

+ + Z1 = 2 + V 2 + Z 2

rg 2g r g 2g

V1 = 0 = Initial velocity at point (1)

in

Z2 = 0 = At the bottom surface

.

p1 = p2 = patm

o

And z1 = h 2 - h1

. c

2

So, h 2 - h1 = V 2

2g

i a

V 22 = 2g (h2 - h1)

o d

V2 = 2g (h2 - h1)

n

So, velocity of fluid is same inside the tube

. Vp = V2 = 2g (h2 - h1)

Sol. 42

w

Option (A) is correct.

w

Given : P1 = 300 kW , N1 = 1000 rpm , H1 = 40 m

w

d2 = 1 , H = 10 m

2

d1 4

©

Specific power for similar turbine is same. So from the relation, we have

P = Constant

d H 3/2

2

P1 = P2

d 1 H 13/2

2

d 22 H 23/2

P2 = b d2 l b H2 l # P1 = b 1 l b 10 l # 300 = 2.34

2 3/2 2 3/2

d1 H1 4 40

Sol. 43 Option (A) is correct.

Net positive suction head, (NPSH) = Pressure head + static head

Pressure difference, Dp = 200 - (- 25)= 225 kPa

(Negative sign shows that the pressure acts on liquid in opposite direction)

Dp = 225 # 103 Pa = 2.25 bar = 2.25 # 10.33 m = 22.95 m of water

1.013

Static head = 1 m (Given)

Now, NPSH = 22.95 + 1 = 23.95 - 24 m of water

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

y

B = 1 m and u = U a k

d

From the figure we easily find that mass entering from the side qp

i n

= Mass leaving from the side qr + Mass Leaving from the side rs

.

m pq = (m pq - mrs) + mrs

o

So, firstly Mass flow rate entering from the side pq is

m

.c

o pq = r # Volume = r # (A # U) = 1 # (B # d) # U

a

Substitute the values, we get

m

d i

o pq = 1 # (1 # 10-2) # 10 = 0.1 kg/ sec

For mass flow through section r - s , we have to take small element of dy thickness.

o

Then Mass flow rate through this element,

.n

dmo = r # Volume = r # (A # u)

w

y

= r # u # B # (dy) = rBU a k dy

d

w

For total Mass leaving from rs , integrating both sides within the limits,

w

dm & 0 to m

y & 0 to d

© #0 dmo = #0 yb rUB

m d

d l

dy

2 d

6mo @m0 = rUB ;y E

d 2 0

o = r UB d 2 = 1 rUBd

m #

d 2 2

So, o rs = 1 # 10-2 # 10 # 1 # 1 = 5 # 10-2 = 0.05 kg/ sec

m

2

Mass leaving from qr

oqr = m

m o pq - m

o rs = 0.1 - 0.05 = 0.05 kg/ sec

Sol. 45 Option (D) is correct.

Von Karman momentum Integral equation for boundary layer flows is,

to = 2q

rU 2 2x

d

u 1 - u dy

and q = momentum thickness =

0 U 9 UC #

to = 2 d

u 1 - u dy u =y

rU 2 2x ; Uk E

So, #0 Ua U d

2 d y y 2 d y y2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

y2 y3 d 2 3

= 2 >c - 2 m H = 2 =c d - d 2 mG = 2 : d D = 0

2x 2d 3d 0 2x 2d 3d 2x 6

to = 0

And drag force on the plate of length L is,

L

FD = # t # b # dx = 0

0

o

We know that potential flow (ideal flow) satisfy the continuity equation. The

continuity equation for two dimensional flow for incompressible fluid is given by,

2u + 2v = 0

2x 2y

2u =-2v

2x 2y

Sol. 47 Option (D) is correct.

. in

c o

a .

d i

n o

Given : d2 = 20 mm = 0.020 m , d1 = 40 mm = 0.040 m

. Dp = p1 - p2 = 30 kPa

w

Applying continuity equation at section (1) and (2),

w

A1 V1 = A2 V2

w

p 2

d

V1 = c A2 m V2 = p4 22 # V2

A1 4 d1

©

2

= d 22 # V2 = b 20 l V2 = V2

2

d1 40 4

V2 = 4V1 ..(i)

Now applying Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2),

p1 V 12 p 2

+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 For horizontal pipe z1 = z2

rg 2g r g 2g

p1 - p2 V 22 - V 12

=

rg 2g

Dp V 22 - V 12

=

r 2

2 2

30 # 103 = (4V1) - V 1 From equation (i)

1000 2

2 2 2

30 = 16V 1 - V 1 = 15V 1

2 2

V 12 = 30 # 2 = 4 & V1 = 2 m/ sec

15

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

It is a U -tube differential Manometer.

In this manometer A and B at different level and the liquid contain in manometer

has the same specific gravity (only mercury is fill in the manometer)

Given : rmercury = 13600 kg/m3 , g = 9.81 m/ sec2 , Dh = 150 mm = 0.150 meter

Static pressure difference for U -tube differential manometer is given by,

pA - pB = rg (hA - hB) = rgDh

= 13600 # 9.81 # 0.150

= 20.01 # 103 Pa = 20.01 kPa . 20 kPa

Hence pA - pB is positive and pA > pB , Flow from A to B .

Sol. 49 Option (B) is correct.

3

Given : Vr =-b 60 # 10 l m/ sec ...(i)

2pr

i n

3

Vq = 300 # 10 m/ sec

.

And ...(ii)

2pr

Dividing equation (i) by equation (ii), we get

c o

.

Vr =- 60 # 103 2p r =- 1

2pr # 300 # 103

a

Vq 5

Vr =-Vq

d i5

...(iii)

o

In this equation (iii)

.n

Vr = Radial Velocity = dr

dt

w

Vq = Angular Velocity = rw = r dq

dt

w

So, dr =- 1 r dq

dt 5 dt

w dr =- 1 dq

©

r 5

On integrating both the sides and put limits, between r & 120 to r and q & 0 to p

(for half revolution).

#120 drr =- 15 #0 dq

r p

6ln r @120

r

=- 1 6q@ 0p

5

ln r - ln 120 =- 1 [p - 0] =- p

5 5

ln r =- p

120 5

r = e- p/5 = 0.533

120

r = 0.533 # 120 = 64 meter

Sol. 50 Option (B) is correct.

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Density of liquid = S # density of water

= 0.88 # 1000 = 880 kg/m3

m Dynamic viscosity

Kinematic Viscosity u = =

r Density of liquid

m = u # r = 7.4 # 10-7 # 880

= 6.512 # 10-4 Pa- s

From the Newton’s law of viscosity,

t = m # u = 6.512 # 10-4 # 0.5 = 0.6512 N/m2

y 0.5 # 10-3

= 0.651 Pa

Sol. 51 Option (C) is correct.

Given : V = axi + ayj ...(i)

The equation of stream line is,

dx = dy = dz ...(ii)

ux uy uz

in

From equation (i), ux = ax , uy = ay and uz = 0

.

Substitute there values in equation (ii), we get

o

dx = dy

c

ax ay

dx = dy

a .

i

x y

d

Integrating both sides, we get

n o

# dxx = # dyy

At point (1, 2),

w 1 = 2c & c = 1

w

2

y

w

From equation (iii), x = & 2x - y = 0

2

Sol. 52 Option (C) is correct.

©

In this question we have to make the table for calculate mean flow rate :

sec. x + xf f

x=b i

2 l

7.5 to 7.7 7.6 1 7.6

7.7 to 7.9 7.8 5 39

7.9 to 8.1 8.0 35 280

8.1 to 8.3 8.2 17 139.4

8.3 to 8.5 8.4 12 100.8

8.5 to 8.7 8.6 10 86

Sf = 80 Sfx = 652.8

Sfx

Mean flow rate, x = = 652.8 = 8.16 litres/ sec

Sf 80

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Flow rate, Q = AV

Q Q Q

Inlet velocity, V1 = = = A1 = p d 12

A1 p (2R1) 2 pR 12 4

n

4

i

Q Q

Outlet Velocity, V2 = =

.

A2 pR 22

o

Therefore, resultant velocity will be,

c

Q

.

dV = V2 - V1 = ; 12 - 12 E

p R 2 R1

Acceleration at the exit section,

i a

o d

a = dV = V dV

dt dx

.n

In this case dV = V2 - V1

V = V2 and dx = L

w

2

Q Q 1 1 = Q R 12 - R 22

pL ;R 22 R 12 E p 2 R 22 L ; R 12 R 22 E

So, a = -

w

#

pR 22

w

Q 2 (R1 + R2) (R1 - R2)

p R 22 L = G

= 2

R 12 R 22

©

Considering limiting case R1 " R2

Q 2 (R1 - R2) 2R2 2Q 2 2Q2 (R1 - R2)

Then, a = 2 2 =

p R2 L R 22 R 22 G = p2 R 5 L 6R1 - R2@ = p2 R 25 L

2

Sol. 54 Option (D) is correct.

+ Pressure force on the cylinder

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

2p rV 2 rr2 w2

For rotating motion, = = = rw2 r p = Pressure, V = rw

2r r r

And 2p = rw2 rdr

Integrating both the sides within limits p between 0 to p and r between 0 to r ,

p r

#0 2p = #0 rw2 rdr

2 r

2 r

6p@0p = rw : 2 D

0

For calculating the total pressure on the cylinder,

2

rw2 r2

p = rw2 # :r - 0D =

2 2

Dividing whole area of cylinder in the infinite small rings with thickness dr ,

Force on elementary ring

rw2 r2

Pressure intensity # Area of ring = 2prdr

2 #

Total force,

rw2 r2 4 R

in

4

r3 dr = prw2 :r D = prw2 R

R R

F = #0 2 #

2prdr = prw2 #0 4 0 4

Weight of water = mg = rng

o. m = rn

c

= rpR2 # Hg = rgHpR2 A = pR 2

a .

Net force = rgHpR2 + rw2 pR = pR2 ;

4

rw2 R2

+ rgH E

i

So,

4 4

Sol. 55 Option (C) is correct.

Given relation is,

o d

.

U = 3 y - 1 y 3 and d = 4.64x

U3 2 d 2 a d k n ...(i)

w

Re x

U3 = U = 2 m/ sec , v = 1.5 # 10-5 m2 /s , r = 1.23 kg/m3 , L = x = 1

w

Kinematic viscosity,

w

m

u =

r

Reynolds Number is given as,

rUx 1.23 # 2 # 1

Re x = = = 1.33 # 105

m 1.845 # 10-5

d = 4.64 # 1 5 = 0.0127

1.33 # 10

U = 3y - 1 y 3

2 d 2a d k

And

U3

2

dU = U d 3 y - 1 y 3 = U 3 1 - 3y

dy 3

dy :2 d 2 a d k D 3 ;2 d 2 d3 E

#

dU = U3 : 3 D = 3U3

c dy m 2d 2d

y=0

We know that shear stress by the Newton’s law of viscosity,

t0 = m c dU m = 1.845 # 10-5 # 3U3

dy y = 0 2d

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

= 1.845 # 10-5 # 3#2

2 # 0.0127

= 435.82 # 10-5 N/m2 = 4.36 # 10-3 N/m2

Sol. 56 Option (B) is correct.

Given : L = 4 km = 4 # 1000 = 4000 m , d = 0.2 m f = 0.01, V = 2 m/ sec ,

H = 5 meter

Head loss due to friction in the pipe,

fLV 2 0.01 # 4000 # (2) 2

hf = = = 40.77 m of water

2gd 2 # 9.81 # 0.2

Now total pressure (absolute discharge pressure) to be supplied by the pump at

exit = Pressure loss by pipe + Head pressure of tank + Atmospheric pressure

head

i n

Total pressure, p = rgh f + rgH + rghatm

p

o.

p = rg [h f + H + hatm] Pressure head,

c

= H & p = Hrg

.

rg

= 1000 # 9.81 [40.77 + 5 + 10.3]

i a

= 5.5 # 105 N/m2 = 5.5 bar For water hatm = 10.3 m

Option (D) is correct.

d

Sol. 57

o

Given : pG = 5.00 bar , pG = 1.00 bar , patm = 1.01 bar

.n

1 2

w

= 1.01 + 1.00 = 2.01 bar

w

Absolute pressure of G1 = pG1 + pabs (G2) = 5.00 + 2.01 = 7.01 bar

Option (A) is correct.

w

Sol. 58

©

N = 4 rps = 4 # 60 = 240 rpm

h0 = Shaft Power in kW = P

Water Power in kW r#g#Q#H

b 1000 l

h r g Q H

P = 0# # # # = 0.90 # 1000 # 9.81 # 10.1 # 24.5

1000 1000

= 2184.74 kW rwater = 1000 kg/m3

For turbine Specific speed,

NS = N 5/P4 = 240 2184 .74 = 205.80 rpm

5/4

H (24.5)

Hence, 51 < NS < 255 for francis turbine.

Sol. 59 Option (B) is correct.

List-I List-II

P. Reciprocating pump 3. Positive Displacement

Q. Axial flow pump 5. High Flow rate, low pressure ratio

R. Microhydel plant 2. Plant with power output between

100 kW to 1 MW

S. Backward curved vanes 6. Centrifugal pump impeller

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Given :

Cross section area of body = A

Height of body = H

Density of body = rs

Density of liquid = r

Tension in the string = T

We have to make the FBD of the block.

B = Buoyancy force

. in

From the principal of buoyancy,

o

Downward force = Buoyancy force m = rn

c

T + mg = rhAg

T + rs ng = rhAg

a . n = A#H

i

T + rs AHg = rhAg

T

o d

= rhAg - rs AHg = Ag (rh - rs H)

n

Sol. 61 Option (A) is correct.

.

w

w

w

©

Given : Flow rate = Q

Velocity of water when it strikes the water surface = U

Total Mass (container + water) = m

Force on weighing balance due to water strike = Change in momentum

DP =Initial Momentum - Final momentum

= rQU - rQ (0) = rQU Final velocity is zero

Weighing balance also experience the weight of the container and water.

So, Weight of container and water = mg

Therefore, total force on weighing Balance = rQU + mg

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Given : N1 = 500 rpm , H1 = 30 meter , N2 = 1000 rpm , Q1 = 60 litres per minute

From the general relation,

U = pDN = 2gH

60

DN \ H & N\ H

D

Centrifugal pump is used for both the cases. So D1 = D2

N\ H

H1 = N 12

H2 N 22

2

2

(1000)

H2 = N 22 # H1 = # 30 = 120 m

N1 (500) 2

n

The specific speed will be constant for centrifugal pump and relation is,

Ns =

N Q

= Constant

. i

o

H 3/4

c

N1 Q 1 N Q

.

So, 3/4 = 2 3/4 2 For both cases

H1 H2

i a

Q2 = N1 # b H2 l # Q1 = 500 # b 120 l # 60

3/4 3/4

d

N2 H1 1000 30

o

= 1 # (2) 3/2 # 60

2

.n

Squaring both sides

w

Q2 = 1 # 8 # 60 = 120 litre/ min

4

Alternate :

w

w

From unit quantities unit speed

N u = N1 = N 2 N1 = N 2

©

H1 H2 H1 H2

H 2 = N 2 H1

N1

2

2

(1000) # 30

or H2 = N 2 #2 H1 = = 120 m

N1 (500) 2

Q Q2

Unit discharge Qu = 1 =

H1 H2

Q1 Q2

=

H1 H2

Q H2

or Q2 = 1 = 60 # 120 = 120 litre/ min

H1 30

Sol. 63 None of these is correct.

List-I List-II

P. Curtis 3. Velocity compounding

Q. Rateau 4. Pressure compounding

R. Kaplan 6. Axial flow turbine

S. Francis 7. Mixed flow turbine

So, correct pairs are P-3, Q-4, R-6, S-7.

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Given : L = 100 mm , d = 1 mm , D = 10 mm , V1 = 10 mm/ sec

We have to take the two sections of the system (1) and (2).

A1 V1 = A2 V2 Q = AV , Q = flow rate

2

p/4 (0.01)

V2 = c A1 m # V1 = # 0.010 = 1 m/ sec

A2 p/4 (0.001) 2

Again applying the Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2),

p1 V 12 p 2

+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

rg 2g r g 2g

The syringe and the plunger is situated on the same plane so z1 = z2 ,

in

Take p2 = 0 = Atmospheric pressure (Outside the needle)

p1

.

2 2

= V 2 - V1

rg 2g

c o

.

r

p1 = (V 22 - V 12) = 1000 [(1) 2 - (0.01) 2] = 499.95 N/m2

a

2 2

Force required on plunger,

d i

F = p1 # A1 = 499.95 # p (0.01) 2 = 0.04 N

o

4

n

Sol. 65 Option (C) is correct.

.

Given : f = 64 , m = 1 # 10-3 kg/s - m

w

Re

w

rVd rV2 d2

Re = = = 1000 # 1 #-30.001 = 1000 For Needle

m m 1 # 10

And

w f = 64 = 64 = 0.064

Re 1000

©

From the help of f we have to find Head loss in needle,

hf =

fLV 22

2gd2

=

0.064 # 0.1 # (1) 2

2 # 9.81 # 0.001

= 0.3265 m of water

Applying Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2) with the head loss in account.

p1 V 12 p 2

+ + z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2 + h f

rg 2g r g 2g

z1 = z 2 At the same plane

And p2 = 0 Atmospheric pressure

p1 2 2

= cV 2 - V 1 m + h f

rg 2g

r

p1 = (V 22 - V 12) + rgh f

2

= 1000 6(1) 2 - (0.01) 2@ + 1000 # 9.81 # 0.3265

2

= 499.95 + 3202.965 = 3702.915 N/m2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

F = p1 # A1 = 3702.915 # p # (0.01) 2

4

= 0.3 N

.

Applying Bernoulli’s equation at section (1) and (2).

i n

p1 V 12 p

o

2

+ z1 = 2 + V 2 + z 2

c

+

a.

rg 2g rg 2g

p1 V 12 p 2

= 2 + V2

i

+ z1 = z 2

r 2 r 2

o

r

d

p1 - p2 = (V 22 - V 12)

2

...(i)

. n

Apply continuity equation, we get

A1 V1 = A2 V2

w

w

p D 2 V = p D2 U V = U . Let at point (1) velocity = V

4 t 1 4 2 1

w V1 = b D l # U

2

...(ii)

Dt

©

Substitute the value of V1 from equation (ii) into the equation (i),

r r

p1 - p2 = ;U 2 - b D l U 2E = U 2 ;1 - b D l E

4 4

...(iii)

2 Dt 2 Dt

From the figure, we have

Spring force = Pressure force due to air

- kx = As (p1 - p2) = p D s2 # (p1 - p2)

4

r

= p D s2 # U 2 ;1 - b D l E

4

From equation (iii)

4 2 Dt

kx = p D s2 rU 2 ;b D l - 1E

4

8 Dt

rU 2 D 4

8k ;b Dt l

x = - 1E pD s2

From Buckingham’s p-theorem,

“If there are m variables (Indepenent and dependent variables) in a physical

phenomenon and if these variables contain n fundamental dimensions (M, L, T)

then variables are arranged into (m - n ) dimensionless terms.

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

The laminar boundary layer generation along a flat plate for this flow, is

d + 1

L Re L

If we substitute x for L and for a laminar boundary layer on a flat plate, where

V (x) = V = constant, then d grows like the square root of x .

d + 1

x Vx

u

d + 1 &d\ x

x V

Sol. 69 Option (C) is correct. u

The pressure is minimum at point C . Along the region CSD of the curved surface,

the area of flow increases and hence velocity of flow along the direction of Fluid

decreases.

. in

c o

a .

d i

n o

.

w

w

Due to decrease of velocity, the pressure increases in the direction of flow and

dp

w

pressure gradient dp/dx is positive or >0

dx

Sol. 70 ©

Option (C) is correct.

Biot Number Bi = hl

k

where h = Convective heat transfer coefficient

k = thermal conductivity

l = linear dimension

Biot Number gives an indication of the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance

to the surface (convection) resistance.

A small value of Bi implies that the fluid has a small conduction resistance i.e.

Conduction resistance << Convection resistance

Sol. 71 Option (A) is correct.

Given : c p = 0.1393 k -J/kg -K

m = 0.1523 # 10-2 N-s/m2

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

mc p

Prandtl Number Pr =

k

-2 3

Pr = 0.1523 # 10 # 0.1393 # 10

8.540

Pr = 0.0248

Sol. 72 Option (A) is correct.

The SI unit of kinematic viscosity is m2 / sec .

dy

m t du

u = = t = m du

r r dy

F dy

A # du

u =

r

Substitute the units of all the parameters

i n

Newton m

.

2 # m/ sec

m kgm

u = N=

o

3

kg/m sec3

c

kgm m sec

.

kg

2

m

= sec m3 = m

2 2

= sec m 3

i a

kg/m kg/m sec

Sol. 73 Option (C) is correct.

o d

Fluid static deals with problems associated with fluids at rest. In static fluid,

there is no relative motion between adjacent fluid layers and thus there are no

.n

shear (tangential) stresses in the fluid trying to deform it.

w

The only stress in static fluid is the normal stress, which is the pressure and the

variation of pressure is due only to the weight of the fluid and it is always positive.

w

Therefore, the topic of fluid statics has significance only in gravity field.

w

Sol. 74 Option (A) is correct.

Biot number gives an indication of internal (conduction) resistance to the surface

©

(convection) resistance.

Bi = hl

k

If the value of Biot number is less than 0.1, then lumped that transfer analysis

is valid.

i.e. Biot Number < 0.1.

Sol. 75 Option (D) is correct.

F2 = weight of water column above the bottom surface.

At the depth h , pressure is given by,

p = rgh

then horizontal force,

GATE SOLVED PAPER - ME FLUID MECHANICS

Fx = 2rghrw

Fy = F2 - F1 = weight of water contained in volume of semi circular gate.

Fy = mg = a p r2 # w k rg m = rv and v = A # w

2

prgwr2

Fy =

2

Sol. 76 Option (D) is correct.

Given : v = (x + 2y + 2) i + (4 - y) j

where u = x + 2y + 2 , v = 4 - y

2u = 1 ; 2u = 2 2v =- 1; 2v = 0

2x 2y 2y 2x

We know, for Incompressive flow

2u + 2v = 0

2x 2y

1-1 = 0

So, flow is incompressible.

in

And for irrotational flow, z z = 0

z z = 1 c2v - 2u m = 0

2 2x 2y

o.

.c

& 2v - 2u = 0

2x 2y

0-2 = 0

i a

-2 ! 0

So, flow is not irrotational.

o d

Sol. 77 Option (B) is correct.

. n

w

The non-dimensional Prandtl Number for thermal boundary layer is given by,

d = (Pr) 1/3

w

dt

w

where d = hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness

dt = thermal boundary layer thickness

©

Given, Pr = 6 d = (6) 1/3 = 1.82

dt

d = 1.82dt

d = 1.82dt

So, d > dt or dt < d

***********

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